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Era Can Be Considered to

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27586507

Theodore Roosevelt in this sense tried to tackle the issue by intervening for the miners, for instance. However, an essential idea is related to the desire of the government to increase its power and intervention possibilities in order to better control the corporations that were created as a result of the industrialization process. These were sources of constant impoverishment for the population (Pease, 1962, 163-5).

However, the population reacted in a different way than expected by the political actors. Indeed, from the point-of-view of the labor unions, their number increased and a certain collective mentality was formed, one which allowed them to further fight for the rights of the employee (Pease, 1962). Even so, there were individuals who reacted negatively considering that the Progressive Era was in fact a socialist perception of the economy, rather than a means to create progress for the population in the country.

The forces which…… [Read More]


Browne, Gregory M. The Progressive Era. N.d. 14 May 2008. 

Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.

Pease, Otis. The Progressive Years: The Spirit and Achievement of American Reform. George Braziller. New York. 1962.

Warde, William F."The Rise and Fall of Progressivism." International Socialist Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, Summer 1957, pp. 83-88. Available at
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Motivated Progressives and How They Began to

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18923709

motivated progressives and how they began to use the government as a moral agent for change and the impact of Progressivism upon society and government during the early decades of the 20th century. The central question that will be addressed will be to answer to what extent he Progressive Era was actually progressive. In particular, we will pay attention to the limits of progressive reforms in the history of the United States. Progressives fought for such issues as women's suffrage and better labor and health regulations (Rodgers, 1982, 115).

Progressivism in America was a broad-based movement for reform that reached its apogee in the early 20th century. hile reformist in nature, it was middle class. It grew in response to the changes brought on by industrialism, modernization (for example the rise of the railroads) and corruption in American politics. Largely, it grew in response to tragedies such as the Triangle…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Muckrakers. (2011). Retrieved from  .

Rosa, P. (2010). The triangle shirtwaist fire. Retrieved from

Rodgers, D.T. (1982). The promise of american history. Reviews in American History,, 10(4), 113-132.
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Era Theodore Roosevelt America's 26th

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17189844

During the turn of the century, maverick muckraking journalists dug up dirt on unfair labor practices including the use of child labor. Muckrakers also drew attention to unsanitary working conditions and the lack of systematic health regulations in meat and food production. President oosevelt responded by initiating a series of labor-related legislation including the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. However, oosevelt at the same time publicly denounced muckrakers and lent them their derogatory name. oosevelt's passion for environmental conservation reflected his personal interests and beliefs more than it did the results of investigative journalism. Environmental conservation emerged as of the main issues that distinguished the progressivism of oosevelt and that of Wilson.

Presidents oosevelt and Wilson transformed the role of the federal government in the United States. Both wielded their executive powers to protect the rights of the poor and working class, to abolish some of the powers…… [Read More]


Theodore Roosevelt." Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at

Theodore Roosevelt." Wikipedia. Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at 

Thomas Woodrow Wilson." Retrieved Oct 7, 2006 at

Woodrow Wilson." Wikipedia. Retrieved Oct 7, 2006 at
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Public Museums

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34867729

Progressivist Museums

The progressivist philosophy of culture, which posits that advancements in science, technology, social, and economic development are crucial in the development of advanced societies, and that societies advance from a state of barbarism toward a more civilized state, is evident in the modes of display of some of the most popular museums in the world. These museums, The Louvre in Paris, Pitt Rivers in Oxford, and the Smithsonian in D.C., use the progressivist ideology to promote both a cultural theory and a strident nationalism rooted in the belief that its citizens are advancing towards the promise of a better tomorrow. This paper will show how these museums do so.

As Andrew McClellan states, "the public for art is diverse and divided by interests and levels of knowledge."

Appealing to and uniting these diverse interests is what a progressivist museum must do in order to guide its public to…… [Read More]


Coombs, Annie E. "Museums and the Formation of National and Cultural Identities."

Oxford Art Journal, vol. 11, no. 2 (1988): 57-68.

McClellan, Andrew. "A Brief History of the Art Museum Public." Art and Its Publics.

Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.
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Women's History

Words: 2097 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82218295

Women's History

The passing of time does not necessarily denote progress: women made little noticeable social and economic advancement and almost no political or legal advancements between the European settlements of Jamestown in 1607 until the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In fact, most Native American women lost a considerable degree of power and status due to the imposition of European social values on their traditional cultures. African women, brought to the New World against their will and in bondage, likewise did not enjoy the fruits of social progress. White women of European descent, however, did make some progress over the course of more than two centuries of early American history. Divorce laws became more favorable toward women, who over the course of these few centuries were increasingly able to extricate themselves from violent, abusive, or unsatisfying unions. However, divorce laws were one of the only legal progress…… [Read More]

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Education Philosophical Influences on American

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88283685

There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)

No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.


Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from

Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…… [Read More]


Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from 

Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from 

Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from
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Secondary Sources in the Book

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48786779

This section lists, in paticula detail, the many pimay and seconday souces he used to ceate his wok. Most inteestingly, the autho begins by pointing out that he was himself subject to the pejudice and suspicion aimed at newly aived immigants when he aived on Ameican shoes fom Gemany with his paents. He theefoe has fist-hand expeience of both being at both ends of the immigation phenomenon. Once he and his family wee thooughly integated into Ameican cultue, the autho acknowledges that he was evey bit as pejudiced against new aivals as his native-bon countepats. In addition to fist-hand expeience, Schag also notes that he has been witing on the subject of immigation fo decades. Much of the mateial he used fo his eseach duing these yeas also seves as basis fo the book. In addition, Schag is vey specific when listing the souces he uses as a basis fo…… [Read More]

references to support the information provided. Again, this is an element that might be included in the chapter itself.

By taking an objective view of the immigration phenomenon over centuries of American history, Peter Schrag is able to reveal the dichotomy between the general attitude to immigrants and the American ideal of inclusiveness and human rights, as guaranteed to all by the Constitution of the country. In this, he is even able to objectively consider his own attitudes, particularly when he was young, towards the same immigrants of whom he was a part during his young years. Furthermore, he also acknowledges his own prejudices not only towards immigrants of various varieties, but also the way in which his friends encouraged and fortified this attitude. Finally, the author acknowledges that his prejudice extended even to his native origins, in terms of rejecting his native German roots as "boorish" and completely uncultured in favor of his adopted country, the United States. By considering these actions and thought processes in retrospect, the author is able to provide an objective view not only of his country's flaws, but also of how these manifested in his young self. In short, the basic moral displayed by the book and its message is that, although immigrants have consistently been regarded as a threat to American culture, this is not in fact either a morally sound or practically realistic view, especially in the light of the core values promoted by the Constitution of the country. In other words, Schrag's morals are explicitly presented.

In contrast, the moral and political standing of the PowerPoint author remains implicit, with information presented in an objective way, but without personal viewpoint or comment.
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Branches of Government

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12028684

Branches of the Government

In 1787 leaders of the different states sat down to write down the constitution whereby the first section described the separation of the federal government. These three branches of the government are; legislative branch, executive branch and judicial branch.

Legislative branch consist of two houses of congress; the senate and the House of epresentatives .the senate comprises of 100 members from each of the states who are elected in their states in a term that is six years long. The head of the senate is the Vice president but has no voting power. The senate approves the nominations that have been made by the Supreme Court, president of the cabinet, federal courts among other posts. On the other hand, the house of representatives comprises of 435 members with these numbers varying in every state depending on the population. The most important duty of this branch of…… [Read More]


Pearson Education.(2000). Three Branches of Government. Retrieved March 13, 2014 from 

McCarty, K., (2000). Farmers, the Populist Party, and Mississippi (1870-1900). Retrieved March 13,2014 from

Hartman, D., (2010). Politics of the 1870s and 1880s. Retrieved March 13, 2014 from
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Educational Theory That Ideas and

Words: 1314 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17056612

e speak of the "Principles of Professional Conduct" (PPC) that most educational institutions present to employees (and sometimes students) regardless of their station in life or their position within the educational community. In the case of Ball State University in Ohio, the opening paragraph of its "Principles for Professional Conduct for Career Services & Employment Professionals" points out why the career services and employment professionals are obliged to follow the PPC.

The point made by Ball State's PPC is that employees are in a "partnership effort" with the "common goal of achieving the best match between the individual student" and the institution. Others involved include all faculty, staff, community members, students and prospective students as well. The National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) actually developed the PPC for universities and colleges, with an eye towards helping students with career planning, placement, and recruitment." The NACE puts forward the following…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ball State University. (2008). Principles for Professional conduct for Career Service & Employment Professionals. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2008, at .(Fuss, Diana. 2006). Essentialism. Emory University. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2008, at .

Holma, Katariina. (2007). Essentialism Regarding Human Nature in the Defense of Gender

Equality. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 41(1), 44-55.

Merriman-Webster. (2008). Essentialism. Retrieved Feb. 23, 2008, at .
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Bungalow Craze the Bungalow Style Was a

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47089850

ungalow Craze

The bungalow style was a major influence in the drastic change of American society and how people lived. It influenced a major shift in gender role of women in society, creating easier housekeeping techniques and greater employment and career opportunities for women by confronting economic and social issues in society using domestic architecture. The simpler home design expressed many tensions of Progressivism in attempting to solve social issues of the time. The transformation brought about new ideas as well as fears that had to be confronted.

The spread of factories from the industrial age left anxiety concerning the loss of independence and masculinity. The middle class population was becoming salaried workers, loosing economic and moral independence. The Progressive Era had created a deep desire to reshape institutions and values as well as faith to reform the people. At the same time, the Arts and Crafts Movement grew in…… [Read More]


Wright, G. (1981). The Progressive Housewife and the Bungalow. In Building the Dream. Pantheon Books.
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Education Canada Option B Progressive

Words: 3483 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1501081

" (Montessori, 9) There is a counter-intuitive disconnect between the priorities of the educational system and the real-life demands of individuals attempting to function ably therein.

Here, Montessori speaks to the incredible irony present even in higher education, where students are essentially intended to be prepared for the real world but are instead isolated in a false environment where priorities such as a streamlined means of graded evaluation, a disregard for the physical or emotional needs of students and an overall proclivity toward isolation from true conditions of worldly socialization tend to misappropriate crucial transitional learning years.

In some regards, Montessori's work is relatively outdated, betraying its origins in the first half of the 20th century by criticizing an absence of services that are now present in many universities. Some of the better funded academic institutions do possess programs availing medical treatment and psychological counseling to students where needed at…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Axelrod, P. (2005). Beyond the Progressive Education Debate: A Profile of Toronto Schooling in the 1950s. Historical Studies in Education

Beyer, L.E. (1999). William Heard Kilpatrick. International Bureau of Education, XXVII (3).

Calhoun School (CS). (2009). Progressive Education.

Davies, S. (2002). The Paradox of Progressive Education: A Frame Analysis. Sociology of Education, 75, 269-286.
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American History Early 20th Century

Words: 1597 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11498247

Architect Frank Lloyd right went beyond even Ives's achievements. Sharing affection for the organic ideas of the American Renaissance before the Civil ar and asserting that form and function were one, right developed the Prairie school of architecture. This tried to integrate the design of housing and the land it used and forced Americans to think more carefully about rapid urbanization. In terms of the impact that he had abroad right's work still influences architects and city planners today (Progressive Movement, 2010).

A lot happened during the reform movement all which had some effect on the way that we live today. It changed things in this country on a political, social and economic level that helped this country to progress forward and become what it is today. History provides a wonderful building block upon which we can grow and expand. It gives us the insight into what worked and what…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Progressing into the 20th Century the Progressive Movement." (n.d.). 14 February 2010,

"Progressive Movement." (2010). 14 February 2010,

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Age of Reform

Words: 385 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15480133

Age of Reform

The period in American history between the 1890s and the 1920s is often referred to as the Age of Reform. However, the various reform movements during those decades were conflicting and disparate. The three major reform movements in the United States during this time included populism, progressivism, and the New Deal ("The Age of Reform"). Each of these movements had its own agenda and ideology, and its own vision for America's future.

Populism was the bastion of the agricultural workers. As the Industrial Revolution and estward expansion increasingly encroached on farmland in America, those who earned their living through agriculture found themselves weakened economically and politically. Fearful that industrialism would completely threaten their livelihood and infringe on their political rights, agrarian workers organized in a populist movement to challenge what they viewed as the rise of urban elite. Therefore, the populist reform period was characterized mainly by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'The Age of Reform." 12 May 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2005 online from 

'Progressive Era." 13 July 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2005 online from 

'Progressivism." 2005. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved 21 July 2005 online from
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History 1865-1960

Words: 2544 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13218699

American history as a radical and revolutionary society. Specifically, it will discuss the works of "The Jungle," by Upton Sinclair, and "Coming of Age in Mississippi," by Anne Moody. Radical reform and revolutionary ideas are at the very foundation of our freedom in America, and this tradition of freedom of speech and rebellion has continued from 1865 onward in our society. There has always been dissention and disagreement in our history, however, our freedom gives us the right to disagree, rebel, revolt, and share our radical ideas - which often lead to reform, understanding, and a better life for all Americans.


In 1865, the nation had just lived through a Civil ar that divided the nation, families, and races. Now, America was ready to move on, but there were still issues dividing the nation - issues that would continue to foster revolution and radicalism, and bring out the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1968.

Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1906.
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Progressive Movement in America Changed the Way America Worked and Lived

Words: 1345 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72295502

Progressivism began as a social movement and evolved into a political movement, according to materials published by George Washington University ( Early in the social movement progressives were concerned about poverty, racism, greed and "class warfare," and they believed that those problems could be best addressed through education, a safer environment, and a workplace that was fair and safe ( Who were those considered to be progressives? The George Washington University narrative explains that they live "mostly in the cities," they had graduated from colleges and universities, and their beliefs included the belief that "…government could be a tool for change" -- and among the most vocal and visible social reformers / progressives were Jane Addams and journalists Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbel (

Progressive journalists wrote investigative pieces that exposed "the evils of corporate greed" and they presented a balanced view of immigration and ethnicities, all the time "…urging…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Teaching Philosophy and Educating Students

Words: 1204 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45715093

Teaching Philosophy and Educating Students

Traditionally, the focus of education has been the primary "3Rs" -- writing, reading, and arithmetic. ut with ever-growing technological innovation driving universal change, educators need to reconsider whether or not the skills taught in schools truly offer learners the best chance to enjoy success in life, at school, and in the workplace (Sledd, 2015).

From my personal experiences and approaches in the area of education, some things vital to me in the roles of student and teacher are:

Great teachers are kind to everyone around them- students, their parents, coworkers, etc. Kindness truly has a great impact on the school and classroom environment, with students feeling loved, welcomed, and cared for.

The profession of teaching is humanistic. Compassion represents the utmost sense of understanding, as well as showing other people that they are important. Compassionate teachers instill this quality in their pupils through their actions,…… [Read More]


Alrubail, R. (2015, January 14). The heart of teaching: What it means to be a great teacher. Edutopia. Retrieved from 

Alrubail's article discusses teaching requirements, apart from the experience and knowledge criteria. A student-teacher bond must exist, which can be made possible if the teacher is kind, compassionate, optimistic, inspiring, and empathic. The scholar has provided valuable advice to current and future teachers, in this essay.

Erkilic, T. A. (2008). Importance of educational philosophy in teacher training for educational sustainable development. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 3. Retrieved from

This study's chief purpose is discussing and proposing a working educational philosophy through a comparison of existing main education philosophies, with regard to attitudes on important questions having basic ESD (Education for Sustainable Development) properties. The five key educational philosophies, namely- perennialism, reconstructionism, essentialism, existentialism, and progressivism, have been discussed according to curriculum, classroom management, teaching methods, and teacher role and evaluation.
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Teaching Philosophy as an ESL

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44304605

I view education holistically. Students are developing their character and their values in addition to facts and figures. Language learning is a critical component of character development because language mastery enhances cross-cultural communication. A fellow teacher offers a powerful statement on the role of progressivism in the classroom: "In a progressivist classroom, teachers plan lessons to arouse curiosity and push the student to a higher level of knowledge. The students are encouraged to learn by doing and to interact with one another. This develops social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points-of-view," (Wilt 2003). A progressive teaching philosophy acknowledges the persistence and potency of change. Optimism and creativity will motivate my students to achieve, inspiring their curiosity and ability to think critically.

The means by which I will achieve my teaching objectives include the use of proven classroom management techniques, the implantation of creative cooperative learning strategies, and…… [Read More]


Haugen, L. (1998). Writing a Teaching Philosophy Statement. Iowa State University. Retrieved online: 

Sofsian, D. (n.d.). Teacher education philosophies. Retrieved online: 

Wilt, B.L. (2003). A personal philosophy of education. Retrieved online:
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British Conservatives Why and to

Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11947432

19 No. 2, pp 28-37, Available from[April7, 2008]

Kirk, , 2004, Ten Conservative Principles, the ussell Kirk Center for Cultural enewal, Available from[April7,2008]

Whiteley, P, Seyd, P & ichardson, J, 1994, True Blues: The Politics of Conservative Party Membership, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

The word is derived from the Latin conservare which means to protect, preserve, save

Burkean" doctrine refers to the writings and philosophy of Edmund Burke, an 18th century British statesman who is considered to be the father of Conservatism in much of the Western world

For Burke even "very plausible schemes with very pleasing commencements have often shameful and lamentable consequences" (Quoted by Harries, 2003, p.31)

The Exclusion Bill sought to 'exclude' King Charles' brother from the throne as he had converted to Catholicism the Tories, being strong supporters the king's right of succession and the Anglican Church, opposed the Bill while the Whig Party supported…… [Read More]


Ball, S, a Brief History of the Conservative Party, Conservative Party Website, Available from [April7, 2008]

Davies, S, 1993, Margaret Thatcher and the Rebirth of Conservatism, John M. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs, Ashland University, Available from [April7, 2008]

Harries, O, 2003, "What it Means to Be Conservative, Policy," Policy, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp 28-37, Available from [April7, 2008]

Kirk, R, 2004, Ten Conservative Principles, the Russell Kirk Center for Cultural Renewal, Available from [April7,2008]
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Four Educational Philosophies

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: White Paper Paper #: 77827298

Educational Philosophy

The four Educational Philosophies


Essentialism argues that a common core of knowledge needs to be passed to learners in a disciplined and systematic manner. The concentration in this traditional viewpoint is on moral and intellectual standards that academic institutions should educate. The curriculum focuses on knowledge, skills, and academic rigor. Although this academic viewpoint is similar in some ways to Perennialism, Essentialism accepts the idea that this core curriculum may change. Education should be realistic, preparing learners to become useful people in the society. It should concentrate on facts and "the fundamentals," training learners to speak, write, read and think clearly and rationally. Schools must not try to set or influence guidelines. Students should be trained self-discipline, respect for authority, and hard work. Instructors are to help learners keep their non-productive intuition in checks, such as mindlessness or aggression. This strategy was in response to progressivism techniques…… [Read More]


Barnes, W. (2008). The Philosophy And Literature Of Existentialism. Woodbury, N.Y: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.

Bigge, M.L. (2012). Educational Philosophies For Teachers. Columbus: Merrill.

Segall, W.E., & Wilson, A.V. (2004). Introduction To Education: Teaching In A Diverse Society. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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Program Planning Models Educational Philosophy

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98922132

I was able to find funding to send some teachers abroad for training courses and have used technology to connect with educators abroad over the Internet. I have organized workshops to clarify the aims and strategy of the program to teachers, to encourage them to get 'on board' and believe in the curriculum changes.

A child's education must entail more than memorization or even passing standardized exams. Education must open a student's mind, and the teacher is the key to unlock the mystery of a student's inherent gifts. Teachers must guide a child's life and foster every child's innate passion for learning, before the child learns that school is not supposed to be 'cool' or fun. As an instructor of science teachers, I stress that all children are innate experimenters and lovers of science, until the children learn they 'should be' otherwise: it is the mission of every science teacher…… [Read More]

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U S History Background Report the

Words: 2002 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72968630

The lack of public support is one of the key factors that resulted to the failure of the U.S. There were false claims that the American government acted against people's aspirations and that the American youth protested against the war. Early initiatives of the United States under Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Truman obtained a lot of support. Only two members of the United States congress voted against giving Johnson the opportunity of waging the war in Vietnam

It was difficult to identify the enemy as Viet Cong merged with locals and only ambushed often at night. American terror campaigns hit their target, but failed to make the North Vietnamese surrender. A small portion of America considered their government as evil as even Walter Cronkite a CBS newscaster raised concern on the effectiveness of pursuing the war

In January 1973, President Nixon signed a truce that officially ended the resentments. Communist forces…… [Read More]


W. Faragher. Workers and farmers, big business & imperialism. Chapter 20

W. Farager. The civil rights movement 1945-1966. Chapter 28

W. Farager. The Vietnam War.

W. Farager. Progressivism 1900-1917. Chapter 21
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Slavery Colonialism and Imperialism to Inclusion and Exclusion

Words: 2169 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10697586

Inclusion Exclusion

Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.

The most overt explanation of the author's research problem is when he states: "To argue, as some scholars have, that the first slaves suffered greatly from the enslavement process because it contradicted their 'heroic' warrior tradition, or that it was easier for them because Africans were docile in nature and submissive, is to substitute mythology for history," (p. 4).

The struggles of African slaves are the topic for Blassingame's entire book, and it is impossible to indicate one page number describing all the travails that are detailed in the tome. However, the first chapter of the book does provide examples of the suffering of slaves in Africa, during the transatlantic voyages, and in the New World. Pages 6 and 7 describe in some detail the brutality of the slave boat…… [Read More]


Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.

Center of the American West. "About Patty Limerick." Retrieved online: 

Duke University Libraries (n.d). Biography of John Hope Franklin. Retrieved online: 

Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss. 2000. From slavery to freedom: a history of African-Americans. New York: A.A Knopf
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Preservation of Historic Sites and

Words: 2629 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24525360

Instead, he chose to preserve the building's countless accretions so as to reflect the evolution of domestic life over three centuries. This approach, which can be seen at many of SPNEA's house museums today, has since become a distinguishing feature of SPNEA's preservation philosophy" (Redfern para. 2).

It was in 1915 that Appleton made his first visit to Newbury's fabled Spencer-Peirce-Little House, where he immediately recognized the importance of this imposing stone mansion. He recognized that the two-story brick porch was unique in New England. He kept in touch with the Little family with some regularity, hoping to secure the preservation of the property. Appleton died in 1947, but his thirty-year relationship with the Little family bore fruit in 1971 when Amelia and Agnes Little arranged for the land, buildings, and furnishings to come to SPNEA when they died (Redfern para. 2).

Norman Morrison Isham

Appleton learned much from Norman…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Architectural Archives of the University of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania, 2003. .

The Clement Weaver Home" (2007). April 29, 2007. p://

Lindgren, James M. Preserving Historic New England: Preservation, Progressivism, and the Remaking of Memory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Mason, Randall and Max Page. Giving Preservation a History: Histories of Historic Preservation in the United States. New York: Routledge, 2004.
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Theodore Roosevelt and Two Identifications

Words: 1480 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7685900

Theodore Roosevelt

Writing Guidelines for History Identifications and Essays

Your essay should have an introductory paragraph that in some way summarizes, encapsulates, suggests, shapes, and/or sets up the ideas, themes, facts, or whatever you are going to discuss in the main body of your essay. In other words, you should set forth your thesis.

Here, in the main body of your essay, you should develop the principal ideas and themes, and support them with the appropriate facts. The main body will inevitably be several paragraphs long, perhaps a page or two or more, depending on what you want to say and the amount of material you include. Basically, the main body consists of as many paragraphs as you need to discuss the question at hand.

Also let me note that individual paragraphs generally begin with a topic sentence for that paragraph, follow that by a couple of sentences of development,…… [Read More]

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There Is No Teaching Without Learning

Words: 1154 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36507010

paradox that teaching is not possible without learning. It uses sources in MLA format.

Paulo Freire's quote could be "It is essential therefore, from the very beginning of the process, that the following principle be clear: namely, that although the teachers or the students are not the same, the person in charge of education is being formed or re-formed as he/she teaches, and the person who is being taught forms him/herself in this process. In this sense teaching is not about transferring knowledge or contents. Nor is it an act whereby a creator-subject gives shape, style, or soul to an indecisive and complacent body. There is, in fact, no teaching without learning. One requires the other....Whoever teaches learns in the act of teaching, and whoever learns teaches in the act of learning."

Education reforms in the modern age has become a means to struggle against time. For the Latin American…… [Read More]


Zeng, Langmin and Le Tendre, Gerald (November 1998). Adolescent suicide and academic competition in East Asia. Comparative Education Review.

Ogawa, M. Nickell, P. And Field, S.L. (March April 2001). Life environment studies and social studies in Japan. Social Studies and the Young Learner.

I, Rigoberta Menchu.
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Gayle Gullet

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53825547

Gayle Gullett

Gullett, Gayle. Becoming Citizens: The Emergence and Development of the California Women's Movement, 1880-1911. Women in American History Series. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000.

The women's rights movement is often characterized as a national movement because of its present day context in contemporary history and time. However, Gayle Gullett's book Becoming Citizens: The Emergence and Development of the California Women's Movement, 1880-1911 is instructive in the way that it highlights how the campaign for female suffrage was forced to undergo a series of ideological and structural transformations to achieve a specific goal. Rather than manifesting itself as a pure politics of group solidarity amongst women across class lines, this movement only achieved success, ultimately, when it took on the form of ideologically oriented rather than group-oriented politics, and included men and moderation into its fold.

This was not true of the beginnings of the women's…… [Read More]

Yet, even though it was not constructed or specifically focused upon achieving a political agenda, the "Good Government Movement" alone finally allowed for a constitutional amendment for woman suffrage on the ballot in 1911. This was accomplished, activists assured the legislature and Californians part of a general movement for good government, rather than a victory for women alone. (181). This is rather "unsettling," in the author's terms, in terms of what it says about the achievement of women's suffrage as laudable as the outcome might have been. (7)

The "Good Government" movement, moreover, may have achieved some other strong achievements in its ideological progress through the state, but because of its beginnings in the upper class, it had a strong and occasionally unpleasant missionary aspect to its attempts to address social ills. There was also a strong anti-migrant sentiment in some aspects of its membership. Gullett's specific highlighting of Californian Women's Club involvement these later campaigns took a backseat to male reformers' desire to purge cities of machine politics and corruption, although male reformers may have later used potential female participation in government and suffrage to achieve their objectives.

Did the women of California ultimately become 'used' and channeled into ultimately unprofitable objectives by making their goals too diffuse? Should they have taken their leads from Anthony and Bryan of the past, rather than of later male reformers? Becoming Citizens is well researched but ultimately poses more difficult questions than it can attempt to answer. Should the Californian women have remained radical and stressed the objectives of more radical early activists as Susan B. Anthony and Lucy Stone? Should they have linked their cause to the progressive aims of Bryant? Or was it best for them to do as they did, and to outline a specific political objective, that of suffrage within the state, and make use of preexisting conventional channels and political groups and alliances? By stressing the last, Californian women's movement achieved its objective, even though it is female radicals such as Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, as well as the presidential reform candidate, William Jennings Bryan, whom history best remembers.
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american history during early 20th century

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91471433

The progressive era in American political culture set the stage for President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal. Starting in the 1890s, the Progressive Era drew upon Marxist theory of labor exploitation to help balance unbridled capitalist growth during the Gilded Age of industrial development. Progressivism welcomed social and technological progress both by suggesting reforms in both government and business to reduce corruption and ensure a higher quality of life for all Americans. Two of the progressive political party movements during the turn of the century included the Populist Party and the Bull Moose Party. Progressive values then later became embedded in the platform of the Democratic Party when President Franklin Roosevelt became president.

Some of the specific issues spearheaded by the Progressive movement included labor rights, women's suffrage, and anti-trust laws. During the age of urbanization, the Progressive movement helped to improve what was rapidly becoming deplorable and deteriorating living and…… [Read More]

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Ethics Cooper Terry L 2006

Words: 1403 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 96766309

Chapter 4: Administrative responsibility: The key to administrative ethics

Administrators are responsible for complying with the law -- and also for complying with the administrative responsibilities. Ethics requires a delicate balancing of objective and subjective responsibilities on the part of administrators. All this is easier said than done, of course. The administrator's role is complicated by a network of often conflicting responsibilities -- responsibilities to his or her own ethics, to immediate superiors, to his or her specific agency, to elected officials who speak for the public, and to the public good (which may not always be fully articulated within the desires of public officials) Furthermore, the law is not always clear-cut but it must be an important cornerstone of administrative policies. Of course, when administrative policies are potentially conflict with the law, an immediate red flag should be raised.

If an administrator does not have the authority to resolve…… [Read More]

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Fugitive Crosses His Tracks The

Words: 1849 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 15033932

The workers of Jante are in a kind of 'perfect prison' where they self-monitor themselves, and one another's behavior for deviation. Deviance, social unrest, resistance to authority -- even challenging the factory owner who oppresses them -- is seen as getting too big for one's britches and a violation of Jante Law. A true Marxist would hope that a worker would be outraged at the behavior of the factory owner, and his actions towards Espen's family. However, a Jante resident is more apt to be angry at Espen's mother for wanting to improve her home, or daring to ask for a gift from the factory owner that others were not receiving. Despite the catastrophically low wages of all of the residents, the workers ineffectually blame one another, and make a virtue out of their own unnecessary suffering.

This focus upon the purely personal at the expense of real social change…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Sandemose, Aksel. A Fugitive Crosses His Tracks. Knopf, 1936.
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Kinesthetic Intelligence -- and Kinesthetic

Words: 8911 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 31580267

Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."

Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.

Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.

It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…… [Read More]

Sternberg, R.J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Trudeau, F. & Shephard, R. (2008) Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 5: 10.

Vyse, Stuart (2005). Where do fads come from? In Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick. Controversial therapies for developmental disabilities. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
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Internationalization Education

Words: 1124 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 26479278

" (Turnpin et al., 327)

Most assuredly, this reflects Australia's view on the matter, which proceed from an interest in remaining educationally commensurate to both members of the developing world in Europe, Asia and North America, but also on pace with the rapid advancements occurring in Southeast Asia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Australia's role as a leader of globalization in the South Pacific region denotes its responsibility to respond to the challenging of opening up to its neighbors and of acknowledging the strides uniquely made by said neighbors. As Turnpin et al. contend, the realities in the larger global economy are also considerations of tantamount importance in the current scheme of education. Accordingly, the article by Turnpin et al. indicates that "universities operate in environments where knowledge and intellectual property are critical factors in economic development. Increasing global competition has meant that innovation, marketing, standard setting, quality control and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT). (2005). Education Without Borders: International Trade In Education. Australian Government.

Knight, J. (1999). Quality and Internationalisation in Higher Education. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Leask, B. (2003). Beyond the Numbers-Levels and Layers of Internationalisation to utilize and support growth and diversity. 17th IDP Australian International Education Conference.

Turpin, T.; Iredale, R. & Crinnion, P. (2002). The Internationalization of Higher Education-Implications for Australia and Its Education. Minerva, 40, 327-340.
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Gay Rights Today's Civil Rights

Words: 1586 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 4740346

e are supported in this by a statement which Justice Kennedy made during a 2003 Supreme Court case on the subject, wherein the Justice observed that "gay people have a 'liberty under the Due Process Clause [that] gives them the full right to engage in [intimate] conduct without intervention of the government.'

No matter how unpopular a group's sexual norms, he explained, the government may not 'demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.'" (Masci, 1) This would essentially acknowledge that discrimination against the rights of homosexuals qualifies as a form of civil rights violation, strengthening the legal precedent now becoming an ever greater likelihood. Those parties who have objected have also shown a great deal of resolve, as suggested by their victory in the typically left-leaning state of California. Primarily, this denotes that on both sides of the issue, parties are politically…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Anitel, S. (2007). Gays' Discrimination at the Workplace Decreases Productivity.

Softpedia. Online at 

Head, T. (2006). Workplace Discrimination. About: Civil Liberties.

Masci, D. (2008). An overview of the same-sex marriage debate. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. Online at
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Teaching and Learning Review of

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 95626155

Learning strategies do this inherently by focusing on the student and his or her capacity to learn rather than by what methods the teacher chooses to teach. Because this study was done during the dawn of learning strategies, the paper takes the form of a literature review rather than primary research. As such, the data is presented in the form of findings. The authors provide a definitive definition of learning strategies as well as giving a list of types of learning strategies that students have been known to employ and that the research to this date finds credible. Based on this, the authors conclude that teachers need to assist students with how to learn in addition to what to learn. They similarly conclude that as research into the strategies continues, they will be likely to affect and grow the implications of learning strategies.

Although the authors are correct that the…… [Read More]


Weinstein, C.E. & Mayer, R.E. (1983). The Teaching of Learning Strategies. Innovative Abstracts. 5.32, pp. 1-4.
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History of Healthcare in the

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 7178250

By 1935, during the Presidency of Franklin oosevelt, the Social Security Act, "one of the great landmarks in the history of healthcare legislation in the United States" (Couchman, 2001, p. 245), prompted the government to accept some responsibility for the future security of the aged, the handicapped and the unemployed as it relates to healthcare needs. In 1939, the oosevelt Administration also introduced the Wagner National Health Act which "gave general support for a national health program to be funded by federal grants to states and administered by states and localities" ("A

Brief History," 2009, Internet); however, due to a rapid decline in progressivism and the costs linked to World War I, this act failed to create a national healthcare agenda.

In 1943, the federal government finally came to acknowledge that healthcare was a major national priority which soon led to the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill which called for "compulsory national health…… [Read More]


"A Brief History: Universal Healthcare Efforts in the U.S." (2009). PNHP. Internet.

Accessed June 15, 2009 from .

Anderson, William H. (2006). The U.S. Healthcare Dilemma: Mirrors and Chains.

New York: Auburn House.
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Lesbianism as a Social and

Words: 1292 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 47443950

This may allow room for evaluation of the gender role conflicts which must naturally enter into this conversation. Where so many validate gender roles according to sexuality, this discussion of lesbian and feminist identity yields something of a less certain correlation. Rather, by an inclination to overcome the limitations imposed upon the female identity, there are distinctive characteristics which have been adopted by some within the lesbian community distinguishing these as apolitical-social lesbians. Driven by personal identification, and therefore required to pursue a social agenda which contrasts with mainstream conventions, apolitical-social lesbians may or may not be distinguishable by observable gender-role characteristics. However, in cases where such distinctions can be drawn due simply to a subversion of assumed gender rolls, the "butch" lesbian can be identified by a presentation of historically accepted male characteristics of identity. As outliers to the standards for gender-orientation normalcy, such lesbians are easily targeted for…… [Read More]


Ardill, S. & O'Sullivan, S. (1987). Upsetting the Applecart: Difference, Desire and Lesbian Sadomasochism in Sexuality: A Reader. Feminist Review London: Virago Press.

Butler, J. (1991). Imitation and Gender Insubordination. Inside/Out: Lesbian

Theories, Gay Theories. ed. Diana Fuss. New York: Routledge
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Hobbes and the Intercession of

Words: 3820 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99261003

The second part of this book introduces the more central aspect of his argument's epistemological motive, with the prescription for proper leadership extending from a view that is ethically, intellectually and socially instructed. e can easily detect here the strands of ideology which would be invested into Hobbes view many centuries hence. This is to say that at the crux of his argument, Plato writes that "until philosophers are kings, or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy, and political greatness and wisdom meet in one, and those commoner natures who pursue either to the exclusion of the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will never have rest from their evils." (Plato, Book V) in subsequent explanation, he determines that a virtuous ruler will ultimately find the right to rule his people as a consequence of his worthiness to lead the greater…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hobbes, Thomas. (1651). Leviathan. Project Gutenberg. Online at

Plato. (360 B.C.E.) the Republic. The Internet Classics Archive. Online at .
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Authentic Assessments Are a Progressive

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 84919354

Under the Act, educational professionals work within the existing institutional framework. Teaching is still an authoritarian model rather than being student-centered. Learning is assessed using the measures that have failed many children in the past. Instead of changing the methods of teaching and assessment, the No Child Left Behind Act bolsters them.

A far cry from progressive education, No Child Left Behind has become highly controversial and in need of reform. Progressives from all sorts of political and ideological backgrounds can appreciate the need to move away from No Child Left Behind and toward true educational inclusiveness.

4. Educating the whole child is a term used widely in Montessori, which is a progressive philosophy of education. The whole child theory assumes that children are naturally curious and eager to learn (the Montessori School). Moreover, the whole child concept takes into account social development as well as academic skills acquisition. Educating…… [Read More]


Foundation for Excellence in Education. Retrieved Jan 29, 2009 at 

Jones, T.S. (nd). Education That Makes a Difference: Success Stories for Conflict Resolution Educators. Conflict Resolution Education Connection. Retrieved Jan 29, 209 at

The Montessori School. "Educating the Whole Child." Retrieved Jan 29, 2009 at

Mueller, J. (2008). What is Authentic Assessment? Retrieved Jan 29, 2009 at
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Temper Lynn Dumenil Modem Temper

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26254639

" Prohibition, the Red Scare, and the Klan were responses to the flapper, reflecting anxieties about newly pluralistic demographics in the form of Mexican and Japanese immigrants as well as Africa-Americans and religious minorities such as Jewish people and Catholics. Many Americans saw modernity, as they conceptualized it, as a curse, not a blessing. The causes of the "Modern Temper were thus a culture clash of old and new, of a reaction to Progressivism as well as a desire to kick up the nation's heels at the end of World War I and a delight at the ability of more individuals to enter the more leisured consumer class. The national focus shifted to private solutions for social problems, such as women's interest in work rather than winning the vote, the Harlem Renaissance's emphasis on literature and newspapers to give Blacks a voice, and the retreat of organized labor and government's…… [Read More]

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Salinas Pri Carlos Salinas De

Words: 6480 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47465403

This, of course, would represent one aspect of the resentment served to Salinas. The other aspect would be the significant impact of the economic crisis and the continued devaluation of the Peso. These things reflected on the ineptitude of a party seldom challenged as it should have been.

To most, the failures effecting the whole of the nation had marked the need for a hastening of democratic reform, which would in turn reflect quite negatively on the candidacy of the PRI candidate. In an article dated to 1988, it was characterized thusly, with report stating that "the Institutional Revolutionary Party on Sunday designated Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the budget and planning secretary in the present government, to be its presidential nominee. Getting the nomination is tantamount to being named president. The PRI, as the party is universally called here after its Spanish initials, has ruled Mexico for six decades. As…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Associated Press (AP). (1987). Inflation up 159% in Mexico. The Dallas Morning News.

Bruhn, K. (1997). Taking on Goliath: The emergence of a New Left Party and the Struggle. Penn State Press.

Camin, H.A. & Meyer, L. (1993). In the shadow of the Mexican Revolution.

Daria, J. & Santamaria, D. (2006). Oaxaca Under a State of Repression. The Narco News Bulletin. Online at
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Western Civ the Concept of

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66266289

Asian, African and other non-white cultures were to be subjected to military, governmental, economic and missionary domination in order to help raise the world's positive reflection of the implied benefits of Western Civilization.

The absence of truly formal correlation between Western Culture and any one culture has become more apparent in the last century especially. During the Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, the idea of West vs. East became inextricably linked to a new conception of nation-building. Here, imperialist models were adapted which saw the two forms of government and lifestyle (i.e. capitalism and communism) engage in an effort at global domination of ideology and economic framework. The premise which drove forward the United States and its allies was this adopted notion of Western Civilization as reflecting modernity, moral progressivism and an inherent dispensation of Enlightenment principles.

Naturally, as memory of such Cold War…… [Read More]

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Southern Economy Culture and Politics

Words: 1678 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37146565

Southern culture was reconfigured by blues, jazz, gospel, and country music, the stirring of modern literature, the spread of popular sports and amusements, and the birth of new religious dominations....Things were seldom as simple as they appeared to later generations, for Southerners of every rank confronted the dilemmas brought by new opportunities and constraints. Many kinds of power operated in the South, some built on coercion and others built on persuasion, some consented to and some challenged, some private and some public.

Ayers vii)

In many ways the resolution of the conflict sin southern society, which had been entrenched by fear, based legal actions began their resolution at the beginning of I, when the need for soldiers, of all colors began to make both black and white question foundational issues of character and ability. I also began a trend of employing blacks in jobs they had not previously done, by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ayers, Edward L. Southern Crossing: A History of the American South, 1877-1906 / . New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Duignan, Peter, and Clarence Clendenen. The United States and the African Slave Trade, 1619-1862. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1963.

Rawley, James a. Turning Points of the Civil War. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

Slavery." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2007. Questia. 15 Mar. 2008
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Education Recent Literature Reveals a

Words: 1394 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36503763

Whatever biases remain in public education can be removed, because the belief in equal opportunity has prevailed.

Standardized testing offers the only known way to ensure admissions to universities are based more on merit than on social class. In spite of their limitations, standardized tests do offer the only means to assess scholastic aptitude. A merit-based admissions procedure contributes to the betterment of society by offering educational opportunities to citizens who would be otherwise denied them. Upward social mobility and the ability to participate fully in the political process are possible outcomes of a merit-based educational system.

Effective educators understand the cultural contexts in which they work. In "Culture of Youth and How it Affects Learning," we saw how educators need to work hard to understand youth culture. To relate to their students, teachers must find common ground. Learning the language and values their students use out of the classroom…… [Read More]

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Educational Theory and Philosophy in

Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21973033

Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]


Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.

Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.

Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
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Urban Govt Over a Century

Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84839316

Patronage jobs allowed local and regional businesses to flourish, offered political viability for minority groups, and ensured welfare services that state or federal funding would not have provided.

However, urban machines also colluded with organized crime, created impenetrable legacies of city boss cabals, and fomented corruption. Voters cast ballots based on the spoils system, diminishing the relevance of democratic freedoms. The patronage system also boosted special interests and prevented businesses from thriving independently of the machine. Around the 1920s, muckrakers began exposing the inner workings of the urban machine. Progressive politicians championed legitimate social welfare reform at the local level, speaking out against government corruption and collusion with big business (Caswell 2001).

The Progressive movement helped to eliminate or at least to diminish the scope of urban machine governments, even though Chicago's would persist well into the 1970s. In other cities like New York and Boston, the strong mayor system…… [Read More]


Biles, R. "Machine Politics." (2004). The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at 

Caswell, T. (2001). "Progressive Era Reform." Regents Prep: U.S. History. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at 

Stave, B.M. (nd). "Urban Bosses and Machine Politics." Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at 

Urban Political Machines." (2007). Digital History. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at
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Chocolat There Is No Better

Words: 4622 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50575299

Clarence-Smith 6)

In so doing the commodity market and global trade developed a new history for chocolate, one that makes it a very fitting liberator in the small French village depicted in the film.

This new history is a story of sweetness and power, that is, the power to define what constitutes refined taste (Mintz 1985). All these accounts relate how Spanish nuns or monks were the first to domesticate a bitter, cold drink judged to be "more fit for pigs than for human consumption" (compare Constant 1988, 29; Robert 1990, 20). Chocolate was supposedly tamed by adding heat, sugar, and more refined flavorings such as vanilla, cinnamon, amber, and musk. This triumphant transformation heralded the introduction of chocolate to European nobles at court. "Hot, flavored, sweet; virtually nothing recalled its savage origins and, throughout the seventeenth century, the brown ambrosia would attract new followers" (Schiaffino and Cluizel 1988, 18).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barrette, Gene. "Spiritual Direction in the Roman Catholic Tradition." Journal of Psychology and Theology 30.4 (2002): 290.

Charlie's Chocolate Fact-Ory; SOME TASTY FACTS ON OUR FAVOURITE SNACK 2 ozs Can Kill a Dog Was Once a Medicine 400 Beans Make 1lb It Speeds Heartbeat." The People (London, England) 17 July 2005: 24.

Jacobs, Robert N. Chocolat, Movie, 2000.

Clarence-Smith, William Gervase. Cocoa and Chocolate, 1765-1914. London: Routledge, 2000.
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Hindu Buddha the Distinctly Eastern

Words: 823 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42106290

This provided a pathway for spirituality to the early Vedic thinkers. For these founding ideologists, this pathway led to the notion that there are multiple deistic beings which can occupy all manner of space and mental plane, a sharp-departure from the 'ethical monotheism' that underscores most western religious traditions.

This, perhaps, more than any other quality, helps to illustrate the common ground between Hinduism and Buddhism, which Prothero goes to even greater lengths to show are distinctly eastern in their theological orientation. Due to its origins in India, Buddhism was perceived in its earliest form by many as a mere sect of Hindu rather than a philosophy of its own foundations. Its practitioners, leading into the Common Era, were a statistically modest population of Indians who placed a spiritual emphasis "on experience over belief. Buddhism never had a creed or catechism until the American convert Henry Steel Olcott decided in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Neusner, J. (2003). World Religions in America. Westminster John Knox Press.

Prothero, S. (2010). God Is Not One: The Eight Rival Religions the Run the World. HarperOne.
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Ad to Present the Civil

Words: 3003 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 24463986

S. responded to the Great Depression by electing FDR, who brought out his Alphabet Programs which were supposed to put the nation back to work with public works projects. When that failed to restore the economy, the world elected to start with a new war: WWII. Germany had been buried by the Western powers following WWI -- and now the country threatened to assert itself once more. Russia was in the middle of its own revolution: Stalin was liquidating the kulaks and rounding others up and shipping them off to the Gulag. That did not help Russia's economy any more than FDR's Alphabet program -- but it did not matter: war was on the horizon. Japan was being strangled by Western powers: the American military-industrial-congressional complex essentially forced Japan to attack -- and then sat back and let it happen when Japan finally decided to bomb Pearl Harbor. Thus, America…… [Read More]

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Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression in

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 60594203

Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression

In recent years, a debate has arisen regarding the extent of Herbert Hoover's progressive and Keynesian leanings, with conservative historians suggesting that Hoover may have been less of an advocate for laissez -faire capitalism than was commonly believed during his lifetime. Ideologues such as Amity Shlaes and Murray Rothbard have suggested that Hoover was a closet statist and New Dealer, and that ranklin Roosevelt simply continued many of these policies in a natural progression. On the other hand, liberal and mainstream historians have generally accepted the idea that Hoover was perhaps a more activist president than his earlier reputation may have indicated, but disagree with conservative historians as to the extent of Hoover's progressive inclinations. They argue that Hoover's retreat from laissez-faire policies was too little, too late, and ultimately inadequate to deal with the severity of the economic crisis, a position in direct…… [Read More]

From the start, Hoover urged industry not to lay off workers and maintain their 1929 levels of employment, although this eventually proved impossible as the economy continued its downward spiral. At first, Hoover remained an orthodox proponent of balanced budgets and the gold standards, unlike FDR, who abandoned gold in 1934. His Federal Reserve was also slow to respond to the crash and actually seemed to be determined to control inflation by raising interest rates, although this led to a severe contraction of the money supply, which fell by one-third in 1931 alone. As prices and credit continued to collapse, wages fell over 50% in 1928-32, while agricultural prices sunk below the cost of production by 1933.

(This last detail must have been especially galling to Hoover, considering his time spent as Commerce Secretary and his previous belief that government intervention in the agricultural industry was beyond the pale.)

Hoover was known as a humanitarian and compassionate man, and both traits were attributed to his Quaker background. In private he would literally end up crying at his desk in the White House after reading desperate letters from hungry and unemployed citizens. Furthermore, he lamented the fact that the shantytowns that grew up around all major cities during the Depression were called 'Hoovervilles' and his inability to end the economic crisis, but he was unable to translate this
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Delgado A Rios S J &

Words: 1392 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50953030

The articles mentions that Certainly Clark's (1958) book on the nonconformity of adult education in the Los Angeles public school system expressed to a lot of adult educators. His subjects still go on to this present day as people are becoming disturbed concerning the situation regarding adult education in the "parent" organizations in which it is implanted. This apprehension with the average "get a move on" of politics is observed by most adult educators that are spending more than 24 hours in the area; it is stressed by Thomas (1991 ) when he discusses "In repetition how adult education is basically all about politics," (Cervero, R.M., & ilson, a.L. 1999). The article mentions how Griffith (1976) discovered in his reassessment of the information on adult education and politics, nevertheless, "there are not many articles that really deal with political insight and actions of adult educators that can be discovered in…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Cervero, R.M., & Wilson, a.L. (1999). Beyond learner-centered practice: Adult education, power, and society. The Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 13(2), 27-38.

Delgado, a., Rios, S.J., & Roberts, N. (2006). Philosophical foundations of adult education. New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development, 20(3), 43-46.

Stein, D.S. (2006). Establishing conceptual boundaries: What is an adult education project? New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development, 20(1), 32-42.

Townsend, R. (2008). Adult education, social inclusion and cultural diversity in regional communities. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 48(1), 71-92.
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Outsourcing Corrections Facilities

Words: 1966 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65070197

industrialized nation in the world has a higher percentage of its population residing in its prison than the United States (Liptak). This fact has witnessed a corresponding increase in the cost of housing and caring for the incarcerated which has correspondingly raised the public concerns for these costs. This combination has spurred conversation relative to how to address both issues and one of the methods suggested is the possible privatization of the corrections system.

The advantages and disadvantages of privatization have been debated for years and many view privatization as new and unique method for managing the corrections system; however, privatization has a long history in the United States (Perrone). Private management of prisons has been attempted at several points in America's history but was actually abandoned during the early years of the twentieth century. One of the primary reasons for its being abandoned was the Convict Leasing System that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Liptak, Adam. "U.S. prison population dwarfs that of other nations." New York Times 23 April 2008: A1.

Morris, John C. "Government and Market Pathologies of Privatization: The Case of Prison Privatization." Politics & Policy (2007): 318-341.

Nicholson-Crotty, Sean. "The Politics and Adminstration of Privatization: Contracting Out for Corrections Management in the United States." Policy Studies Journal (2004): 41-57.

Perrone, Dina. "Comparing the Quality of Confinement and Cost-Effectiveness of Public vs. Private Prisons: What We Know, Why We Do Not Know More, and Where to Go From Here." The Prison Journal (2003): 301-322.
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Goldberger's War

Words: 1653 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1215052


Early 20th century saw the outbreak of a deadly mysterious disease, pellagra that could cause anything from fever to dementia to death. The disease that had killed over 100,000 people by the end of 1914 was shrouded in deep mystery because of the fact that the epidemic was largely limited to the South and was exclusively affecting the peasant class. It was indeed a poor man's disease and conventional wisdom suggested it had something to do with sanitary conditions.

"Pellagra, a classic dietary deficiency disease caused by insufficient niacin, was noted in the South after the Civil War. Then considered infectious, it was known as the disease of the four Ds: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. The first outbreak was reported in 1907. In 1909, more than 1000 cases were estimated based on reports from 13 states. One year later, approximately 3000 cases were suspected nationwide based on…… [Read More]


1. Etheridge EW. The Butterfly Caste: A Social History of Pellagra in the South. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Company; 1972.

2. Harkness Jon M. Prisoners and pellagra, Public Health Reports; 9/1/1996;

3. Kraut, A.M. 2003. Goldberger's war: the life and work of a public health crusader. Hill and Wang. New York, New York, USA.

4. Roth, J. Goldberger's war:The life and work of a public health crusader -- Journal of Clinical Investigation 113 (5):650 2004
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Franklin D Roosevelt

Words: 1616 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9414453

illiam Leuchtenburg's Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal is a text that combines recent American history with a political and sociological analysis of American policy and government, and adds a healthy dose of biography of the president to give the mixture human drama. Leuchtenburg is able to accomplish this literary feat not simply because he is such a skilled historian, but because Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his cabinet exercised a unique degree of power over the American economy of his day. America was in an economic crisis when Roosevelt came to be elected the presidency. To remedy this crisis, Roosevelt essentially had to overhaul the American system of government and the relationship of the federal government to the citizenry. He created the modern social welfare system, the concept of the 'safety net' for the needy, and a sense of government's social obligations as well as a citizen's obligations to…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Leuchtenburg, William. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Perennial, 1963.