GIS and mapping software, once available only to agencies possessing mainframe computers, can now be easily loaded on the laptops carried in patrol vehicles and therefore can be used by even small and budget-constrained police departments. The innovations demanded by community and problem-oriented policing require that departments incorporate a geographic, spatial, or local focus, and emphasize the importance of integrating crime-mapping techniques into departmental management, analysis, and enforcement practices." (2006) What is needed, according to the work of Kehoe is 'standardization' insofar as the technology used in law enforcement and private security so as to enable more integration and coordination between the two entities. The tools which Kehoe includes in the foregoing list are not an exhaustive list whatsoever.
The work of Ashley Paul Moore entitled: "First Responder Accreditation: The Pros and the Cons" states that there has been a debate among members of Congress as to whether there is an existing need for establishment of "a comprehensive set of national standards to regulate state and local terrorism preparedness programs." (2006) Those who support these federally supported standards believe that there could be significant improvement of the capacity of the first-responder community in the United States in countering a terrorist attack that involved "chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and/or improvised high-yield explosive (CBRNE) weapons. It is related in the work of Kehoe (2006) that cities all across the United States are presently working on "various stages of implementing GIS projects related to the engineering, planning and zoning particulars as well as the general infrastructure of their own communities." (2006) Today's law enforcement agencies can look to the resources in information available "to power such programs as Community Policing Beat Book, which is a free program that the National Institute for Justice has funded that provides practical mapping information. " (Ibid)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
Imagine, if you will, for a moment that a disaster occurred in a town very familiar, a community, whether urban or rural, where in past local occurrences each agency went about its' appointed duty without interrupting one another, and this has traditionally been the case in the United States. Then suddenly a disaster such as Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans occurs and the new agencies developed by Homeland Security come into the area and communication channels get crossed with tasks being duplicated and others being left undone, neglected perhaps. Strategies that can be shared, integrated and coordination through use of technological tools offer the possibility for unprecedented coordination among law-enforcement, private security and public service providers in the event of such a catastrophe or disaster. Because of the capacity for improved logistics and increased effectiveness, standardization is critical in this pursuit. This could well be through networking of cell-phones, with laptops, blackberry devices and onboard computers in mobile vehicles of any of those stated.
Standardization of law-enforcement and private security procedures and the communication protocol used must necessarily be integrated if these agencies are to rise to the challenges that present in the future of the tasks associated with law-enforcement and private security function and duties. This could well be a project assigned to local FEMA office, presently Civil Defense in each individual county within a U.S. state so that these initiatives could be built up county-by-county and state-by-state toward a rising to compliance with a fifteen year integration effort. The outcome has the potential to be a tightly networked unit of protection for all community, country, regional, state sectors within the United States. This avoids confusion, duplication of duties, misassignment of duties, misapplication of duties, and neglect of duties in the future of law-enforcement and private security workers.
Kehoe, Jay (2006) GIS Solutions for Medium and Small Law-Enforcement Agencies - T.I.P.S. Total Integrated Preparedness Solutions 23 February 2005. online available at http://www.domesticpreparedness.com/pub/docs/DomPrepTIPSFeb23.pdf
Moore, Ashley Paul (2006) First Responder Accreditation: The Pros and the Cons - GIS Solutions for Medium and Small Law-Enforcement Agencies - T.I.P.S. Total Integrated Preparedness Solutions 23 February 2005. online available at http://www.domesticpreparedness.com/pub/docs/DomPrepTIPSFeb23.pdf
Working with Law Enforcement to Abate Cybercrime: Cyber Security Guidelines (2006) Commission of the Europeans Communities 9 Jan 2006. Presented at Brussels. Online available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2006/com2006_0474en01.pdf.