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White Prison Gangs
Criminal behavior surrounds us each and every day of our lives. There are those who are affected directly and those who are affected indirectly in the society. This means that it should be the business of each person to try and control or to the best stop crime in the society. Therefore, there is an immediate need to understand the source of the criminal behavior in order to be able to control it. However this is not a guarantee of eliminating crime and the attribution of crime and criminal behaviors have been made to various issues including skin color and even the governance system.
It is worth noting that the problem of gang in general have some common causative factors as well as propagating factors. The Economist (2003) indicates that there is a major tie between drugs and the existence of gangs across the U.S.A. And Jamaica…
Anti-Defamation League, (2009). The Aryan Circle: Crime in the name of Hate. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://www.adl.org/extremism/Aryan-Circle-Report.pdf
Charles Montaldo, (2012). The Aryan Brotherhood: Profile of One of the Most Notorious
Prison Gangs. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://crime.about.com/od/gangsters/a/aryanbrothers.htm
Derek Dufresne, (2010). Top 10 U.S. Prison Gangs. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://listverse.com/2010/12/11/top-10-us-prison-gangs/
They have joint canteen accounts;
They have outside support from other gang members;
They have unique identification signs;
They work to build or shape younger members;
They work in seclusion, protecting the gang from outside penetration;
They have no problem severely disciplining or killing those who collaborate with staff or other authorities;
They try to communicate with staff as much as possible through a spokesperson, maintain self-discipline and use, when possible, threats or assault to intimidate staff;
They discipline those who deviate from gang orders or dogma;
They use brutality as part of their normal way of "doing business (Hill, 2004)."
Prison gangs are a problem across the nation. Inmates enter prisons already gang members and affiliate with their organization for protection. Those who enter prison and are not gang members, quickly become one for protection. Gangs within prisons are heavily monitored and watched but problems continue to…
The gangs behind bars.(prison gangs)
Insight on the News; 9/28/1998; Danitz, Tiffany
Gangs inside prison walls around the world.(International)
Corrections Compendium; 1/1/2004; Hill, Gary
"Amongst the gangs were the Black Disciples, Spanish Cobras, Imperial Gangsters, Simon City oyals, Latin Eagles, Satan Disciples, and the Latin Disciples" (Folks Nation, n.d.). The term Folks was thought to be chosen as a name because of the word being an acronym. It stands for Follow the Orders and Laws the King Sets. The King at this time was Larry Hoover. He was the one who had the idea to unite and control all of the gangs in Chicago. Nations in the Folks alliance demonstrate their affiliation by identifying everything to the right side. They wear hats with the brim broke to the right, they keep their right pants leg rolled up, they have bandanas that hang out of their right pockets and they wear earrings in their right ear (Folks Nation, n.d.).
It was during the 19th century that the Ku Klux Klan began their work of violence…
Folks Nation. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2010, from Folks Nation Web site: http://folks-
MS-13: Prison Gang Profile. (2006). Retrieved May 25, 2010, from Inside Prison Web site:
The Changing Social Structure of Prisons
In one sense, prison is a microcosm of the society outside its walls: an extremely concentrated reflection of the social forces at work in the civilization that has erected it. In another sense, prison is its own world—a unique environment in which social structure is determined by the interplay of forces that outside prison would never find themselves confined together in such close quarters. Their confinement, however, in prison creates the context for a new social structure to emerge—one which today is predominantly organized by gangs. This formation is evidence of the changing social structure of prisons. In 1940, Clemmer described the prison community of the average American penitentiary in these words: “The prisoner’s world is an atomized world. Its people are atoms acting in confusion. It is dominated and it submits. Its own community is without a well-established social structure. Recognized values…
Clemmer, D. (1940). The prison community. New Braunfels, TX: Christopher Publishing House.
Colorado College. (2017). Past, present, prison. Retrieved from https://sites.coloradocollege.edu/hip/social-structures-inside/
Dryburgh, M. (2009). Policy implications of whistle-blowing: The case of Corcoran State Prison. Public Integrity, 11(2): 155-170.
Sentencing Project. (2016). Trends in U.S. corrections. Retrieved from http://sentencingproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Trends-in-US-Corrections.pdf
Skarbek, D. (2014). The social order of the underworld. UK: Oxford University Press.
Wood, G. (2014). How gangs to over prisons. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/10/how-gangs-took-over-prisons/379330/
prison gang is a select group of inmates with an organized chain of command and an established code of conduct. They operate in secrecy with a view to controlling their prison environment through intimidation and violence meted on non-members. Some of the oldest prison gangs in the U.S. were formed as early as 1950s. Some notable example is Gypsy Jokers that operated in Washington State prisons (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). Violence in correctional facilities in the United States is something that has been with us for quite a while. Prisoners and prison officers have both fallen victims to this violence.
Think of the San Antonio, Texas incident where 281 prisoners were stabbed and 13 slain (The Ledger, 1984). There was divided opinion on what motivated such heinous acts with some prison officials opining that prison gangs who were divided along racial lines were responsible. Some attacks were thought to be…
Fleisher, M.S. & Decker, S.H. (2001). An overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs.
Corrections Management Quarterly, 5(1), 1-9.
Knox, G.W. (2005). The Problem of Gangs and Security Threat Groups (STG's) in American
Prisons Today: Recent Research Findings From the 2004 Prison Gang Survey. Retrieved from http://www.ngcrc.com/corr2006.html
However, some gang members specialize in multiple criminal activities such as street robbery, human trafficking and drug trafficking.
Street gangs are the major concern to parents, school administrators and the communities because they recruit students and the youths across the United States to enhance the growth of gang memberships. Street gangs are the most prevalent type of gangs in the United States because they influence a strong control in the large geographical regions. Typically, street gangs are characterized with criminal activities, which include brutality and drug trafficking. Presence of street gangs is broadened with their special relations with DTO (Drug Trafficking Organization) in Mexico, Canada, Columbia and other Central American countries. Type of street gangs includes regional-level street gangs specially known for their drug dealing. Functional regional-level street gangs include Latin Disciples, Florencia, Fresno Bulldogs, Tango Blast and United Blood Nation. Local street gangs also known as neighborhood-based…
Esbensen, F., and Osgood, D.W. (1999). Gang Resistance Education and Training
(G.R.E.A.T.): Results from the national evaluation. Journal of Research in Crime
and Delinquency 36(2):194 -- 225.
Esbensen, F.A. (2000). Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement. Youth Gang Series.
The Issue of Gangs
History of Gangs in the United States of America
Northeast egion (specifically New York City
Midwest egion (specifically Chicago)
West egion (specifically Los Angeles)
South egion First period
Current Status of Gangs in the United States of America
Types of Gangs in the United States of America
Factors Triggering Indulgence in Gangs
Impacts of Gang Activities on United States of America
ecommendations for Community esponse
This paper will analyze the nature of gang membership within the United States of America by delving into the historical trends and current status of gang membership in the nation. Moreover, the paper will also discuss the factors that trigger the formation of gangs in the state. In addition, it will also put light on the types of gangs that exist in the U.S.A., and the impacts that these entities have on the nation. Furthermore, it will also propose recommendations…
Howell, J., Egley, A., Tita, G., & Griffiths, E. (2011). U.S. Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996-2009, pp. 1-14. Tallahassee: Institute for Intergovernmental Research. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/content/documents/bulletin-6.pdf
Howell, J., & Griffiths, E. (2015). Gangs in America's Communities. [S.l.]: Sage Publications.
Madden, V. (2013). Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Young People involved in Gangs, pp. 3-26. London: Westminster Joint Health and Wellbeing Board. Retrieved from http://www.mac-uk.org/wped/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Mental-Health-and-Gangs-Report-2013.pdf
Pappas, C. (2001). U.S. Gangs: Their Changing History and Contemporary Solution, pp. 1-14. Washington, D.C: Youth Advocate Program International. Retrieved from http://yapi.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/report-gangs.pdf
When Santano looks back on his old life in prison he comments that Fulsom was the "big time." He had more power there. Before the gang, if someone wanted something from him, "They just took it" because he was weak, but being in the gang stopped that because he became strong. He looks back on prison life with a certain sense of nostalgia and tells his girlfriend, "I loved it in there."
The gang allows him to be competent under horrible circumstances. He has been deprived of all the ordinary, normal experiences we take for granted, such as dancing, learning to drive a car, going to the beach, standing in the moonlight with a girl, and making love. All he has ever known is violence and the need to keep others afraid of him in order to protect himself. He's more or less ruined for life on the outside by…
Should Prison be Punitive or Rehabilitation in Nature?
A question that has existed since the beginnings of the modern prison system has been that of whether prison should be an unbearable punishment for an action committed, or rehabilitation for the accused to rid them of a particular behavior. In ancient times, a violent crime was usually responded with a violent verdict, resulting in torture and pain, and the concept of 'an eye for an eye' that led human law for thousands of years. Recently, however, civilization has rejected the outward torture of prisoners, and has tried to implement a system based on fairness, both during the trial and during the punishment. hile prisoners may not feel like their jail time is fair, modern civilization has elected judges to make these decisions for society. There is still the question, however, of what in today's world is the goal of…
Larrabee, A., (2006). Punishment vs. Rehabilitation in the Criminal Justice System. Retrived from, http://voices.yahoo.com/punishment-vs.-rehabilitation-criminal-justice-119962.html .
Multiple authors. (2010). Should Criminal Justice Focus More on Rehabilitation or Punishment. IDebate. Retrieved from http://idebate.org/debatabase/debates/law-crime/house-believes-criminal-justice-should-focus-more-rehabilitation.
Peak, K., (2012). Justice Administration: Police, Courts and Corrections Management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson: Prentice Hall.
Turner, A., (2012). Work Programs for Texas Inmates Go High Tech. Chron. Retrieved from, http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Prison-factories-train-inmates-and-save-the-state-3450137.php .
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems in the criminal justice system. Overcrowding costs taxpayers money, it leads to dysfunction within the penal population, and it creates dangers for prison staff. It is a result of many items in society and the criminal justice system, and it must change if America's prisons are to remain effective and viable.
Many people may not be aware just how much the prison population has grown in the last thirty years. One researcher notes, "From 300,000 prisoners in 1977, the prison population has risen steadily to over 1.5 million as of June 30, 2005, a 400% increase" (Pfaff, 2008). The two largest states housing prisoners, California and Texas, have seen stupendous growth in their prison populations, but not in their funding. Another…
Haney, C. (2006). Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons Web site: http://www.prisoncommission.org/statements/haney_craig.pdf . 1-17.
Jacobs, J.B. (2007). Finding alternatives to the carceral state. Social Research, 74(2), 695+.
Moore, S. (2009). The prison overcrowding fix. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the New York Times Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/11/us/11prisons.html .
Pfaff, J.F. (2008). The empirics of prison growth: A critical review and path forward. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(2), 547+
Corcoran State Prison: Prison Culture and Effect on Inmates
The prisons in the U.S. have a long history of offering correction services and rehabilitation for the people convicted of various crimes within the society. There have been increased incarceration of inmates over the last few decades with prisons getting more populated than before hence the introduction of the privately run correction facilities to help handle the large number of people within the prison walls at any given time. However, the inclusion of the private prisons have not helped matters much neither have they improved the rehabilitation process or the living standards of the inmates in comparison to the state owned correction facilities. There have continued to thrive the prison cultures and in effect influenced the way the prisoners relate to each other and even relate to the correctional officers. This prison culture will be the focus of this paper and…
Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Prison and Jail Deaths in Custody, 2000-2009 - Statistical Tables. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pjdc0009st.pdf
California State Prison, Corcoran, (2013). California State Prison, Corcoran - Mission Statement. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Facilities_Locator/COR.html
David R. Shaw, (2009). California State Prison, Corcoran Warden Derral Adams One-Year Audit. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from http://www.oig.ca.gov/media/reports/ARCHIVE/BOA/Audits/Warden%20Derrel%20Adams%20One-Year%20Audit,%20Corcoran%20State%20Prison.pdf
Paige J., (2013). Court experts cite 'serious' healthcare risks at Corcoran prison. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from http://prisons.einnews.com/article/161057067/jrpGKHrWmZXOXTKc
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…
ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009
from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx
ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.
Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
20, California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act, STEP Act California 186.20 (http://www.streetgangs.com/laws/stepact.html)," as well as any community that has a disproportionate juvenile arrest rate, or a high percentage of gang related criminal activity or a high number of gang affiliated acts of violence.
The Act hopes to reduce crimes of violence committed by gang members by alerting local law enforcement to their identity thereby reducing their feelings of anonymity in committing those crimes.
The Act also supports funding for the purpose of education and offering counseling and other services to current and past gang members in the hopes they will decide to leave the gang and become a productive member of society.
The gang problem is a serious one in which the dynamics create a cycle of feeling alone, finding a "family" in the gang membership, committing acts of violence for the gang and becoming incarcerated. The legislative…
California 186.20, California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act, STEP Act California 186.20 (Accessed 11-04-06)
California 213. Punishment for Robbery (accessed 11-04-06)
Hybrid Gangs in South Florida
On Public Policy towards Volatile Movements
South Florida has an increasing prevalence of criminal gangs in their communities and it is posing a growing threat to their security and safety. It is clear that in that region criminal hybrid gangs are spreading violence and fear in their neighborhoods making places like their parks unusable, and even bringing corrupt behavior passages to work and school, stopping legitimate businesses consisting of tourism, and bringing down property values. Right now, there are more hybrid gangs in Florida than ever before, with approximately 400 in South Florida alone, as stated by the latest state study. Hybrid gangs are not a new threat, nevertheless the most recent state study displays the problem is getting worse especially in South Florida. In 1991, there were 160 gangs in the south Florida region, but by 2007 the number jumped to beyond 1,500 with…
The community fails to acknowledge the fact that a hybrid gang is an organized group with a recognized leader whose activities are either criminal or, at the very least, threatening to the community in South Florida. They are not being educated enough to understand. Communities lack acknowledgment of understanding the characteristics of hybrid gangs. They do not understand that Hybrid gang show their uniqueness and unity in obvious ways for instance jewelry, colored clothing, jargon, and signals (Crews, 2014). The lack of acknowledging the problem in South Florida, has caused people to not realize that their key source of income for most hybrid gangs is narcotics which fuels a lot of the violence.
Communities fail to acknowledge Hybrid gang members of all ages and that they are used by the gang in the unlawful sale of narcotics and other illegal actions. It is a wrong belief that hybrid gang only function in less wealthy districts. Hybrid gang exist in virtually every community in South Florida and the communities want to ignore the elephant in the room. South Florida does not acknowledge that the gangs belong to one of two alliances, either "People" or "Folks." They do not even realize that both associations are alive and well on South Florida's streets, and in most circumstances are unpleasant rivals. The "Individuals" hybrid gang all wear their identifiers to the left side, while the "Folks" hybrid gangs wear their identifiers on the right (Roles, 2013). Not knowing these characteristics have caused the community to be in ignorance.
They also do not acknowledge that firearms and gang violence go hand in hand. In one study based on responses from 835 male inmates in 6 juvenile correctional facilities in 4 States, researchers found that movement from nongame membership to gang membership brought increases in most forms of gun-involved conduct. Forty-five percent described gun theft as a regular
deviance relates to the American Dream
In his book, Always unning: La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A., Luis J. odriguez uses his own experience and writing talents to tell the story of lives that are caught in the fire of bad luck. Children who happened to be born in some of the poorest neighborhoods of LA in the 1960's, 70s or 80s, as odriguez, were condemned to contamination from the gang life that was going in the streets, around their homes, even creeping into their porches. The U.S. was marching on its way to become a world leader while huge urban areas like those of LA or Chicago were infested and ruled by a way of life that had little or nothing to do with the "American dream." Prostitution, drugs, alcohol and extreme violence, were the four main driving forces of "progress" in the "barrios." Life had little to…
Rodriguez's account of his own life is, as underlined before, a story that makes one think outside one's own little universe. He does not use pathos in his writing, he would rather present the facts as they are, as painful as that might be. Because of his frankness, he writes, some schools have banned his book from their library shelves or taken it out of their reading lists. Those he is writing about are too real and too close to the students who might come across this book. Is it possible that some school officials were afraid that the experiences described here could be harmful for those young minds and sous they were supposed to train for life? Were they afraid the children might get contaminated by its lecture? In fact, the question is: is it possible that the people populating this book could be harmful for the entire American society because they are a part of it and not a separate entity, as they would like to keep it?
Conley, Dalton. 2013. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist (Core Third Edition). W.W. Norton. New York. London Rodriguez, Luis J. 2012. Always Running: La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A, Open Road Media, Jun 12, 2012
Pacheco, Juan. 2009. March 12 forum at UCLA on "Global Perspectives on Youth & Violence." Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLCjpX9aDmY
Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture
The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for incarceration where the primary purpose is to protect the public to instruments of punishment where the loss of freedom is penalty for breaking the law, to institutions for reform dedicated to mould the guilty to conform to society's norms. Initially imprisonment was a means of detaining debtors to ensure payment, the accused before trial, or the guilty before punishment. Courts imposed sentences including fines, personal mutilation such as flogging or branding, or death. In 18th-century England transportation to penal settlements in the Thirteen Colonies and later Australia, became an increasingly popular penalty because it removed the guilty from local society; length of sentence and destination reflected the severity with which the court viewed the offence. Eventually a new type of prison,…
Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009130
Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/14/magazine/14prisons-t.html?pagewanted=all
Prison Substance Abuse
If there are two things that plague prisons the most other than violence, they would obviously be drug dependency and mental illness. Quite often, there is a combination of the two in the same prisoners. However, there is also the problem of active drug use and dealing in prison and that shall be the focus of this brief research report. Within this report, there will be a statement of purpose, a description of the research design, the overall research findings, a discussion section and then a conclusion with a resolution. eferences to scholarly literature will pervade this report. While prisons and their personnel due to their best to curb or even stop substance abuse in prison, the influx of drugs is never-ending and the importation thereof is done in many different ways.
Statement of Purpose
The purpose of this study is fairly easy. The amount of literature…
Forsyth, Simon J., et al. "Striking Subgroup Differences In Substance-Related Mortality After Release From Prison." Addiction 109.10 (2014): 1676-1683. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
Obstbaum, Yaira, and Sasu Tyni. "Who Receives Substance Abuse Treatment In The 'Real World' Of The Prison? A Register-Based Study Of Finnish Inmates." Journal Of Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 16.1 (2015): 76-96. Legal Collection. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
Wood, Steven R., and Anthony, Jr. Buttaro. "Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses And Substance Abuse Disorders As Predictors Of State Prison Inmate Assaults." Crime & Delinquency 59.4 (2013): 510-535. ERIC. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
Zarkin, Gary A.1, et al. "Lifetime Benefits And Costs Of Diverting Substance-Abusing Offenders From State Prison." Crime & Delinquency 61.6 (2015): 829-850. Education Abstracts (H.W. Wilson). Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
Part I Research Process
Using the Internet Explorer search engine, "ergen County Passaic County" was typed in. It returned no results for any gang issues. The search terms, "ergen county Passaic County gang issues in local community" was entered. It returned the results on an article, "State police survey shows gang activity in all N.J. counties" (Fabiano, 2011). The article named ergen County as one in nine counties with higher than average gang presence. The article also talked about law enforcement officials questioning the results of the survey based on the results not adding up to the number of arrests that were gang related. And, another problem of a significant population of illegal immigrants staying isolated from police and being a breeding ground for gangs.
The search terms, "New Jersey gang statistics" was entered. It returned the 2007 State police survey that compared data to the 2004 survey…
New Jersey Announces Gang Suppression Initiative Through Stepped Up Enforcement and Awareness Efforts. (2001, Nov 16). Retrieved from New Jersey's Online Gang Free Community: http://www.njgangfree.org/gang-news/launch1116.htm
Gangs in New Jersey: Municipal Law Enforcement Response to 2007 NJSP Gang Survey. (2007). Retrieved from New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety: http://www.state.nj.us/njsp/info/pdf/njgangsurvey-2007.pdf
Gangs in New Jersey: Municipal Law Enforcement Response to the 2010 NJSP Gang Survey. (2010). Retrieved from New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety: http://www.njsp.org/infor/pdf./gangs_in_nj_2010.pdf
Fabiano, G. & . (2011, Jan 28). State police survey shows gang activity in all N.J. counties. Retrieved from NewJersey.com: http://www.northjersey.com/news/012811_State_police_survey_shows_gang_activity_in_all_NJ_counties.html
MS-13 -- the focus of a nationwide crackdown by FBI and federal immigration agents -- has become known in recent years for home invasion robberies, drug dealing and machete attacks on its enemies. however, after the sweeping chaos across America, the FBI has heightened concerns that MS-13 could be far more dangerous than thought.
Mara Salvatrucha, or MS-13, continues to expand its influence in the United States. FBI investigations reveal that it is present in almost every state and continues to grow its membership, now targeting younger recruits more than ever before.
To counteract this growth, the FBI formed the MS-13 National Gang Task Force in December 2004. Based at FBI Headquarters, this intelligence-driven task force combines the expertise, resources, and jurisdiction of federal agencies that investigate this violent international street gang. It focuses on maximizing the flow of information and intelligence, coordinating investigations nationally and internationally, and helping state…
Electronic visa application begins for visa waiver countries. (2009). Foreign Policy Bulletin, 19(1), 40-57. doi:10.1017/S1052703609000525
Boatright, L.R. (2006). "Clear eye for the state guy": Clarifying authority and trusting federalism to increase nonfederal assistance with immigration enforcement*. Texas Law Review, 84(6), 1633-1674. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203710946?accountid=34899
Donohue, L.K. (2006). Anglo-american privacy and surveillance. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 96(3), 1059-1208. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/218394830?accountid=34899
Hamm, M.S. (2009). Prison islam in the age of sacred terror. The British Journal of Criminology, 49(5), 667-685. doi:10.1093/bjc/azp035
Contraband in Jail
Controlling contraband should be the top priority of any prison management, regardless of the level of security. Contraband is any item that a prisoner is not allowed to possess (Frantz 178). All correctional facilities provide their inmates with room and board, clothing, medical care, and basic hygiene items. A number of these facilities allow their inmates to buy items from the commissary or receive other articles or items through other authorized channels. Any other thing, aside from these that a prisoner possesses are contraband. eapons and escape materials are both dangerous in the correct circumstances. A number of staffs who work in prisons are acutely aware of the destruction that these items are likely to cause. These items, in addition to drugs and alcohol, can cause great havoc and pose a potential danger to staff and other inmates. Other items such as materials to make homemade ropes…
Blackburn, Ashley G, Shannon K. Fowler, and Joycelyn M. Pollock. Prisons: Today and Tomorrow. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2013. Print.
Frantz, Michael. Jail Time: What You Need to Know Before You Go to Federal Prison! Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Pub, 2009. Print.
Hoover, Stevin. Mark Whitacre Against All Odds: How "The Informant" and his Family Turned Defeat into Triumph. Bloomington: Xlibris, 2010. Print.
role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.
A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).
The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes…
Banks, C. (2004). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment. In: Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publicaton, pp 103-126.
Mauer, M. (2004). Thinking About Prison and its Impact in the Twenty-First Century. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law [online].2, p.607-618. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
Macionis, J.J. & Plummer, K. (2008). Control, Crime and Deviance. In Sociology: A Global Introduction (5th edition), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp591-592.
MacKenzie, D.L. (1996). Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland, Maryland. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
A participant in the study notes, "The gang members were scared to come outside, scared to hang out together.' and, 'it is still working.' He noted that graffiti and other signs of gang activity have declined dramatically. He pointed out that a wall near the park had graffiti 24/7, 365 days a year prior to the injunction, but not lately" (Maxson, et al. vii). Thus, gang injunctions control a variety of gang-related activities, but they can help control the spread of graffiti and the actions of tagging crews, keeping neighborhoods not only safer, but less unsightly for the people who live there.
Alonso, Alex. "Gang Injunctions & Civil Abatement in Los Angeles." StreetGangs.com. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.streetgangs.com/injunctions/
Editors. "Gang Injunction." County of San Diego District Attorney. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.sdcda.org/protecting/gi_workflow.pdf
Maxson, Cheryl L. Karen Hennigan, David Sloane, and Kathy a. Kolnick. "Can Civil Gang Injunctions Change Communities?…
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." Gutenberg.com. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/5200/5200-h/5200-h.htm
There should be a manual override system in place in regards to the cell doors. This would allow those in charge to manually lock down all cells to help make sure that no other ones opened on their own.
Providing training to all staff ahead of time so that they are enabled to handle any such situation that might arise is critical. Every staff member should know what they are supposed to do and when they are supposed to do it, if an emergency situation should arise. Training and practice drills should be conducted ahead of time so that everyone is one the same page. Because human lives are at stake every effort should be made to make sure that the best possible plan is developed and available.
The security threat plan should be reviewed an updated on a regular basis. This will help to ensure that any changes that…
MCI - Cedar Junction. (2009). Retrieved September 29, 2009, from Mass.gov Web site:
Ranalli, Ralph. (2005). Havoc created in jail cells. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Boston.com
Williams...consistently denied killing Owens.
March 11, 1979 --...three of Williams' friends -- all with criminal histories and motivation to lie, Williams says -- testify that he confessed to the killings. A ballistics expert links a shotgun shell at the motel to Williams' gun. Williams has also steadfastly maintained his innocence in the Yang killings.
1981 -- Williams is tried and convicted in Los Angeles Superior Court of all four murders, plus...sentenced to death. He arrives at San Quentin's death row on April 20.
1987 -- Williams is placed in solitary confinement for 6 1/2 years after committing a string of violent incidents behind bars, including assaults on guards and other inmates.
1988 -- the California Supreme Court affirms Williams' death sentence, and he files his first federal appeal to the U.S. District Court.
1996 -- Williams, with co-author Barbara Cottman Becnel, publishes the first of a series of anti-gang books…
Stovall, Jeffrey, M.D. (2001, March). Prison Madness: The Mental Health Crisis Behind Bars and What We Must Do About it. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved December 8, 2007, at http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/52/3/394-a
Nieves, Evelyn, (2005, December 14). "Schwarzenegger Clemency Denial Called Politically Safe." Washington Post, p. A18, Retrieved December 8, 2007, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2005/12/13/AR200512100026 . tml
Tookie's Path to Death Row." (2005, December 13). Retrieved Decembe 9, 2007, at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5047269Timeline:Tookie 's Path to Death Row
Williams, Stanley, with Becnel, Barbara Cottman. (2001). Life in Prison. Chronicle Books.
S. Senator Dianne Feinstein. The legislation makes the provision of over $ billion in funding "for gang prevention, intervention and law enforcement programs over five years and establishes new crimes and tougher penalties to deter and punish members of illegal street gangs." (Feinstein, 2007) the legislation proposed by Feinstein would make illegal participation in a criminal street gang a federal crime. The legislation criminalizes violent crimes in furtherance or in aid of criminal street gangs and creates a new criminal offense for murder and other violent crimes committed in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime. Under the present law, "a felon's criminal street gang involvement can be treated at most as a sentencing enhancement, adding no more than 10 years to a sentence. This bill establishes far higher penalties for violent gang crimes, including the possibility of life imprisonment without parole for murder, kidnapping, aggravated sexual abuse, or maiming. If…
Matthews, D. And Ruzicka, K. (2000) Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime. Capital Center for Government and Law Policy - California Initiative Review. March 2000 initiatives - Proposition 21. Pacific McGeorge School of Law. Online available at http://www.mcgeorge.edu/government_law_and_policy/california_initiative_review/march_2000/ccglp_cir_march2000_prop_21.htm .
McKim, J.B. And Rhor, Monica (2007) Justice by Geography (Orange County Register) 3 June 2007. Online available at http://dist08.casen.govoffice.com/index.asp?Type=B_PR&SEC=%7BE917F382-8B46-4C4E-976E-64261965F209%7D&DE=%7BCA01ACE7-2B51-4E14-8DE4-3C7CC3E4DDFB%7D
Governor Scwarzenegger Endorsees Senator Feinstein's Comprehensive Gang Legislation. (2007) United States Senator Dianne Feinstein California. 20 March 2007. Online available at http://feinstein.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=NewsRoom.PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=7189577e-cc9b-d379-16f3-c9194d249b56&Region_id=&Issue_id=
Velasquez, N. (2007) L.A. City Attorney Delgadillo Establishes New Policy Regarding Gang Injunction Violations: New Policy Enables Check of Convicted Gang Injunction Violators' Residency Status. 5 April 2007. Online available at http://www.lacity.org/atty/index/attyindex56044369_04052007.pdf .
al, 1994). Furthermore, the role of police in a community has to change from merely trying to suppress gang activity to actively trying to prevent gang activity. (Spergel, et. al, 1994).
The proliferation of gangs is one of the most pressing social problems facing modern America. While the primary purpose of gangs may be to engage in criminal activity, they serve other social functions that attract teens as gang members. Each teen who becomes involved in a gang runs a significant risk of not being able to participate in normal, non-criminal society. Therefore, it is important to understand how teens become involved in gangs and to focus efforts on prevention. Although no one theory seems capable of entirely explaining how and why teens become involved in gangs, the various criminological theories and the social disorganization theory are capable of giving insight into why children feel attracted to gangs. These theories…
Cantillon, D., Davidson, W., & Schweitzer, J. (2003). Measuring community social organization: sense of community as a mediator in social disorganization theory.
Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 321-339.
Jones, D. et al. (2004). Street gangs: a review of theory, interventions, and implications for corrections. Ottawa: Research Branch Correctional Service of Canada.
National Youth Gang Center. (2006). National youth gang survey analysis. Retrieved November 2, 2006 from National Youth Gang Center
After receiving such pressure, a huge scandal broke within the ranks of the LAPD based on charges of corruption and misconduct. Although the LAPD still maintains a heavy presence within these streets, they are not as vehement as seen in the case of the HAMME era.
Many of those affected by L.A. street life are actually not gang members themselves. The aftermath of gang violence has proven to be too much for many Los Angeles residents, including former gang members, to handle. Many former members are left questioning the idea that the gang life is truly a family atmosphere. Former gang members all over the United States have begun to take action as to prevent future generations from making the same mistakes, (andle, 2003). Many of these former criminals also believe that being open with children about gang violence will help open up dialogue about the negative aspects of gang…
Alonso, a. (2008). A brief history of the Los Angeles-based Crips. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from Street Gangs: http://www.streetgangs.com/crips/
Crips. (1995). What we celieve in. Nationwide Rip Ridaz. Quality Records.
Davis, Mike. (1992). City of Quartz. Vintage Books.
Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence (2006). Gangs. Find Articles Retrieved April 2, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0002/ai_2602000260
Is it a gang or is it a club? How did it form and why? What does it take to become a member and what are the reasons? These are all important questions to anyone interested in knowing more about motorcycle gangs/clubs. At the very start, one must decide whether to consider the organization a gang or a club.
The definition of an Outlaw Motorcycle Gang interpreted by a recent Canadian Court Decision: Court File No.45646/92 and published in the Blue Line Magazine Feb 1998 is as follows:
They are often used interchangeably with the term "one percenter"
The 1% symbol is commonly displayed on tattoos by members, or on gang colors
Love of the motorcycle, especially the Harley-Davidson
Paramilitary in nature involved in crime close-knit fraternal organization
The definition continues at length, but one is able to perceive the direction of its intent. A gang is not…
Blue Line Magazine. Police Motorcycle Gangs - Are They Righteous Outlaws?
As retrieved June 11, 2004 at http://www.law-enforcement-ethics.com/article_archives/Police%20motorcycle%20Gangs.pdfPublished Feb 98 Blue Line Magazine
Glory Riders Christian Motorcycle Ministry as retrieved June 11, 2004 at http://www.gloryriders.com/membership.html
Motorcycle Club Colors as retrieved June 11, 2004 at http://www.arnie.co.uk/colours/htmpages 1-4.
The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000
Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.
4. Theoretical aspects
There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…
Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html [Accessed 2 April, 2010].
Female Prisoners [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/femaleprisoners / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
Holloway [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/locateaprison/prison.asp?id=454,15,2,15,454,0 [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
Prisoners feign conformity with rehabilitation programs merely in an effort to get ahead. Prison stays involving the shedding of one's former self, and its replacement with a new prison self that conforms to all the expectations and behavioral patterns of inmate culture. This inmate culture is inherently hostile to the aims of corrections staff. Corrections staff must avoid doing anything that would tend to enhance the validity of inmate culture. They must resort to equal measures in reaction to prisoner provocations. Prisoners must not be stripped of their humanity. They must be maintained as independent men and women capable of surviving on their own, in a reasonably normal society. Notions of status, respect, and hope for the future, must be maintained as they would outside the prison walls. Corrections personnel must enable prisoners to continue to follow, and believe in, the rules of normal society, even if, in the beginning,…
Frase, R.S. (2004). 4 Limiting Retributivism. In The Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 83-112). New York: Oxford University Press.
(2003). Prisonization: Individual and Institutional Factors Affecting Inmate Conduct. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
Richards, S.C., & Ross, J.I. (2001). Introducing the New School of Convict Criminology. Social Justice, 28(1), 177.
Stanko, S., Gillespie, W., & Crews, G.A. (2004). Living in Prison: A History of the Correctional System with an Insider's View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Medina, J. (2013). U.S. Charges 18 Sheriff's Officers in Inquiry Into Misconduct at Los Angeles Jails. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 24 May 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/10/us/18-charged-in-inquiry-into-los-angeles-sheriffs-office.html
Per a single 2013 story, nearly twenty people were charged with offenses relating to misconduct and direct abuse of prisoners. I do agree with the general sentiment that jail should "feel" like punishment when it comes to restriction of freedom, activities and so forth. At the same time, prisoners should not be mistreated and assaulted just by virtue of being there. If they initiate a fight or otherwise engage in violence, they should indeed be subdued. On the flip side, if they are treated like animals, they will often respond in kind. Some offenders that enter jail are already institutionalized and are otherwise conditioned to be used to jail and act in a violent and depraved manner. Gang members are a good and common example. However, creating…
Risk factors are often found in clusters and their cumulative effect may lead to a greater probability that youth will become involved in crime (Garbarino, 1999). As a result then, there are not one or two factors that could cause someone to join a gang, but rather a collection of factors (Garbarino). It is possible then, by eliminating even one factor among the cluster, that programs could reduce gang involvement.
According to Esbensen (2000), many major cities have introduced gang prevention programs throughout the United States over the past 60 years. Community groups, social workers, and law enforcement personnel manage the different prevention programs in a variety of formats. he national government has also addressed the seriousness of gangs; President George W. Bush has proposed that funding be used for a three-year project to help keep youth out of gangs. First Lady Laura Bush will lead the new effort, Helping…
The approaches to gang prevention for youth have been developed using a wide variety of methods. Individual counseling can be used for behavior modification to decrease aggression, impulsiveness, and inflexible behaviors (Lipsey, M.W., Wilson, D.B. And Cothern, L. 2000). Family involvement using counseling and providing parental training techniques such as modeling, role-playing instruction, and story-reading have been found to be effective (Seitz and Apfel, 1994). School-based programs are offered across the country, which often follow a rigid curriculum over varying amounts of time. Community-based organizations provide a variety of programs using supervised mentors (McGill, Mihalic, and Grotpeter, 1998) and curriculum designed to teach social skills and problem solving techniques (Wong, Catalano, Hawkins, and Chappell 1996).
Utilizing incarcerated or former gang members can also provide a powerful means to reach out to youth. The Gang Violence Reduction Program of East Los Angeles draws on former gang members to influence and prevent youth gang involvement, which was also reported to be successful (National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention, 1994).
Types of Prevention
Terrorism and Correctional Administrations
As if correctional administrators and other connected with prisons don't have enough problems on hand, when prisoners are also terrorists, or prisoners get radicalized in prison and attempt to conduct terrorist activities, prisons have a huge problem. This paper reviews the issues surrounding terrorism and prisons.
Ann Coppola, News Reporter for Corrections.com
This interview between counterterrorism planning expert, Bill Sturgeon, and reporter Ann Coppola, took place on the 12th of November, 2007, long before the more recent terrorism issues in the news (ISIS, and "lone wolves" doing terrible violent deeds). Sturgeon flatly said, "hile currently there is not a large number of terrorists in American prisons and jails, that could change quickly in corrections" (Coppola, p. 2).
Sturgeon said that throughout history prisons have been places where "disgruntled groups" such as terrorists, revolutionaries, and others have seen as "targets" for disruption and violence (Coppola, 2007). Coppola…
Coppola, A. (2007). Terrorism in corrections, a ticking time bomb. Corrections.com.
Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.corrections.com .
Hamm, M.S. (2010). Locking Up Terrorists: Three Models for Controlling Prisoner
Radicalization. Indiana State University. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.indstate.edu .
Street Drug Trade Is One of the Most Important Social Institutions for Young People in Detroit
From his perspective, Bergmann writes that the street drug is one of the most important social institutions for young people in Detroit. As an institution, the drug dealings and everything surrounding it are becoming a transforming force taking people in a certain way of life and perception. Detroit is known to be a major region of the drug trade, including heroin. Like any other society, it suffers consequences of this in many ways, including the economic, cultural, social, and even psychological repercussions arising from the presence of the drug. Drugs are commonly effective and, in some way, change the way people behave, live, and interact. This is seen from his submission that "drug dealing governed the seasonal cycles of their lives and taught them about the nature and power of the state, capitalism and…
ole and Evolution of the American Prison System
Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime
The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…
Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921
Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727
Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.
Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism (and crime rates in general) conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals convicted and sentenced to terms of incarceration.
Prison privatization has increased in the last few decades in the U.S. Its proponents believe that privatizing prisons will reduce the financial strain on government authorities in connection with maintaining correctional services. Critics are extremely wary of any transition to for-profit business models in the realm of corrections, primarily because of the tremendous potential for inherent conflicts of interests. Ultimately, the best approach might be a hybrid format where private entities supplement government authorities, but subject to appropriate legislative guidelines and oversight mechanisms sufficient to ensure that industry standards and integrity are not compromised the way they might be under unrestricted privatization policies.
Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections:…
Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision. Federal Probation, Vol. 66, No. 28.
Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gaines, L.K., Kaune, M., Miller, R.L. (2006). Criminal Justice in Action: The Core.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Purpose of a Prison Sentence
Crimes are committed daily in our modern day society and can be loosely defined as any action, that by society's standard, equals the breaking or disobeying of some accepted rule, standard, statute or cultural opinion. Crimes can be committed by either or both adults and juveniles. There is no age requirement to committing a crime but age often does affect other aspects of how and when a perpetrator gets caught and/or treated by law information. Many things can get people incarcerated such as selling drugs, jaywalking and premeditated murder to name a few. That brings to light the topic of the system of jurisprudence and the criminal justice system. Even though crime continues to rise, our criminal justice system is underfunded, understaffed and most likely overwhelmed. So, if this is the case, what is the purpose of a prison sentence? There are many…
New World Encyclopedia. (2009). Prison. Ed. All American Patriots. 2005 March 1. Retrieved on December 1, 2009, from New World Encyclopedia at http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Prison
Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995 as a type of punishment in Alabama prisons, thus bringing back to life one of the most shameful and powerful symbol of America's bequest of institutionalized ethnic subjugation and racial prejudice. The 8th Amendment prohibits all punishments that are not in agreement with the evolving decency standards that exhibits the growth of an emergent civilization. Slavery was not abolished immediately as a consequence of implementation of the 13th Amendment.
Despite the constitutional provisions for the total prohibition of slavery; the remnants of slavery could still be found in several economic, political and social contexts. Under the disguise of criminal justice, slavery was almost unashamedly re-implemented. Before the 13th Amendment saw the light of the day, repressive labor practices were introduced into…
Anderson, J.F., & Dyson, L. (2000). Alabama Prison Chain Gangs: Reverting to Archaic Punishment to Reduce Crime and Discipline Offenders. Western Journal of Black Studies, 24(1), 9.
Haley, S. (2013). "Like I Was a Man": Chain Gangs, Gender, and the Domestic Carceral Sphere in Jim Crow Georgia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 39(1), 53-77.
Guttierrez, A. (2013). Sufferings peculiarly their own: the thirteenth amendment, in defense of incarcerated women's reproductive rights, 15 Berkeley J.Afri.-Am. L. & Pol'y.
Banks, C. (2004) Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. SAGE.
More recently, Miedzian (1991) has studied peer pressure, the socialization process, and military impact that has resulted in violence becoming standard behavior in males, and Thompson (1991) has demonstrated that violent acts are more often performed by males with greater masculine gender orientations.
Another slant on this topic was placed by West and Zimmerman (1987) in "Doing Gender," that looked at gender not in terms of a set of traits that are held by individuals, but rather as something people do together in their social interactions. In this case, gender is basically about social interaction and establishing relationships. It is an integral part of all daily interactions. Where a person's actions in "doing gender" simultaneously produce, reproduce, sustain and legitimate the social meanings accorded to gender. The authors state that gender is a fundamental aspect of all social relationships, in terms that no one can possibly not do gender if…
Carrigan, C., Connell, R.W., & Lee, J. (1985), Toward a new sociology of masculinity, Theory and Society, 14 (5), 551-604.
Cloward, Richard a. And Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: a theory of delinquent gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Connell, RW. 1985. Masculinities. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Connell, R.W. And Messerschmidt, J. (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity, Rethinking the Concept Gender and Society. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859
Gangs in Prisons in the United States and the Affect Rehabilitation Programs to Help Inmates Upon Release
Prison Gangs are one of the most challenging entities that have to be tackled by the authorities. Their growing influence in the prison setting concerns not just the inside of the prisons, but also the outside world, as when they are released, the members continue causing problems for the society. A lot of rehabilitation programs have been formed in order to provide guidance and a fresh start to the inmates who are released, which helps them overcome their criminal life and lead a normal one. This paper discusses the phenomenon and existence of criminal gangs and how the rehabilitation programs affect them after their release.
According to Lyman (1989), a prison gang is a criminal entity made up of special group of chosen prisoners that is governed with some sort of code…
Fleisher, M., & Decker, S. (2001). An Overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs. Corrections Management Quarterly, 1-9.
Gilligan, J. (2012, December 10). Punishment Fails. Rehabilitation Works. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2012/12/18/prison-could-be-productive/punishment-fails-rehabilitation-works
Lyman, M.D. (1989). Gangland. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
Miceli, V. (2009). Analyzing the Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Programs. Senior Honors Project, 1.
1).From there, Blood sets have sprung up all around the country and even around the globe, in part due to an agreement made at the formation of the initial alliance that any gang that wanted to become a Blood set could become one simply by making that decision (Blood Knowledge, par. 7). There is also a great sense of honor being affiliated with the Bloods, as they have strict codes of conduct concerning treatment of gang members, enemy gangs, and "civilians" or "neutrons" that have no gang affiliation, with many feeling that this makes the Blood alliance and gang more legitimate (Morris & Davis). At the same time, the Bloods are unquestionably dangerous and vicious, and are engaged in drug trade, extortion, kidnapping, prostitution, and a variety of other harmful and illegal activities that significantly contribute to major social problems (Morris & Davis; Blood Knowledge).
Currently, the bloods exist in…
Blood Knowledge. "Blood Gnag Knowledge." Accessed 29 September 2011. http://blood-knowledge.com/
Inside Prison. "The Bloods: In Prison." Accessed 29 September 2011. http://www.insideprison.com/prison_gang_profile_BL.asp
Morris, DeShaun and Davis, Jason. War of the Bloods in My Veins. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008.
They were more focused on preventing what they thought was going to be a gang war. According to the officers, they noticed immediately that prisoners in the yard were acting different from the usual from differences in the way they went about their usual routines. They also noticed the extra layers of clothing on two groups of prisoners despite the warm weather, which immediately suggested to them the potential for imminent violence. Since only two groups with known pre-existing animosity were overdressed, the officers believed they were facing imminent gang violence and they followed institutional protocol for returning inmates to their cells. It was apparently preplanned that the attack on the guards came from those two gangs in that process.
Inmate's Recollection of a Riot:
One inmate advised that "not only can't you trust anyone in here, but you also can't trust anything." What he meant was the fact that…
Correction System Management in Scotland
Prison superintendents and female prisoners
The prison system in many countries has mostly subject the inmates to absolute control and more so the victims of this institutionalized ills are the women. The masculine sex roles have been stamped into the psyche of the female inmates in a manner that replicates the abuse that exists in abusive relationships, only in this case perpetrated by the prison officials and the superintendents. The prison environment has concentrated more on the implementation of dominance as a policy rather than empowerment. The prison superintendents have emphasis more on the coerced conformity rather ta offering caring and supportive environment hence the female inmates fail to receive the rehabilitation that they need. The ultra masculine sex roles that are imposed on the female inmates can be said to be generally imposed by the superintendents in charge of the prisons.
Special management inmates…
The debate regarding which form of protocol is more appropriate, custodial vs. treatment, is indeed one of the more controversial subjects in criminal justice today. Custodial treatment refers to the act of putting the convicted criminal in an institution of some sort, such as a jail or prison (hence the term, "custody"). Those who are in favor of this option stress the pros of this type of method, stressing that it is one of society's oldest forms of punishment: "When someone is sentenced to jail or prison, that individual is physically separated from society (the modern version of banishment- society's first form of punishment. In doing so, the person is quite literally deterred from committing any further crimes against the general public because (due to their incarceration) they simply no longer have physical access to the community" (Bayley, 2009). Bayley stresses one of the obvious advantages of custodial…
Bayley, B. (2009, July 1). Custody Vs. Treatment Debate: Deterrence -- The Two Great Lies.
Retrieved 8, 2012, June, from Correctionsone.com: http://www.correctionsone.com /corrections- training/articles/1851841-Custody-Vs- Treatment-Debate-Deterrence-The-Two-Great-Lies/
Doj.wisconsin.gov. (n.d.). What Is the Difference between Probation and Parole? Retrieved June 8, 2012, from Wisconsin Department of Justice: http://www.doj.wisconsin.gov/dles/cibmanuals/files/TIME/HTML/whatisthedifferencebe tweenprobationandparole.htm
Opm.gov. (n.d.). Position Classification Standard. Retrieved June 8, 2012, from U.S. Office of Personnel Management: http://www.opm.gov/fedclass/gs0007.pdf
Drugs in Federal Corrections
One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…
Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.
Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.
MacDonald, M., Greifinger, R., & Kane, D. (2012). The impact of overcrowding. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 8(1).
Ruiz, M.A., Douglas, K.S., Edens, J.F., Nikolova, N.L., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2012). Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: Implications for risk assessment. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 77.
Based on statistics, nearly one million eighth graders admit getting drunk and another 1.2 million twelfth graders are considered binge drinkers. Heroin use by young adults has doubled from 1991 to 1996 and even teenage compulsive gambling is on the rise (http://www.einstein.edu/e3front.dll?durki=8576,2004).
Youth Gangs and Violence - The Starting Point
It should be noted that violence started from the family affecting the whole society. hat an individual has for a family, what can be seen in the society, what is seen in the environment are all clear reflections of the kind of people a certain society is bringing up - whether it is a deviance to the society or not.
Now, pertaining to the crimes and how the government solved it, it must be remembered that the laws are already there, it is already being maintained by the concerned officials and followed the U.S. citizen. But there are still some…
Capital punishment." 2004 [online] Duhaime.org. http://www.duhaime.org/dictionary/dict-c.htm .
Capital Punishment: Pros." 1998 [online]
Cerf, Vinton G. Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century. 1997. February 21, 2004. http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html
Mentor and the Shawshank Redemption
The Shawshank Redemption showcases a memorable and heartwarming mentor and mentee relationship. Red, as a seasoned old-timer, is a credible mentor to Andy, a young man sent to prison for a crime he did not commit. Morgan Freeman (Red) and Tim Robbins (Andy) give memorable performances that add to the credibility of their onscreen mentor and mentee relationship. Red's steadfastness and insight provide Andy with an emotional rock through years of imprisonment. He also provides advice that helps keep Andy safe from physical harm. At the same time, Andy is a believable and like able mentee, whose personal strength lets him keep onto the hope that ultimately gets him out of prison.
As the mentor, Red, is Red is an old timer in the prison. He says he is the 'Sears and Roebuck' of the yard, meaning that he can get almost anything for a…
Janaro, Richard Paul, and Altshuler, Thelma C. 2003. The Art of Being Human, 7th ed. New York: Longman.
Shawshank Redemption. 1994. Director: Frank Darabont. Starring: Tim Robbins, Morgan Freeman, Bob Gunton, William Sadler, Clancy Brown, Gil Bellows. Columbia Pictures.
This, of course, would represent one aspect of the resentment served to Salinas. The other aspect would be the significant impact of the economic crisis and the continued devaluation of the Peso. These things reflected on the ineptitude of a party seldom challenged as it should have been.
To most, the failures effecting the whole of the nation had marked the need for a hastening of democratic reform, which would in turn reflect quite negatively on the candidacy of the PRI candidate. In an article dated to 1988, it was characterized thusly, with report stating that "the Institutional Revolutionary Party on Sunday designated Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the budget and planning secretary in the present government, to be its presidential nominee. Getting the nomination is tantamount to being named president. The PRI, as the party is universally called here after its Spanish initials, has ruled Mexico for six decades. As…
Associated Press (AP). (1987). Inflation up 159% in Mexico. The Dallas Morning News.
Bruhn, K. (1997). Taking on Goliath: The emergence of a New Left Party and the Struggle. Penn State Press.
Camin, H.A. & Meyer, L. (1993). In the shadow of the Mexican Revolution.
Daria, J. & Santamaria, D. (2006). Oaxaca Under a State of Repression. The Narco News Bulletin. Online at http://www.narconews.com/Issue40/article1672.html
Self-Worth and the Need to Belong
Juvenile Delinquency Paper
The self-help author Wayne Dyer once wrote that, "Self-worth comes from one thing…thinking that you are worthy." This quote captures the functional role of gangs: they exist because they serve a purpose. Gangs are attractive to recruits because they promise a variety of benefits. Though many members reap material benefits from joining, it is the psychological benefits which play a critical role in the decision to join a gang, particularly as it relates to self-worth and the need to belong. While some gang members often portray themselves with great machismo, think highly of themselves and are proud of what they have become, the majority of youths who join gangs suffer from a negative self-image (Miller, 2001). Opportunities to feel good about themselves in their family or at school are few and far between. Yablonsky (1997) tells us "The gangsters'…
Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Miller, J., Maxson, C., Klein, M. (2001). The Modern Gang Reader. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co.
Sanchez-Jankowski, M.S. (1991). Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Shelden, R., Tracy, S., Brown, W. (1997). Youth Gangs in American Society. Ann Arbor, MI: Wadsworth Publishers.
Prison Term Policy ecommendation
Bills are passed or rejected all the time, and some that are passed do not provide any real benefit. The goal is to lower the number of bills that are not beneficial, and raise the number of bills that actually make a difference in society. One of the ways to pass better bills is to carefully consider criminology and the statistics regarding it (Barak, 1998). When a bill offers exactly what it claims to, and when that offering is needed by society, the bill can have a higher degree of expected success and can provide more of what society needs. Addressed here is a bill that is focused on armed robbery and prison terms. The objectives and goals of the bill will be discussed, along with possible solutions for the bill and whether it should or should not be approved in its current form.
Barak, G. (ed.). (1998). Integrative criminology (International Library of Criminology, Criminal Justice & Penology.). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate/Dartmouth.
Deflem, M. (ed.) (2006). Sociological theory and criminological research: Views from Europe and the United States. NY: Elsevier.
Administration and Leadership
Maintaining order and control in correctional facilities -- while also presiding over well-managed facilities from a fiscal and ethical perspective -- is the goal of every conscientious administrator. The Center for Innovative Public Policies (CIPP) published a list of "core competencies" for leadership in correctional facilities. Among the skills most vital to a competent prison leader are: a) to be able to "anticipate, analyze, and resolve organizational challenges"; b) to build and "maintain positive relationships with external stakeholders"; c) to "communicate effectively" and to "comprehend, obtain, and manage fiscal resources"; d) to create a diverse organizational that "promotes respect"; e) to be visionary and to engage in "strategic planning" and develop a vision for the mission of the institution; f) to enhance "self-awareness and maintain proactive professional commitment; g) to "establish organizational authority" and design roles and responsibilities; h) to make sound decisions, manage change,…
Center for Innovative Public Policies. (2010). Core Competencies for Jail Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://cipp.org/jail/core.html .
Trulson, Chad R., Marquart, James W., and Kawucha, Soraya K. (2009). Gang Suppression and Institutional Control. Corrections One News. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.correctionsone.com .
United Nations. (2010). Handbook for Prison Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.iccir.law.ubc.ca.
Wortley, Richard. (2002). Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional
Cried, You Didn't Listen: A Survivor's Expos of the California's Youth Authority. The paper should be 4 pages in length and should include a brief synopsis of the book. When writing your reaction to this book.
Please concentrate on the topics and questions below:
The impact of abuse on juvenile development.
How the family system affects juvenile development.
How peer relationships and gangs influence juveniles.
Would Dwight's life have been different had he been placed with a relative instead of in juvenile hall?(no separation between child welfare and juvenile justice at this time)
How could the California Youth Authority improve its work with juveniles?
What was your overall reaction to Dwight's story?
Long ago in the dying years of the 17th century, the authors of a satire on human society, called The Roaring Girl, criticized the jail system noting that it was a place that bred criminals rather than reformed…
Interesting it is to note that Dwight's anger is mainly directed at these parents. It is interesting since his parents were, after all, largely helpless and external to the system. Nonetheless, parents are the primordial force of the child's development. Had Dwight's parents, or a caring relative, been there to protect Dwight none of this plausibly may have occurred. Would Dwight's life have been different had he been placed with a relative instead of in juvenile hall? This is difficult to answer. The fact is that the Dwight Edgar Abbott ends his book as voice behind these walls. This is where he is still today.
DE Abott (2006)I Cried, You Didn't Listen: A Survivor's Expose of the California Youth Authority AK Press
For example, he notes that one out of eleven men is estimated to go through the correctional system throughout his life but the figures for nonwhites are even higher. Forty-nine percent of inmates are African-American and eighteen percent are Latino. What happens is that many of these black inmates are taken from cities and locked up in prisons built in rural areas. Residents of these communities are white men and women who have limited, if any, experience of living with people of color and are of working-class background. ome of them are young men right out of high school. Not surprisingly, this encounter often leads to violence and racial tension. Hallinan writes that "it is hard to ignore that those getting rich are usually white and those in prison are usually not" (p. xiii). In other words, the profitability of the prison-industrial complex is not only corrupting the system by…
Some of his assertions are controversial. He emphasizes the pernicious influence of the private prison industry but that industry began in 1983 and the number of private prisons today is around 150. Most of the prisons are still federally funded though Hallinan notes that the relatively small number of private prisons have developed a culture that has influenced other prisons -- namely, an emphasis "not on producing an improved inmate, one who will commit fewer crimes when released, but on producing a cheaper inmate" (p. 145). And given that the number of private prisons is growing and that the concept is being viewed as acceptable and effective by ever greater number of corrections officers, criminologists, politicians, and ordinary Americans, the influence is also likely to grow.
Another controversial point Hallinan makes is the idea that there is an identical logic behind military-industrial complex and the prison-industrial complex. He argues that the U.S. government exaggerated the threat of Communism in the 1950s to dramatically increase the defense budget and similarly the correctional system in the 1980s and '90s exaggerated the threat of crime to justify prison boom. There is always a risk of downplaying the real danger in such arguments, as there was indeed Communist bloc armed with nuclear weapons during 1950s and there were criminal gangs increasing the number of street shootings in 1980s. Hallinan, however, has a point because the crime rate does not justify the titanic prison boom that America has witnessed in the last thirty years. And there is a ground for linking prison-industrial complex to the military-industrial complex. Consider, for instance, the $77.5 million prison in Wallens Ridge, Virginia, which is "identical to the sophisticated sixteen-foot-high fence used by the Israeli government on the Golan Heights, according to the warden" (p. 204).
Going Up the River's only significant weakness is Hallinan's overemphasis on the role of corporations as the driving force behind prison boom. He does not, for example, discuss the fact that paroles have been decreased or even eliminated in some states, which might have accounted for the greater prison population. He does not also entertain the idea that tougher and longer sentences may be one of the reasons of the decreasing crime rate. Nevertheless, Hallinan's outrage directed at the prison-industrial complex is justified. It has gone awry.
Inmate Classification in Iowa
Iowa Inmate Classification
The classification system used for prison inmates is primarily designed to stratify prison populations by their tendency to commit violent acts, either in public or in the prison system (reviewed by Gaes and Camp, 2009). This approach is believed to increase the efficiency of a correctional system by housing nonviolent offenders in less costly facilities and to minimize the negative influence of the worst offenders on the relatively well-behaved, non-violent offenders. The Iowa Department of Corrections recently reviewed its inmate classification system and made significant changes. This essay will examine the classification system in use within the Iowa correctional system and how it affects the inmate distribution.
Iowa Inmate Classification System
Classification of inmates in U.S. prisons can be divided into external and internal (Austin and Hardyman, 2004). External classification determines the custody classification and facility assignment. In Iowa, prisoners are primarily classified…
Austin, James and Hardyman, Patricia L. (2004). Objective prison classification: A guide for correctional agencies. National Institute of Corrections, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2013 from http://nicic.gov/Library/019319 .
CJI (Criminal Justice Institute, Inc.). (2008). Validation and redesign of the Iowa Department of Corrections Inmate Classification System. Department of Corrections, State of Iowa. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2013 from http://www.doc.state.ia.us/Research/IAClassificationReportFinal.pdf.
Gaes, Gerald G. And Camp, Scott D. (2009). Unintended consequences: Experimental evidence for the criminogenic effect of prison security level placement on post-release recidivism. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 5, 139-162.
MDOC (Mississippi Department of Corrections). (2004). Definition of correctional terminology. MDOC.State.MS.U.S.. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2013 from http://www.mdoc.state.ms.us/Annual%20Report%20PDF/Annual%20Report%2005/A%20-%20Website%20-%20FY04%20Annual%20Report/Introduction/Terminology%20-%20Correctional.pdf .
Women in Prison
Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates
Problems in corrections:
Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system
The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…
Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.
Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,
D. (2007). Neurological function and HIV risk behaviors of female prison inmates. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(6), 361-72.
Case, P., Fasenfest, D., Sarri, R., & Phillips, A. (2005). Providing educational support for female ex-inmates: Project PROVE as a model for social reintegration. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(2), 146-157
Traditional Organized Crime Groups
The task at hand is to report upon the organized criminal activities of the Italian mafia that is partially transplanted from Italy and its islands, as well as the mafia culture that is indigenous to the United States. The mafia is somewhat of an open secret. People know and believe that it exists, yet it is not a topic that people often discuss publically, and for good reason. Secrecy and discretion is key to the existence of the traditional organized crime group of the Italian O.C., also known as La Costra Nostra. The mafia, like the media, the government, the prison system, and education, is an industry. As the world changes, the mafia diversifies its activities to keep up with the times, creating as many streams of revenue from as many directions as possible. The Italian mafia has long since been a group that…
ABC News. (2013). Latest La Costra Nostra News. ABC, Available from: http://abcnews.go.com/topics/news/la-cosa-nostra.htm . 2013 May 04. Web.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Italian Organized Crime. The FBI, Available from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/organizedcrime/italian_mafia . 2013 May 04. Web.
corporations' access to prison labor. Questions: How, why and whom do we imprison? How is money best spent? Five sources. APA.
Corporations and Prison Labor
Most people's familiarity of prison labor comes from the media, particularly from movies. Chain gangs working on railroads or highways can be seen in movies such as 'Cool Hand Luke' and 'O' Brother here Art Thou.' Another popular movie, 'The Shawshank Redemption' depicted the use of convict labor for other types of contract labor such as roof tarring. Manufacturing automobile state license plates is another use of prison labor familiar to most of the general public. But, how does the general public feel about the use of prison labor, and moreover, how do laborers in the private sector feel about companies using prison labor instead of them? Is the use of prison labor good for the economy? Is it good for the prisoners, for the…
Cook, Rhonda. "Staff, Study says Georgians filling up prisons fast." The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. March 21, 2002; pp A1.
Corporate America exploits prisoners: Inmates become assets for major." The Philadelphia Tribune. November 10, 1998; pp 6A.
Du Pont, Pete. "Should Prisoners Work?" The World & I. Volume 11. March 01, 1996;
The way that a society treats its criminals is indicative of the moral character and worthiness of that society. While it is easy for us to ignore and disregard the criminals amongst us by leading them to prison and throwing away the key, an important lesson is lost in this disregard for the human experience. In California the intolerance of violent crime and action has led to the development of the Three Strikes Law, which was implemented in 1994. As a policy maker I am firmly opposed to this law as I find it to be inhumane, impractical, excessively expensive and carried out in poor taste with a snobbish attitude towards those of us who have temporarily lost our way. A new policy is needed that can help address the important facts and details particular to the State of California and its unique needs.
Batabyal, A. (2014). It's time to rethink three strike and similar laws. Rochester Business Journal, 3 Jan 2014. Retrieved from http://www.rbj.net/article.asp?aID=205046
California Courts, The Judicial Branch of California (nd). Viewed 2 Feb 2014. Retrieved from http://www.courts.ca.gov/20142.htm
Cohen, D. (2013). Latest FBI Crime Statistics Released. Right On Crime, 20 Sep 2013. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/inside-the-criminal-mind/201104/do-prisons-really-make-offenders-worse
Egelko, B. (2013). Prop. 36 3 Strikes Change working lawyers say. 9 Sep 2013. Retrieved from http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Prop-36-s-3-strikes-change-working-lawyers-say-4800057.php
Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice
Innocents Project Exoneration
On November 19, 1991, 14-year-old Cateresa Matthews left her great-grandmother's house in Dixmoor, Illinois. She was not seen again until December 8, 1991, when her body was found on a well-worn path running along I-57 as it passes through Dixmoor. "She had been shot in the mouth at close range with a .25 caliber pistol. She was also an apparent victim of sexual assault, as her body was naked from the waist down. A pair of white panties was found around her right ankle, and her jeans were draped across her chest. Seminal fluid was recovered from the vaginal and rectal swab of the victim" (obert Taylor, n.d).
The police made no arrests and apparently had no leads in the case for over ten months, until October 20, 1992. On that date, a police report specified that Keno Barnes, 15, supposedly…
Exonerated, freed and facing a new life. (2011). Retrieved from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-11-25/news/ct-met-dna-freedom-
Law School's Exoneration Project helps free wrongly convicted man. (2011). Retrieved from http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2011/11/04/law-school039s-exoneration-project-helps-free-wrongly-convicted-man
Robert Taylor. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Robert_Taylor.php