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Prison Industrial Complex as Another Form of Mandatory Minimum Sentencing
US sentencing policies are still lean which has led to the federal government to incarcerate so many people. There are too many criminals committing too many crimes, and this explains why we have too many prisoners. Currently, the government's prison is holding 200,000-armed robbers, 150,000 sex offenders and 100 murderers (Davis, 2008). These people are enough to make fill a city. Many people have been opposed to the idea that these people should be released form prisons. U.S. have the largest number of violent offenders despite the recorded decline in crime rate. However, the number of people sent to prison for committing violent offences has gone down during the prison boom. In 2010, over 50% of people being taken to prison were violent offenders. America has enormous prison populations because the courts are sentencing individuals who have not committed violent…
Davis, A. (2008). Masked racism: reflections on the prison industrial complex. Homewood, IL:
Goldberg, E. (2009). Prison Industrial Complex and the Global Economy. Oakland: M Pr-ss
Gottschalk, M. (2010). Cellblocks & red ink: mass incarceration, the great recession, & penal reform. Daedalus 139 (3): 62 -- 73
There are few assets as precious to a nation as it children. Especially in the developed world. Social, care, and education systems are set up in such a way as to nurture the young ones to that they can grow and develop effectively to make the most of their lives and their future. Indeed, not making sure that children's lives can progress along optimal levels can result in dire consequences for a nation and its future. It affects everything from the economy to the moral fabric of a nation to not care for its children. It is also, however, a sad fact of the world today that not all children are born to loving parents, a home and family, or in otherwise ideal circumstances. Indeed, some children are born to mothers who are in prison. While there are many programs to care for these children, there is little…
Benevolent (2013, Jul. 15). Prison Babies. Retrieved from: http://benevolentnet.blogspot.com/2013/07/prison-babies.html
Carlson, J.R. (2009, Spring). Prison Nurseries: A Pathway to Crime-Free Futures. Corrections Compendium 34(1). Retrieved from: http://www.castonline.ilstu.edu/krienert/readings/Carlson_2009.pdf
Ford, A. (2012). Bonding Behind Bars: Do Prison Nurseries Help or Hinder Parenting? Meredith Corporation. Retrieved from: http://www.divinecaroline.com/life-etc./culture-causes/bonding-behind-bars-do-prison-nurseries-help-or-hinder-parenting
Lee, O. (2012, May 29). What Happens to Babies Born in Jail? Takepart. Retrieved from: http://www.takepart.com/article/2012/05/28/what-happens-babies-born-jail
Prison Health Care Agency
In 1930, the Federal Bureau of Prisons was set up so that more progressive and benevolent care could be provided for Federal prisoners/convicts. Moreover, the purpose behind the establishment of this Bureau was to bring professionalization in the prison service and to make certain that the eleven operational Federal prisons are administered with consistency and centralization. In the present times as well, the Federal Bureau of Prisons has the responsibility of providing custody and care to the Federal inmates that are more or less two million in numbers ("About the Bureau of Prisons"). To cut a long story short, the Federal Bureau of is responsible to lock up federal lawbreakers and delinquents in prisons that are out of harm's way, civilized, inexpensive, and sheltered. Provision of medical care is also a part of the mentioned responsibilities. Thus, the Bureau of Prisons is in charge of the…
About The Bureau of Prisons. (n.d.). BOP: Federal Bureau of Prisons . Retrieved May 28, 2013, from http://www.bop.gov/about/index.jsp
Inmate Medical Care. (n.d.). BOP: Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved May 28, 2013, from http://www.bop.gov/inmate_programs/health.jsp
Inmate Mental Health Treatment & Counseling. (n.d.). BOP: Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved May 28, 2013, from http://www.bop.gov/inmate_programs/mental.jsp
The Federal Bureau of Prison's Efforts to Manage Inmate Health Care. (February 2008). The United States Department of Justice. Retrieved May 27, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/BOP/a0808/final.pdf
hen most people think about prison libraries today they most likely recall the 1995 movie, "The Shawshank Redemption" which revolved around the library of Maine's state prison from 1947 through the late1960's (Shawshank pg). The movie portrayed the evolution of the library during some twenty years, as it went from a small cramped room housing a meager selection of books to larger quarters with vast selections of books, music and educational materials (Shawshank pg). This evolution would not and could not have taken place if not for the relentless solicitations by the movie's main character, Andy Dufresne. His tireless efforts resulted in donations from various organizations (Shawshank pg). The movie was an accurate depiction of a typical prison library. Until the last century, most were non-existent and the few that did exist were poorly stocked. Due to the funding shortages that have always faced federal and state prisons,…
Washington to Cut Prison Libraries?" Library Journal. February 05, 2001. http://libraryjournal.reviewsnews.com/index.asp?layout=article&articleid=CA157362&publication=libraryjournal .(accessed 05-01-2003).
Willing, Richard. "La. man savors freedom's taste." USA Today. December 23
1999; pp 04A.
eduction of Prison Population
Effectiveness of Policies
Efficacy of the strategies
This paper highlights the prison system and relates multiple factors to it. It gives a brief background of the topic and then describes the U.S. crises of prison system. In addition to this, it highlights various factors related to the prison population of Indiana. After that, this paper focuses on the present situation of the prison system and then gives light to the affected population due to this reason. Beside this, it describes different types of policies and strategies of the government in this regard, reforms in these policies and suggests some useful strategies. In the end, conclusion is provided which tells the need of bringing positive change in the society.
United States prison crisis
a. U.S. being the largest jailer in the world
b. Indiana facing the challenge of…
Clear, T.R., Hamilton, J.R., Jr., & Cadora, E. (2011). Community Justice. Chicago:Taylor & Francis.
This book presents a good relationship between community and crimes. It highlights the main impacts of crimes on the entire community and gives suggestions that informal control can result better in reducing crimes.
Currie, E. (1988). Crime and Punishment in America. New York: H. Holt.
It describes the main features of the prison system in America and tells that many people view the American prison system as the most lenient system of punishment. However, it is for the betterment of the criminals as well as for the society.
Finding Funds for Fighting Crime: Financial Contingency planning for California's Prison System
Prisons have always been a controversial aspect of society, and far more so in the modern era of sociological and psychological inquiry into the nature of crime, punishment, and rehabilitation. Deciding precisely what function prisons are meant to serve and how they should go about serving it has been the cause of a great deal of social and political debate, and these issues are far from settled. There are those that argue for the reduction of prison terms and sentencing lengths and a move to more rehabilitative efforts rather than the punitive focus most prisons seem to hold today, while others insist that making prisons punitive and able to accommodate more inmates serves as a deterrent to crime and as a testament to the rules of justice. These abstract issues in and of themselves make the…
Gilroy, L., Summers, A., Randazzo, A. & Kenny, H. (2010). Public-Private Partnerships for Corrections in California. Accessed 12 February 2012. http://reason.org/files/private_prisons_california.pdf
Governor's Budget. (2012). Accessed 12 February 2012. http://www.ebudget.ca.gov/pdf/GovernorsBudget/5210.pdf
Skelton, G. (2011). Prison overcrowding and underfunding lead to more local burdens. LA Times. Accessed 12 February 2012. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/oct/06/local/la-me-cap-prisons-20111006
There are two major issues that need to be addressed with regards to prison conditions. One is the whether humane conditions are provided and the other is concerned with the degree of rehabilitation that prisons facilitate. On both counts, U.S. prisons need to take actions to prevent abuse and to reduce the high number of repeat offenders as our prison populations swell beyond control.
According to Human Rights Watch, prisoners suffer from physical mistreatment, excessive disciplinary measures, intolerable physical conditions and inadequate medical and mental health care. Prisons are severely overcrowded and do not have adequate staffing.
Many local jails are unsafe, vermin-infested and lack areas where inmates can get exercise or fresh air. Violence by inmates and guards is common. Mentally ill inmates who comprise between six and fourteen percent of the incarcerated population do not receive adequate monitoring and treatment. Private prisons operate without sufficient control…
Butterfield, Fox. "Inmate Rehabilitation Returns as Prison Goal.." New York Times. 20 May 2001. Mindfully.org. 28 Feb. 2003. http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/Prison-Rehabilitation.htm.
Human Rights Watch Prison Project," Human Rights Watch Organization. 28 Feb. 2003. http://www.hrw.org/advocacy/prisons/u-s.htm .
Inmate Rehabilitation." The Stop Violence Coalition of Kansas City. 28 Feb. 2003. http://www.stop-violence.org/page.asp?pageID=6&NavID=8.
Ruggiero, Diane. "Torture, Plain and Simple': Amnesty International Reports Abuse In Women's Prisons," CNN.com. 4 Mar. 1999. CNN.com Web Site. 28 Feb 2003. http://www.cnn.com/U.S./9903/04/amnesty.women.prison/.
Analysts continue to debate the appropriate role of the corrections system. One camp firmly believes that prisons are places punishment. The other side argues that the primary role of prisons is to provide rehabilitation, to train former criminals to become participative members of society.
This paper argues that even though restitution and punishment is important, the more vital role of prisons lies in rehabilitation. Realistically, most prisoners will be eligible for parole. It is therefore in the general public's best interests to ensure that prisons serve as venues for rehabilitation, by providing services like counseling and job skills training.
The focus of this paper is on one of the biggest obstacle to the goal of rehabilitation -- violence in prisons.
Studies have shown that the environment in many prisons is permeated with violence ("Violence and inmate characteristics"). This atmosphere makes it virtually impossible for any rehabilitation to occur.…
Bates, Eric. "Private Prisons are Abusive and Inefficient." Prisons. Bryan J. Grapes, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004.
Rideau, Wilbert and Wikberg, Ron. Life Sentences: Rage and Survival Behind Bars. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1992.
Stephen Donaldson, "A Million Jockers, Punks, and Queens, Stop Prisoner Rape: Sex among American Male Prisoners and its Implications for Concepts of Sexual Orientation," Stop Prisoner Rape, Feb. 4, 1993. available online from www.spr.org.
The United States criminal justice system houses the largest prison population in the world; both in terms of the total prison population as well as the proportion of prisoners to the total population (per capita). The United States has a bigger prison population than China and India despite having nowhere near the total population. It also holds a greater percentage of its population in incarceration than any other country in the world as well including such nations such as Russia, North Korea, or even Iran. The United States has about five percent of the world's population however it has about twenty-five percent of the world's prison population.
There are many stereotypes that uphold the image of the inmate, prisoner, or felon as a violent criminal, that must be locked away to keep the population safe. However, in many cases, the actual prison population is made up of a…
Chang, C. (2012, May 14). North Louisiana family is a major force in the state's vast prison. Retrieved from NOLA.
Greenwald, G. (2009). Drug Decriminalization in Portugal. Cato Institute.
Head, T. (N.d.). Key Facts About the War on Drugs. Retrieved April 8, 2013, from Civil Liberties: http://civilliberty.about.com/od/drugpolicy/p/War-on-Drugs-Facts.htm
Maag, C. (2012, August 28). In Missouri, debtors prison is alive and well. Retrieved from MSN Money: http://money.msn.com/politics/post.aspx?post=30ecee88-b6be-4387-a7d9-9f8e4d571886
Duncan's thesis on the attractions of prison is more psychologically grounded, however. People seek constraints and limits, just as they are imprisoned by societal standards and limits, or Foucault's notion of the Panopticon.
The criminal is also a kind of fantasy-child for society, according to Duncan. Like a child, a criminal dwells in a kind of in-between space, a place where anything is possible, and redemption is possible. The American gospel of self-reinvention, as seen in films like "The Shawshank Redemption," romanticizes prisons as places where people can radically rebuild their lives and characters. This explains why prisons like Alcatraz, rather than being hated or feared are actually viewed with affection. Convicts become romantic outlaws and pioneers in the imagination of the media, the crimes are forgotten when criminals are viewed through the rose colored glasses of history. The prisons that confirmed their deviancy are similarly romanticized as the place…
Q1. In the United States there is a constant argument against “coddling” prisoners. This includes such “luxuries” as television and exercise/fitness programs. What are the pros and cons concerning these activities?
But there is no evidence that making prison as miserable as possible acts as a deterrent or rehabilitates prisoners. In fact, having an outlet for physical and mental energy may be useful, versus allowing such undirected energies into less fruitful channels, such as engaging in covert criminal activities within the prison. In fact, instead of merely offering access to gyms and television, an even more structured approach may be preferable. This might include access to libraries, educational programs, and rehabilitative programs such as starting a prison garden (“10 Keys, 2020). Other examples of rehabilitative work that is useful for prisoners as well as acts to restore the harm done by crime to society include participating in public beautification programs…
Fundamental Human Rights and Voting Rights for the Incarcerated
One of the fundamental human rights according to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is that of access to the vote. Arguably, the right to have self-determination is critical, and without such a right, equality of treatment is impossible to realize. Politicians will have no incentive to pass laws to protect the rights of groups whose opinion they are not beholden to for reelection. According to the ICCPR, the right to vote should be bestowed “without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status” (Dhami, 2005, p. 236). Other fundamental human rights, such as the right to pursue a livelihood of one’s choice, to live free and unmolested to express one’s political opinions, to practice one’s religion, and to be safe and…
Arp, W. & Morton, B. (2005). A political history and analysis of disenfranchisement and restoration of the black vote in Louisiana. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 29(3): 629-638.
Dhami, M. (2005). Prisoner disenfranchisement policy: A threat to democracy? Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 5 (1): 235—247.
Paikowsky, D. (2019), Jails as polling places: Living up to the obligation to enfranchise the voters we jail. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 54 (2): 829-873.
Zhang, E. (2019). New tricks for an old dog: Deterring the vote through confusion in felon disenfranchisement, Missouri Law Review, 84: 1037-1053.
A major portion of an inmate's helplessness, deprivation, depression and self-loathing etc. arises due to physical and psychological victimization that he or she has to face. Physical victimization includes homicide, assault and rape. These arise due to poor staff supervision and keeping defenseless prisoners with the violent ones. On the other hand, psychological victimization involves verbal manipulation and harsh psychological attacks of personal nature.
The stronger inmates attempt to create their own subcultures that show their dominance, rule and assertion on all prisoners (Heilpern, 1998). To fulfill the maintenance of these subcultures, they resort to rape, riots or even homicide spreading mental illnesses like stress, phobias, enhanced criminal activity, shame, guilt, etc. among the weaker prisoners.
Imprisonment: Eliminating or aggravating crime?
It is not a hidden matter that jails, even after intensive care and security, are not free of brutality, stress and violence among the inmates. The safety of each…
Cragg, W. (2002). The practice of punishment: Towards a theory of restorative justice. Routledge.
Foucault, M. (2008). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison.
Gendreau, P., Cullen, F.T., & Goggin, C. (1999). The effects of prison sentences on recidivism. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.
Gudrais, E. (2013, March). The Prison Problem. Harvard Magazine.
This will also lead to the finding on whether the kind of offense committed translates to a lengthier sentence on imprisonment and in effect, on the likelihood that the ex-convict will commit the same or a different kind of offense again. Lastly, the researcher is also interested to determine whether the commitment of re-offense, if indeed committed by the ex-convict, changes in level or degree -- that is, whether the re-offense has a greater, lower, or the same level of punishment.
In terms of the research sample, the researcher proposes looking into a sample of ex-convicts who came from the same correctional/prison facility. By sampling a group of ex-convicts from the same prison facility, the researcher prevents data from being tainted with extraneous variables, such as the existence of prison programs, which might influence the ex-convict's reformation during his/her prison term. Thus, when a particular correctional or prison facility is…
However, given that the problem of overcrowding is pervasive in the prison system in general, and not simply at these specific junctures of the judicial process, the choice between a low-use jail and a high-use jail would seem to be the real question. More and more prisoners who might once be shipped to the state penitentiary are now being confined to jails for more extended periods of time than ever before. Thus, to accommodate this problem, a high-use jail that has many of the monitoring and rehabilitative capacities of a prison system would be more useful to the community.
The purpose and function of a high-use jail low-use jail is designed for shorter-term inmates, while a high-use jail is designed to accommodate not simply more inmates, but a wider variety of inmates for longer durations of time. It has the ability to deal with more violent offenders, but also has…
What is the difference between jail and prison?" (2006). Public Health and Criminal
Justice. Operated by the CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Page last reviewed 18 Oct 2006. Retrieved 9 Mar 2007 at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/cccwg/difference.htm
Should Prison be Punitive or Rehabilitation in Nature?
A question that has existed since the beginnings of the modern prison system has been that of whether prison should be an unbearable punishment for an action committed, or rehabilitation for the accused to rid them of a particular behavior. In ancient times, a violent crime was usually responded with a violent verdict, resulting in torture and pain, and the concept of 'an eye for an eye' that led human law for thousands of years. Recently, however, civilization has rejected the outward torture of prisoners, and has tried to implement a system based on fairness, both during the trial and during the punishment. hile prisoners may not feel like their jail time is fair, modern civilization has elected judges to make these decisions for society. There is still the question, however, of what in today's world is the goal of…
Larrabee, A., (2006). Punishment vs. Rehabilitation in the Criminal Justice System. Retrived from, http://voices.yahoo.com/punishment-vs.-rehabilitation-criminal-justice-119962.html .
Multiple authors. (2010). Should Criminal Justice Focus More on Rehabilitation or Punishment. IDebate. Retrieved from http://idebate.org/debatabase/debates/law-crime/house-believes-criminal-justice-should-focus-more-rehabilitation.
Peak, K., (2012). Justice Administration: Police, Courts and Corrections Management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson: Prentice Hall.
Turner, A., (2012). Work Programs for Texas Inmates Go High Tech. Chron. Retrieved from, http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Prison-factories-train-inmates-and-save-the-state-3450137.php .
Privatization of prisons
Privatization of prisons is referred as a way of taking over the existing public amenities or facilities by the private operators, building of new operations and additional prisons by for profit prison sectors. Private prisons are more safe, efficient and effective compared to the public sector prisons. This is because; the public sector prisons are wasteful in terms of money that is spent more than the available money. Privatized prisons tend to run more cost effectively as well as efficiently if it happens to meet the budget (Cheung, 2004). When there is a good budget in the private companies, they more often than not make sure that the necessary changes run within the set budget, however the public sector only prints more money and that is the reason as to why the private prisons are more safe and effective.
esearch shows that privatized prisons in…
Cheung, A., (2004). Prison Privatization and the Use of Incarceration. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved February 9, 2013, http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/inc_prisonprivatization.pdf
Smith, A. (2012). Private vs. Public Facilities, Is it cost effective and safe? Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.corrections.com /news/article/30903-private-vs.-public-facilities-is-it-cost-effective-and-safe' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In addition, prison managers must deal with the mundane as well as the human equation, because much of their jobs are in the paperwork, union rules, state statutes, and other regulations that are required in the prison system. Management in the prison is a unique challenge, because of the many responsibilities that come with it. It is clear, just as business management and leadership are evolving, that prison management will continue to evolve, and as it does, it could create model prison systems of the future.
Finally, it is important to note that prisons are unique operations, but they still should uphold management principles. Author Daly continues, "Management is responsible for the mission and strategy of the organization. Prisons are unique with special features but they still reflect the philosophy and methodology of management" (Daly, 2002). Prison management should have clearly defined goals and missions regarding their inmate populations, but…
Boin, a. (2001). Crafting public institutions: Leadership in two prison systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Daly, W.C. (2002). Shades of gray in prison administration. Education, 122(3), 488+.
Greene, J. (2003). Chapter Five Lack of correctional services. In Capitalist punishment: Prison privatization & human rights, Coyle, a., Campbell, a., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.) (pp. 56-66). Atlanta: Clarity Press.
prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems in the criminal justice system. Overcrowding costs taxpayers money, it leads to dysfunction within the penal population, and it creates dangers for prison staff. It is a result of many items in society and the criminal justice system, and it must change if America's prisons are to remain effective and viable.
Many people may not be aware just how much the prison population has grown in the last thirty years. One researcher notes, "From 300,000 prisoners in 1977, the prison population has risen steadily to over 1.5 million as of June 30, 2005, a 400% increase" (Pfaff, 2008). The two largest states housing prisoners, California and Texas, have seen stupendous growth in their prison populations, but not in their funding. Another…
Haney, C. (2006). Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons Web site: http://www.prisoncommission.org/statements/haney_craig.pdf . 1-17.
Jacobs, J.B. (2007). Finding alternatives to the carceral state. Social Research, 74(2), 695+.
Moore, S. (2009). The prison overcrowding fix. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the New York Times Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/11/us/11prisons.html .
Pfaff, J.F. (2008). The empirics of prison growth: A critical review and path forward. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(2), 547+
Generally, persons sentenced to prison have been convicted of a felony offense. There are both state-run and federally run prisons. hether a prisoner is confined to a state or a federally run prison determines on whether he or she was convicted in a federal or a state court. (hat is the Difference Between a Jail and Prison, 2006, Public Health and Criminal Justice) prisoner may begin his or her movement through the criminal justice system in a jail. However, after his or her case has been heard, and he or she has been arraigned, then he or she will likely be able to post bail, or, if unable to do so, be confined to a prison in the jurisdiction where he or she will be tried. After his or her conviction, the most appropriate venue for incarceration will then be determined, depending on the length of the sentence and the…
What is the Difference Between a Jail and Prison?"(18 Oct 1006) Public Health and Criminal Justice. Retrieved 30 Oct 2006 at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/cccwg/difference.htm
.....psychologists working in prisons in the United States, Boothby & Clements (2000) found some disturbing trends in corrections. Although the number of prison psychologists has doubled in the past twenty years, the vast majority of prison psychologists remain Caucasian males who may be unable to address the diverse needs of the incarcerated community. Biases and assumptions about inmates may also hinder the ability of inmates to seek and receive psychological treatment. Moreover, a full third of prison psychologist work time is spent on administrative duties -- more than the time spent on direct treatment. Only 26% of their work time is devoted to directly treating the inmates, meaning that structural and institutional variables are impeding the delivery of quality mental health care to the prison community.
Interestingly, the profession of clinical psychology was practically born in the prison context. As Magaletta, et al. (2016) point out, prison wardens partnered with…
Corcoran State Prison: Prison Culture and Effect on Inmates
The prisons in the U.S. have a long history of offering correction services and rehabilitation for the people convicted of various crimes within the society. There have been increased incarceration of inmates over the last few decades with prisons getting more populated than before hence the introduction of the privately run correction facilities to help handle the large number of people within the prison walls at any given time. However, the inclusion of the private prisons have not helped matters much neither have they improved the rehabilitation process or the living standards of the inmates in comparison to the state owned correction facilities. There have continued to thrive the prison cultures and in effect influenced the way the prisoners relate to each other and even relate to the correctional officers. This prison culture will be the focus of this paper and…
Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Prison and Jail Deaths in Custody, 2000-2009 - Statistical Tables. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pjdc0009st.pdf
California State Prison, Corcoran, (2013). California State Prison, Corcoran - Mission Statement. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Facilities_Locator/COR.html
David R. Shaw, (2009). California State Prison, Corcoran Warden Derral Adams One-Year Audit. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from http://www.oig.ca.gov/media/reports/ARCHIVE/BOA/Audits/Warden%20Derrel%20Adams%20One-Year%20Audit,%20Corcoran%20State%20Prison.pdf
Paige J., (2013). Court experts cite 'serious' healthcare risks at Corcoran prison. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from http://prisons.einnews.com/article/161057067/jrpGKHrWmZXOXTKc
prison gang is a select group of inmates with an organized chain of command and an established code of conduct. They operate in secrecy with a view to controlling their prison environment through intimidation and violence meted on non-members. Some of the oldest prison gangs in the U.S. were formed as early as 1950s. Some notable example is Gypsy Jokers that operated in Washington State prisons (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). Violence in correctional facilities in the United States is something that has been with us for quite a while. Prisoners and prison officers have both fallen victims to this violence.
Think of the San Antonio, Texas incident where 281 prisoners were stabbed and 13 slain (The Ledger, 1984). There was divided opinion on what motivated such heinous acts with some prison officials opining that prison gangs who were divided along racial lines were responsible. Some attacks were thought to be…
Fleisher, M.S. & Decker, S.H. (2001). An overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs.
Corrections Management Quarterly, 5(1), 1-9.
Knox, G.W. (2005). The Problem of Gangs and Security Threat Groups (STG's) in American
Prisons Today: Recent Research Findings From the 2004 Prison Gang Survey. Retrieved from http://www.ngcrc.com/corr2006.html
Jail Time and Death Penalty: Finding New Ways to Deter Criminal Behavior
Jail Time and Death Penalty: A Deterrent?
For years many law enforcement agencies have relied on the assumption that jail time or the death penalty serve as adequate deterrents to crime or criminal activity. However multiple studies confirm that jail time and the death penalty are not effective methods alone for deterring criminals. Because of this it is important that law enforcement agents, government officials and community members work together to uncover effective tools for deterring crime and discouraging criminals from repeating crimes after release.
Jail time and the death penalty do not deter crime. Early Gallup Polls conducted in the 1980s and 1990s show that while roughly two thirds of Americans and law enforcement agents support the death penalty, there is inadequate evidence supporting its use as an effective deterrent to crime (Akers & adelet, 1996). Many…
Abraham, E., Boyle, J., Mullen, R. & ratelle, J. (1996). "California program reduces recidivism and saves tax dollars." Corrections Today, 58(5): 118.
Akers, R.L. & Radelet, M.L. (1996). "Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1): 15.
Clayton, S.L. (2005 -- Apri). "Jail inmates bake their way to successful reentry."
Corrections Today, 67(2):78.
Maximum security prisons have grown in recent decades and have implemented methods some may deem inhumane. A 2016 article discusses prison conditions in maximum security prisons and addresses specifically the topic of preservation of human dignity and disease prevention. The author mentions the Dudley Lee v. Minister of Correctional Services case that held "that prison authorities have a duty of care to prevent prisoners from being infected with HIV-related illnesses such as TB" (Torriente, Tadion, & Hsu, 2016). The applicant was sent to a maximum security prison in South Africa where he eventually was diagnosed three years later with TB. Another instance of the government and its failure to acknowledge the need to safeguard a prisoner's health is the . v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex-parte Glen Fielding. Here the case discusses of a prisoner in the United Kingdom asking for condoms and being denied unless given…
Engel, P. (2013). Here's What Life Is Like Inside Russia's Toughest Prison.Business Insider. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/inside-russias-black-dolphin-prison-2013-10?op=1
Torriente, A., Tadion, A., & Hsu, L. (2016). Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings. Health and Human Rights Journal. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from http://www.hhrjournal.org/2016/02/opening-the-door-to-zero-new-hiv-infections-in-closed-settings/
Vasiliades, E. (2005). Solitary Confinement and International Human Rights: Why the U.S. Prison System Fails Global Standards. American University International Law Review, 21(1). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1045&context=auilr
Classical Criminology theories in examining a case that studies a bill which is meant to increase the maximum term for prisoners charged with armed robbery, by double.
The Enlightenment was the basis on which Classical Criminology theories came to be. The theories emphasize on the notion that people choose to end their own lives, and that people need to be punished to prevent them from committing crimes in the future. Classical theories are based on the assumption that people have their freedom, and committing an offense is by choice (The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today). The theories are also based on the assumption that people try to look for pleasure and avoid painful experiences. The notion of hedonism was one of the major ideas, which means that people try to look for pleasure and avoid pain. The idea is used in classical theories to inform punishment. Every…
(2011). Legislative News, Studies and Analysis - National Conference of State Legislatures. Principles of Effective State Sentencing and Corrections Policy. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/principles-of-sentencing-and-corrections-policy.aspx
South. (2010). Homepage - Times Free Press. Bill would keep armed robbers in prison longer - Times Free Press. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from http://www.timesfreepress.com/news/politics/state/story/2010/jun/08/bill-would-keep-armed-robbers-in-prison-longer/19461/
(n.d.). Study.com - Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today - Video & Lesson Transcript - Study.com. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-classical-school-of-criminology-its-influence-today.html
correctional stereotypes in the movie " the Shawshank edemption." This essay will explain the correctional policies that are demonstrated in the movie and suggest ways in which these portrayals are accurate or inaccurate.
The movie "The Shawshank edemption" revolves around the life and times of a prisoner named Andy. Andy was a banker in his former life before he was framed for the murder of his wife and her lover. The story documents the unfair treatment Andy has received in society and concludes with him escaping prison and finding his redemption that he felt that he had earned by maintaining an attitude of hope and faith.
The Shawshank Prison, where Andy was detained, resonated with many prison system stereotypes within the movie. The warden of the prison is depicted as a cruel and inhumane person, bent on sadistically treating his prisoners and guards. This stereotype of the "evil warden" provides…
Fiddler, M. (2007). Projecting the prison: The depiction of the uncanny in The Shawshank Redemption. Crime, Media, Culture, 3(2), 192-206.
Kermode, M. (2003). The Shawshank Redemption. British Film Inst.
Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the…
Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.
Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,
Giertz, J.F., & Nardulli, P.F. (1985). Prison overcrowding. Public Choice (Pre-1986), 46(1),
Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture
The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for incarceration where the primary purpose is to protect the public to instruments of punishment where the loss of freedom is penalty for breaking the law, to institutions for reform dedicated to mould the guilty to conform to society's norms. Initially imprisonment was a means of detaining debtors to ensure payment, the accused before trial, or the guilty before punishment. Courts imposed sentences including fines, personal mutilation such as flogging or branding, or death. In 18th-century England transportation to penal settlements in the Thirteen Colonies and later Australia, became an increasingly popular penalty because it removed the guilty from local society; length of sentence and destination reflected the severity with which the court viewed the offence. Eventually a new type of prison,…
Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009130
Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/14/magazine/14prisons-t.html?pagewanted=all
Prison Life for Inmates
Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a way of punishment; rather, it was used as detention pending the actual punishment of these offenders. The application of imprisonment has been around, perhaps, for as long as humanity has existed. In Old Testament times, prisons were used in Jerusalem. Some prominent personalities have been reported to have been born in prison environments. Others have been imprisoned. It is reported that Lord Krishna was born in prison at a place called Mathura. Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son at Agra. The ritish constructed the historic cell at Port lair for detaining for life those who revolted against their rule. Prisons have not always been viewed as a way of punishing offenders; rather they have been used to detain offenders before the…
Bradford, Andrew Ryan. "An Examination of The Prison Environment: An Analysis of Inmate Concerns Eight Environmental Dimensions." School of Graduate Studies (2006).
Burlington County. "Prison Museum." A National Historic Landmark Located in The Heart of Holly 2013.
Covert, H. "Ministry to The Incarcerated." Chicago: Loyopla Books, 1995.
Department of Corrections. Victims Services Programs. 2015. .
Prison Substance Abuse
If there are two things that plague prisons the most other than violence, they would obviously be drug dependency and mental illness. Quite often, there is a combination of the two in the same prisoners. However, there is also the problem of active drug use and dealing in prison and that shall be the focus of this brief research report. Within this report, there will be a statement of purpose, a description of the research design, the overall research findings, a discussion section and then a conclusion with a resolution. eferences to scholarly literature will pervade this report. While prisons and their personnel due to their best to curb or even stop substance abuse in prison, the influx of drugs is never-ending and the importation thereof is done in many different ways.
Statement of Purpose
The purpose of this study is fairly easy. The amount of literature…
Forsyth, Simon J., et al. "Striking Subgroup Differences In Substance-Related Mortality After Release From Prison." Addiction 109.10 (2014): 1676-1683. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
Obstbaum, Yaira, and Sasu Tyni. "Who Receives Substance Abuse Treatment In The 'Real World' Of The Prison? A Register-Based Study Of Finnish Inmates." Journal Of Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 16.1 (2015): 76-96. Legal Collection. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
Wood, Steven R., and Anthony, Jr. Buttaro. "Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses And Substance Abuse Disorders As Predictors Of State Prison Inmate Assaults." Crime & Delinquency 59.4 (2013): 510-535. ERIC. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
Zarkin, Gary A.1, et al. "Lifetime Benefits And Costs Of Diverting Substance-Abusing Offenders From State Prison." Crime & Delinquency 61.6 (2015): 829-850. Education Abstracts (H.W. Wilson). Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
Prison Condition in USA vs. ussia
In assessing the human rights conditions of maximum security facilities, human rights groups look into 3 main areas: the duration of confinement; the conditions of confinement, and the criteria of eligibility. Each of these areas must be looked into individually and then considered in the context of the entire situation (Human ights Watch). Quite a number of concerns have been raised about the human rights conditions of the individuals held in prisons including: mistreatment of inmates / detainees by prison officials; unsafe conditions; and lack of sufficient legal protection (United States Department of State, n.d.). This paper also compares the situation of prison facilities in the United States and ussia.
The Standard Minimum ules, or the SMs for the Treatment of Prisoners are one of the most important international agreements on how prisoners should be handled. The SMs were adopted in 1955 by…
Hounshell, B. (2010). What are Russian prisons like? Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://foreignpolicy.com/2010/12/28/what-are-russian-prisons-like/
Human Rights Watch (n.d.). Supermax Prisons: an overview. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from https://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/supermax/Sprmx002.htm#TopOfPage
Markovic, V. (2000). Maximum Security Prisons: A Comparative Analysis. CRIME AND JUSTICE INTERNATIONAL, 16(39), 9-10.
Rosen, A. (2012). Inside Russia's Prison System. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/10/inside-russias-prison-system/263806/
AIZONA'S COECTIONAL HEALTHCAE SYSTEM
Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System
The Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) is the agency ultimately responsible for providing healthcare to the state's prison population. Even though the Healthcare Services division within the ADC manages the medical clinics in Arizona's prisons, there are a number of sections and divisions that have important roles to play in ensuring inmates receive the care they are legally entitled to recieve. This essay describes the structural organization that ultimately provides healthcare to inmates and how it operates to ensure statutory compliance.
Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System
Arizona Department of Corrections Organizational Structure
The Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) is ultimately responsible for providing healthcare for the prison inmate population in the state of Arizona (ADC, 2011). This state agency is responsible for maintaining and administering all ADC institutions and programs, including community supervision for adult inmates released to their communities. The…
America Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Know your rights: Medical, dental, and mental health care. ACLU.org. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/know-your-rights-medical-dental-and-mental-health-care
Arizona Department of Corrections. (2011). AZCorrections.gov. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from http://www.azcorrections.gov/
Arizona Department of Corrections. (2011). Medical Services. AZCorrections.gov. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from
Contraband in Jail
Controlling contraband should be the top priority of any prison management, regardless of the level of security. Contraband is any item that a prisoner is not allowed to possess (Frantz 178). All correctional facilities provide their inmates with room and board, clothing, medical care, and basic hygiene items. A number of these facilities allow their inmates to buy items from the commissary or receive other articles or items through other authorized channels. Any other thing, aside from these that a prisoner possesses are contraband. eapons and escape materials are both dangerous in the correct circumstances. A number of staffs who work in prisons are acutely aware of the destruction that these items are likely to cause. These items, in addition to drugs and alcohol, can cause great havoc and pose a potential danger to staff and other inmates. Other items such as materials to make homemade ropes…
Blackburn, Ashley G, Shannon K. Fowler, and Joycelyn M. Pollock. Prisons: Today and Tomorrow. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2013. Print.
Frantz, Michael. Jail Time: What You Need to Know Before You Go to Federal Prison! Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Pub, 2009. Print.
Hoover, Stevin. Mark Whitacre Against All Odds: How "The Informant" and his Family Turned Defeat into Triumph. Bloomington: Xlibris, 2010. Print.
Federal Bureau of Prisons
While most people seem to agree that prisoners should have access to basic healthcare while incarcerated, there is tremendous variation about what type of healthcare constitutes basic care. The reality is that many prison inmates receive a better quality of healthcare than non-incarcerated working-class individuals, but many inmates also suffer consequences because of significant medical neglect. For the federal prison system, the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is the agency given broad oversight over healthcare in prison. In fact, the BOP is in charge of all aspects of inmate care for all inmates in the federal prison system.
The BOP is part of the Department of Justice (DOJ). It was established in 1930 to regulate the federal prison system. The BOP's job is not limited to healthcare. Instead, it has responsibility for the entire federal prison system, which "currently includes 114 prisons, 6 regional offices, 2…
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General Audit Division. (2008). The
Federal Bureau of Prison's Efforts to Manage Inmate Health Care. Retrieved April 29,
2013 from the Justice.gov website: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/BOP/a0808/final.pdf
Wallechinsky, D. (2012). Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved May 1, 2013 from Allgov.com website: http://www.allgov.com/departments/department-of-justice/federal-bureau-of-prisons-bop?agencyid=7204
role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.
A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).
The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes…
Banks, C. (2004). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment. In: Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publicaton, pp 103-126.
Mauer, M. (2004). Thinking About Prison and its Impact in the Twenty-First Century. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law [online].2, p.607-618. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
Macionis, J.J. & Plummer, K. (2008). Control, Crime and Deviance. In Sociology: A Global Introduction (5th edition), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp591-592.
MacKenzie, D.L. (1996). Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland, Maryland. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help Control the State's Budget Problems
This paper argues that inmates at State prisons should be having premature releases from prisons so that the States can manage their budget problems. As the paper illustrates, despite criticisms on parole that it introduces unreformed culprits back in the society and that the program is unorganized, parole is a major contributor in reducing prison populations, which directly translates to reduced State expenditures (Licari, 2009). All the implementation of parole releases has either direct or indirect economic effect to the States as well as the prisoner and society as a whole. eformed individuals are able to earn their income thus independent of the government (Sons, n.d.). In addition, as there is professional structure of parole, they lead to faster reforming and procedures that reduce caseloads enabling parole officers to spend more time with the high-risk individuals (National…
Clear, T.R., Cole, G.F., & Reisig, M. (2008). American Corrections, (8th ed.). Connecticut, U.S.:
Corley, C. (2009, December 13). States release inmates early to cut prison costs. Npr.org.
Retrieved from http://www.npr.org /templates/story/story.php?storyId=121338571
When Santano looks back on his old life in prison he comments that Fulsom was the "big time." He had more power there. Before the gang, if someone wanted something from him, "They just took it" because he was weak, but being in the gang stopped that because he became strong. He looks back on prison life with a certain sense of nostalgia and tells his girlfriend, "I loved it in there."
The gang allows him to be competent under horrible circumstances. He has been deprived of all the ordinary, normal experiences we take for granted, such as dancing, learning to drive a car, going to the beach, standing in the moonlight with a girl, and making love. All he has ever known is violence and the need to keep others afraid of him in order to protect himself. He's more or less ruined for life on the outside by…
Substance Abuse Programs in Prison
The work of Harrison (nd) reports that the 'Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) for State Prisoners Formula Grant Program was created by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 in response to the increasing number of incarcerated individuals in the United States with substance abuse problems." (p.vi) It is reported that RSAT grants may be used to "implement or expand treatment programs for inmates in residential treatment facilities operated by State and local correctional agencies that provide individual and group treatment activities for inmates." (Harrison, nd, p. 2) The RSAT programs must be in a six to twelve month length, provide residential treatment facilities that are apart from the general prison population, be focused at the substance abuse problems of inmates, work in developing the cognitive, social, behavioral, vocational in addition to other skills that serve to bring about resolution to the…
Frantz, M. (2009) What You Need to Know…Before You Go To Federal Prison. Dog Ear Publishing. 2009.
Harrison, LD (nd) Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Implementation Lessons Learned. Google Books. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=bbE6-erVr98C&dq=SUBSTANCE+ABUSE+PROGRAMS+IN+PRISON&source=gbs_navlinks_s
The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000
Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.
4. Theoretical aspects
There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…
Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html [Accessed 2 April, 2010].
Female Prisoners [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/femaleprisoners / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
Holloway [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/locateaprison/prison.asp?id=454,15,2,15,454,0 [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium, marijuana among the Mexicans, and cocaine among the African-Americans (McCormick 2000).
The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported in 1973 that "the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record a failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it," yet during the next two decades both state and federal legislatures implemented increasingly stiffer penalties and mandatory minimums claiming that prisons were an effective tool for crime control, and longer prison terms would reduce crime by deterring or incapacitating criminals (McCormick 2000). However, at the end of this period, after the average prison sentence had tripled and the prison population at more than quadrupled, a National Academy of…
Demleitner, Nora V. (2005 October 01). Smart public policy: replacing imprisonment with targeted nonprison sentences and collateral sanctions. Stanford Law Review. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Dickenson, Rachel. (1996 February 01). The prison population bomb.
American Demographics. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Incarceration. (2005). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.sentencingproject.org/issues_01.cfm
In fact, during the study, the guards became more sadistic when they thought no one was watching them. Zimbardo notes, "Their boredom had driven them to ever more pornographic and degrading abuse of the prisoners" (Zimbardo). This may be the same reason guards at Abu Ghraib tortured and humiliated their charges, and the study seems to indicate this could happen in just about any prison anywhere, if the guards have enough power. The world should pay more attention to this study and its implications. As another writer notes, "The young men who played prisoners and guards revealed how much circumstances can distort individual personalities -- and how anyone, when given complete control over others, can act like a monster" (Alexander). This is what happened at Abu Ghraib, and chances are it is happening all around the world as well. In an interview about Abu Ghraib, Zimbardo notes the prison environment…
Alexander, Meredith. "Thirty Years Later, Stanford Prison Experiment Lives On." Prisonexp.org. 22 Aug. 2001. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.prisonexp.org/30years.htm
Bronstein, Phyllis A., and Kathryn Quina, eds. Teaching a Psychology of People: Resources for Gender and Sociocultural Awareness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1988.
Giles, David. Media Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.
O'Toole, Kathleen. "The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still Powerful After All These Years." Stanford University. 8 Jan. 1997. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/pr/97/970108prisonexp.html
Prisoners feign conformity with rehabilitation programs merely in an effort to get ahead. Prison stays involving the shedding of one's former self, and its replacement with a new prison self that conforms to all the expectations and behavioral patterns of inmate culture. This inmate culture is inherently hostile to the aims of corrections staff. Corrections staff must avoid doing anything that would tend to enhance the validity of inmate culture. They must resort to equal measures in reaction to prisoner provocations. Prisoners must not be stripped of their humanity. They must be maintained as independent men and women capable of surviving on their own, in a reasonably normal society. Notions of status, respect, and hope for the future, must be maintained as they would outside the prison walls. Corrections personnel must enable prisoners to continue to follow, and believe in, the rules of normal society, even if, in the beginning,…
Frase, R.S. (2004). 4 Limiting Retributivism. In The Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 83-112). New York: Oxford University Press.
(2003). Prisonization: Individual and Institutional Factors Affecting Inmate Conduct. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
Richards, S.C., & Ross, J.I. (2001). Introducing the New School of Convict Criminology. Social Justice, 28(1), 177.
Stanko, S., Gillespie, W., & Crews, G.A. (2004). Living in Prison: A History of the Correctional System with an Insider's View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
There should be a manual override system in place in regards to the cell doors. This would allow those in charge to manually lock down all cells to help make sure that no other ones opened on their own.
Providing training to all staff ahead of time so that they are enabled to handle any such situation that might arise is critical. Every staff member should know what they are supposed to do and when they are supposed to do it, if an emergency situation should arise. Training and practice drills should be conducted ahead of time so that everyone is one the same page. Because human lives are at stake every effort should be made to make sure that the best possible plan is developed and available.
The security threat plan should be reviewed an updated on a regular basis. This will help to ensure that any changes that…
MCI - Cedar Junction. (2009). Retrieved September 29, 2009, from Mass.gov Web site:
Ranalli, Ralph. (2005). Havoc created in jail cells. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Boston.com
Williams...consistently denied killing Owens.
March 11, 1979 --...three of Williams' friends -- all with criminal histories and motivation to lie, Williams says -- testify that he confessed to the killings. A ballistics expert links a shotgun shell at the motel to Williams' gun. Williams has also steadfastly maintained his innocence in the Yang killings.
1981 -- Williams is tried and convicted in Los Angeles Superior Court of all four murders, plus...sentenced to death. He arrives at San Quentin's death row on April 20.
1987 -- Williams is placed in solitary confinement for 6 1/2 years after committing a string of violent incidents behind bars, including assaults on guards and other inmates.
1988 -- the California Supreme Court affirms Williams' death sentence, and he files his first federal appeal to the U.S. District Court.
1996 -- Williams, with co-author Barbara Cottman Becnel, publishes the first of a series of anti-gang books…
Stovall, Jeffrey, M.D. (2001, March). Prison Madness: The Mental Health Crisis Behind Bars and What We Must Do About it. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved December 8, 2007, at http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/52/3/394-a
Nieves, Evelyn, (2005, December 14). "Schwarzenegger Clemency Denial Called Politically Safe." Washington Post, p. A18, Retrieved December 8, 2007, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2005/12/13/AR200512100026 . tml
Tookie's Path to Death Row." (2005, December 13). Retrieved Decembe 9, 2007, at http://www.npr.org /templates/story/story.php?storyId=5047269Timeline:Tookie's Path to Death Row
Williams, Stanley, with Becnel, Barbara Cottman. (2001). Life in Prison. Chronicle Books.
The cost for processing a drug court case through the court system is only a fraction of the cost for processing criminal drug cases through the court system. Furthermore, the cost of drug court and other drug treatment for drug offenders is only a fraction of the cost for imprisonment of these individuals. Drug offenders finishing alterative drug court or other treatment programs have been found less likely to have repeated charges and convictions of drug offenses and to have longer abstinences from use of drugs. Finally, in terms of costs to society that cannot be measured in monetary terms, the alternative sentencing of drug offenders to drug courts and other treatment programs will end the breakdown of society that has been witnessed due to imposition of prison sentences on drug offenders. The research conducted in order to prepare for the debate and in order to complete the research within…
The Federal Prison Population: A Statistical Analysis (2004) the Sentencing Project. Online available at http://www.sentencingproject.org/Admin/Documents/publications/inc_federalprisonpop.pdf
Clay, Rebecca (2006) Incarceration vs. Treatment: Drug Courts Help Substance Abusing Offenders. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration News March/April Vol. 14. No.2. Online available at http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_2/index.htm
Shaffer, Deborah; Bechtel, Kristin; and Latessa, Edward J. (2005) Evaluation of Ohio's Drug Courts: A Cost Benefit Analysis. Center for Criminal Justice Research Dec 2005. Online available at http://www.uc.edu/criminaljustice/ProjectReports/Ohio_Drug_Courts_Cost_Benefit_Analysis_2005.pdf
Drug Court Benefits (nd) Online NCDI.org available at http://www.ndci.org/courtfacts_benefits.html
Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans
The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.
hen overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is…
Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,
IL: University of Illinois Press.
Harris, Othello, and Miller, Robin R. (2003). Impacts of Incarceration on the African-American
238). Furthermore, prison stigmatizes convicts, and, upon release many people, particularly employers, are reluctant to take a chance on someone with the stigma of a prison record (Macionis, p.238). Prison also breaks social ties between the prisoner and non-criminal friends and family, weakening the very type of community ties that are believed to help deter criminal behavior (Macionis, p.238). Therefore, if one of the goals of the tough-on-crime stance is to reduce criminal activity, it is clear that American prisons simply are not accomplishing that goal.
In addition, over the past two decades, "the American prison population has climbed from 300,000 to more than two million- roughly equal to the combined population of Austin, Denver, Nashville, and ashington, D.C." (Silverstein, p.1). In addition, "largely because of racially-biased drug sentencing laws, about half of America's prison population is African-American and one-quarter of all black men are likely to be imprisoned at…
Macionis, John J. Sociology. 13th ed. City of Publication. Prentice Hall, 2009.
Silverstein, Ken. "Introduction." Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor. Eds.
Tara Herivel and Paul Wright. New York. Routledge, 2003.1-5. Print.
Street, Paul. "Color Blind." Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor. Eds.
Jails and Prisons
The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them is that whereas a prison holds convicted offenders who have sentences that are mostly beyond one year, offenders are locked in a jail either holding awaiting transportation to prison units or serving short-term sentences usually ranging from a few days to a year (Gaines and Miller, 2006). With reference to the United States of America criminal justice system the other difference is that prisons are under the jurisdiction of either federal or state while jails are controlled and used by local jurisdictions such as counties and cities. Due to the period of time that offenders take and the life they live in prisons, prisons have been considered to be total institutions. "A total institution can be defined as a place…
Alarid, W.L. et al. (2008). Community-based corrections, 7th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth:
Davies, C. (1989). "Goffman's concept of the total institution: Criticisms and revisions" Human
Studies, 12(1-2): 77-95.
Catalysts for Prison Violence
There are many catalysts that are reported as being typically identified as problems inherent in American prisons. Many feel these problems are the catalysts of any and all violence found in American prisons. Without considering and acting on these problem areas, there can be no realistic hope of lessening the amount of prison violence, or the potential of its occurring. These problems include crowding, antiquated architecture, budgeting, poor facility management, mandatory sentencing, antiquated inmate classification, poor security, inherent inmate friction, absence of proper training, and low pay (Levinson, 2002).
In prison sociology two well-established, but contrasting perspectives are the deprivation model and the importation model. The deprivation model holds that the prison environment and loss of freedom cause deep psychological trauma so that for reasons of psychological self-preservation prisoners create a deviant prison subculture that promotes violence. The importation model emphasizes what prisoners bring into the…
Behrens, S. (2010, May 17) How many people are incarcerated for drug related offenses? Open salon. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://open.salon.com/blog/stephannie/2010/05/16/how_many_people_are_incarcerated_for_drug_related_offenses
Homel, R. & Thomson, C. (2005). Causes and prevention of violence in prisons. In Sean O'Toole & Simon Eyland (Eds.), Corrections criminology (pp. 101-108). Sydney: Hawkins Press
Levinson, D. (Ed.) (2002). Encyclopedia of crime and punishment, Vol. 3. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Schlosser, E. (1998, December). The prison industrial complex. Atlantic monthly. 51-77. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://core.ecu.edu/soci/juskaa/SOCI2110/Prison_Industrial_Complex.htm
Privatizing Prison Administration
Description of the Financing System.
Description of How the Current System orks. The financial costs associated with maintaining America's prison system are staggering. Just to stay even with an inmate population that grows by 50,000 to 80,000 a year, approximately, 1,000 new jails and prisons have been built since 1980, and about one new 1,000 bed facility must be added every week for the next ten years (Mccormick 2000). The cost of imprisoning adult offenders ranges from $25,000 to $70,000 a year, and the total costs associated with constructing each new prison cell has soared to $100,000; as a result, the annual budget for constructing and maintaining prisons has jumped in the last two decades from $7 billion to almost $40 billion dollars (Schlosser 1999).
According to Stephen Donziger (1997), "prisons are the largest public works program in America, providing housing, food, (and only sometimes) education, mental…
Campbell, Allison, Andrew Coyle and Rodney Neufeld (Eds.). Capitalist Punishment: Prison
Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2003.
Mccormick, Patrick T. (2000). Just Punishment and America's Prison Experiment. Theological Studies, 61(3):508.
Schlosser, Kathryn Casa. (July 2, 1999). Prisons: The New Growth Industry. National Catholic Reporter, 16.
Pocatello, Idaho New Women's Prisons
ISSUES, COST, ENEFITS
New Women's Prisons in Pocatello, Idaho
Approximately 8 years ago, former State Corrections Director Tom eauclair defended the need for three new prisons at the Pocatello Women's Correctional Center before the Joint-Finance Appropriations Committee (Russell, 2005). If lawmakers would approve the proposal, the additional 300 beds to the existing privately-run prison near oise, a new 400-bed prison for female inmates and a 1,500-bed new prison for male inmates. These additional structures would cost almost $160 million Director eauclair emphasized that these structures were needed in the five succeeding years in order to manage prisoners safely. He said that every State prison is overbooked, with the corrections department then having 360 more inmates than beds. At that time, the State had 6,502 inmates, which was an increase from 2,900 in 1994. Director eauclair said they expected the population to increase by 30 every…
Boone, R. (20100. Auditing agency: replace Pocatello Women's Correction Center.
Idaho State Journal: The Associated Press. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://www.idahostatejournal.com/news/local/article_dd40c684-0aec-11df-b882-001cc4c002e0.html?
Russell, B.Z. (2005). Idaho wants new prisons. The Spokesman-Review: The
Spokesman. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2005/jun/16/idaho-wants-new-prisons
There are three basic types of research designs including: (1) experimental designs; (2) quasi-experimental designs; and (3) non-experimental designs. (Shadish, Cook and Campbell, 2002) the 'gold standard' is stated to be represented by "...experimental evaluations that make use of the random assignment of individuals to interventions and control groups..." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)
Mulhlhausen (2009) reports that randomized evaluations are of the nature that serve to "ensure that pre-progam differences between the intervention and control groups do not confound or obscure the true impact of the programs being evaluated." In addition, random assignment is stated to enable the evaluator in testing "for differences between the experimental and control groups that are due to the intervention and not to pre-intervention discrepancies between the groups. y drawing members of the interaction and comparison groups from the same source of eligible participants, these experimental evaluations are superior to other evaluations using weaker designs." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)…
David Weisburd, Cynthia M. Lum, and Anthony Petrosino, "Does Research Design Affect Study Outcomes in Criminal Justice?" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, No. 578 (November 2001), pp. 50-70.
Nathan James, "Offender Reentry; Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism," CRS Report for Congress, April 21, 2009.
William R. Shadish, Thomas D. Cook, and Donald T. Campbell, Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002).
Muhlhlausen, David B. (2009) Prisoner Reentry: A Limited Federal Government Role. The heritage foundation. 5 Nov 2009. Online available at: http://www.heritage.org/Research/Crime/tst110509a.cfm#_edn35
Secondly was that their perception of the environmental changes changed and the last is that the inmates had different perceptions of the influences of the change.
69% of the inmates felt an improvement in mood level while only 9% has a decrease in mood level. 25% of the inmates experienced fewer incidents of confrontations after their move and 9% experienced more incidents of confrontations. 75% of the inmates were generally satisfied with the move to Ionia. There was an increase by 100% of the health care demands of the inmates. There was no significant change to the inmate's perceptions of changes in the environment such as jobs, activities, usage of spare time, staff satisfaction, and medical care. However, there was some improvement in the food, general relationship and satisfaction with the cell/room/ward. Additionally, there was a negative change in the attendance of religious activities and the number of visits as…
Medina, J. (2013). U.S. Charges 18 Sheriff's Officers in Inquiry Into Misconduct at Los Angeles Jails. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 24 May 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/10/us/18-charged-in-inquiry-into-los-angeles-sheriffs-office.html
Per a single 2013 story, nearly twenty people were charged with offenses relating to misconduct and direct abuse of prisoners. I do agree with the general sentiment that jail should "feel" like punishment when it comes to restriction of freedom, activities and so forth. At the same time, prisoners should not be mistreated and assaulted just by virtue of being there. If they initiate a fight or otherwise engage in violence, they should indeed be subdued. On the flip side, if they are treated like animals, they will often respond in kind. Some offenders that enter jail are already institutionalized and are otherwise conditioned to be used to jail and act in a violent and depraved manner. Gang members are a good and common example. However, creating…
The oyal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (CAP) was established in 1991 to investigate the issues faced by the Canadian First Nations in terms of both their social lives and justice issues. This entity also found that the Canadian First Nations have been disproportionally represented, and concluded that the justice system has "failed" these people (Office of the Correctional Investigator, 2010). CAP also found a particular overrepresentation of Aboriginal women in the criminal justice system, while the general federally incarcerated population in the country declined by 12.5% from 1996 to 2004. For the same period, First Nations representatives in the system increased by 21.7%.
Factors that influence this population include not only discrimination and racial or cultural prejudice, but also economic and social deprivation that tend to lead to substance abuse and violence across generations, as mentioned above.
Demographic information shows Aboriginal offenders to be among the younger age groups, who…
The History of Canada Online. (n.d.). First Nations and the Justice System. Northern Blue Publishing. Retrieved from: http://canadachannel.ca/HCO/index.php/6._First_Nations_and_the_Justice_System
Office of the Correctional Investigator. (2010). Backgrounder: Aboriginal Inmates. Retrieved from: http://www.oci-bec.gc.ca/rpt/annrpt/annrpt20052006info-eng.aspx
And employers cannot by law attempt to intimidate or fire workers for their pro-union activities. Another action the correctional officers could have taken would have been to bring their Congressman or Congresswoman into the matter to put pressure on Duffy through the Illinois governor's office or through federal Civil Rights legislation. Clearly Duffy was in violation of civil rights under the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Answer to Question Five: Two months in solitary confinement is far too harsh for a person violating a minor institutional rule. In fact it is outrageously cruel. It violates all five of the Supreme Court's tests for whether an act is a violation of the Eighth Amendment. This kind of power is that of a demented, vicious warden, who uses severe, inhumane tactics because he has some crazed vindictive nature against inmates. He is in the wrong job because he expects prisoners (who…
Library Index. (2008). Prisoners' Rights Under Law -- Eighth Amendment. Retrieved April 15,
2013, from http://www.libraryindex.com .
National Labor Relations Board. (2010). Employer/Union Rights and Obligations. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://nlrb.gov.
Gender oles and Marriage
The Domestic Prison: James Thurber's "Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour"
James Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" (1939) and "The Story of an Hour" (1894) by Kate Chopin depict marriage as a prison for both men and women from which the main characters fantasize about escaping. Louise Mallard is similar to the unnamed narrator in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is that they are literally imprisoned in a domestic world from which there is no escape but death or insanity. As in all of this early feminist fiction, the women characters are defined as 'sick', either physically or mentally, for even imaging a situation on which they might be free, for they are allowed no lives of their own. Louise Mallard was overjoyed when she heard that her husband was killed in an accident,…
Allen, J.A. (2004) The Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Sexuality, Histories, Progressivism. University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Chopin, K. (1997). "The Story of an Hour" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, pp. 158-159.
Davis, S. (1982). "Katherine Chopin." American Realists and Naturalists. D. Pizer and E.N. Harbert (eds). Detroit: Gale Research, 1982. Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 12.
Gilman, C. (1997)."The Yellow Wallpaper" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997, pp. 230-242.
Letter from the Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King, Jr., and "A Letter from the Clergy" by some leading spiritual clergy in Birmingham, Alabama. Specifically, it will summarize the two letters. Both of these letters provide compelling reasons for what the authors believe in, and they are both very persuasive and convincing in their own way.
The clergymen believe that King's actions, in creating a march that led to many arrests (including King's own arrest), is the wrong way to attempt to gain civil right for black Americans. They believe that these measures are "extreme" and not necessary for the circumstances. They write, "We also point out that such actions to incite such hatred and violence, however technically peaceful these actions might be, have not contributed to the resolution of our local problems" (Miller 486). This is persuasive for a number of reasons. First, the clergy note that even peaceful…
Miller, Robert Keith. Motives for Writing With Student Access to Catalyst. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005.
Terrorism and Correctional Administrations
As if correctional administrators and other connected with prisons don't have enough problems on hand, when prisoners are also terrorists, or prisoners get radicalized in prison and attempt to conduct terrorist activities, prisons have a huge problem. This paper reviews the issues surrounding terrorism and prisons.
Ann Coppola, News Reporter for Corrections.com
This interview between counterterrorism planning expert, Bill Sturgeon, and reporter Ann Coppola, took place on the 12th of November, 2007, long before the more recent terrorism issues in the news (ISIS, and "lone wolves" doing terrible violent deeds). Sturgeon flatly said, "hile currently there is not a large number of terrorists in American prisons and jails, that could change quickly in corrections" (Coppola, p. 2).
Sturgeon said that throughout history prisons have been places where "disgruntled groups" such as terrorists, revolutionaries, and others have seen as "targets" for disruption and violence (Coppola, 2007). Coppola…
Coppola, A. (2007). Terrorism in corrections, a ticking time bomb. Corrections.com.
Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.corrections.com .
Hamm, M.S. (2010). Locking Up Terrorists: Three Models for Controlling Prisoner
Radicalization. Indiana State University. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.indstate.edu .