The Task Force Report suggested that both of these crime deterring institution work together rather than against one another (Craighead, 2003).
The primary difference between public and private security are the roles of the policing personnel. For public security the purpose is to protect the public, be it property, people, or crimes against property or people. Private security personnel's role is slightly different in that they protect the organization or property rights where assigned. These are primarily privately owned by the property or individual and may differ from public policy and procedure (Craighead, 2003).
Factors affecting the Growth of Private Security
The factors and level of training for security personnel has evolved significantly from those basically walking the perimeter and reporting disturbances. Today private property requires protection in many industries such as banking, medical, chemical, technological, manufacturing, even retailers and small businesses need security protection. The required security today includes to operating highly sophisticated surveillance equipment such as cameras, gates, fire prevention, loss prevention, asset protection, disaster recovery, intellectual property and many additional areas of specialization.
The number of security personnel is nearly two million today while the police force nationwide is approximately 600,000 (Ortmeier, 2009). The private justice system have established the crime and punishment parameters for offences in the private sector (Schmalleger, 2008). The number of jobs that have evolved as a result of the increase of security needs in recent years present unique and lucrative opportunities, especially since the terrorists attacks of 9/11 (Ortmeier, 2009). There are many schools that offer security training throughout the U.S....
Standard training requirements include courses on legalities such as power and authority of security officers or guards. Emergency procedural training in fire safety, CPR, First Aid, and Building Evacuation/Security, Weapons training and certifications, Legal Uses of Firearm, Handling of Firearm, Marksman training for specialized positions, as well as safety and care of firearms. There is also continuing educational certifications that must be completed each year dependent on the type of security service assigned (N.Y. Department of Justice, 2012).
Private Security Growth and Licensing
At the turn of the century the private security forces were used to track criminals, gangsters, and mobsters. Prior to federal agencies being established in law enforcement. The railroad transportation between states was protected by security forces such as Pinkerton in addition to shipments to banks and other businesses that were often targeted by crime elements ( . However once federal agencies such as the FBI were established these jobs were no longer necessary for security agencies. Yet by this time the industry had developed to the point of needed regulation and licensing as many detectives, guards, and armed security bounty hunters and body guards were already working for various businesses.
The development of the Federal Bureau of Security and Investigative Services became the official regulator of all security related licensing. The following chronology lists the various regulatory requirements and agencies involved in the security professions expansion. Today's professional private security force should be aware of these important milestones in order to ensure proper licensing for specific security professions.
Security Professions Regulatory History
1915 California license and regulation of private detectives with the Administration State Board Prison Directorship.
1943 a new specialized category, Private Patrol Operator added to Private Investigation Act.
1949 Repossess agencies are put into the license category beneath Collection Agency Act.
1950 Detective License Act renamed Private Investigator and Adjuster Act.
1959 Repossess agencies, regulated by Collection Agency Act, are now under the Private Investigator Act
1973 the Bureau of Collection and Investigative Service is federally mandated to register all uniformed employees that are Private Patrol Operators.
1974 the firearm program is developed which requires applicants to have exposed weapon permit and complete Bureau-approved training.
1977 Alarm firms and workers require licensing.
1981 Repossession workers require licensing.
1986 Locksmiths workers are require registration with the Bureau.
1993 the Locksmith Act is revised and require separate license for both locksmith companies and employees.
(Bureau of Security and Investigative Services, 2012).
Bureau of Security and Investigative Services (2012). A brief history. Retrieved March 25, 2012 from http://www.bsis.ca.gov/about_us/history.shtml
Craighead, G. (2003). High rise security and fire life safety. Rothstein Assoc.
Cunningham, W.C, Strauchs, J.J, Van Meter, C.W. (1990). Private security trends: hallcrest reports. . 106. Ibid., p. 2. 107
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