When placed within a historical context, Progressivism was truly progressive for its willingness to embrace change while preserving human rights and social justice.
Progressivism did not address all aspects of social justice and human rights, however. The movement failed to acknowledge racism and the abject failure of Reconstruction to have dealt with the legacy of slavery. Progressivism focused on urban issues often by neglecting the needs of Americans who still lived in rural regions. Moreover, many progressive politicians opposed liberal immigration policies and especially targeted aspiring immigrants not from Western Europe. Perhaps the most insipid manifestation of progressivism's ironic backwardness was the fact that many progressive leaders supported social Darwinian ideals and were outspokenly racist. Progressivism made great inroads in preparing the United States for its role as a world superpower. At the same time the movement revealed disturbing trends in the American consciousness that continue to plague the nation…… [Read More]
hile Roosevelt felt that the private sector, influenced by progressive ideas, could reform American society, ilson wanted a more active role by the government and feared that the private sector, or "the combined power of high finance would be greater than the power of the government." (ilson) on the other hand was the least radical of all the progressives discussed: Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt's idea of progressivism, discussed in the 1910 article "The New Nationalism," was a private sector that remained capitalist, but under the influence of the government. For instance, while ilson wanted to destroy monopolies, which he felt were undermining the capitalist system, Roosevelt wanted to regulate them for "the interests of the public welfare." (Roosevelt)
During the 20th century, American society did not completely transform in the way that either Debs or Croly predicted it would, but vacillated back in forth between the progressive ideas of ilson and…… [Read More]
TESOL Weekly eflection
I think that post-modern thought can be both good and bad (helpful and problematic) in terms of its impact on education today. For example, it can be helpful in the sense that it rejects or counters the modernist view (situated in the Enlightenment) that pure eason can find an answer to all life's mysteries (Knight, 2008). Post-modernism points out that humans are often irrational in their thoughts and actions and that the subjective experience of the person is really all anyone knows. While I disagree with this point that subjectivity is all anyone knows, I view it is a helpful way to counter the emphasis on pure eason. At the same time it can be harmful if it is allowed to displace objectivity and truth completely. The post-modern perspective suggests that there is no real truth or at least no real way to it. I think this…… [Read More]
Progressivism flowered in the first two decades of the 20th century for a number of different reasons. First, there was a national pushback by the Populists against immigration (and the ethnic Europeans—i.e., Catholics—who were coming to America and bringing their non-Protestant views and behaviors with them). This led to a crackdown on “vice” such as drinking alcohol, which led to Prohibition (and, ironically, the rise of crime—bootlegging—among gangsters), and unjust working conditions. To be fair, the working conditions at the turn of the century were not great. As Chapter 22 shows, many workers faced conditions like these: “twelve-hour days in stifling, crowded workrooms, weekly paychecks of only $3 to $15, fines for the tiniest mistakes, deductions for needle and thread, even for electricity,” and so on (p. 593). Progressivism at home was thus a reaction against the ills of society—from corruption in politics (as seen in Tammany Hall in NYC)…… [Read More]
targets of the "muckrakers" of the late 19th and early 20th centuries? How did the concept of "social justice" fit into these reform movements?
Muckrakers were progressive journalists and authors who targeted corrupt capitalists, like the meat manufactures of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and the railroad owners of Sinclair's novel The Octopus. Also, cartoonists such as Thomas Nash targeted corrupt machine politicians, such as Tammany Hall's Boss Tweed, and photographer Jacob Riis took photographs of impoverished immigrants in urban tenements. Justice for the ordinary person against the machine, as both a laborer and an electoral voice was the conceptual impetus behind both of these branches of the muckraking movement's authors and graphic artists.
How did the role of women begin to change during this time period? hat impetus helped to encourage this change? hy do you think it took so long for women's suffrage to be realized?
It was argued…… [Read More]
Now we have examined two extremes in educational thought that have developed over the past century. Teacher centered and student centered philosophies differ significantly in their approach to the student-teacher relationship. Teacher centered philosophy does not depend on the student's wants and needs at all. Teacher centered philosophy uses antiquated methods, such as rote learning. However, these methods are quickly being replaced by a more student-centered approach. Student centered approaches to learning are an important part of the new technologically advanced society. The following will explore the role of student-centered philosophies in the emerging technological tends
Teaching Philosophies and the Changing Society
The emphasis of essentialism and perennialism is on standardization and the learning of material. This style of learning is authoritarian and disciplinarian. The study is acted upon and has no choice or preference in the material or the method by which they choose to learn it. They are…… [Read More]
("Progressives in Power," the California Historical Society, 2004)
Next, the elected progressives enacted the first system of workers' compensation, which made employers liable for industrial accidents that harmed their workers. Employers had not been liable for this in the past. Before, injured workers were simply left to their own devices, so employers had no incentive to spend the money to help workers that their unsafe factories had maimed. The state legislature adopted an eight-hour workday for women in 1911, and, two years later, as the result of lobbying efforts by worker's rights progressive activist Katherine Philips Edson, the state legislature passed a law creating a minimum wage for women and child workers. ("Progressives in Power," the California Historical Society, 2004)
The progressive rule in California also changed the structure of the state government. For the first time, Californians could directly create laws or constitutional amendments through a motion known as…… [Read More]
Jeffrey a. Daniels, C. Bradley, Daniel P. Cramer, Amy inlker, Kisha Kinebrew, and Deleska Crockett interviewed a counselor that dealt with a difficult hostage taking situation and talked the student involved into surrendering. Apparently, counselors are most qualified to deal successfully in this kind of situations.
Article critiques," written by Susan Student, examines several papers by counselors who touch the relationship between man and computer, which is taking dramatic proportions. The article is written in order to make counselors more aware of their present situation and it is supposed to emphasize the responsibilities that counselors have.
Sullivan, J. Engeland, J. (2008). Educational Theories.
Moyer, M. Sullivan, J. Student Risk-Taking Behaviors:hen Do School Counselors
Davis, T. Elementary and Middle Level Counselors' Courtroom Hearing.
Daniels, a.J., Bradley, M.C., Cramer D.P., inkler, a., Kinebrew, K., Crockett, D. In the Aftermath of a School Hostage Event: A Case Study of…… [Read More]
Theodore Roosevelt in this sense tried to tackle the issue by intervening for the miners, for instance. However, an essential idea is related to the desire of the government to increase its power and intervention possibilities in order to better control the corporations that were created as a result of the industrialization process. These were sources of constant impoverishment for the population (Pease, 1962, 163-5).
However, the population reacted in a different way than expected by the political actors. Indeed, from the point-of-view of the labor unions, their number increased and a certain collective mentality was formed, one which allowed them to further fight for the rights of the employee (Pease, 1962). Even so, there were individuals who reacted negatively considering that the Progressive Era was in fact a socialist perception of the economy, rather than a means to create progress for the population in the country.
The forces which…… [Read More]
motivated progressives and how they began to use the government as a moral agent for change and the impact of Progressivism upon society and government during the early decades of the 20th century. The central question that will be addressed will be to answer to what extent he Progressive Era was actually progressive. In particular, we will pay attention to the limits of progressive reforms in the history of the United States. Progressives fought for such issues as women's suffrage and better labor and health regulations (Rodgers, 1982, 115).
Progressivism in America was a broad-based movement for reform that reached its apogee in the early 20th century. hile reformist in nature, it was middle class. It grew in response to the changes brought on by industrialism, modernization (for example the rise of the railroads) and corruption in American politics. Largely, it grew in response to tragedies such as the Triangle…… [Read More]
During the turn of the century, maverick muckraking journalists dug up dirt on unfair labor practices including the use of child labor. Muckrakers also drew attention to unsanitary working conditions and the lack of systematic health regulations in meat and food production. President oosevelt responded by initiating a series of labor-related legislation including the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. However, oosevelt at the same time publicly denounced muckrakers and lent them their derogatory name. oosevelt's passion for environmental conservation reflected his personal interests and beliefs more than it did the results of investigative journalism. Environmental conservation emerged as of the main issues that distinguished the progressivism of oosevelt and that of Wilson.
Presidents oosevelt and Wilson transformed the role of the federal government in the United States. Both wielded their executive powers to protect the rights of the poor and working class, to abolish some of the powers…… [Read More]
The progressivist philosophy of culture, which posits that advancements in science, technology, social, and economic development are crucial in the development of advanced societies, and that societies advance from a state of barbarism toward a more civilized state, is evident in the modes of display of some of the most popular museums in the world. These museums, The Louvre in Paris, Pitt Rivers in Oxford, and the Smithsonian in D.C., use the progressivist ideology to promote both a cultural theory and a strident nationalism rooted in the belief that its citizens are advancing towards the promise of a better tomorrow. This paper will show how these museums do so.
As Andrew McClellan states, "the public for art is diverse and divided by interests and levels of knowledge."
Appealing to and uniting these diverse interests is what a progressivist museum must do in order to guide its public to…… [Read More]
The passing of time does not necessarily denote progress: women made little noticeable social and economic advancement and almost no political or legal advancements between the European settlements of Jamestown in 1607 until the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In fact, most Native American women lost a considerable degree of power and status due to the imposition of European social values on their traditional cultures. African women, brought to the New World against their will and in bondage, likewise did not enjoy the fruits of social progress. White women of European descent, however, did make some progress over the course of more than two centuries of early American history. Divorce laws became more favorable toward women, who over the course of these few centuries were increasingly able to extricate themselves from violent, abusive, or unsatisfying unions. However, divorce laws were one of the only legal progress…… [Read More]
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…… [Read More]
This section lists, in paticula detail, the many pimay and seconday souces he used to ceate his wok. Most inteestingly, the autho begins by pointing out that he was himself subject to the pejudice and suspicion aimed at newly aived immigants when he aived on Ameican shoes fom Gemany with his paents. He theefoe has fist-hand expeience of both being at both ends of the immigation phenomenon. Once he and his family wee thooughly integated into Ameican cultue, the autho acknowledges that he was evey bit as pejudiced against new aivals as his native-bon countepats. In addition to fist-hand expeience, Schag also notes that he has been witing on the subject of immigation fo decades. Much of the mateial he used fo his eseach duing these yeas also seves as basis fo the book. In addition, Schag is vey specific when listing the souces he uses as a basis fo…… [Read More]
Branches of the Government
In 1787 leaders of the different states sat down to write down the constitution whereby the first section described the separation of the federal government. These three branches of the government are; legislative branch, executive branch and judicial branch.
Legislative branch consist of two houses of congress; the senate and the House of epresentatives .the senate comprises of 100 members from each of the states who are elected in their states in a term that is six years long. The head of the senate is the Vice president but has no voting power. The senate approves the nominations that have been made by the Supreme Court, president of the cabinet, federal courts among other posts. On the other hand, the house of representatives comprises of 435 members with these numbers varying in every state depending on the population. The most important duty of this branch of…… [Read More]
e speak of the "Principles of Professional Conduct" (PPC) that most educational institutions present to employees (and sometimes students) regardless of their station in life or their position within the educational community. In the case of Ball State University in Ohio, the opening paragraph of its "Principles for Professional Conduct for Career Services & Employment Professionals" points out why the career services and employment professionals are obliged to follow the PPC.
The point made by Ball State's PPC is that employees are in a "partnership effort" with the "common goal of achieving the best match between the individual student" and the institution. Others involved include all faculty, staff, community members, students and prospective students as well. The National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) actually developed the PPC for universities and colleges, with an eye towards helping students with career planning, placement, and recruitment." The NACE puts forward the following…… [Read More]
The bungalow style was a major influence in the drastic change of American society and how people lived. It influenced a major shift in gender role of women in society, creating easier housekeeping techniques and greater employment and career opportunities for women by confronting economic and social issues in society using domestic architecture. The simpler home design expressed many tensions of Progressivism in attempting to solve social issues of the time. The transformation brought about new ideas as well as fears that had to be confronted.
The spread of factories from the industrial age left anxiety concerning the loss of independence and masculinity. The middle class population was becoming salaried workers, loosing economic and moral independence. The Progressive Era had created a deep desire to reshape institutions and values as well as faith to reform the people. At the same time, the Arts and Crafts Movement grew in…… [Read More]
" (Montessori, 9) There is a counter-intuitive disconnect between the priorities of the educational system and the real-life demands of individuals attempting to function ably therein.
Here, Montessori speaks to the incredible irony present even in higher education, where students are essentially intended to be prepared for the real world but are instead isolated in a false environment where priorities such as a streamlined means of graded evaluation, a disregard for the physical or emotional needs of students and an overall proclivity toward isolation from true conditions of worldly socialization tend to misappropriate crucial transitional learning years.
In some regards, Montessori's work is relatively outdated, betraying its origins in the first half of the 20th century by criticizing an absence of services that are now present in many universities. Some of the better funded academic institutions do possess programs availing medical treatment and psychological counseling to students where needed at…… [Read More]
Architect Frank Lloyd right went beyond even Ives's achievements. Sharing affection for the organic ideas of the American Renaissance before the Civil ar and asserting that form and function were one, right developed the Prairie school of architecture. This tried to integrate the design of housing and the land it used and forced Americans to think more carefully about rapid urbanization. In terms of the impact that he had abroad right's work still influences architects and city planners today (Progressive Movement, 2010).
A lot happened during the reform movement all which had some effect on the way that we live today. It changed things in this country on a political, social and economic level that helped this country to progress forward and become what it is today. History provides a wonderful building block upon which we can grow and expand. It gives us the insight into what worked and what…… [Read More]
Age of Reform
The period in American history between the 1890s and the 1920s is often referred to as the Age of Reform. However, the various reform movements during those decades were conflicting and disparate. The three major reform movements in the United States during this time included populism, progressivism, and the New Deal ("The Age of Reform"). Each of these movements had its own agenda and ideology, and its own vision for America's future.
Populism was the bastion of the agricultural workers. As the Industrial Revolution and estward expansion increasingly encroached on farmland in America, those who earned their living through agriculture found themselves weakened economically and politically. Fearful that industrialism would completely threaten their livelihood and infringe on their political rights, agrarian workers organized in a populist movement to challenge what they viewed as the rise of urban elite. Therefore, the populist reform period was characterized mainly by…… [Read More]
American history as a radical and revolutionary society. Specifically, it will discuss the works of "The Jungle," by Upton Sinclair, and "Coming of Age in Mississippi," by Anne Moody. Radical reform and revolutionary ideas are at the very foundation of our freedom in America, and this tradition of freedom of speech and rebellion has continued from 1865 onward in our society. There has always been dissention and disagreement in our history, however, our freedom gives us the right to disagree, rebel, revolt, and share our radical ideas - which often lead to reform, understanding, and a better life for all Americans.
In 1865, the nation had just lived through a Civil ar that divided the nation, families, and races. Now, America was ready to move on, but there were still issues dividing the nation - issues that would continue to foster revolution and radicalism, and bring out the…… [Read More]
Progressivism began as a social movement and evolved into a political movement, according to materials published by George Washington University (www.gwu.edu). Early in the social movement progressives were concerned about poverty, racism, greed and "class warfare," and they believed that those problems could be best addressed through education, a safer environment, and a workplace that was fair and safe (www.gwu.edu). Who were those considered to be progressives? The George Washington University narrative explains that they live "mostly in the cities," they had graduated from colleges and universities, and their beliefs included the belief that "…government could be a tool for change" -- and among the most vocal and visible social reformers / progressives were Jane Addams and journalists Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbel (www.gwu.edu).
Progressive journalists wrote investigative pieces that exposed "the evils of corporate greed" and they presented a balanced view of immigration and ethnicities, all the time "…urging…… [Read More]
Teaching Philosophy and Educating Students
Traditionally, the focus of education has been the primary "3Rs" -- writing, reading, and arithmetic. ut with ever-growing technological innovation driving universal change, educators need to reconsider whether or not the skills taught in schools truly offer learners the best chance to enjoy success in life, at school, and in the workplace (Sledd, 2015).
From my personal experiences and approaches in the area of education, some things vital to me in the roles of student and teacher are:
Great teachers are kind to everyone around them- students, their parents, coworkers, etc. Kindness truly has a great impact on the school and classroom environment, with students feeling loved, welcomed, and cared for.
The profession of teaching is humanistic. Compassion represents the utmost sense of understanding, as well as showing other people that they are important. Compassionate teachers instill this quality in their pupils through their actions,…… [Read More]
I view education holistically. Students are developing their character and their values in addition to facts and figures. Language learning is a critical component of character development because language mastery enhances cross-cultural communication. A fellow teacher offers a powerful statement on the role of progressivism in the classroom: "In a progressivist classroom, teachers plan lessons to arouse curiosity and push the student to a higher level of knowledge. The students are encouraged to learn by doing and to interact with one another. This develops social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points-of-view," (Wilt 2003). A progressive teaching philosophy acknowledges the persistence and potency of change. Optimism and creativity will motivate my students to achieve, inspiring their curiosity and ability to think critically.
The means by which I will achieve my teaching objectives include the use of proven classroom management techniques, the implantation of creative cooperative learning strategies, and…… [Read More]
19 No. 2, pp 28-37, Available from http://www.cis.org.au/policy/winter03/polwin03-5.pdf[April7, 2008]
Kirk, , 2004, Ten Conservative Principles, the ussell Kirk Center for Cultural enewal, Available from http://www.kirkcenter.org/kirk/ten-principles.html[April7,2008]
Whiteley, P, Seyd, P & ichardson, J, 1994, True Blues: The Politics of Conservative Party Membership, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
The word is derived from the Latin conservare which means to protect, preserve, save
Burkean" doctrine refers to the writings and philosophy of Edmund Burke, an 18th century British statesman who is considered to be the father of Conservatism in much of the Western world
For Burke even "very plausible schemes with very pleasing commencements have often shameful and lamentable consequences" (Quoted by Harries, 2003, p.31)
The Exclusion Bill sought to 'exclude' King Charles' brother from the throne as he had converted to Catholicism the Tories, being strong supporters the king's right of succession and the Anglican Church, opposed the Bill while the Whig Party supported…… [Read More]
The four Educational Philosophies
Essentialism argues that a common core of knowledge needs to be passed to learners in a disciplined and systematic manner. The concentration in this traditional viewpoint is on moral and intellectual standards that academic institutions should educate. The curriculum focuses on knowledge, skills, and academic rigor. Although this academic viewpoint is similar in some ways to Perennialism, Essentialism accepts the idea that this core curriculum may change. Education should be realistic, preparing learners to become useful people in the society. It should concentrate on facts and "the fundamentals," training learners to speak, write, read and think clearly and rationally. Schools must not try to set or influence guidelines. Students should be trained self-discipline, respect for authority, and hard work. Instructors are to help learners keep their non-productive intuition in checks, such as mindlessness or aggression. This strategy was in response to progressivism techniques…… [Read More]
I was able to find funding to send some teachers abroad for training courses and have used technology to connect with educators abroad over the Internet. I have organized workshops to clarify the aims and strategy of the program to teachers, to encourage them to get 'on board' and believe in the curriculum changes.
A child's education must entail more than memorization or even passing standardized exams. Education must open a student's mind, and the teacher is the key to unlock the mystery of a student's inherent gifts. Teachers must guide a child's life and foster every child's innate passion for learning, before the child learns that school is not supposed to be 'cool' or fun. As an instructor of science teachers, I stress that all children are innate experimenters and lovers of science, until the children learn they 'should be' otherwise: it is the mission of every science teacher…… [Read More]
The lack of public support is one of the key factors that resulted to the failure of the U.S. There were false claims that the American government acted against people's aspirations and that the American youth protested against the war. Early initiatives of the United States under Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Truman obtained a lot of support. Only two members of the United States congress voted against giving Johnson the opportunity of waging the war in Vietnam
It was difficult to identify the enemy as Viet Cong merged with locals and only ambushed often at night. American terror campaigns hit their target, but failed to make the North Vietnamese surrender. A small portion of America considered their government as evil as even Walter Cronkite a CBS newscaster raised concern on the effectiveness of pursuing the war
In January 1973, President Nixon signed a truce that officially ended the resentments. Communist forces…… [Read More]
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
The most overt explanation of the author's research problem is when he states: "To argue, as some scholars have, that the first slaves suffered greatly from the enslavement process because it contradicted their 'heroic' warrior tradition, or that it was easier for them because Africans were docile in nature and submissive, is to substitute mythology for history," (p. 4).
The struggles of African slaves are the topic for Blassingame's entire book, and it is impossible to indicate one page number describing all the travails that are detailed in the tome. However, the first chapter of the book does provide examples of the suffering of slaves in Africa, during the transatlantic voyages, and in the New World. Pages 6 and 7 describe in some detail the brutality of the slave boat…… [Read More]
Instead, he chose to preserve the building's countless accretions so as to reflect the evolution of domestic life over three centuries. This approach, which can be seen at many of SPNEA's house museums today, has since become a distinguishing feature of SPNEA's preservation philosophy" (Redfern para. 2).
It was in 1915 that Appleton made his first visit to Newbury's fabled Spencer-Peirce-Little House, where he immediately recognized the importance of this imposing stone mansion. He recognized that the two-story brick porch was unique in New England. He kept in touch with the Little family with some regularity, hoping to secure the preservation of the property. Appleton died in 1947, but his thirty-year relationship with the Little family bore fruit in 1971 when Amelia and Agnes Little arranged for the land, buildings, and furnishings to come to SPNEA when they died (Redfern para. 2).
Norman Morrison Isham
Appleton learned much from Norman…… [Read More]
Writing Guidelines for History Identifications and Essays
Your essay should have an introductory paragraph that in some way summarizes, encapsulates, suggests, shapes, and/or sets up the ideas, themes, facts, or whatever you are going to discuss in the main body of your essay. In other words, you should set forth your thesis.
Here, in the main body of your essay, you should develop the principal ideas and themes, and support them with the appropriate facts. The main body will inevitably be several paragraphs long, perhaps a page or two or more, depending on what you want to say and the amount of material you include. Basically, the main body consists of as many paragraphs as you need to discuss the question at hand.
Also let me note that individual paragraphs generally begin with a topic sentence for that paragraph, follow that by a couple of sentences of development,…… [Read More]
paradox that teaching is not possible without learning. It uses sources in MLA format.
Paulo Freire's quote could be "It is essential therefore, from the very beginning of the process, that the following principle be clear: namely, that although the teachers or the students are not the same, the person in charge of education is being formed or re-formed as he/she teaches, and the person who is being taught forms him/herself in this process. In this sense teaching is not about transferring knowledge or contents. Nor is it an act whereby a creator-subject gives shape, style, or soul to an indecisive and complacent body. There is, in fact, no teaching without learning. One requires the other....Whoever teaches learns in the act of teaching, and whoever learns teaches in the act of learning."
Education reforms in the modern age has become a means to struggle against time. For the Latin American…… [Read More]
Gullett, Gayle. Becoming Citizens: The Emergence and Development of the California Women's Movement, 1880-1911. Women in American History Series. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000.
The women's rights movement is often characterized as a national movement because of its present day context in contemporary history and time. However, Gayle Gullett's book Becoming Citizens: The Emergence and Development of the California Women's Movement, 1880-1911 is instructive in the way that it highlights how the campaign for female suffrage was forced to undergo a series of ideological and structural transformations to achieve a specific goal. Rather than manifesting itself as a pure politics of group solidarity amongst women across class lines, this movement only achieved success, ultimately, when it took on the form of ideologically oriented rather than group-oriented politics, and included men and moderation into its fold.
This was not true of the beginnings of the women's…… [Read More]
The progressive era in American political culture set the stage for President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal. Starting in the 1890s, the Progressive Era drew upon Marxist theory of labor exploitation to help balance unbridled capitalist growth during the Gilded Age of industrial development. Progressivism welcomed social and technological progress both by suggesting reforms in both government and business to reduce corruption and ensure a higher quality of life for all Americans. Two of the progressive political party movements during the turn of the century included the Populist Party and the Bull Moose Party. Progressive values then later became embedded in the platform of the Democratic Party when President Franklin Roosevelt became president.
Some of the specific issues spearheaded by the Progressive movement included labor rights, women's suffrage, and anti-trust laws. During the age of urbanization, the Progressive movement helped to improve what was rapidly becoming deplorable and deteriorating living and…… [Read More]
Chapter 4: Administrative responsibility: The key to administrative ethics
Administrators are responsible for complying with the law -- and also for complying with the administrative responsibilities. Ethics requires a delicate balancing of objective and subjective responsibilities on the part of administrators. All this is easier said than done, of course. The administrator's role is complicated by a network of often conflicting responsibilities -- responsibilities to his or her own ethics, to immediate superiors, to his or her specific agency, to elected officials who speak for the public, and to the public good (which may not always be fully articulated within the desires of public officials) Furthermore, the law is not always clear-cut but it must be an important cornerstone of administrative policies. Of course, when administrative policies are potentially conflict with the law, an immediate red flag should be raised.
If an administrator does not have the authority to resolve…… [Read More]
The workers of Jante are in a kind of 'perfect prison' where they self-monitor themselves, and one another's behavior for deviation. Deviance, social unrest, resistance to authority -- even challenging the factory owner who oppresses them -- is seen as getting too big for one's britches and a violation of Jante Law. A true Marxist would hope that a worker would be outraged at the behavior of the factory owner, and his actions towards Espen's family. However, a Jante resident is more apt to be angry at Espen's mother for wanting to improve her home, or daring to ask for a gift from the factory owner that others were not receiving. Despite the catastrophically low wages of all of the residents, the workers ineffectually blame one another, and make a virtue out of their own unnecessary suffering.
This focus upon the purely personal at the expense of real social change…… [Read More]
Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."
Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.
Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.
It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…… [Read More]
" (Turnpin et al., 327)
Most assuredly, this reflects Australia's view on the matter, which proceed from an interest in remaining educationally commensurate to both members of the developing world in Europe, Asia and North America, but also on pace with the rapid advancements occurring in Southeast Asia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Australia's role as a leader of globalization in the South Pacific region denotes its responsibility to respond to the challenging of opening up to its neighbors and of acknowledging the strides uniquely made by said neighbors. As Turnpin et al. contend, the realities in the larger global economy are also considerations of tantamount importance in the current scheme of education. Accordingly, the article by Turnpin et al. indicates that "universities operate in environments where knowledge and intellectual property are critical factors in economic development. Increasing global competition has meant that innovation, marketing, standard setting, quality control and…… [Read More]
e are supported in this by a statement which Justice Kennedy made during a 2003 Supreme Court case on the subject, wherein the Justice observed that "gay people have a 'liberty under the Due Process Clause [that] gives them the full right to engage in [intimate] conduct without intervention of the government.'
No matter how unpopular a group's sexual norms, he explained, the government may not 'demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.'" (Masci, 1) This would essentially acknowledge that discrimination against the rights of homosexuals qualifies as a form of civil rights violation, strengthening the legal precedent now becoming an ever greater likelihood. Those parties who have objected have also shown a great deal of resolve, as suggested by their victory in the typically left-leaning state of California. Primarily, this denotes that on both sides of the issue, parties are politically…… [Read More]
Learning strategies do this inherently by focusing on the student and his or her capacity to learn rather than by what methods the teacher chooses to teach. Because this study was done during the dawn of learning strategies, the paper takes the form of a literature review rather than primary research. As such, the data is presented in the form of findings. The authors provide a definitive definition of learning strategies as well as giving a list of types of learning strategies that students have been known to employ and that the research to this date finds credible. Based on this, the authors conclude that teachers need to assist students with how to learn in addition to what to learn. They similarly conclude that as research into the strategies continues, they will be likely to affect and grow the implications of learning strategies.
Although the authors are correct that the…… [Read More]
By 1935, during the Presidency of Franklin oosevelt, the Social Security Act, "one of the great landmarks in the history of healthcare legislation in the United States" (Couchman, 2001, p. 245), prompted the government to accept some responsibility for the future security of the aged, the handicapped and the unemployed as it relates to healthcare needs. In 1939, the oosevelt Administration also introduced the Wagner National Health Act which "gave general support for a national health program to be funded by federal grants to states and administered by states and localities" ("A
Brief History," 2009, Internet); however, due to a rapid decline in progressivism and the costs linked to World War I, this act failed to create a national healthcare agenda.
In 1943, the federal government finally came to acknowledge that healthcare was a major national priority which soon led to the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill which called for "compulsory national health…… [Read More]
This may allow room for evaluation of the gender role conflicts which must naturally enter into this conversation. Where so many validate gender roles according to sexuality, this discussion of lesbian and feminist identity yields something of a less certain correlation. Rather, by an inclination to overcome the limitations imposed upon the female identity, there are distinctive characteristics which have been adopted by some within the lesbian community distinguishing these as apolitical-social lesbians. Driven by personal identification, and therefore required to pursue a social agenda which contrasts with mainstream conventions, apolitical-social lesbians may or may not be distinguishable by observable gender-role characteristics. However, in cases where such distinctions can be drawn due simply to a subversion of assumed gender rolls, the "butch" lesbian can be identified by a presentation of historically accepted male characteristics of identity. As outliers to the standards for gender-orientation normalcy, such lesbians are easily targeted for…… [Read More]
The second part of this book introduces the more central aspect of his argument's epistemological motive, with the prescription for proper leadership extending from a view that is ethically, intellectually and socially instructed. e can easily detect here the strands of ideology which would be invested into Hobbes view many centuries hence. This is to say that at the crux of his argument, Plato writes that "until philosophers are kings, or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy, and political greatness and wisdom meet in one, and those commoner natures who pursue either to the exclusion of the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will never have rest from their evils." (Plato, Book V) in subsequent explanation, he determines that a virtuous ruler will ultimately find the right to rule his people as a consequence of his worthiness to lead the greater…… [Read More]
Under the Act, educational professionals work within the existing institutional framework. Teaching is still an authoritarian model rather than being student-centered. Learning is assessed using the measures that have failed many children in the past. Instead of changing the methods of teaching and assessment, the No Child Left Behind Act bolsters them.
A far cry from progressive education, No Child Left Behind has become highly controversial and in need of reform. Progressives from all sorts of political and ideological backgrounds can appreciate the need to move away from No Child Left Behind and toward true educational inclusiveness.
4. Educating the whole child is a term used widely in Montessori, which is a progressive philosophy of education. The whole child theory assumes that children are naturally curious and eager to learn (the Montessori School). Moreover, the whole child concept takes into account social development as well as academic skills acquisition. Educating…… [Read More]
" Prohibition, the Red Scare, and the Klan were responses to the flapper, reflecting anxieties about newly pluralistic demographics in the form of Mexican and Japanese immigrants as well as Africa-Americans and religious minorities such as Jewish people and Catholics. Many Americans saw modernity, as they conceptualized it, as a curse, not a blessing. The causes of the "Modern Temper were thus a culture clash of old and new, of a reaction to Progressivism as well as a desire to kick up the nation's heels at the end of World War I and a delight at the ability of more individuals to enter the more leisured consumer class. The national focus shifted to private solutions for social problems, such as women's interest in work rather than winning the vote, the Harlem Renaissance's emphasis on literature and newspapers to give Blacks a voice, and the retreat of organized labor and government's…… [Read More]
This, of course, would represent one aspect of the resentment served to Salinas. The other aspect would be the significant impact of the economic crisis and the continued devaluation of the Peso. These things reflected on the ineptitude of a party seldom challenged as it should have been.
To most, the failures effecting the whole of the nation had marked the need for a hastening of democratic reform, which would in turn reflect quite negatively on the candidacy of the PRI candidate. In an article dated to 1988, it was characterized thusly, with report stating that "the Institutional Revolutionary Party on Sunday designated Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the budget and planning secretary in the present government, to be its presidential nominee. Getting the nomination is tantamount to being named president. The PRI, as the party is universally called here after its Spanish initials, has ruled Mexico for six decades. As…… [Read More]
Asian, African and other non-white cultures were to be subjected to military, governmental, economic and missionary domination in order to help raise the world's positive reflection of the implied benefits of Western Civilization.
The absence of truly formal correlation between Western Culture and any one culture has become more apparent in the last century especially. During the Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, the idea of West vs. East became inextricably linked to a new conception of nation-building. Here, imperialist models were adapted which saw the two forms of government and lifestyle (i.e. capitalism and communism) engage in an effort at global domination of ideology and economic framework. The premise which drove forward the United States and its allies was this adopted notion of Western Civilization as reflecting modernity, moral progressivism and an inherent dispensation of Enlightenment principles.
Naturally, as memory of such Cold War…… [Read More]
Southern culture was reconfigured by blues, jazz, gospel, and country music, the stirring of modern literature, the spread of popular sports and amusements, and the birth of new religious dominations....Things were seldom as simple as they appeared to later generations, for Southerners of every rank confronted the dilemmas brought by new opportunities and constraints. Many kinds of power operated in the South, some built on coercion and others built on persuasion, some consented to and some challenged, some private and some public.
In many ways the resolution of the conflict sin southern society, which had been entrenched by fear, based legal actions began their resolution at the beginning of I, when the need for soldiers, of all colors began to make both black and white question foundational issues of character and ability. I also began a trend of employing blacks in jobs they had not previously done, by…… [Read More]
Whatever biases remain in public education can be removed, because the belief in equal opportunity has prevailed.
Standardized testing offers the only known way to ensure admissions to universities are based more on merit than on social class. In spite of their limitations, standardized tests do offer the only means to assess scholastic aptitude. A merit-based admissions procedure contributes to the betterment of society by offering educational opportunities to citizens who would be otherwise denied them. Upward social mobility and the ability to participate fully in the political process are possible outcomes of a merit-based educational system.
Effective educators understand the cultural contexts in which they work. In "Culture of Youth and How it Affects Learning," we saw how educators need to work hard to understand youth culture. To relate to their students, teachers must find common ground. Learning the language and values their students use out of the classroom…… [Read More]
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]
Patronage jobs allowed local and regional businesses to flourish, offered political viability for minority groups, and ensured welfare services that state or federal funding would not have provided.
However, urban machines also colluded with organized crime, created impenetrable legacies of city boss cabals, and fomented corruption. Voters cast ballots based on the spoils system, diminishing the relevance of democratic freedoms. The patronage system also boosted special interests and prevented businesses from thriving independently of the machine. Around the 1920s, muckrakers began exposing the inner workings of the urban machine. Progressive politicians championed legitimate social welfare reform at the local level, speaking out against government corruption and collusion with big business (Caswell 2001).
The Progressive movement helped to eliminate or at least to diminish the scope of urban machine governments, even though Chicago's would persist well into the 1970s. In other cities like New York and Boston, the strong mayor system…… [Read More]
In so doing the commodity market and global trade developed a new history for chocolate, one that makes it a very fitting liberator in the small French village depicted in the film.
This new history is a story of sweetness and power, that is, the power to define what constitutes refined taste (Mintz 1985). All these accounts relate how Spanish nuns or monks were the first to domesticate a bitter, cold drink judged to be "more fit for pigs than for human consumption" (compare Constant 1988, 29; Robert 1990, 20). Chocolate was supposedly tamed by adding heat, sugar, and more refined flavorings such as vanilla, cinnamon, amber, and musk. This triumphant transformation heralded the introduction of chocolate to European nobles at court. "Hot, flavored, sweet; virtually nothing recalled its savage origins and, throughout the seventeenth century, the brown ambrosia would attract new followers" (Schiaffino and Cluizel 1988, 18).…… [Read More]
This provided a pathway for spirituality to the early Vedic thinkers. For these founding ideologists, this pathway led to the notion that there are multiple deistic beings which can occupy all manner of space and mental plane, a sharp-departure from the 'ethical monotheism' that underscores most western religious traditions.
This, perhaps, more than any other quality, helps to illustrate the common ground between Hinduism and Buddhism, which Prothero goes to even greater lengths to show are distinctly eastern in their theological orientation. Due to its origins in India, Buddhism was perceived in its earliest form by many as a mere sect of Hindu rather than a philosophy of its own foundations. Its practitioners, leading into the Common Era, were a statistically modest population of Indians who placed a spiritual emphasis "on experience over belief. Buddhism never had a creed or catechism until the American convert Henry Steel Olcott decided in…… [Read More]
S. responded to the Great Depression by electing FDR, who brought out his Alphabet Programs which were supposed to put the nation back to work with public works projects. When that failed to restore the economy, the world elected to start with a new war: WWII. Germany had been buried by the Western powers following WWI -- and now the country threatened to assert itself once more. Russia was in the middle of its own revolution: Stalin was liquidating the kulaks and rounding others up and shipping them off to the Gulag. That did not help Russia's economy any more than FDR's Alphabet program -- but it did not matter: war was on the horizon. Japan was being strangled by Western powers: the American military-industrial-congressional complex essentially forced Japan to attack -- and then sat back and let it happen when Japan finally decided to bomb Pearl Harbor. Thus, America…… [Read More]
Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression
In recent years, a debate has arisen regarding the extent of Herbert Hoover's progressive and Keynesian leanings, with conservative historians suggesting that Hoover may have been less of an advocate for laissez -faire capitalism than was commonly believed during his lifetime. Ideologues such as Amity Shlaes and Murray Rothbard have suggested that Hoover was a closet statist and New Dealer, and that ranklin Roosevelt simply continued many of these policies in a natural progression. On the other hand, liberal and mainstream historians have generally accepted the idea that Hoover was perhaps a more activist president than his earlier reputation may have indicated, but disagree with conservative historians as to the extent of Hoover's progressive inclinations. They argue that Hoover's retreat from laissez-faire policies was too little, too late, and ultimately inadequate to deal with the severity of the economic crisis, a position in direct…… [Read More]
The articles mentions that Certainly Clark's (1958) book on the nonconformity of adult education in the Los Angeles public school system expressed to a lot of adult educators. His subjects still go on to this present day as people are becoming disturbed concerning the situation regarding adult education in the "parent" organizations in which it is implanted. This apprehension with the average "get a move on" of politics is observed by most adult educators that are spending more than 24 hours in the area; it is stressed by Thomas (1991 ) when he discusses "In repetition how adult education is basically all about politics," (Cervero, R.M., & ilson, a.L. 1999). The article mentions how Griffith (1976) discovered in his reassessment of the information on adult education and politics, nevertheless, "there are not many articles that really deal with political insight and actions of adult educators that can be discovered in…… [Read More]
industrialized nation in the world has a higher percentage of its population residing in its prison than the United States (Liptak). This fact has witnessed a corresponding increase in the cost of housing and caring for the incarcerated which has correspondingly raised the public concerns for these costs. This combination has spurred conversation relative to how to address both issues and one of the methods suggested is the possible privatization of the corrections system.
The advantages and disadvantages of privatization have been debated for years and many view privatization as new and unique method for managing the corrections system; however, privatization has a long history in the United States (Perrone). Private management of prisons has been attempted at several points in America's history but was actually abandoned during the early years of the twentieth century. One of the primary reasons for its being abandoned was the Convict Leasing System that…… [Read More]
Early 20th century saw the outbreak of a deadly mysterious disease, pellagra that could cause anything from fever to dementia to death. The disease that had killed over 100,000 people by the end of 1914 was shrouded in deep mystery because of the fact that the epidemic was largely limited to the South and was exclusively affecting the peasant class. It was indeed a poor man's disease and conventional wisdom suggested it had something to do with sanitary conditions.
"Pellagra, a classic dietary deficiency disease caused by insufficient niacin, was noted in the South after the Civil War. Then considered infectious, it was known as the disease of the four Ds: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. The first outbreak was reported in 1907. In 1909, more than 1000 cases were estimated based on reports from 13 states. One year later, approximately 3000 cases were suspected nationwide based on…… [Read More]
illiam Leuchtenburg's Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal is a text that combines recent American history with a political and sociological analysis of American policy and government, and adds a healthy dose of biography of the president to give the mixture human drama. Leuchtenburg is able to accomplish this literary feat not simply because he is such a skilled historian, but because Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his cabinet exercised a unique degree of power over the American economy of his day. America was in an economic crisis when Roosevelt came to be elected the presidency. To remedy this crisis, Roosevelt essentially had to overhaul the American system of government and the relationship of the federal government to the citizenry. He created the modern social welfare system, the concept of the 'safety net' for the needy, and a sense of government's social obligations as well as a citizen's obligations to…… [Read More]