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Procurement and Contract Management:
For a long period of time, procurement has been considered as an aspect that deals with purchasing supplies and stationary. Notably, procurement is an absolutely fundamental function in any business and it's important for the success and profitability of the business, particularly with regards to the economic recession and downturns. Until recently, procurement was important but rarely celebrated component of many multinational corporations. Currently, procurement and contract management play vital roles in companies, especially global firms, in ways that the traditional managers could not have imagined. As a result, the procurement and contract management has risen to increased prominence and popularity in the highly competitive business environment. Through these components, companies have been able to strategize towards mitigating risks associated with the tightening of the supplies of critical commodities and increase in prices.
Definition and Importance of Procurement and Contract Management:
Procurement can be described as…
Bucki, J. (n.d.). The Successful Vendor Selection Process. Retrieved September 10, 2012, from http://operationstech.about.com/od/vendorselection/a/VendorSelectionHub.htm
"Contract Management Guide." (n.d.). The Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply.
Retrieved September 10, 2012, from http://www.cips.org/documents/CIPS_KI_Contract%20Management%20Guidev2.pdf
"Defining Procurement: Could Procurement be the Most Important Aspect of Your Business?"
Procurement and Supplier Management: Potential Behavior and Trust of Suppliers
The objective of this study is to examine procurement and supplier management and the potential behavior and trust of suppliers and to discuss this in light of current academic debates and provide practical illustrations to support the answer. The work of Chen, Paulraj and Lado (2004) entitled "Strategic Purchasing, Supply Management and Firm Performance" states of purchasing that it has "increasingly assumed a pivotal strategic role in supply-chain management." (p.505) There has been a great deal of discussion about the level of trust needed in the relationship between suppliers and purchasers and authors writing in this area of study began noting in the 1990s that a shift in paradigm was taking place in the area of procurement pushing strategic purchasing to the forefront of academic research. Now more than ever purchasing strategies are critical in the organization's bottom line. Trust…
Chen, IJ, Paulraj, A. And Lado, AA. (2004) Strategic purchasing, supply management, and ?rm performance. Journal of Operations Management 22 (2004) 505 -- 523. Retrieved from: http://info.cba.ksu.edu/sheu/Management810/Literature%20Purchasing/Chen.pdf
Dyer, JH and Chu, W. (1997)The Economic Value of Trust in Supplier-Buyer Relations. Retrieved from: http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/1439/145a.pdf?sequence=2
enhancing supply chain management in the healthcare industry Int. J. Electronic Healthcare, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.rmu.edu/SentryHTML/pdf/lib_smithMBAD6093_smith4.pdf
Kwon, I. (2004) Factors Affecting the Level of Trust and Commitment in Supply Chain Relationships. Journal of Supply Chain Management: A Global Review of Purchasing and Supply. May 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.slu.edu/Documents/business/cscms/trust_commitment.pdf
Procurement Law Overview, Part One
The federal government's basic procurement or acquisition process involves an agency identifying the goods and services it needs also known as the agency's requirements, determining the most appropriate method for purchasing these items, and carrying out the acquisition. Although this process is simple in theory, any given procurement can be complex, involving a multitude of decisions and actions (Halchin, 2006).
One process that is involved is that of solicitation. In the basic federal procurement process, acquisition personnel determine what goods and services they need and then post a solicitation on the Federal Business Opportunities website. Interested companies prepare their offers in response to the solicitation, and, in accordance with applicable provisions of the Federal Acquisition egulation (FA), agency personnel evaluate the offers. Another type of procurement opportunity for a company is to serve as a subcontractor for a government contractor. To be eligible…
A Guide to Best Practices for Contract Administration Office of Federal Procurement Policy
(OFPP). (1994). Retrieved from https://www.acquisition.gov/bestpractices/bestpcont.html
14 FAH-2 H-240 Socioeconomic Considerations. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/89063.pdf
FAR 15.206 (e): Cancellation of solicitation. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.wifcon.com/pd15_206e.htm
The law is both imaginary and complex, yet affects each and every one of us on a daily basis on a number of different levels. In the business world, the law takes on new meanings and new forms as commercial exchange is guided by their principles. The purpose of this essay is to examine the legal aspects of procurement and how this idea can shape the different aspects of trade and commerce.
To accomplish this task, this essay will address procurement from a standpoint of a procurement manager at a large company. In this scenario, the chief financial officer (CFO) of the company, recently addressed the need to cancel the remainder of an order that would not be needed by the company. The CFO is interested in the legal ramifications of this action and has requested a report on the legal concerns he has concerning this action.
Brown, G. (2009). Procurement and the Project Manager. Project Times, 15 April, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.projecttimes.com/articles/procurement-and-the-project - manager.html
The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) (2005). Viewed on 30 July 2013. Retrieved from http://www.acquisition.gov/far/
Gabbard, E. (1996). The UCC as A Tool for Procurement Professionals. Institute for Supply Management, Viewed 30 July 2013. Retrieved from http://www.ism.ws/pubs/Proceedings/confproceedingsdetail.cfm?ItemNumber=10033
Larson, A. (2003). Contract Law- An Introduction. Expert Law, October 2003. Retrieved from http://www.expertlaw.com/library/business/contract_law.html
Procurement contract close-out is a heavy and important topic for firms that have procurements needs on a consistent or even a fleeting basis as the materials and products acquired through these procurements products are often needed to keep the flow of good sales going and/or keeping operations under control and running in optimal fashion. There are really only a few basic ways that an executed contract can end with the hoped for outcome, and probably the usual one as well, being that the contract is fulfilled at the satisfaction and agreement of both sides of the contractual ledger with consideration and exchanged being carried out across the board.
However, there are some pitfalls and other negative outcomes that can happen before, during and after a procurement contract is in force and indeed procurement contracts can end in a quite ugly fashion if one is not careful and/or does…
Banker, R.D., Kalvenes, J., & Patterson, R.A. (2006). Information Technology,
Contract Completeness, and Buyer-Supplier Relationships. Information Systems
Research, 17(2), 180-193.
Rob, R. (1986). The Design of Procurement Contracts. American Economic Review,
Procurement in Government Contracting
The government procurement process is identified by purchase of goods and services that will be used in provision of public goods and services like transport, railway, education, health, defense etc. It is not easy to qualify as a supplier to the government bodies since it needs to comply with quality standards. However, this might not be possible for small and disable-owned businesses. In order to offer these firms the opportunity to be a part of suppliers to state, the state takes special measures. There is a quota set for the participation of SDB (small and disabled businesses) in the government procurement. The research shows that women and minority in America are becoming increasingly innovative and their role in the economy has evolved over time. It would not be unusual if these segments become major suppliers to government one day. Thus, it is required that these businesses…
Boss, P.V., (2013), "4 Tips for Bidding on Your First Government Contract," Retrieved from:
Contracting Support for Small Businesses, (2013), Retrieved from:
One of the most important functions of business is procurement. Procurement refers to the acquisition of the goods and services a company needs to carry out its functions and to operate within its market. It is therefore vital that this process be implemented and streamlined in such a way to optimize not only the business process, but also to maximize economic activity. There are several levels of procurement, three of which include the project level, the business unit level, and the corporate level.
In a project-based organization with project-based procurement, procurement occurs, as the title suggests, on the basis of the necessities required for each individual project (Lynch, n.d.). Once project objectives are predetermined in the project proposal, procurement activities can also be undertaking to correspond to the project objectives. This kind of procurement is vital to the success of a project.
Hence, one of its disadvantages might…
Crawford, S. (2014, Jan. 6). What is Project Procurement? WiseGeek. Retrieved from: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-project-procurement.htm
Lynch, J. (n.d.) Procurement in Context: Project Procurement. The Procurement ClassRoom. Retrieved from: http://www.procurementclassroom.com/procurement-in-context-project-procurement/
McBeath, B. (2010, Jul. 27). Centralized vs. Local Sourcing and Procurement Governance Models. ChainLink Research. Retrieved from: http://www.clresearch.com/research/detail.cfm?guid=00A1C14C-3048-79ED-9971-8A979AD1B001
For instance, FleetNav, developed by Maptuit Corp., is designed to be used in conjunction with a vehicle's in-cab navigation and routing system. This program makes suggestions based on many fleet-specific variables, including "existing fuel purchase arrangements, the amount of fuel onboard, the size of the fuel tanks, and the out of route miles required to fuel at a particular station" (Leavitt, 2006). With optimization programs such as these, companies found that they were able to save as much as 4 cents per gallon (Ibid).
As an indirect result of the recent fuel crisis, carriers have found themselves under an enormous amount of market pressure to provide environmentally friendly, or "green," transportation alternatives. Sustainability has become a major business driver, stemming from a combination of fuel price worries, foreign oil concerns, and consumer sentiment about global warming. More and more, companies are creating green procurement procedures and insisting that transportation companies…
Gonzales, Adrian. (2009, May 21). Transportation Procurement is "Hot" Right Now. Logistics Viewpoints. Retrieved from http://logisticsviewpoints.com/
Leavitt, Wendy. (2006, June 1). Fuel Optimization: Not a Penny More. Fleet Owner Magazine. Retrieved from http://fleetowner.com/mag / fleet_fuel_optimization_not/
Monczka, Robert, Robert Handfield, and Larry Giunipero. (2008). Purchasing and Supply Chain Management. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Procurement and Performance Management in an Organization
For an organization to be successful, it is critical to attain value through the core goals and objectives of the organization to the stakeholder. This is attained through embracing the appropriate processes of the product lifecycle. Standing (2010, p. 23) has defined value management as well-established and structured process used to define and maximize the value of money. Value management can be applied to various sorts of organizations regardless of the size and the product life cycle. Its advantages have been identified to be effective and efficient when management procurement is applied. Procurement performance is determined the success of required activities for the organization to ensure products and services reach the final destination. This cycle entails measurement, implementation, planning, and analysis. Therefore, procurement performance ensures efficient and effective organizational processes based on the value of money.
There is a clear association between procurement…
Lowe, D., & Leiringer, R. (2006). Commercial management of projects: Defining the discipline. Oxford: Blackwell Pub.
Solanki, P. (2009). Earned value management: Integrated view of cost and schedule performance. New Delhi: Global India Publications.
Standing, N.A. (2010). Value management incentive programme: [innovations in delivering value]. London: T. Telford.
Turner, R.W. (2011). Supply management and procurement: From the basics to best-in-class. Fort Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Pub.
The procurement process usually requires crucial planning based on the complexity and size of the specific procurement. The process involves generating and reviewing requirements and specifications for procurement. Generating and reviewing these requirements and specifications is geared towards ensuring effective planning. The most appropriate process for generating and reviewing procurement specifications would include defining the outcome, defining specifications, identifying risks, researching the procurement market, and preparing a business case ("Guidance on the Mandatory Procurement Procedures," 2005).
Defining the outcome is the first important step in generating and reviewing procurement requirements and specifications because it provides clear and precise description of what needs to be satisfied by the procurement and how it will be satisfied. The description of the outcome in turn helps in identifying the required product or service, the necessary quantities, and the delivery of the product or service. This is followed by defining specifications, which is…
Department of Finance and Deregulation, Guidance on the Mandatory Procurement Procedures,
Australian Government, viewed 21 December 2013,
UL Procurement Office, Guidelines on Writing Specifications, University of Limerick, viewed
21 December 2013,
Procurement process often follows clear guidelines that ensure the process is manageable and procurement is done in time. Although there are different ways the procurement process can be employed in different industries, it is imperative that the procurement process in any industry has its main aim of maximizing the profit opportunities. Sollish (2007 pp. 26) provides that the financial planning and the budgeting of a project follow a similar process in various industries. Another element that applies similarly across industries is the concept of procurement management, which correspondingly plays a vital role in the procurement process. However, the process of procurement can vary according to the industry for instance the procurement process in a construction industry will vary from that of the software industry. Some key factors, which are essential to put into consideration in conducting reviews in these two industries, are the mobility of factors. Whereas the mobility or…
Craig, R.W. 1999. Procurement law for construction and engineering works and services. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
Rainer, R.K. And Cegielski, C.G. 2009. Introduction to information systems. Wiley & Sons.
Sollish, F., Johnsemanik. 2007. The procurement and supply manager's desk reference. John Wiley & sons, Inc.
Contract and Procurement
The supply chain is one of the primary ways in which an organization adds value to the consumer. However, this process can be different based on the industry. For example, the service industry and manufacturing industry can add value through supply chain management in different ways. Value can come from design, quality, price, or efficiency. In a manufacturing environment most modern organizations tend to try to keep inventory levels as low as possible to reduce inventory overhead as well as the risk of obsolescence. However, in the service industry the supply chain may be optimized differently to ensure that the needed service supplies are always in stock without any real risk of stock-out.
Supply chain management has become a complex and technology-driven discipline yet many leaders pay little attention to SCM as a strategic concern and hire individuals with little SCM training, which limits the organizations…
Basu, R., & Wright, N. (2012). Quality Beyond Six Sigma. New York: Routledge.
Chande, A., Dhekane, S., Hemachandra, N., & Rangaraj, N. (2005). Perishable inventory management and dynamic pricing using RFID technology. Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, 445-462.
Slone, R., Mentzer, J., & Dittmann, J. (2007). Are You the Weakest Link in Your Company's Supply Chain? Harvard Business Review, 116-127.
Also, the COO must be involved in this process because that is the person with the expertise to determine what needs to be done, and how much all of that work will cost the organization.
Wong also highlights three spaces of project management, which provide the scope and boundaries for the project and for the leadership roles. The first space is the organizational space. This is where the structure of the organization is developed, with meeting the needs of the organization in mind. For example, determining what talent needs to be on the executive team is an important step in this part of the process. Further, determining what the roles will be within the context of the organization is important as well. As an example, even though we are hiring an outside firm to build the greenhouses, the COO is still ultimately responsible for that work, and in part the…
This is because a person is able to understand the history of Rockwell much better, and the opportunity to understand both sides of the case. An individual is able to grasp the account of the drama that took place during that time clear up until the present. Anyone who hears the conversation quickly learns that Rockwell purposefully chose to have products on the market to harm consumers. When in reality, this should not appear as the case for anybody to endure because someone could get hurt, and the company is more likely to face a larger law suit that could make the business go bankrupt. Upon seeking to identify with both sides, a person has to consider every argument before making a decision because there really are two sides to every story, which is where the justices were divided in the federal and state level.
The dialogue through the conversations…
Identification of the Problem
The problem at hand in this case is how best to get the goods to the customers. In addition to costs, there are several other factors that need to be taken into consideration. The first is that the goods are highly perishable, which imposes a constraint on shipping. It is not known at this point what the constraint is, in terms of shelf life, but a refrigerated truck is necessary to ship the good.
Another problem is that there are six customers. Each customer has ordered fifty units. With respect to trucks, there is a flat rate fee of $55 for each truck. There is also a minimum of 60 lbs for the truck load (TL) price to be applicable. This price is $1, which the less-than-truckload (LTL) price is $2 per pound. From a cost perspective, the fixed fee for each truck is considerable,…
Procurement and Contracting Process
Assessment of procurement contracting process
Travel Magazine is a newly established new magazine, specializes in printing out the news, articles, reports, guides, special offers and many more. Established on the first quarter of 2009, the company targets its marketing campaign towards the middle-income population to achieve market advantages. Over the past six months, the founding partners have spent great deal of time developing the Business Plan and Marketing Plan, setting up a corporation, and conducting research on the operating requirements of the magazine. Despite the efforts of the partners to enhance the company growth, the company has been affected by the recession because all the investing partners have not been able to contribute the additional capital and this has threatened company growth. Since all the partners have decided not to bring in other partners at this point, they both agree to scale back the company expenses…
Business Objects (2010). Optimizing Profits Through Vendor Performance Management. RIS White Paper. USA.
Corbett, M.F. (2004). Outsourcing Revolution: Why it Makes Sense and How to it Right. A Kaplan Professional Company. Chicago.USA.
Cheung, M. & Hidders, J. (2011) Round-trip iterative business process modelling between BPA and BPMS tools. Business Process Management Journal. 17(3):461 -- 494.
Jacks, T. Palvia, P. Schilhavy. R et al., (2011) A framework for the impact of IT on organizational performance. Business Process Management Journal, 17 (5):846 -- 870.
Procurement Management Plan
As a part of its building renovation decision, the company aims to procure shrubbery, decorative bricks, and railroad ties for the building open space. The procurement activity has been assigned to the project manager who is quite unfamiliar with the purchase. After preliminary planning and market analysis, the project manager has to procure the shrubbery, bricks, and ties in the required quantity and quality at the best possible price.
The Company's Management also wants to ensure that this procurement process supports the success of the whole project. Therefore, it has asked the project manager to assess different aspects of the procurement process to build a comprehensive project procurement management plan. This plan will take into account the estimation of quantity and costs of different types of shrubbery, bricks, and ties that will be procured for this particular project; the timeline for procurement; the issues which may affect…
Baily, P.J. (2010). Procurement Principles and Management, 10th Edition. New Delhi, India: Pearson.
Carter, P.L., Carter, J.R., Monczka, R.M., Slaight, T.H. & Swan, A.J. (2000). "The Future of Purchasing and Supply: A Ten-Year Forecast," Journal of Supply Chain Management, 36 (1): 14-26.
Lambert, D.M. & Cooper, M.C. (2000). "Issues in Supply Chain Management," Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (1): 65-83.
Lancioni, R.A. (2000). New Developments in Supply Chain Management for the Millennium, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (1): 1-6.
procurement contracting process. y end analysis touched aspects contracting process plan purchases acquisition stage select sellers phase.
Ideally, a company should be able to in-source as many of the business processes, in order to ensure a better coordination between these. However, the current economic conditions have impeded the partners' capacity to commit to all the activities that a travel magazine proposes. As such, the decision has been made to outsource several of these. This paper will aim to underscore the services that will be outsources, motivate the managerial decision to do so and analyze all different procurement issues that such a business decision involves.
Processes to be outsourced
After an analysis of the different processes that a travel magazine will involve, the partners have arrived to the conclusion that the core activities of running a travel magazine should be retained as internal processes, while the non-core processes should be outsourced.…
1. Public Procurement Best Practice Guide. January 2008. On the Internet at http://www.publicprocurementguides.treasury.gov.cy/OHS-EN/HTML/index.html?2_5_1_appointment_of_the_procurement_team.htm. Last retrieved on August 12, 2011
2. Garrett, Gregory; Williams, John. Strategies, Methods, and Best Practices. Contract Management. January 2009
Public Procurement Best Practice Guide. January 2008. On the Internet at http://www.publicprocurementguides.treasury.gov.cy/OHS-EN/HTML/index.html?2_5_1_appointment_of_the_procurement_team.htm. Last retrieved on August 12, 2011
Garrett, Gregory; Williams, John. Strategies, Methods, and Best Practices. Contract Management. January 2009
Community Hospital Procurement Plan
Contracts and Procurement
Southmead Integrated Community Hospital Procurement Plan
The procurement plan presents a case for the redevelopment of 35-year-old telecoms infrastructure at Southmead Hospital. The plan highlights the need for the technological improvement showing what it will contribute to the envisioned redevelopment of the modernized health care facility. The advanced technological improvement will serve to increase efficiency in record keeping and access, patient monitoring and security within the facility. The overall target of these improvements is to ensure reliability and quality of care (Carillion, 2009).
Southmead Hospital seats a 27 hectares piece of land, on the northern region of Bristol, west of Gloucester oad (A38), about 3 miles north of Bristol City Centre. The main access points to the Hospital are; to the west - the Southmead oad and to the North Monks Park Avenue. The structures within the Hospital grounds clearly depict ad hoc…
ALBANO, G.L., CALZOLARI, G., DINI, F., IOSSA, E. & SPAGNOLO, G. 2006. Procurement contracting strategies (eds) Handbook of Procurement., London, Cambridge University Press.
CALDWELL, N.D., ROEHRICH, J.K. & DAVIES, A.C. 2009. Procuring complex performance in construction: London Heathrow Terminal 5 and a private finance initiative Hospital. . Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 15, 178-186.
CARILLION. 2009. Southmead Hospital Redevelopment Project: Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary [Online]. Available: http://e2edocs.bristol.gov.uk/WAM/doc/Report-533378.pdf?extension=.pdf&id=533378&appid=&location=VOLUME1&contentType=application/pdf&pageCount=1) [Accessed April 15, 2014].
DIMITRI, N., PACINI, R., PAGNOZZI, M. & SPAGNOLO, G. 2008. Multi-contract tendering procedures and package bidding in procurement (eds), London, Cambridge University Press.
Pentagon's Procurement Problem, June 20, 2008
LOCATION/UL OF ATICLE: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/06/19/A2008061903622.html
The award of a new refueling tanker was regarded as a major chance for the Air Force to redeem itself through avoiding previous missteps and mistakes in substituting its aging aircraft fleet. While the service was started in 2006 to develop an evidently clear and straightforward process, it was largely criticized based on arguments that the $40 billion deal awarded to Boeing competitor and other companies should be scrapped. These companies were Northrop Grumman and its partner and European Aeronautic Defense, which is the parent of Airbus (Hedgpeth & O'Harrow, 2008). The contract awarded to these companies was a demonstration of the constant general problems associated with the manner in which Pentagon purchases weapons as well as procurement specialists. Based on various government audits and reports, government lessens the size of the workforce that supervises contracts through ceding more of…
Hedgpeth, D. & O'Harrow, R. (2008, June 20). The Pentagon's Procurement Problem. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 28, 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/06/19/AR2008061903622.html
Greenwalt, W.C. (2013, December 13). Five Factors Plaguing Pentagon Procurement.
Retrieved August 28, 2014, from http://www.aei.org/outlook/foreign-and-defense-policy/defense/five-factors-plaguing-pentagon-procurement/
Supply Chain Management Practices at Apple, Inc.
Today, Apple, Inc. (hereinafter alternatively "Apple" or "the company") is the world's largest company in terms of brand value, with nearly twice as much value at $154.1 billion compared to its nearest competitor, Google with $82.5 billion (The list, 2016). Founded in 1976 by Steven Paul Jobs, onald Gerald Wayne, and Stephen G. Wozniak (The list, 2016) the company is currently headquartered in Cupertino, California and remains an industry leader in the information technology sectors in which it competes (Company profile, 2016). To determine how Apple achieved this remarkable level of success, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide an overview of the company's procurement practices, the requisite materials involved and a description of its supply chain operations. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning supply chain management practices at Apple, Inc. are provided in the conclusion.
Apple and procurement. (2016). Apple, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/procurement/ .
Bharadwaj, P. N. (2015, January 1). The success of global supply chains: An exploratory analysis. Competition Forum, 13(1), 99-102.
Company profile. (2016). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from http://finance.yahoo.com/q / pr?s=AAPL+Profile.
Noel, P. (2014, December). The Apple watch: New tech, new risks. Risk Management, 61(10), 10-14.
Procurement: Pricing and Contract Integration
Federal procurement contracting has over the last few years been a subject of increased public and congressional interest, particularly because of the growing concern that noncompetitive procurement practices may be on the rise in the assignment of government contracts. The rising number of cases and public reports implicating federal agencies in alleged misconduct involving non-competitive contracts has drawn the attention of both Congress and the Executive arm of government. President Obama, in his 2009 memorandum on federal contracting, emphasized the need to use competition in the award of federal procurement tenders. The Competition in Contracting Act (CICA) of 1984 was enacted to keep federal agencies in check by ensuring that they i) develop their procurement procedures as expressly required by statute and ii) use full and open competition in the issuance of procurement contracts (Manuel, 2011). There, however, are exceptional circumstances under which the full…
GAO. (2010). Defense Inventory: Defense Logistics Agency Needs to Expand on Efforts to More Effectively Manage Spare Parts. United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). Retrieved 19 January 2015 from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10469.pdf
Harrison, T. (2012). The Effects of Competition on Defense Acquisitions. University Research Symposium 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2015 from http://www.dau.mil/research/symposiumdocs/Harrison%20 -- %20Competitive%20Pricing%20Model%20paper.pdf
Manuel, K.T. (2011). Competition in Federal Contracting: An Overview of the Legal Requirements. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 20 January 2015 from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40516.pdf
Office of the Secretary of Defense. (n.d.). Commercial Item Handbook (version 2). The Department of Defense. Retrieved 21 January 2015 from http://www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/cpic/draftcihandbook08012011.docx .
espected Sir or Ma'am,
This letter is in response to a job post or advertisement for the position of procurement analyst. I believe I am the perfect candidate for the position. I have both education and experience. Along with my Bachelor's degree I also have 15 years of experience as a procurement analyst in NYC and 7 years of experience as a contracting agent.
I am highly proficient with using a multitude of computer aided management tools and programs such as FMS and APT. My strengths lie in preparing and analyzing spreadsheets and feel comfortable in teams, leading and training others as well as utilizing software for business management.
I am an excellent communicator and have advanced time management skills. My experience has prepared me to handle a plethora of various tasks. I am dependable, consistent, and committed to my work. My resume along with this letter offers…
References Reference name, Company
Street Address, City, ST ZIP Code -- Telephone -- Email
Procurement Planning and Project Management Methodologies
Addressing the internal attributes of service quality of the processes of e-procurement is an important CSF. Companies need to underline the problems associated with the implementation and integration of existing security and infrastructure of the company. Thereby, control the risks that are holding the company back from using e-procurement on a wide scale. In other instances, managerial commitment is a hindrance when it comes to the adoption of e-procurement processes in the company. Therefore, there should be a strong support for relationships between the flow of information process in terms of quality, logistics, the satisfaction of e-procurement, and logistical fulfillment of quality processes.
Politico-legal structural factors need considering and addressing since they are specific to particular administrative and political contexts. For legal and administrative interventions, governments require having political willpower, and the government of India has realized the importance of Business Process…
Panda, P., & Sahu, G. (2012). E-Procurement Implementation: Critical Analysis of the Impact of Success Factors on Project Outcome. IUP Journal of Supply Chain Management, 9 (2): 44-72.
Wells, H. (2012). How Effective Are Project Management Methodologies? An Explorative Evaluation of Their Benefits in Practice. Project Management Journal, 43 (6): 43-58.
Federal Procurement Process
Highly publicized incidents such as the federal government purchasing at $500 hammer or $2,500 toilet seat continue to capture headlines as examples of a federal procurement process gone awry, but these notorious examples have become few and far between in recent years, due in large part to significant reforms such as the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 that minimized some of these problems. Despite these substantive reforms, the federal government continues to receive criticisms concerning the manner in which it administers the procurement process. In order to gain new insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to describe the legal and administrative framework and socio-economic considerations of the federal procurement process. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
At present, federal procurement contracts are governed by a number of…
Farazmand, A. (2001). Privatization or public enterprise reform? International case studies with implications for public management. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Nou, J. (2009). Privatizing democracy: Promoting election integrity through procurement contracts. Yale Law Journal, 118(4), 744.
Sparks, H.C. & Wichmann, H. (2007). Help clients get government contracts: Quick, who is the biggest customer in the world? Journal of Accountancy, 203(3), 32-34.
The two parties can exchange information, including specific data and necessary reports, in a quick and efficient manner. With the aid of this procurement method, information is exchanged more efficiently than with the use of traditional communication channels, and the overall organizational processes are better supported (Best Price Computers, 2010).
f) Electronic data interchange
The electronic interchange of data was the first process of electronic communication, dating back at least two decades, and being itself older than electronic commerce. Electronic data interchange refers to the communications underwent by two or more economic agents in the scope of completing their business operations.
The electronic interchange of data is generally occurring between two economic agents, in which case it is called B2B communications (business to business). The interchange of data is commonly characterized by the exchange of information within the virtual community of data which would traditionally be found in five categories…
Chaffey, D., E-business and e-commerce management: strategy, implementation and practice, 3rd edition, Pearson Education, 2006
Schneider, G.P., Electronic commerce, Cengage Learning, 2010
Havaldar, Business marketing: text and cases, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010
Plummer, R., Contracting and procurement optimization 501, Curtin University
This can be done by preparing a written document that outlines procurement agreement with the supplier.
The article suggests that in "make" decision, the costs of production are borne by the buyer. In the "buy" decision, the seller bears all the production cost. However, there are not only the production costs involved in making a product. The article did not mention that there are research costs associated with production as well (Li, 2013). A company producing electronic goods or mobile phones will need months or probably years of research before it finally produces the product. In buy decision although the buyer pays more than the production cost, the full expense of &D is not paid by every buyer but it is distributed among other buyers too.
The authors say that the make-or-buy decision is based on what is the scope of the firm. However, it should be mentioned that not…
Li, a., (2013), "How to: Qualitative Measures for Make-or-Buy Decisions," Retrieved from:
Tadelis, S. And Bajari, P., (2001), "Incentives vs. transaction costs: a theory of procurement
Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, 32(3), 387-407
Contracts and Procurement Project Proposal
The North Bristol NHS trust is building the Southmead Integrated Community Hospital. The hospital will have maternity and neonatal facilities, a breast care center, and clinical research teams. The hospital will be the new acute and integrated community hospital in the North Bristol area. It will be housed in the Brunel building which will be the regional center for neurosurgery, orthopedics, renal, plastics, burns, and accident and emergency center. For this project to be successful, careful strategies must be implemented in procurement of goods and services for the building project.
The Southmead Integrated Community Hospital project does not have clear procurement policies and procedures. Though the North Bristol NHS Trust has its own procurement policies and procedures, which may be applicable to this project, many of these have been found to be ineffective as a result of the tight deadlines for the project. The Brunel…
http://www.nbt.nhs.uk/newhospitalNORTH BRISTOL NHS TRUST. 2013. Southmead Hospital Bristol [Online]. Available: [Accessed January 1st 2014].
RUSSILL, R. 2010. A Short Guide to Procurement Risk, Farnham, UK, Gower.
isks of Using Computer-Based Procurement
Every complex project requiring the collaborative effort of an organization involves the use of materials, goods, and services that are integrated within the overall project design. The procurement process used to obtain these vital resources is central to the successful accomplishment of project objectives, because every aspect of the management process, from sourcing supplies to shipping products to customers is contingent on procuring the most productive third-party partnerships. The vendor selection process is used to aid project managers in the effective procurement of essential items and services, with a rigorous screening methodology used to identify the most competent and qualified shipping companies, manufacturers, distributors, and equipment suppliers. Another way project managers have refined the procurement process is through the implementation of computer-based tools, with advances in technology enabling researchers to identify a project's critical path through a complex series of algorithms, software programs, and other…
Morris, P. And Pinto, J. (2007) The Wiley guide to project technology, supply chain, & procurement management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Sollish, F. And Semanik, J. (2011) Strategic Global Sourcing Best Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc..
Internet Procurement and Fulfillment Strategies.
John Browning wrote: "Information technology is no longer a business resource; it is the business environment"(Browning, p. 5). Business is moving at a rate which was not possible only a decade ago. The opportunities which have been made possible by using the internet for integration of procurement, fulfillment, customer's service and sales throughout an entire company have enabled the digitally enhanced company to access accurate information faster than ever before. With information in hand, businesses are equipped to made better decision, capture more sales opportunities and run a tighter inventory management system. However, just putting a company presence on the internet in the way of a corporate electronic information brochure is not what id meant by a digitally enhanced company. The power to run faster, leaner and more accurately is harnessed by integrating sectors of the business.
According to Muffatto and Payaro, companies which have…
Laudon, Kenneth C., and Jane P. Laudon. Management Information Systems.
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1996
Muffatto, M. & Payaro, A. Implementation of e-procurement and e-fulfillment process: a comparison of cases in the motorcycle industry. International journal of production economics. 2002, 25 June.
E-Commerce Benefits, planning, and implementation." CEN E-Commerce. 2003. 12 Dec 2003. http://www.isss-awareness.cenorm.be/Home/ecommerce_introduction.htm
picture of how nonprofit organizations balance their procurement processes by applying a phenomenological method to investigate the procurement methods, by categorizing the knowledge of participants. This involved the analysis of survey results in order to pinpoint the fundamental challenges that nonprofits face in conjunction with finding a means of improving the procurement processes. This was an investigation founded on an intensified approach to epistemology. Other models, such as the descriptive and analytical approach were also harnessed to help explain this particular topic. Surveys are of the most pinnacle and fundamental means of gathering enquiries to the information that exists, analyzing them to engage in a critical evaluation of the data. This survey seeks to shed light on the entire task of procurement, which generally refers to the manner in which goods are acquired, via a procuring entity and through the use of public funds. "Public bodies have always been big…
Aday, L., & Cornelius, L. (2011). Designing and Conducting Health Surveys. Ssan Francisco: Jossy-Bass.
Angeles, R., & Nath, R. (2007). Business-to-business e-procurement. Retrieved from porto.ucp.pt: http://www.feg.porto.ucp.pt/docentes/rsousa/Files/Le%20Havre%20Files/S7_4.pdf
Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008, December). Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design. Retrieved from PSU.edu: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.152.9570&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Daymon, C., & Holloway, I. (2011). Qualitative Research. New York: Routledge.
Research conducted to date for example suggests that, for consortia-based procurement exchanges and Sector Procurement Collaboratives the bargaining power of representing multiple groups of buyers and their collective purchasing power provides economies of scale and leverage in bargaining with suppliers (Devine, Dugan, Semaca, Speicher, 2001). The motivations of purchasing consortia are primarily focused upon gaining expected cost savings and collect information on supply markets (Tella, Virolainen, 2005). Although perfectly in line with accepted marketing views and strategies, there is a gap in this research, which does not take into account the long-term effects of inter-process maturity and transaction velocity over time.
According to Johnston et al. (2003, p. 23), the recognition of trust as an important part of the buyer-supplier relationship does not preclude fact of paucity of empirical evidence to suggest the level of such importance. Trust and its dependent behaviors, as well as its impact on inter-organizational activities,…
Matthew G. Anderson, Paul B. Katz. (1998). Strategic sourcing. International Journal of Logistics Management, 9(1), 1-13. Retrieved June 13, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 34024516).
Chad W. Autry, Susan L. Golicic. (2009). Evaluating buyer-supplier relationship-performance spirals: A longitudinal study. Journal of Operations Management
Markus Biehl, Wade Cook and David a. Johnston (2006). The efficiency of joint decision making in buyer-supplier relationships. Ann Oper Res, 145, 15-34.
Nicolas Bloch, Thierry Catfolis. (2001). B2B E-marketplaces: How to succeed. Business Strategy Review, 12(3), 20-28.
Affirmative Action in Procurement/Contracting
Affirmative action programs in procurement are amongst the more significant government programs proposed to progress self-employment prospects for minorities as well as women. In essence, the policy on affirmative action with regard to procurement or contracting necessitates that business concerns owned by women or the minorities, shall have the utmost gaining prospect to take part as supplies for goods and services. This also takes into account construction, irrespective of whether bought with a grant, contract or organizational funds. In accordance to Marion (2011), statistics indicate that in the year 2002, about 7% of federal procurement funds were granted to underprivileged enterprises and initiatives, through the Small Business Administration (SBA). In addition, it is a prevalent feature for numerous national and local government agencies to offer preferential treatment to organizations that are minorities (Marion, 2011). In recent periods, the decisions made by the law courts and the…
Bates, T., Williams, D. (1996). Preferential Procurement Programs and Minority-Owned Businesses. Journal of Urban Affairs 17:1, pp. 1-17.
Blanchflower, D. G., & Wainwright, J. (2005). An analysis of the impact of affirmative action programs on self-employment in the construction industry (No. w11793). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Chay, K., Fairlie, R. (1998). Minority Business Set-Asides and Black Self-Employment. Mimeo, U. of California, Berkeley.
Fairlie, R., & Marion, J. (2012). Affirmative action programs and business ownership among minorities and women. Small Business Economics, 39(2), 319-339.
Strategy of E-Procurement and IT Architecture
1a) Planned Strategy in E-procurement
A large number of organizations adopting electronic commerce (e-commerce) have identified e-procurement as an effective strategy that can be used to enhance the competitive market advantages. In a business environment, a traditional procurement faces challenges of a paperwork workload associated that includes a purchase order, delivery order, and statement of work, invoice, and payment. All these process increase an organizational cost of production. Typically, e-procurement eliminates this workload by assisting management purchasing or supplying goods and services electronically at lowest possible costs using the paperless transactions.
A report carried out by the CIPS (2013) reveals that the goal of e-procurement is to use the latest information technology to link suppliers and customers thereby improve the value chain process. In essence, the e-procurement is a critical component of e-commerce, and the major goal of an e-procurement process is to enhance…
Resources Management in Canada. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Shrinivas P. 1 Winai, Wo. (2015). Information technology (IT) outsourcing by business process outsourcing/information technology enabled services (BPO/ITES) firms in India: A strategic gamble. Journal of Enterprise Information Management. 28 (1):60-76.
Jerome, B. (2001). The hidden costs of IT outsourcing: lessons from 50 IT-outsourcing efforts show that unforeseen costs can undercut anticipated benefits. Understanding the issues can lead to better outsourcing decisions. MIT Sloan management review.
Schaefer, S. (1999). Product design partitions with complementary Components. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 38 (1999) 311-330.
Software Engineering Institute (2013). Unintentional Insider Threats: A Foundational Study. Department of Homeland Security.
Airbus A350 will consist of new all-combined wings that will be common to all the variations of the A350 airliner family. The newly designed wings will be the biggest wing to be ever created for a mid-size / wide-body aircraft capable of boosting the typical cruise speed and increasing the maximum operating speed. The new wings design will incorporate an innovative trailing-edge system and an improved dropped-hinge flap that allows the closure of the space between the trailing edge and flap with the spoiler.
The production of Airbus A350 family of airliners will incorporate a revised configuration of the cockpit to adopt LCD screens that are different from the Airbus A380-sized display. The revised design will include two central displays and a solitary flight/navigation display for each pilot. While the two central displays will be built up on top of each other, the solitary flight/navigation display will have…
"Airbus Letter." (2008, November). Airbus Media Relations. Retrieved September 17, 2010,
Barbosa, Q. (2008, January 21). Projet de Fin d'Etude. Retrieved September 17, 2010, from http://www.g-scop.inpg.fr/~bassetts/Master/Examples/RapportPFE-Airbus-QuirinoBarbosa-210108.pdf
Hamilton, S. (2006, April 4). Redesigning the A350: Airbus' Tough Choice. Retrieved September 17, 2010, from http://www.leeham.net/filelib/ScottsColumn040406.pdf
Departmental Improvement and Leadership Styles
The procurement or purchasing department is one of the most critical departments in the retail store that I have just joined. It is entrusted with procurement of items that are to be sold in turn as well as purchasing the other items that are needed for the daily running of the chain store.
However, there are a few incidences that have been noted in the chain store that are tainting the image of the procurement. The problems have to do with the employee participation as much as the technical aspect of procurement. This paper is focused on identifying the various problems or hitches that are experienced in the retail store, the sources and the possible remedies to them and of greater interest is the employee association and coordination in order to help solve the problems.
The shortcomings of the procurement department
One of the problems…
Center for Creative Leadership, (2009). Developing a Leadership Strategy:A Critical Ingredient
for Organizational Success. Retrieved April 10, 2011 from http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/research/LeadershipStrategy.pdf
Legacee Management System (2011). Types of Leadership Styles. Retrieved April 10, 2011
So, even though the scope of this clause is broad such that it encompasses disclosure to any person in perpetuity, a court of law will likely enforce it against Writer with an injunction and monetary damages.
D. GOVERNING LAW. It is intended by the Parties that this Agreement be valid and enforceable under the laws of the state of Texas and that the laws of this state shall govern this Agreement's interpretation.
*Note: The choice of law clause is very important because different states treat noncompetition agreements with varying degrees of acceptance. Since most films originate in California, it is likely that both the Company and Editor are California residents and it would probably make more sense to use California law; but California law is very strict on noncompetition agreements
. Therefore, since the film will be shot in Texas, it makes sense to choose Texas law instead.
E-Procurement Project eport
An increase in work opportunities and the economics of globalization have transformed employment relations in the recent past. In addition, the aspect of globalization has further shifted the main factors in achieving a competitive edge of technology and knowledge towards human resource management (Mondy, Noe, & Gowan, 2005). An analysis of the corporate market like the one that the coffee shop is operating indicates that all the market players have similar technology and engage in the production and delivery of near similar products and services. Therefore, having the right human resource acts as the main differentiating factor for success. This report on staffing the coffee shop presents business entity with an analysis of the various factors for consideration in its staffing. It also identifies approaches in order to ensure that the establishment achieves a competitive advantage over its rivals through quality service delivery.
Mondy, R.W., Noe, R.M., & Gowan, M. (2005). Human resource management. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Heneman, H.G., & Judge, T. (2012). Staffing organizations (7th ed.). Middleton, WI: Mendota
Walsh, D.J. (2013). Employment law for human resource practice (4th ed.). Mason, OH: South-
Contract and Pricing
Glen Mar Construction, Inc. files a protest with reference to the award of contract that the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs awards to the Facility Defense Consultant under the bids invitation "(IFB) No. VA260-14-B-0412" issued for the construction of medical centers building. The Glen Mar protests on the ground that the agency's price evaluation is unfair and unreasonable because the bid results in the "awards to other than the lowest-priced bidder." (GAO 2015 p 1). The bidders are required to submit unit prices for the procurement of 10 line items for the construction of a clinic and 9 additive options. The agency sustained the protest.
Objective of this paper is to evaluate whether agency's awards to Hanke Constructors is just and fair.
eason the Procurement was considered Fair and easonable based on a Sole-sourced or Competitive competition
A government procurement is the process that the United States…
Arnold, S. & Marius, V. (2007). Real Options Analysis of Multiyear Procurements, Proc. 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference.
Acquisition Solutions (2015).Seven Steps to Performance-Based Services Acquisition. USDA.
GAO (2015). Decision. United States Government Accountability Office Washington, DC.
Manuel, K.M. (2009). Competition in Federal Contracting: An Overview of the Legal Requirements. Congressional Research Service.
Green Sourcing Process for Mcdonalds French Fries
McDonald is a global and largest food chain specializing in fast food with more than 68 million customers. The company operates in 36,658 outlets across 119 countries. Major brands of Macdonald include French fries, cheeseburgers, hamburgers, chicken products, breakfast items, desserts, milkshakes and soft drinks. However, Mcdonald's French fries is the world most famous fries produced from premium potatoes, Shepody and usset Burbank. Mcdonald has been successful from selling the French fries because their fries are made up of one-third of French fries sold in the United States. In the last few years, Mcdonald has faced criticisms because of inability to follow green initiatives when procuring the ingredients used to prepare the French fries.
The purpose of this document is to provide recommendations to assist Mcdonald completing the Green Sourcing process for French fries. The report uses the following steps in providing the…
Blome, C. Hollos, D. & Paulraj, A. (2014). Green Procurement and Green Supplier Development: Antecedents and Effects on Supplier. International Journal of Production Research. 52( 1): 32 -- 49.
Birkin, F. Polesie, T. Lewis, L. (2009). A new business model for sustainable development: an exploratory study using the theory of constraints in Nordic organizations. Business Strategy and the Environment 18(5): 277 -- 290.
ESRC. (2008). Biological Alternatives To Chemical Pesticides. Sciencedaily. Economic & Social Research Council.
Greaves, J. (2015). Biopesticides, regulatory innovation & the regulatory state. University of Warwick.
The protester then has an opportunity to file written comments on the report.
Utilizing Debriefings to Prevent id Protests
Officially, Post-Award debriefings are meant to provide transparency to the unsuccessful candidates. Although the prescribed requirements of the briefings are very rigid and formal, agencies should resist the temptation to meet the bare minimum required by the formalities. Agencies should pay special attention to Requirement 1, the "evaluation of the significant weak or deficient factors in the offeror's proposal" because the evaluation is open-ended, unlike Requirements 2-3, which contain definite numerical standards, and Requirement 4, which only requires a simple summary. Open-ended evaluations can vary greatly in quality and also increase the opportunities for the agency to make a mistake.
If it is a particularly confusing or shallow evaluation, an unsuccessful offeror might take issue with the soundness of the agency's decision and later move to Protest the id by claiming…
Federal Acquisition Regulation Source Selection Statute 15.3 https://www.acquisition.gov/far/html/Subpart%2015_3.html
Acquisition Community Connection https://acc.dau.mil/CommunityBrowser.aspx?id=18888
ACQ Center (2003) Source Selection: Common Myths and Misconceptions NIH AMC Symposium Nov. 9, 2004 oamp.od.nih.gov/.../AMCSymposium.
Maser, S.M., Subbotin, V., & Thompson, F. (2010) The GAO's Bid-Protest Mechanism: Effectiveness and Fairness in Defense Acquisition? Working Paper Atkins School of Management Willamette University. Available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1616424
However, this perspective does not ignore the importance of organizational resources. Wal-Mart has suffered from organizational issues due to unsatisfied stakeholders few months back. Therefore, observing this perspective can lead an organization to protect itself against legal actions.
Role of absorptive capacity
The organizations are not required only to gain information and learn new things. Simply by training and teaching employees new ideas, an organization cannot learn and be effective. The absorptive capacity of the company requires that the new knowledge that is being acquired should have a base knowledge that supports acquiring new knowledge. The employees should have the capacity to absorb, retain and apply the knowledge they are gaining. Hence the absorptive capacity is the ability of an individual, particularly an employee in this case, to know the value and worth of the information gathered so that he/she can use it to the benefit of an organization and…
Likewise, bid packages are documents that need to be as lucid and frank as possible. "Bid packages can be used in a number of industries, including business, it systems and telecommunications. But the most common industry where bid packages are used is construction. Basically, a bid package is a portfolio of all the documents needed to take part in an invitation bid. Those who will be bidding on the project can look at the bid package and determine if they fit the criteria. Bidders will need to meet the skills and qualifications listed, be able to complete the project on time and stay within the specified budget" (Tiffany, 2012). Such documentation can help all stakeholders in a given project have a clear understanding of what is requested, required and needed. All these facts are specified within the given context of the project scope and the timeline engaged.
In the simplest…
Fleming, Q. (2003). Project Procurement Management: Contracting, Subcontracting, Teaming. FMC Press.
Handfield, R. (2011, January 26). The Procurement Process - Creating a Sourcing Plan: Procurement: A Tutorial. Retrieved from ncsu.edu: http://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/the-procurement-process-creating-a-sourcing-plan-procurement-a-tutorial
Lynch, J. (n.d.). Procurement Planning and the Procurement Plan: Why are they Important? Retrieved from procurementclassroom.com: http://www.procurementclassroom.com/procurement-planning-and-the-procurement-plan-why-are-they-important/
Murray, J. (2009, August 6). What is the Difference Between Arbitration and Mediation? Retrieved from About.com: http://biztaxlaw.about.com/b/2009/08/06/what-is-the-difference-between-arbitration-and-mediation-2.htm
The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers can…
'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: http://blog.tcp.gov.tr/?p=2632 .
"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.
Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
Program planning (Drafting purchase requirements and specifications)
- Evaluation of RPQs and RFPs
Contract management (monitoring & control)
Exhibit I- Consumption-based purchase planning
This paper has three main parts. Part one describes the process of purchase planning and the method through which medium and large organizations conduct purchase planning. Part two of the paper analyzes the main purposes of a procurement plan. The main purpose of a procurement plan is to integrate the procurement activities with the business and strategic level goals of the firm. It also enhances the competitive cost positioning of the firm and increases the level of coordination between different stakeholders in the supply chain of the firm. Part three of the paper analyzes three main components of a procurement plan. The last part of this paper presents the conclusion and recommendations aimed at improving the performance of procurement management.
usinesses engage in planning…
Anderson, Matthew G., and Paul B. Katz. 1998. "Strategic sourcing." The International Journal of Logistics Management 9:1-13.
Arshinder, Arun Kanda, and S.G. Deshmukh. 2008. "Supply chain coordination: perspectives, empirical studies and research directions." International Journal of Production Economics 115: 316-35.
Kraljic, Peter. 1083. "Purchasing must become supply management." Harvard business review 61: 109-117.
Porter, Michael E. 1986. Changing patterns of international competition. University of California.
In this regard, a project manager must have a follow-up on facilities development in order to ascertain success.
Strategic Planning and Project Programming
A good strategic plan shapes programming of essential capital projects in an organization. Market demands and resource constrictions impede the success of the projects. The programming activities linked with planning, and other management functions establishes the priorities and time required for completion of various projects to achieve the goals of the organization (Bruhn et al., 2007). Managers make such a decision while initiating a project and market fluctuations may determine the success or fate of the completion. Among the different projects influenced by market fluctuations is the construction project. If the organization fails to hit the market, it may short-live the demands for the products. With the current trend in both local and global markets, there is intensive competition. However, only the technology intensive organizations succeed in…
Abramson, a., and Paul R. 2007 .The Challenge of Transforming Organizations: Lessons Learned about Revitalizing Organizations. In Transforming Organizations, 1 -- 10. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Amis, J. Trevor S,. 2008 .The Pace, Sequence, and Linearity of Radical Change. Academy of Management Journal 47 (1):15 -- 39.
Armenakis, a ., and Arthur G . Bedeian . 2009 .Organizational Change: A Review of Theory and Research in the 1990s. Journal of Management 25 (3): 293 -- 315.
Armenakis, Achilles a ., Stanley G. Harris, and Hubert . Feild . 2007. Paradigms in Organizational Change: Change Agent and Change Target Perspectives. In Handbook of Organizational Behavior,, 631 -- 58 . New York: Marcel Dekker.
Contracting and Procurement in Supply Chain Management
Supply Chain Management 5960
This paper comprehensively describes the contracting and procurement function in the supply chain management of an organization. The paper starts with an introduction to the supply chain management and proceeds by discussing the importance of contracting and procurement function for an organization. The paper also describes the whole contracting and procurement process and highlights some risks and ethical issues associated with this function.
Contracting and procurement is the acquisition of raw material, goods, or services from external suppliers or vendors. It is one of the most important functions in the supply chain management of an organization. An effective and efficient contracting and procurement is vital in achieving success in the industry and satisfying the stakeholders through manufacturing capabilities. This paper comprehensively describes the contracting and procurement process which business organizations generally follow while purchasing raw material for their business.…
Arlbjorn, S. (2010). Supply chain management: sources for competitive advantages, 1st edition. A-rhus: Academica.
Bower, D. (2003). Management of procurement, 1st edition. London: Thomas Telford.
Coyle, J.J. (2009). Supply chain management: a logistics perspective, 8th edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Ivanov, D. & Sokolov, B.V. (2010). Adaptive supply chain management, 1st edition. New York: Springer.
In undestanding the facets of a PFI/PPT constuction endeavo, one must fist undestand the afoementioned facets of the patneship that will come into play fom the constuction poject's inception to its completion. The decision to engage in such an endeavo is clealy one that is subjective, but should be undetaken caefully in gauging the isks involved.
Akintoye, A., Bing, L., Edwads, P. And Hadcastle, C. (2004). Risk allocation pefeences in PPP/PFI Constuction Pojects. Web. Retieved fom: http://www.ics.og/site/download_feed.aspx?fileID=2640&fileExtension=PDF on 17 Novembe 2011.
Dillon, M. (2009). PFI constuction contacts -- what they don't want you do know. Silve Shemmings LLP. Web. Retieved fom: http://www.silve-shemmings.co.uk / aticles/pfi-constuction-contacts-sept-2009.pdf on 14 Novembe 2011.
Feachem, R., Ni, A., and Sekhi, N. (2011). Public-pivate integated patneships. Health Affais, 30.8: pp. 1498-1508. Web. Retieved fom: LexisNexis Database.
Haiston, R. (2005). Pesentation: integating pocuement and poject management. 10th
Annual Intenational Supply Management Confeence. Web. Retieved fom: http://www.ism.ws/files/Pubs/Poceedings/BEHaiston.pdf…
references in PPP/PFI Construction Projects. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.rics.org/site/download_feed.aspx?fileID=2640&fileExtension=PDF on 17 November 2011.
Dillon, M. (2009). PFI construction contracts -- what they don't want you do know. Silver Shemmings LLP. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.silver-shemmings.co.uk / articles/pfi-construction-contracts-sept-2009.pdf on 14 November 2011.
Feachem, R., Ni, A., and Sekhri, N. (2011). Public-private integrated partnerships. Health Affairs, 30.8: pp. 1498-1508. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Hairston, R. (2005). Presentation: integrating procurement and project management. 10th
Annual International Supply Management Conference. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.ism.ws/files/Pubs/Proceedings/BEHairston.pdf on 14 November 2011.
A community of practice in the procurement department
The procurement of materials and equipment such as schoolbooks and construction materials by government officials for the construction of public services and infrastructure involves contracting agencies that provide such services. These processes are often plagued with wastage of public resources, mismanagement, corruption, and graft. In this regard, Community-Led Procurement (CLP) allows local communities to control and implements the procurement process. They achieve this by creating groups that lead to accountability and openness, improved value of money, reduced wastage, and corruption, better quality of services and works and increased use of local contractors and workers. CLP also assists local community members to develop according to their vision (Alvesson & Karreman, 2007).
All government procurement programs have been plagued by waste and inefficiencies. The local communities have been lacking knowledge in terms of actors, processes, and costs involved. Cumbersome and slow systems…
Abrahamson, E. (2006). Management fashion. New York: ProQuest.
Alvesson, M. & Karreman, D. (2007). Odd couple: making sense of the curious concept of Knowledge Management: Journal of Management Studies, 38(7), 995-1018
Baym, N. (2005). Tune in, log on: soaps, fandom and online community. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Default Dispute Termination of Contract
Default and Dispute (contract law)
In government contracting, the government through a contracting officer who is the government agent enters into a legally binding agreement with a contractor. This contractor is a seller who is to deliver services and the government as the buyer pays for these services as agreed upon in the contract. However, situations arise where the agreements may be terminated in order to settle disputes that arise between the contracting agents and the contractor. Normally, the government may terminate the contract for default of the contractor or by convenience (Kathuria, 2009). Federal Acquisition egulations define termination for convenience as the exercise of the government's right to terminate a contract when it is in the government's interest
Termination for default
The government has a right to terminate a contract on a situation where the contractor does not meet the set contractual obligations (umbaugh,…
Kathuria, S. (2009). best practices for compliance with the new government contractor compliance and ethics rules under the federal acquisition regulation. Public Contract Law Journal.
Loulakis, M.C. (2003). Default Must Be Proven to Justify Termination. Civil Engineering (08857024), 73 (3), 96.
Nemet, G.F. (2010). Cost containment in climate policy and incentives for technology development. Climatic Change, 103 (3/4), 423-443. doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9779-8
Robert, F. (2004). Construction law handbook. Gaithersburg [MD: Aspen Law & Business.
The life and success of any organization is hinged on the leadership of that organization. An effective can transform the potential an organization has with regard to human capital and the available resources into a reality. An effective leader has the ability to propose new paradigms when old ones have become ineffective (IAAP, 2009). Effective leaders can change the minds of their followers and in the process make an organization achieve its identified goals. This paper seeks to illuminate whether the leadership at our procurement department is effective from the perspectives of the situational leadership and contingency theory approaches. The paper establishes whether the leadership and the procurement department were directive or supportive. The paper finally captures the insights that have been gained from analyzing the leadership at the procurement department.
The leader I worked with at the procurement department knew his goals and had the power to…
Burns, T., Stalker, G.M., (1961). The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock.
Graeff, C.L. (1983). The Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical View. Academy of Management Review, 8(2), 285-291.
Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K.H. (1988). Management and Organizational Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
IAAP. (2009). Leadership Theories and Styles. Retrieved from http://www.etsu.edu/ahsc/documents/Leadership_Theories.pdf
Through these websites, the company could also stress that its services would be recognized worldwide and the U.S. would improve its standing in the world community relating to this subject and therefore gain the respect of other countries.
With regards to utilizing edBizOpps, the company must also be aware of the services that this websites provides, and utilize what it needs only. or instance, the website is very useful for marketing activities, due to the fact that it would provide both opportunities, and allow other to seek for opportunities provided, such as those by Enviro LTD. According to the website, in the Buyers/Engineers section, "Government users may post, manage, and award opportunities."
In the Vendors/Citizens section, furthermore, it states, "Vendors and citizens may search, monitor, and retrieve opportunities."
In this latter section, one can preview, at no cost, various opportunities and sign up. When signing up, one can include, in…
Frequently Asked Questions about Government Contracting. (2011). Small Business Notes. Retrieved November 13, 2011, from < http://www.smallbusinessnotes.com/starting-a-business/frequently-asked-question-about-government-contracting.html#b >.
FedBizOpps. (2011). FedBizOpps.gov. Retrieved November 13, 2011, from < https://www.fbo.gov/ >.
FedBizOpps. (2011). FedBizOpps.gov. Retrieved November 13, 2011, from <
Southmead Integrated Community Hospital Project Proposal Outline for Procurement
Procurement Plan for Hospital Development
Work towards a lean strategy of development, where there is not an excess inventory and goods are procured as needed as much as possible.
This will increase the strategic sourcing, while avoiding transactional sourcing mistakes (Phillips, 2013).
Patient care can not be sacrificed (Pan American Health Organization, 2006).
It is crucial that all strategies for procurement think of the patients first. This will ultimately mean focusing on procurement for the departments first opening and then working on the ones that will be opening later in 2015.
Keep excellent records of data and spending
With new guidelines and regulations on hospital spending and procurement, it is crucial to keep pristine records for accounting and acceptance purposes (Department of Health, 2013).
Four Procurement Issues Faced by Procurement Managers in the NHS
A. Inefficiencies of the North Bristol NHS…
Pan American Health Organization, 2006, A Practical Guide for Procurement Planning and Management of Strategic Public Health Supplies, All Type Assessoria Editorial LTDA. Web. http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s19024en/s19024en.pdf
Phillips, Abigail, 2013, Tips for Developing a Lean Procurement Function, Healthcare Global. Web, http://www.healthcareglobal.com/global_hospitals/tips-for-developing-a-lean-efficient-hospital-procurement-function
Department of Health, 2013, Better Procurement, Better Value, Better Care: A Procurement Development Programme for the NHS, NHS England. Web, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/226835/procurement_development_programme_for_NHS.pdf
To avoid repeating negative historical experiences, regulatory regimes need to block the control and domination by networks/platforms. In the report, "Infrastructure and Development: A Critical Appraisal of the Macro Level Literature," Stephane Straub (2007) reported that at times, in some developing companies, "the hope of getting a fixed-line installed is a distant and costly dream" (p. 4). Meantime, the primary option for the individuals waiting for fixed-line telecommunications services would likely be having to us a much too expensive cell phone.
In 2010, much of the fixed-line telecom industry faces growing threats from cable and wireless service competitors.
As the writer of the quote introducing the study section pointed out, more firms are realizing "a cellular wireless solution" generally provides "more stability than the usual wired connections… [and serves as] a valuable asset built for the long haul" ("Lincolnshire Drainage Board…," 2010, ¶ 9). In the book, Integration in Asia…
Ahmadnezhad, E. (2009). Research Design Mixed Methods. PPt; Tehran University of Medical
Sciences. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from www.pitt.edu/~super4/36011
Campbell, D.J. & Craig, T. (2005). Organisations and the business environment. Oxford, UK:
The one redeeming factor of these systems that comprise the Siebel CM platform is the data portability and opportunity to move the data into a SaaS-based platform.
2. Microsoft CM and Sales Force Automation - the consumer business is running the latest edition of Microsoft Dynamics CM. The problem with this CM system is the lack of mobility options as Microsoft lags behind SaaS-based CM system providers with support for the Apple iPad and other tablet and smartphone devices.
3. SAP -- the procurement and supply chain management system in use by Verizon today, in addition to their centralized Enterprise esource Planning (EP) system, is an SAP /3 instance located in their corporate headquarters in New York, New York. Verizon designed the system to be multi-instance so each operating division would have the opportunity to customize procurement, supply chain and pricing to their specific needs. The problem is that the…
Adalikwu, C. (2012). Customer relationship management and customer satisfaction. African Journal of Business Management, 6(22), 6682.
Chen, I.J., & Popvich, K. (2003). Understanding customer relationship management (CRM): People, process and technology. Business Process Management Journal, 9(5), 672-688.
Hsin, H.C. (2007). Critical factors and benefits in the implementation of customer relationship management. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 18(5), 483.
Limbasan, a., & Rusu, L. (2011). Implementing SaaS solution for CRM. Informatica Economica, 15(2), 175-183.
Furthermore, the proper selection of the team provides a means of determining general responsibilities for each team member involved. They will need to know the overall scope of their service while also knowing their overall design responsibilities as compared to their peers. In addition, their contracts will be a directly correlated to the contract and specifications of the client involved. This is important as it aligns the motivations of the work team with that of the client. By aligning motivations and incentives, the design team has their personal interests affiliated with those of the client. This will ultimately help reduce unethical practices and mistakes within the overall process. According to the British design management standards, the design team will want to establish effective means of communication while also electing a qualified leader. More important the team must establish an overall brief. The brief, according to British Standards, should outline the…
1) Guide to RIBA Agreements 2007 (Royal Institute of British Architects) RIBA Publishing, 2008
2) Architect's Job Book Eighth Edition (Royal Institute of British Architects) RIBA Publishing, 2008
3) Briefing the Team (Construction Industry Board) Thomas Telford Publishing, 1998
4) The CIC Scope of Services Handbook (Contraction Industry Council) RIBA Publishing, 2007
Understanding the Principles of project management
Aims and objectives of project management
Project management is widely referred to as the application of the knowledge, tools, skills as well as the available techniques to activities related to projects in order to achieve the objectives of the project. The concept of project management is primary hinged on the need to coordinate, plan as well as control the diverse and highly complex activities that are entailed within the projects found in the contemporary arena with many of the projects being commercial and industrial projects. Apparently almost all projects do rely on projection of ideas and related activities to become new endeavors. Hence, the real purpose of project management is primarily to predict or foresee as numerous challenges and dangers ahead as possible and on the flip side, to organize, plan and control the relevant activities to attain the highest possible levels…
Project Management: Procurement Management
Plan Procurements Management
All aspects of the procurement management plan will be handled in accordance to the communications matrix, and the various methods for communicating indicated in the Communications Methods and Technologies section of the Unit 1 X Price Day Club Project Initiation. As it pertains to Procurement Management aspect, the Project Management Book of Knowledge outlines a four step process for ensuring proper facilitation of the procurement management phase of a project. The first step, Plan Procurements Management, involves "documenting ... procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying the potential sellers" (YOU SCEENSHOT). As such, the initial step denoted herein (of creating a prioritization of the factors necessary for selecting sellers of the various materials required to complete this project) will initially be handled with an action item about this facet of the project in one of the meetings referred to in the Guidelines for…
Whirl Pool Supply Chain Management
Supply Chain Management
Critical appraisal of Whirlpool's Supply Chain Management
Products and Services
Critical review of Operations
Contribution to business performance
Changes in Internal Forecasting Process
usiness Performance Results
Criteria for trade Partner Fit
Critical Evaluation of System
Customer Centric-Supply Chain Management System
Collaborative Supply Chain
Current System Changes
Planning and sourcing decisions
Drawbacks of Whirlpool delivery system
Factors for taking supply chain management decision
Figure: Supply Chain Performance factors
Reduced Cost and Inventory
Future trends in home appliances supply chain management
RFIDs to Individual Products
Vendor Managed Inventories
Challenges for home appliances businesses in managing supply chain
Multiple Channels Conflicts
Short life Cycles
Whirlpool is renowned as a global electronic appliances manufacturer and marketer. The company's products and…
Basu, R. & Wright, J.N. 2008, Supply Chain Management, Elsevier, USA.
Chang, S.J. 2011, Sony vs. Samsung: The Inside Story of the Electronics Giants' Battle For Global Supremacy, Wiley, USA.
Coyle, J.J, Langley, C.J., Gibson, B & Novack, RA 2008, Supply chain management: a logistics perspective, South-Western Pub, USA.
Ding, S, Guariglia, A, & Knight, J. 2012, Investment and financing constraints in China: does working capital management make a difference, Journal of Banking & Finance.
Outsourcing Case Study: Saving Money at the Magazine through Process and Supplier Selection
Every business must contend with the decision of how many of its necessary processes and the products and materials utilized in these processes will be internally sourced and accomplished, and which processes and procurements will be outsourced to other companies (Monczka et al. 2008; Trent 2007). This magazine operation is no different, and with the sudden reduction in initial capital for the venture combined with the ongoing uncertainty of the current economy, this decision becomes all the more pressing -- cost savings and efficiency are hugely and directly impacted by the choice between outsourcing and vertically integrating, and with newly limited initial operating capital such savings and efficiency improvements are essential to the success of the venture. Determining which processes will create the most substantial cost savings without sacrificing the quality or the unity of the magazine…
Monczka, R., Hnadfield, R. & Giunipero, L. (2008). Purchasing and Supply Chain
Management. Mason, OH: Cengage.
Trent, R. (2007). Strategic supply management. Broward, FL: Ross Publishing.