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Profiling Markets With Psychographics Profiling the Soft

Words: 1237 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38899189

Profiling Markets With Psychographics

Profiling the Soft Drink Market with Psychographics

The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the various psychographic segments of the soft drink marketplace. There are seven different psychographic segments included in this analysis, each with drastically different expectations, needs, wants and preferences for soft drinks overall. Beginning with the Thrill Seekers, and progressing to the Trendy Quality Seekers, then the Price-Value Shopper who shops for soft drinks on price and availability, then the Social Shoppers, Brand Aspirationals and Price-Sensitive Affluents round out the entire series of segments. Each of these segments have drastically different needs and approaches to purchasing and consuming soft drinks as this analysis illustrates.

Analysis of Psychographic Segments

Each of the segments are analyzed with specific focus on their preferred types of soft drinks, ways of purchasing them, and a short analysis of their demographics as well. The differences in each segment are significant from the perception of what soft drinks are supposed to deliver in terms of enjoyment, opportunities to socialize, and meaning in their lives.

Thrill Seekers

See adventure, fun and the chance to connect with and have fun with friends as the very best part of life, the Thrill…… [Read More]

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Profiling X-Quisite an International Firm

Words: 2302 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31732818

The inside feeling of the employees regarding the environment should be more "family like" and not that much "business like," being a company where employees would happily come to work. As called by Cameron and Quinn, this is a Clan Culture and it would be the ideal situation to be obtained, with high level of involvement of all employees in the life and future of the company (Cameron, Quinn, 1999; Denison, 1990)..

Locations of the Organization

For the initial phase, laboratories and production should start in the specific Latin American country to be decided (most probably Brazil), and the Headquarters in the U.S.A. should commence the commercial and tactical activity.

The commercial offices should be installed in consumer-high regions, in order to decrease the costs of transportation of products from the pre-established warehouses. The same strategy should be used also for the Latin American operations, where X-Quisite should have its commercial offices close to where potential high sales could be registered.

The target would be that in the first 3 to 5 years, at least 20 regional commercial offices to be starting operations in the U.S., and already 3 to 5 in Latin America (Brazil), controlling the activity of at…… [Read More]

Barrett, Amy, (2008, February 20), Heading South: More entrepreneurs discover Latin America, Business Week, retrieved on April 29, 2008 at

Bharat Book Bureau, (2008, February), Executive Summary: Cosmetics and Personal Care Market in Brazil, retrieved on April 29, 2008 at
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Profiling a Leader of a Non-State World Leader

Words: 3540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61156231

Profiling Nasir al-Wahishi

The author of this research proposal deigns to cover two basic research questions and issues within this report. First is the general subject of political profiling of current or possible future political leaders and the second is the more specific focus on the case of a man by the name of Nasir al-Wahishi. That particular man is the current proclaimed leader of al-Qaida in the Arab Peninsula, often referred to as AQAP for short. The research problem to be address in this proposal and, by extension, the approved study is the vexing nature of profiling political leaders, what they are capable of, how they control and motivate the people they proselytize to, how to predict who people will glom onto and who will be ignored and so forth. There is also the question of how to deal with "stateless" regimes and groups that exist. Some of these groups are recognized and more established (e.g. Palestinians) while others are terrorist and/or otherwise disparate in nature. Examples of the latter would include the current ISIS/Levant group, Al-Qaeda, the Taliban since their forcible eviction from Afghanistan in the years after 9/11 and a few others. To be specific about what…… [Read More]

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Profiling an Effective Tool for Law Enforcement

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84541360

profiling an effective tool for law enforcement to use in policing society?

Racial profiling is the practice of law enforcement officers in stopping an individual of a certain race or ethnicity and investigating them based on their ethnicity. Such practices may occur in traffic routines or in matters connected with security. Racial profiling is forbidden in most states and in fact, as the article "RACIAL PROFILING LAW STRENGTHENED" (2012) by Keating, Christopher shows the Senate recently strengthened the state's racial profiling law.

On the one hand, as stated in Harcourt (2004), many of the people involved in traffic incidents do seem to be of a similar race. We have the same occurrence with security matters where, over and again, it seems to be most frequently people of Islamic extraction who perpetrate terrorist activities against the West. More so, Fundamentalist Islam has come out overtly against the West threatening the West with retribution and extinction. In this case, then it would make sense to place more focus on people of Islamic extraction as more likely - although not necessarily so -- to commit terrorism. There are many exceptions too. Timothy McVeigh for instance was a home-spun American and many of the…… [Read More]

Harcourt, BE (2004) Rethinking racial profiling…. Univ. Chicago Law Review, 71, 4

Keating, C (2012) RACIAL PROFILING LAW STRENGTHENED Hartford Courant
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Profiling Used as a Legitimate Law Enforcement Tool

Words: 2488 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93892508

Racial profiling is one of the most pressing civil right issues of our time. It extends beyond directs victims to negatively affect all persons of color of all generations and income levels. It undermines the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, and hinders effective policing in the communities that need it the most. A Resource Guide on Racial Profiling Data Collection System defines racial profiling as any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity. In the context of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling should be defined broadly as encompassing officer's use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop, question, search or arrest someone. Racial profiling has been monitored in a number of jurisdictions, and in nearly all of these jurisdictions was found to be a significant problem.

a) Racial Profiling violates civil rights

Racial profiling affects law abiding citizens as well as offenders innocent persons of color are stopped, question and searched for reason that would not lead to stops…… [Read More]

Brenner, S.J., Schencke, L. (2002). Local officials seek to resolve racial profiling.

Retrieved February 10, 2005, from The Daily Illini
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Profiling America S Racist Ideology

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41630580

Racial Profiling and Discrimination in America

Slavery in the United States formally began during the late seventeenth century, when the country was still a British colony. The institution then expanded and intensified rapidly during the eighteenth century, reaching its peak during the start of the nineteenth. During most of this time, for all intents and purposes, simply to be black was enough to identify one as a slave. That is to say, racial distinctions between whites and people of color were not merely noted, but comprised the economic and legal foundation of American society. Once slavery was abolished, black Americans did not suddenly occupy a station equal to that of their white contemporaries. Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws were in effect, usually in the South, and other forms of segregation were commonplace throughout the nation. In the poem "Outcast," Claude McKay clearly identifies the prejudice and the alienation he faces as a legacy of slavery and of the forceful removal of Africans from their ancestral homelands (McKay 198). Racial discrimination in the United States is more easily understood when viewed in this wider context of American history: it can be hardly surprising that racism still exists in a country whose…… [Read More]

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Criminal Profiling

Words: 3039 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15366797

Criminal Profiling as an Aid for Apprehending Serial Killers

Popular media loves to emphasize the role of the criminal profiler in apprehending serial killers. It has been a central them in books, television shows, and movies for the past two decades, and the concept of the feisty criminal profiler interviewing wily and brilliant convicted serial killers in an effort to gain insight into active serial killers has become so iconic that while it was once cutting edge, it is almost cliche at this point in time. However, many people would suggest that this image is a highly romanticized one and that serial killers are not generally captured through criminal profiling, but through more traditional forms of crime scene investigation and routine police procedure. In fact, some of these critics of profiling would actually suggest that the process can be harmful because of the possible misidentification of suspects.

This paper seeks to investigate the actual role that criminal profiling plays in the apprehension of serial killers. Does criminal profiling lead to a meaningful reduction in the list of potential suspects and therefore help investigators find the perpetrators of serial murder, or does profiling allow investigators to make educated guesses about the…… [Read More]

Bartol, C. (1996). Police psychology: Then, now, and beyond. Criminal Justice and Behavior,

23, 70-89.
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Use of Profiling to Combat Terrorism

Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54540123

Racial Profiling

If seen from the perspective of law enforcement, racial profiling can be described as "government action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being, or having been, engaged in criminal activity" (Etienne, 2012).

Though racial profiling is practiced in almost every country of the world, United States is the best example to understand it and its pros and cons. The law enforcement agencies in the United States have often treated the minorities in the country rather unfairly. Before the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S.A., the main victims of racial profiling were Blacks. However, since the occurrence of these terrorist attacks, the law enforcement agencies have primarily targeted Arabs and Muslims for profiling (Bah, 2006).

One can find several notable likenesses among the profiling of Blacks and the profiling of Arabs and Muslims. The basic problems with racial profiling in both cases are that the civil liberties of guiltless people are defied and the equal protection of the law to minorities is denied. Today, racial profiling has been redefined by the War on Terror.…… [Read More]

Annabelle, L. (2007). What's Wrong with Racial Profiling? Another Look at the Problem. Criminal Justice Ethics, 26 (1), Retrieved August 4, 2012 from

Bah, A.B. (2006). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror: Changing Trends and Perspectives1. Ethnic Studies Review, 29 (1), Retrieved August 3, 2012 from
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Offender Profiling Essential and Effective

Words: 4763 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75779490

(Harris, 2002, p. 8)

Terrorist acts are both crimes and forms of warfare, and in both respects are unlike what we are used to." 2 Understanding the larger possibilities, such as warfare, law enforcement will be able to make informed decisions on matters concerning data collection. When gathering information it is important to document and standardize every step of the process. This will alleviate any complications when categorizing behaviors or activities and will ensure that all participants in the process are on the same playing field. (Ronczkowski, 2004, p. 72)

Following the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. which is an example of foreign terrorism, though domestic terrorism has been present in the U.S. For decades, many individuals accepted new standards of security that might infringe upon their rights as citizens to freely travel, assemble and speak, yet more recent protests have been leveled against law enforcement and security measures as time has passed, and the memory of atrocities has faded and people have become increasingly aware that knee jerk legal passages have become increasingly intrusive into their lives and the lives of others and the community at large and law enforcement are seeking to develop a balance that allows security…… [Read More]

Califano, J.A. (1998, October). A New Prescription: Investing in Substance-Abuse Treatment Would Take a Big Bite out of Crime. Washington Monthly, 30, 9.

Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R., & Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). (1992). Crime, Policing, and Place: Essays in Environmental Criminology. New York: Routledge.
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Racial Profiling Since 9-11

Words: 4303 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58537395

Racial Profiling Since 911

The racial profiling implies the discrimination by police to detail a person as suspect basing on the racial manifestations. In the present days the process of racial profiling has changed to a great extent. (Harris, 58) The racial profiling, till the present period was indicated towards the practice of police dragging over the black male drivers discriminately on the empirically valid but morally denounced hypothesis that they are more prone to be involved in crime. Presently, the very term is used parallel to the concept of racial discrimination. However, the racial profiling implies to anything specific that means logical discrimination that is racial prejudice with a non-racist justification. (Kinsley, p: B07)

The dependence on racial factor is quite hard to cabin or confine one aspect of law implementation. The racial profiles establish and reinforce popular labels about the inclination for criminality among the racial minorities. Popular labels are being resorted to vindicate the targeting of African-Americans, Latina/os, Asian-Americans, Native Americans, and Arabs and Muslims in law implementation activity. Regrettably, once the race is considered subject to an area of law implementation, it sometimes directly or indirectly affects the other areas as well. Depending upon the race…… [Read More]

Abowd, Mary. Arabs Still Reeling from 9/11 backlash - Growing Fears. The Chicago Reporter. December, 2002. p. A5-7

Bai, Jane; Tang, Eric. The War at Home: National Targeting of Noncitizens Takes on New Dimensions - A New Era - Immigrants in U.S. After 9/11. ColorLines Magazine: Race, Action, Culture. Spring, 2002. pp: 27-31
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Explaining Racial Profiling

Words: 3138 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17154888

Race and Arrests

Racial Profiling, according to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), is a "longstanding and deeply troubling national problem." It involves police and private security personnel targeting people of color based on suspicions, in most cases, that the individual being targeted is up to something illegal. The ACLU states that racial profiling "occurs every day," and the result for the innocent person of color is often a "frightening detention, interrogation, and searches without evidence of criminal activity." The basis for the stop in many cases is a person's perceived race, ethnicity, and national origin -- and in some cases the clothing a person is wearing in addition to the color of his skin. This paper delves into a few of the questions that surround racial profiling: a) why do police feel the need to racially profile people? b) Is it just part of the work of a cop to profile based on skin color; and c) how do police justify racial profiling? The truth of the matter is that the public relies on law enforcement to protect people from harm, and to promote fairness and justice in our communities, the ACLU explains. And when racial profiling occurs in…… [Read More]

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Racial Profiling Rodriguez Argues That

Words: 1587 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63611981

As such, the question of fairness is not easily decided. Yet, we see that the Supreme Court has upheld racial profiling if used as a complementary technique. The American people as well support the utilitarian view that racial profiling is fair when evaluated in the context of all stakeholders, even if it seems unfair to a small few. The philosophical outlook of some may lead them to label racial profiling as unfair, but it is equally unfair to assume that one outlook -- especially a minority one -- is the only right outlook by which to evaluate racial profiling. Both legally and morally, America supports the use of racial profiling in limited context. To Americans, then, it is fair, because racial profiling is a valuable law enforcement tool that for all of its problems delivers more benefit to American society than it costs.

Works Cited:

Bunzel, H. & Marcoul, P. (2005). On the use of racial profiling as a law enforcement tool. Iowa State University. Staff General Research Papers 12397.

Cleary, J. (2000). Racial profiling studies in law enforcement: Issues and methodology. Minnesota House of Representatives, Information Brief. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from

Fetto, J. (2002). The usual suspects.…… [Read More]

Bunzel, H. & Marcoul, P. (2005). On the use of racial profiling as a law enforcement tool. Iowa State University. Staff General Research Papers 12397.

Cleary, J. (2000). Racial profiling studies in law enforcement: Issues and methodology. Minnesota House of Representatives, Information Brief. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from 
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Online Profiling the Extensive Collection

Words: 2797 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24130980

They worked with the FTC to define the following four Fair Information Practices, rules designed to prevent companies from abusing the information they receive through online profiling (Computer law tip of the week, 2000):

Rule 1 (Notice): A company must notify customers that it uses online profiling to track their online habits. If it collects personally identifiable information about customers, such as their names, addresses or telephone numbers, the company's website must clearly and unambiguously notify them of this fact before the company collects this information.

Rule 2 (Choice): Depending on the type of information a company collects, there must be opt-in and opt-out options. Opt-in, or obtaining the customer's permission, is required to link personally identifiable information that a company has about a customer such as name, address or telephone number with data acquired about Web surfing habits. Opt-out means that the customers have to be given the chance to say no, but they don't have to explicitly agree. Opt-out is required when merging non-personal data about customers.

Rule 3 (Access): Customers must have reasonable access to personally identifiable information that a company keeps about them for profiling.

Rule 4 (Security): A company must make reasonable efforts to protect…… [Read More]

Arnis, D. (2000, Feburary 1). Online profiling: A threat or a benefit?.

Berman, J. (2000, May 25). Privacy online: Fair information practices in the electronic marketplace.
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Criminal Justice Criminal Profiling or

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72693237

If human behavior can be loosely predicted, then so too can criminal behavior.

4. Criminal profiling is not one hundred percent accurate or valid. It is an inexact science. Results of profiling are close to chance, which is one reason why the process is criticized and used cautiously. Officers of the law may be misled by an inaccurate or hasty profile, and in some cases might even apprehend innocent persons because they meet the characteristics listed in the profile. Generalizations, stereotypes, and false conclusions can be drawn during the process of criminal profiling. Biases and assumptions can cloud the profiling process, too. For example, the author's own assumptions about human behavior and demographic traits can cloud judgment during an investigation. Criminal profiling can in some cases derail an investigation by diverting attention away from the actual perpetrator to focus on a false lead. Therefore, criminal profiling should be used cautiously.

5. Criminal profiling can be improved by incorporating psychological theories and principles. For example, behavioral psychology examines the patterns of human behavior that can be scientifically tested. The most basic of all behavioral psychological patterns is based o Pavlov's experiments, in which a stimulus evokes a predictable response in the…… [Read More]

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Behavioral Profiling Behavioral Scientists and Investigate Often

Words: 1093 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83287687

Behavioral Profiling

Behavioral scientists and investigate often rely on criminal profiling to narrow down the list of possible suspects in a crime scene or in a potentially threatening situation. This is primarily done by matching personal traits and behavioral patterns of criminals to the way in which the crime was committed and that can help in shrinking the large pool of suspects to a few which makes it relatively easier to solve the crime. (Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M., 1986). Profiling has often been a target of intense debate by people who feel victimized by the process, however, it must be understood that profiling can never lead to one specific person. It can only help in providing leads to possible suspects and that too by means of their personality traits and behavioral past. In other words, a person who has not committed crimes and doesn't have suspicious behavior or personality traits need not worry about possible victimization even though there have been few cases. We can however say with some degree of confidence that pros of criminal profiling outweigh some of its cons. It is mostly like a police sketch that gives law enforcement personnel an idea of how the person…… [Read More]

Douglas, Ressler, Burgess and Hartman: Criminal profiling from crime scene analysis, in: Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 4 (1986), p. 401 -- 426.

Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M.: The Anatomy of Motive, Scribner, New York, 1999.
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Criminal Personality Profiling

Words: 1040 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99599396

Criminal personality profiling has emerged as an important forensic science tool because of the growing need for professionals in the behavioral science sector to help law enforcement personnel in dealing with various crime scenes. The paper discusses this technique in light of its definition and recent advances as a science rather than an art. The discussion demonstrates how various attributes of a crime scene and investigations have led to its development and use in modern criminal justice system. The discussion also includes a brief analysis of the three major stages in the process of criminal personality profiling. These stages are generation of hypotheses to be used as leads for arresting and prosecuting unknown offenders, providing suggestions for interviews, and evaluation of physical evidence.

The modern criminal justice system is characterized by a growing demand for professionals in the behavioral science field to help experts in law enforcement and criminal justice to address weird and unusual cases. The need for such experts is fueled by the presence of several factors and antecedent incidents that are involved in violent crimes. Some of the incidents and factors include intent to commit an offense, plan and kind of criminal, the scene of crime, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Davis, J.A. (1999). Criminal Personality Profiling and Crime Scene Assessment -- A

Contemporary Investigative Tool to Assist Law Enforcement Public Safety. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(3), 291-301.
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Racial Profiling Has Been a

Words: 2706 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68030906

The inverse would also be true. However, that question is not entirely black and white, pardon the pun (Stenning).

The reason for this is that race can inform whether or why to stop someone for a traffic stop or on the sidewalk with racism not being the root reason. For example, a young white woman in her 20's would stand out like a sore thumb in a drug-infested area that is almost exclusively black and Hispanic. It is almost a certainty that the women is either horribly lost or that she's there for less than noble reasons such as buying drugs or something of that nature. There could be other explanations but they are very unlikely. It is not all that dissimilar from a person that is black and is in an affluent and mostly white area. The person could very well be rich and well-off but there are a lot of other (and more likely, at least statistically) explanations as to why the person is there. However, assuming the worst is never a good thing but there is a difference between using race as a guide and using race as a cudgel (Stenning).

The depth and breadth that some…… [Read More]

Crank, John P. "Scholarly Debate on Racial Profiling: To What End?." Canadian

Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice 53.1 (2011): 79-85. Academic Search
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Linguistic Profiling the Elaboration of

Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37761341

The man claimed that he had not met either of the two landlords in person that he had been attempting to contact for application. Thus, the man began his pursuit into legal action under the terms of racial discrimination. The case, Johnson v. Jensen, one of the first documented arguments of linguistic profiling was brought forth for consideration (Erard, 2002).

As in the case of Johnson v. Jensen, the defendants - the accused, often play the part of an ignorant or unaware innocent victim of wrongful accusations. It is easy for one to "play-stupid" when there has been nothing more than a phone conversation as compared to a face-to-face communication. Little can be held concrete as evidence against the defendants claim to be unaware of the ethnicity of the accuser, therefore the dangers of linguistic profiling can then extend to the oppressed. When accusations that incur legalities, there is a level of credit that lies in the balance. This pertains to the credit of either the accused or the accuser.

In the end, the means will only be justified by whoever prevails in their account against the other. This can create a level of apprehensiveness among those who are most…… [Read More]

Paul McFedries and Logophilia Limited, Word Spy (June, 2002). Retrieved April 27, 2007, from the World Wide Web:

Rice, P. (2006). Linguistic profiling: The sound of your voice may determine if you get that apartment or not, Washington Univ. In St. Louis, News and Information, 18, 29-30.
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Geographic Profiling What Your Address

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22977890

53). The technique has roots in various psychological concepts that examine how individuals make choices about behavior and the ways in which motivations are formed and molded. It also draws on a set of investigatory techniques broadly called environmental criminology. Environmental criminology looks at how physical space influences people to commit crimes, how what particular types of crimes are committed are related to the physical space in which they occur (for example, farming communities tend to be the site of different types of crimes than is the case in housing projects or suburban cul de sacs) and how the type of person who is likely to be victimized is also related to physical space (MacKay, 1999).

Geographic profiling has moved a long way from the old tape-a-map-to-the-wall-and-stick-pushpins in it. Geographic profilers use highly specialized software systems that produce what are called "jeopardy surfaces" or "geoprofile," high detailed three-dimensional models of the most likely sites of residence for a criminal and helps law enforcement officials focus on a relatively narrow geographic area for their search (Canter, 2003, p. 48).

Kim Rossmo, a criminologist, is one of the most important theoreticians in the modeling programs and concepts behind geographic profiling and has…… [Read More]

Brantingham, P.J., & Brantingham, P.L. (1984). Patterns in crime. New York: Macmillan.

Canter, D. (2003). Mapping Murder: The Secrets of Geographic Profiling. London: Virgin Publishing.
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Internet Profiling and Privacy This

Words: 3885 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31745337

Ethics is an essential part of the individual condition. As an important person who starts up a large business as well as deals on a daily basis with other corporation at all arena of expansion so basically business ethics is lively and glowing plus hotly chat about in boardrooms all over the world. Furthermore for the majority of administration and boards know their accountability goes well beyond periodical results. These corporations consist of one component of a much larger arena that has lost its cooperative acceptance for unprincipled actions. Moreover, if an individual is in scripting copy and keeping a client's electronic business or electronic commerce website think about the consumer confidentiality and legal issues which includes publishing and copywriting for a customer is an evidence of how they are out looked to the rest of the earth. pessimistic or offensive piece of writing published as regards a variety of populace and corporations on other websites and if not correctly investigate could perhaps have legal penalty of libel that can broaden across state Also think carefully what is published or in print on Weblogs or Blogs for undersized. A blog is just a website where on a daily basis, weekly,…… [Read More]

Graham JH Smith, Partner Bird & Bird, et al. Internet Law and Regulation. Thomson Sweet & Maxwell, 2007.

David R. Johnson and David G. Post, et al. Law and Borders - the Rise of Law in Cyberspace. Standford Law Review, 1996.
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Criminal Profiling Is Criminal Profiling

Words: 443 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39833050

But 50% the sample were recreational weightlifters who only used the drugs casually.

Purpose of use thus affected the frequency of use, and different kinds of illicit drugs were also associated with the different abuser profiles. From a criminal profiler's perspective, this suggests that, when examining who uses a particular performance-enhancing drug, a specific 'type' of athlete or non-athlete might be more likely to be associated with the drug, depending on his or her goals and sports. However, the difficulty of profiling substance abusers was admitted by the researchers, given that the model was too limited to have predictive validity, in terms of who would be more likely to abuse the drugs, based upon demographic and psychological characteristics. The study suggests that profiling substance abusers can be useful after the fact, but such studies often lack strong predictive abilities.

Works Cited

Hildebrandt, Thomas, James W. Langenbucher, Sasha J. Carr, & Pilar Sanjuan. (2007, Nov).

Modeling population heterogeneity in appearance -- and performance-enhancing drug

(APED) use: Applications of mixture modeling in 400 regular APED users.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Hildebrandt, Thomas, James W. Langenbucher, Sasha J. Carr, & Pilar Sanjuan. (2007, Nov).

Modeling population heterogeneity in appearance -- and performance-enhancing drug
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Terrorist Profiling The New Face

Words: 993 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14386352

A frustration of societal expectations, rather than outright poverty and rejection, were characteristic of these terrorists' profiles.

This shifting profile should not have come as much of a surprise as it did to experts. As early as 1999 some experts noted, regarding terrorists in general (as opposed to Islamic terrorists) that all "terrorist groups are recruiting members who possess a high degree of intellectualism and idealism, are highly educated, and are well trained in a legitimate profession...More than two-thirds of the terrorists surveyed came from middle-class or even upper-class backgrounds" (Hudson 1999: 46; 49)

In Britain, there remains a concern about Pakistani training camps, given the large population of Pakistanis in the region. One red flag, the parents of a terrorist noted, that they did not spot was when their rebellious son was sent away to relatives in Pakistan, and he came back sober and religious. They thought their effort to discipline the boy had worked, only to discover he had gone to a 'school' run by terrorists during his visit. Before 9/11, "volunteers lived rough in the desert with hundreds of other foreign recruits and were taught to handle weapons and explosives, as well as spending hours listening to…… [Read More]

Hudson, Rex a. (1999). "The Sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who becomes a terrorist and why?" Federal Research Division. Library of Congress. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at 

McGrory, Daniel & Zahid Husain. (14 Jul 2005). New wave of British terrorists is taught at schools, not in the mountains." The Times. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at