Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
The drug chosen is Cocaine, and it is listed to be "… a psychomotor stimulant, this class of drug produces their effect on the brain by simulating the actions of certain neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin." (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010) These effects would be known as the "pleasure" aspect of the drug, but there is also a second aspect to the drug's effects that are responsible for the addiction, called "plasticity" (Amaro et al.). A drug-induced plasticity is "tolerance, sensitization and physical dependence" on the drug cocaine (Amaro et al.). The part of the brain that cocaine targets is the amygdala, specifically the reward pathways found in the brain. Cocaine effects the reward pathways by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine into nerve terminals (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010). Specifically cocaine reacts with dopamine, and would be considered an antagonist because it is similar enough to occupy…
Emery, R.E., & Oltmanns, T.F. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Huffman, K. (2007). Psychology in action (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (n.d.). Drug Abuse Among Hispanics: A brief evidence-based guide for providers (1.4 ed.) [Brochure]. Amaro, H., Cortes, D.E., Castro, F.G., Lopez, B., & Molina, P.E., et al. Retrieved March 17, 2011, from http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA07 - 4288/SMA07-4288.pdf
Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology themes & variations: briefer edition (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs (Reinarman, et al., 2011); the authors conducted research into the people / patients that are using legal medical marijuana. The authors assert in the Abstract that while much has been written about the therapeutic potential of cannabis, very little research has been done on those who have doctor's prescriptions to legally use the drug. Hence, the article references a sample of 1,746 patients from nine medical marijuana "evaluation clinics" in California (Reinarman, 128).
After offering a quick review of the history of marijuana use for health purposes -- cannabis has been "widely used in many societies for centuries" and it was introduced as "modern medicine" in Europe in 1839 -- the authors report that "…pain, insomnia, and anxiety" are the most common among the ailments for which doctors have prescribed medical marijuana.
The second article is found in The New York Times and it presents economic…
Cooper, Michael. (2012). Struggling Cities Turn to a Crop for Cash. The New York Times.
Retrieved March 16, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Reinarman, Craig, Nunberg, Helen, Lanthier, Fran, and Heddleston, Tom. (2011). Who Are
Medical Marijuana Patients? Population Characteristics from Nine California Assessment
Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)
Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…
Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.
Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance
Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.
Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
And they can often escape into substance abuse and addiction" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).
One of the most important ways in which an increasing rate of drug and alcohol abuse and addiction affects the economy is the spiraling cost of healthcare and rehabilitation. The increase in addictions also creates a gap between the need for treatment and rehabilitation and available resources. This in turn places economic pressure on state and local government. This is especially difficult to maintain in a recessionary economic climate. "States, local governments, and non-profits are all facing tremendous budget shortfalls -- and they are cutting the resources to help this growing group of addicts in trouble, just when they need it the most" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).
The following illustrations provide a clear indication of the amounts that have been spent on alcohol and…
Allen J. ( 2006) Drugs a Factor in Many Sexual Assaults, Study Says. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/501383/drugs_a_factor_in_many_sexual_assaults_study_says/
Bennet W. (1999) the Index of Leading Cultural Indicators. New York: Broadway
Drug addiction. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Drug:addiction.htm
It was found that academic exam stress caused significant increases in P and TAI scores, which were related to high levels of serum, significantly more so in males than females, who only had an increase in serum sgp130 when taking birth control drugs. Males were found to have significantly more serum sCD8. The results suggest that psychological stress induces immune-inflammatory changes with complex regulatory responses in IL-6 signaling, decreased anti-inflammatory capacity of serum and interactions with T-cell and monocytic activation. The results of this study also suggest that sex hormones may modify stress-induced immune-inflammatory responses (ong et al. p. 293).
Anxiolytic drugs of the benzodiazepine class and other drugs that affect catecholamine, GABAA, histamine and serotonin receptors, alter the stress response and regulate stress hormone secretion. It has been shown that exposure to hostile conditions induces lowered immune system and cardiovascular responses, as well as neural circuits and neurotransmitter system…
Song, C, Kenis, G., van Gastel, a., Bosmans, E., Lin, a., de Jong, R., Neels, H., Scharpe, et al. (1999). Influence of psychological stress on immune-inflammatory variables in normal humans. Part II. Altered serum concentrations of natural anti-inflammatory agents and soluble membrane antigens of monocytes and T. lymphocytes. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 85, 3. Retrieved at http://www.psy-journal.com/article/PIIS0165178199000128/abstract .
Tait, M. (2007). Music 'enhances ecstasy effects.' Focus. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/Omegaman_UK/drugs.html.
Van de Kar, L.D., Blair, M.L. (1999). Forebrain pathways mediating stress-induced hormone secretion. PubMed: A service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Chicago: Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine.
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…
Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.
Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).
The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…
Aspen. (2011). The Impact of Trauma On Teenage Addiction. Retrieved from Crchealth.com: http://aspeneducation.crchealth.com/articles/article-trauma/
Becvar, D. (2013). Handbook of Family Resilience. New York: Springer Science Publishing.
Dennison, S. (2011). Handbook of the Dually Diagnosed Patient: Psychiatric and Substance Use. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Dick, D., & Agrawai, A. (2008). The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 111-118.
Whereas the harms associated with some illicit (and prescription) drugs is cumulative, some of the most popular recreational drugs such as ecstasy actually destroy neurons each and every time they are used.
Each time you take ecstasy, for example, neurons dedicated to respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine lose their ability to do so. As a result, ecstasy use in particular is known to interfere with the natural neurotransmitter reuptake mechanism. This impairs your ability to maintain a healthy mental frame of mind because dopamine reception and reuptake is fundamentally important to perceiving pleasure and to experiencing happiness. Ultimately this is a major cause of clinical depression in young people, requiring life-long treatment with antidepressant medications which are associated with negative side effects of their own. Suicide is also directly attributable to the psychological effects of clinical depression. Therefore, if you hope to achieve your academic potential and to avoid causing…
Club Drugs & Ecstasy
"Though some researchers have indicated club drug users are more likely to be poly-drug users, there remains little known about the prevalence and specific combinations of the substances they use…" (Grov, et al., 2009, p. 848).
The use of club drugs in the United States has been a problem for healthcare agencies and law enforcement for many years. The focus of research on the use of club drugs (notably ecstasy) in most articles is on "rave" events, where loud music and drug use is typical. This paper reviews and critiques the literature related to the use and abuse of club drugs.
The Literature on Club Drugs and the Issues Associated with Club Drug Usage
How extreme is club drug use in Chicago? A profile of adult club drug use was measured by Michael Fendrich and colleagues and published in the peer-reviewed journal Addiction (Fendrich, et al.,…
Banta-Green, Caleb, Goldbaum, Gary, Kingston, Susan, Golden, Matthew, Harruff, Richard,
and Logan, Barry K. (2005). Epidemiology of MDMA and Associated Club Drugs in the Seattle Area. Substance Use & Misuse, Vol. 40, 1295-1315.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Ecstasy Overdoses at a New Year's Eve
Rave -- Los Angeles, California, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59(22).
Psychological Element in Drug Use and Dependence
Placebo, the Latin term for "I will please," refers to the psychological positive response that a patient exhibits to a non-specific treatment. It is a purely psychological element, which arises out of the patient's trust in the physician, or the belief in the positive medicinal effects of the drug. Researcher Henry eecher's famous study in 1955 showed that more than 30% of patients respond positively to a placebo. Since then, numerous studies that were focused on the effects of placebo have reported mixed results. The brain imaging study conducted by Leuchter, in 2002, revealed distinct patterns of cerebral blood flow as a response to placebo among depressed subjects. Similarly Evans (2004) reported that placebo effect was quite marked in medical conditions that involved acute phase response. (inflammtion, acute sensitivity, etc.). [Wikipedia] Since placebo trials report significant positive response (at least in one third…
1) Wikipedia, " Placebo effect," Accessed on 14th Oct 2005, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placebo_effect
2) University of Colorado, "Psychoactive Drugs and Addiction,"
Accessed on 14th Oct 2005, psych.colorado.edu/~campeaus/2012/StudyguideExam4.PDF
3) University of Waterloo, "Biological and Psychological Models of Drug Use," Accessed on 14th Oct 2005,
Jesse Bruce Pinkman is one of the most important characters in the popular TV series, 'Breaking Bad'. He plays the deuteragonist (2nd most important character) in the series, partnering with Walter White in his methamphetamine drug ring. Pinkman acts as a dealer and manufacturer of methamphetamine, and is also a methamphetamine user. Jesse was also a former student in White's chemistry class.
According to the program script, Pinkman was born September 14, 1984, into a middle income family in Albuquerque, New Mexico. While still in high school, he began using and dealing methamphetamine. After being thrown out of the house for his continued drug use, he moved into his Aunt Ginny's place, and looked after her until she died of lung cancer. After her death the ownership of the house fell to his parents who allowed him to continue staying there. The rift between Pinkman and his family…
Bettmann, J., Russell, K., & Parry, K. (2013). How Substance Abuse Recovery Skills, Readiness to Change and Symptom Reduction Impact Change Processes in Wilderness Therapy Participants. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 22(8), 1039-1050. doi:10.1007/s10826-012-9665-2
DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror). (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2015, from https://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n136/mode/1up
Gregorowski, C., Seedat, S., & Jordaan, G.P. (2013).A clinical approach to the assessment and management of co-morbid eating disorders and substance use disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-289
Hall, W., Farrell, M., & Carter, A. (2014). Compulsory treatment of addiction in the patient's best interests: More rigorous evaluations are essential. Drug & Alcohol Review, 33(3), 268-271. doi:10.1111/dar.12122
economic impact of drug use in the United States might initially seem easy to measure. A legal trial is an expensive proceeding: police officers, prosecutors or public defenders, judges, stenographers, and bailiffs are employees of the state, and even if jurors are barely remunerated, defense attorneys are lavishly remunerated. To prosecute someone for dealing marijuana is an expensive undertaking, and to do so under a "three strikes" law, where the crime is suddenly elevated to a horrific felony with extreme penalties, is even more expensive. The greater expense comes with convictions: America has the largest imprisoned population in the world, with more people behind bars in this country than comprise the entire populations of other sovereign nations. Imprisonment is not a cheap proposition. We can then consider the further economic impact, legally and morally speaking, of drug use in the current extensive misuse of civil forfeiture laws. Ostensibly designed to…
drug-Related terms such as tolerance, withdrawal, rebound, physical and psychological dependence.
Tolerance is a form of physical dependence on a drug. It occurs when the body becomes accustomed to a drug and the nerve cells chemically and structurally counteract the drug's psychoactive effects. As a result, the drug abuser requires ever-increasing amounts of it to achieve the same physical and psychological effects. This condition is worsened when certain drugs are used at high doses for long periods (weeks or months), and may lead to more frequent use of the drug. Drug addicts often have to increase the dose to experience the same level of euphoria or "high" that they experience initially. ("Drug Dependence," Encarta)
hen drug addicts stop the use of a drug too quickly, they may suffer from physical discomfort which is known as "drug withdrawal." Drug withdrawal is frequently characterized by nausea, headaches, restlessness, sweating, and…
"Dependence." Drugscope. 2002. November 22, 2004.
"Drug Dependence." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
Perkinson, Dr. Robert R. "Drugs of Abuse." 2003. November 22, 2004.
Withdrawal symptom of heroin is also known as "cold turkey"
flow of drugs into the United States, where the drugs are coming from, in what forms they come in and the general attitudes that are taken against the practice by both the United States law enforcement agencies in particular and the United Nations drug control treaties. The author of this report will answer all of those questions in detail and provide the proper sourcing and citations for the same. While some modest successes are made when it comes to the "war on drugs," the United States law enforcement collective is losing the battle and there is a difference of strategy when it comes to a comparison between the United Nations and the United States.
The first question is fairly specific and brief. For each of the five major illicit drugs that are available and that are used in the United States, there will be a summary of what each one…
DEA. (2011). Drugs of Abuse - 2011 Edition (pp. 1-79). Washington DC: Drug
Ferner, M. (2015). Colorado Introduces Major Shift In Its Marijuana Program. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/01/colorado-marijuana_n_5548620.html
Murphy, G. (2015). Have We Lost the War on Drugs?. WSJ. Retrieved 23 August 2015,
Combat and Substance Abuse
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as a consequence of combat experience, is believed to be a significant risk factor for substance abuse. This theory has been undermined to some extent by recent findings which suggest mental illness, apart from PTSD, may be a stronger predictor. Although combat-related PTSD may significantly contribute to the prevalence of substance abuse among veterans, the dominant substance abuse risks are the same for both civilians and combat veterans. This conclusion suggests than combat may represent a minor risk factor for substance abuse.
The Association between Combat and Substance Abuse
Veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are faced with many of the same problems that previous combat veterans have had to face, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). While most veterans suffering from these conditions will successfully cope with the challenges they face through treatment and social…
Adamou, Marios C. And Hale, Anthony S. (2003). PTSD and the law of psychiatric injury and England and Wales: Finally coming closer? Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry Law, 31, 327-332.
Bagalman, Erin. (2011). Suicide, PTSD, and substance use among OEF/OIF veterans using VA Health Care: Facts and figures. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2013 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41921.pdf .
National Center for PTSD. (2011). PTSD and substance abuse in veterans. PTSD.VA.gov. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2013 from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/ptsd_substance_abuse_veterans.asp .
Nooner, Kate B., Linares, L. Oriana., Batinjane, Jessica, Kramer, Rachel A., Silva, Raul., and Cloitre, Marylene. (2012). Factors related to posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 13(3), 153-166.
Life gives people choices. These choices can lead to circumstances where people may feel lost. Tobacco, alcohol, legal and illegal drugs are part of life. Their influence is everywhere from social media to movies and even at home. What they may teach us is that sometimes when we choose to escape or to feel good, that is when we are our most vulnerable, that is when we may make mistakes. Because life isn't about being perfect, but rather what the imperfections teach us.
I have a sister who likes to drink. She's not your typical lush. She drinks only when she has the time to. This is usually at night and her drink of choice is a bottle of dry, red wine. She, like most people, has experimented with marijuana. The more marijuana lost its stigma, the more she felt it was okay to partake in it. She would get…
Psychology: K2 Drug Use and Addiction
K2 Drug Use and Addiction: Psychology
K2 use and addiction has, in recent years, grown to become one of the leading social concerns for policymakers in the U.S. It is estimated that approximately 11% of the current high school population is addicted to K2. This is a worrying trend given that K2 produces more harmful effects than naturally-occurring marijuana. This research paper examines the prevalence and risk factors for K2 use, the difference between K2 and naturally-occurring marijuana, and the possible solutions that could be adopted to address the problem.
K2 Use and Addiction in New York City
ecent years have seen a significant rise in the emergence and use of novel psychoactive substances, the most common being synthetic cannabinoids (K2) and psychedelic tryptamines. This study focuses on the former, the synthetic 'substitute' for naturally-occurring marijuana. The University of Michigan's Institute for Social esearch…
Bassett, M. T. (2015). 2015 Advisory No. 6: Increase in Synthetic Cannabinoid (Marijuana) -- Related Adverse Events and Related Emergency Visits, New York City. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Retrieved October 19, 2015 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/ah/marijuana-alert.pdf
Bernock, K. (2015). Education and Tools to Address the Rising Prevalence of Synthetic Cannabinoid Use. Consultant, 55(9), 692-700.
Forrester M.B., Kleinschmidt, K., Schwarz, E., Young, A. (2012). Synthetic Cannabinoid and Marijuana Exposures Reported to Poison Centers. Hum Exp Toxicol, 31(10), 1006-1011.
Walker, D., Neighbors, C., Walton T, Pierce, A., Mbilinyi, L., Kaysen, D. & Roffman, R. (2014). Spicing up Military: Use and Efects of Synthetic Cannabis in Substance Abusing Army Personnel. Addictive Behavior, 39(7), 1139-1144.
danger signals of drug abuse and how can they be used to identify possible abusers?
There can be various danger signals that may indicate the possibility of substance abuse in individuals. These signals will obviously appear in a variety of contexts and situations but the following are generally accepted as the most common indicators.
One of the most common signs is a radical change in behavior, especially in a formal or work situation where the individual, for example, shows a marked change in work quality or production. This can also be related to changes in personality and is even seen in outbreaks of temper or depression. The drug user also tends to shirk responsibilities.
The deterioration of personal grooming and general physical appearance may also be another danger signal. Intravenous drug users often wear long sleeved garments even in very warm weather to hide signs of their addiction. There may…
Combating Drug abuse. September 15, 2005. http://www.gdcada.org/statistics/combating.htm
Hsu J.H. The Hopkins HIV Report. September 15, 2005. http://www.hopkins-aids.edu/publications/report/july02_5.html
From the study of treatment for mothers on crack, 50 experts in drug dependency as well as 150 addicted women identify components which they believe are important in the treatment of women effectively. Some of the features that they had identified that are always not present within the current programs are: comprehensive health care such as family planning, prenatal as well as prevention of HIV; service for children such as play therapy, day care, parental training and developmental monitoring of a child; an advocacy role such as contact with protective services of a child as well as welfare; and appropriate staffing such as non-confrontational, female staffing as well as cultural and racial sensitive.
As evident in the finding of the study, there is preference within experts and women for a program that combines medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term…
MacGi-egor, (1989). Cocaine and prenatal Outcome. Obstetrics and Gyllecology.
Murphy. S.. & Rosenbaum. M., (1999). Pregnant women on drugs: Combating Stereotype.. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.
Reuter, (1994). Setting Priorities: Budget and Program Choices for Drug Control. Reprint h-om Toward a Rational Drug Policy. The University of' Chicago Legal Forum,1994, pp. 14S 173.
Weisdorf, T. Parran. TV., Graham, A. & Snyder, C., (1999). Comparison of pregnancy-specific Interventions to a Traditional treatment Program for Cocaine-addicted Pregnant Women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,1999, pp 16(1), 39-45.
According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).
A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…
Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems
Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121
Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press
Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
The design of the study was to compare the patterns and frequency of recreational drug use of various types, and of the attitudes expressed by residents of California to the behavior and attitudes on the same issues in the 10 other states after California legalized marijuana for medicinal use in 1996. The number of respondents in California was 2,651 and a total of 12, 916 in the other 10 states. The Trevino and ichard study (2002) involved a sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users surveyed for their responses to questions about their opinions about the legalization of marijuana, and also of other illicit recreational drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines.
The Page, Verhoef, Stebbins, Metz, and Levy study (2003) utilized a self-reported questionnaire developed specifically as a tool for this study designed to identify differences in the choices made by patients with MS to use marijuana as…
Khatapoush, S. And Hallfors, D. "Sending the Wrong Message': Did Medical
Marijuana Legalization in California Change Attitudes about and Use of Marijuana?" Journal of Drug Issues, (Fall 2004): 751 -- 770.
Page, S.A., Verhoef, M.J., Stebbins, R.A., Metz, L.M., and Levy, J.C. "Cannabis Use
as Described by People with Multiple Sclerosis." Canadian Journal of Neurological Science, Vol. 30 (2003): 201 -- 205.
mericas Coalition Puts Marijuana Legalization Up for Discussion. Retrieved from the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/18/world/americas/nations-in-americas-urged-to-consider-legalizing-pot.html?_r=0
Bakalar, N. (2006). Marijuana as Medicine: Consider the Pros and Cons,. The Mayo Clinic .
Lawrence Genen, M.M. (2012). Cannabis Compound buse. Medscape Reference .
National Instritute of Health. (2012, December). DrugFacts: Marijuana. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug buse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
Considering the magnitude of the worldwide illicit drug trade and its impact on the United States, take a position on merican enforcement policy in the world. nalyze the impact that merican drug enforcement has had on the international drug trade. Has it been effective?
The countries in which drug plants such as poppy (for opium and heroin) and cannabis (for marijuana), such drugs are smuggled into them. International drug trafficking is a billion-dollar business that grows each year.
Drugs trafficked on an international scale include heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine etc. It has been…
Abuse, N.I. (2009, September). DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction ic, T.M. (2011, August 23). Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intervention/MH00127/METHOD=print
Preidt, R. (2013, May 16). Adult Children of Substance Abusers More Prone to Depression. Retrieved from Mediline Plus- U.S. National Library for Medicine: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_136922.html
Services, U.D. (n.d.). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from SAMHSA: http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA07 -4292/SMA07-4292.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Man on Fire" with two-time Academy Award winner Denzel ashington; and also starring Dakota Fanning, Christopher alken, and Mickey Rourke, among others. The film was produced in 2004; it runs 1 hour and 50 minutes.
The drug of choice for the protagonist, former U.S. intelligence agent turned bodyguard Creasy, is alcohol. Creasy takes a swig of liquor from a flask while riding in a car, he pours Jack Daniels bourbon into a short glass in his bedroom and drinks from a glass, and after being asked what his flaws might be, he says, "I drink." He takes large swigs of straight liquor on numerous occasions but he is never seen doing other drugs like cocaine or marijuana.
The use of alcohol by the protagonist Creasy is seen as part of his every-day activities. He doesn't seem particularly pleasured by his consumption, but on the other hand there is nothing terribly…
Hanson, Glen R., Venturelli, Peter J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. (2011). Drugs and Society.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Lorencova, Radmila. (2011). Religiosity and Spirituality of Alcohol and Marijuana Users.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43(3), 180-187.
SurveyUSA, Washington State's Initiative 502, calling for the decriminalization of marijuana, 57% of likely voters responded favorably to the initiative, while only 34% responded unfavorably and 9% were undecided. (Altieri, 2012) In terms of election results, 57% is considered to be a wide margin and with only weeks until the November election, it is likely that Initiative 502 will pass. But as those on both sides argue the possible effects of passage, it is important to look into the various claims made by those both supporting and opposing the measure.
According to the text of I502, the intent of the proposed initiative is to "stop treating adult marijuana use as a crime and try a new approach…" ("Initiatives Measure 502") This approach would reallocate law enforcement resources toward violent and property crimes, generate new tax revenue to be used for the benefit of the community, and, most importantly, remove the…
Altieri, Erik. (12 Sept. 2012). "New Polls: Washington's Marijuana Legalization
Initiative, I 502, Hold Huge Lead." NORML Homepage. Retrieved from http://blog.norml.org/2012/09/12/new-poll-washingtons-marijuana-legalization-initiative-i-502-holds-huge-lead/
"Deconstructing I-502." Sensiblewashington.org homepage. Retrieved from http://sensiblewashington.org/blog/i502/
"Epidemiological Trends in Drug Abuse, Vol. II." (June 2011). NIDA, U.S. Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/cewgjune2011_vol_ii_508.pdf#page
Substance abuse is a common affliction among the elderly population. Several factors may contribute to the prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse among older adults, including loneliness, poor health, and depression. The most rapidly growing segment of the American population is the elderly, and whether or not alcohol can be considered beneficial or detrimental in this population depends on the doses being consumed (Ferreira and Weems, 2008). However, the population of older adults is increasing and so is the proportion of elderly individuals demonstrating alcohol abuse (Ferreira and Weems, 2008).
It is estimated that by 2030 the proportion of adults comprising the elderly population (65 years and older) will reach 20%, which marks double the current number (Duncan et al., 2010). Interestingly, substance abuse in general has shown increases in the elderly population, with a steady increase in primary substance abuse problems other than alcohol observed in the elderly population…
Atkinson, R.M. (1990). Aging and alcohol use disorders: diagnostic issues in the elderly. International Psychogeriatrics, 2(1), 55-72.
Bobo, J.K., Greek, A.A., Klepinger, DH, Herting, J.R. (2010). Alcohol use trajectories in two cohorts of U.S. women aged 50 to 65 at baseline. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 58(12) 2735-80.
Chiu E. (2008). Alcohol for the older person -- friend or foe? Age and Ageing, 37(5), 493-4.
Duncan, D.F., Nicholson, T., White, J.B., Bradley, D.B., Bonaguro, J. (2010). The baby boomer effect: changing patterns of substance abuse among adults ages 55 and older. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 22(3), 237-48.
Food Addiction: Causes and Treatment
Fortuna, J.L. (2012). The obsesity epidemic and food addiction: Clinical similarities to drug
Dependence. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(1), pp. 56-63.
As of 2010, nearly 70% of adult Americans were overweight or obese. Fast food establishments are abundant, portion sizes are larger, and people generally have insufficient intake of Omega 3 fatty acids. Additionally, Americans do not get sufficient physical exercise.
Sugar primes endorphin and dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, similar to the "high" experienced by users of illegal drugs. In some individuals, this brings about addictive behavior very similar to that seen in alcoholics and substance addicts.
Fortuna reviewed the literature that investigated two clinical similarities between food addiction and drug dependence.
Animal studies show that bingeing on high-sugar foods, compared to fat dense foods, trigger the release of endorphin and dopamine.
3. Similar results were obtained with human…
Fortuna, J.L. (2012). The obesity epidemic and food addiction: Clinical similarities to drug
Dependence. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(1), pp. 56-63.
Karim, R., and Chaudhri, P. (2012). Behavioral Addictions: An overview. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(1), pp. 5-17.
Liebman, B. (2012). Food & addiction: Can some foods hijack the brain? Nutrition Action
Caffeinism: The Psychology of Caffeine, Coffee-Drinking, And Coffee-Addicts
Coffee has been generally considered as an addicting drink, primarily because it contains the vital ingredient, caffeine, which is known for its ability to stimulate the central nervous system. Despite this common knowledge, there is still insufficient literature and studies that will provide empirical evidence that indeed, coffee has psychological effects on the individual. Thus, this paper collates studies and related literature that proves empirically how coffee, due to its caffeine content, is a psychoactive drug that elicits psychological effects from the individual.
Studies looking into the affective dimension of coffee to drinkers show that there are three dimensions where "caffeinism" or coffee-drinking is characterized: coffee's psychoactive properties, predilection to substance dependence of coffee drinkers, and reinforcing behavior resulting to coffee (caffeine) addiction.
Coffee's psychoactive properties stem from the argument and observation that "low doses of caffeine have been shown to increase…
" Long-term use may develop psychoses, like schizophrenia and severe depression. The use of MDMA may produce psychological difficulties, like confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety and paranoia, even weeks after the use of the drug. MSMA develops symptoms, such as muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movements, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. it, therefore, poses a special risk for those with heart disease. Overuse can lead to death (Kurtzweil).
West Africans used ibogaine as a stimulant and aphrodisiac in the early 1900s (Kurtzweil 1995). Native Americans used mescaline from peyote cactus in religious rituals. LSD was first synthesized in 1938. Throughout history, it was considered a source of many types of medications. Its psychedelic effects were first discovered in 1943. Two decades after World War II, LSD was used to determine its effects on patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.…
Kotler, Steven. Drugs in Rehab. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers, Inc., April 2005
Klotter, Jule. End-of-Life and Psychedelic Research. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: The Townsend Group, July 2005
Kurtzweil, Paula. Medical Possibilities for Psychedelic Drugs. FDA Consumer: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1995
Luke, David P. And Marrios Kottenis. A Preliminary Survey of Paranormal Experiences with Psychoactive Drugs. Journal of Parapsychology: Parapsychology Press, 2005
Some patients knowingly abuse the healthcare system to obtain drugs and substances, which only adds to the complexities of the substance misuse relationship with the medical community. In 2008, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported approximately 4.7 million Americans used pain medications for non-medical use within the last month (Fishbain et al., 2010). This statistic is only one indication of the substance misuse prevalence and its inherent demand on the medical community.
The medical community not only combats substance misuse in adult patients, but must also address misuse among adolescents. The years of adolescence are widely regarded as an age defined by curiosity and experimentation (Crome, 2004). Adolescents are continuously trying to identify with their world and engage in new experiences. Within this context, taking drugs and experimenting with such substances as alcohol and tobacco can be understood within a setting of normal behavior. The time of…
Crome, I. (2004). Young people and substance misuse. London, UK: Gaskell.
Fishbain, D., Johnson, S., Webster, L., Greene, L., & Faysal, J. (2010). Review of regulatory programs and new opioid technologies in chronic pain management: balancing the risk of medication abuse with medical need. Jounral of Managed Care Pharmacy, 16(4), 276-287.
Rassool, G. (1998). Substance use and misuse: nature, context, and clinical interventions. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Company.
Stark, M., & Payne-James, J. (2003). Symptoms and signs of substance misuse. (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Greenwich Medical Media Limited.
Anderson et al. (2002) studies the effects of terminating the levels of addiction disability on the status of housing of persons who formerly recipients of addiction diability. They study how the various disruptions in the living situations play an integral role in the determination of the level of predisposition to drug and alcohol abuse. They present their view via both structural and individualistic theories as regrds both housing and homelessness in the society. Their study involved the quantitative analysis if data obtained through the interviewing of 101 former recipients who were selected at random. They found from their analysis that the termination of the benefits coupled with the reduced level of social services and the unprecedented explosion of housing markets resulted in an increase in the homeless and high dependency n both family and friends. The resulting negative living results contributed to the escalation of the drug related risks and…
Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (1998) Drug Misuse and the Environment: A
Report by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. London: Stationary Office
Anderson, T.L., Shannon, C., Schyb, I., Goldstein, P.(2002).Welfare Reform and Housing: Assessing the Impact to Substance Abuse.Journal of Drug Issues 32(1): 265-295,
Addiction Disorders and Homelessness: NCH Fact Sheet #6. National Coalition for the. June 2005. ( http://www.nationalhomeless.org/publications/facts/addiction.pdf ).
It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). ithout empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.
Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a…
Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006, July 25). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs.
The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com /2006/07/25/health/25drin.html
Buddy, T. (2009, March 7). Are you a functional alcoholic?
About.com. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://alcoholism.about.com/od/problem/a/functional.htm
combat related stress on learning in an academic environment: a qualitative case study" by Kevin Peter Shea
Conflict and military conflict are inherited parts of life and the direct involvement in them creates high levels of stress. In 2010, Kevin Peter Shea added to the field of study on the stress effect of combat a new research endeavor which focused on the "incidence of stress in the lives of Army officers and its effects on their learning experiences" (Shea, 2010, p.2, 6).
The study was conducted on eleven students at the Army's Command and General Staff College; all students had previously participated in combat over an average period of 23 months and Shea sought to identify the effect of the stress generated from combat within an academic setting.
The methodology employed throughout the study was that of interviews with the eleven candidates, completed with interviews with other army personnel, such…
Koch, S., Sneed, Z., Davis, S., Benshoff, J.J. (2015), "A pilot study of the relationship between counselor trainees' characteristics and attitudes toward substance abuse," Journal of Teaching in the Addictions
Knudsen, J.R.W., Gallon, S.L., Gabriel, R.M. (2006) "Relating substance abuse counselor background to the provisionof clinical tasks," Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 38, No. 4
Ong, L.Z., Lee, D.Y., Cha, G., Arokiasamy, C. (2015) "Training needs for substance abuse tratment and assessment among rehabilitation counselors: California State project" Journal of Teaching Addictions,
Shea, K.P. (2010), "The effects of combat related stress on learning in an academic environment: a qualitative case study," Kansas State University, https://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2097/6683/KevinShea2010.pdf?sequence=1 accessed on March 31, 2015
Since its approval for use in the United States by the FDA in 1987, fluoxetine (commonly known as Prozac) has been the subject of great debate. Fluoxetine, now available in generic form, has been proven useful in the treatment of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some eating disorders, panic disorder, insomnia, migraines, schizophrenia, and more (Schmetzer, 2002). However, this drug does have a range of possible side effects including sexual dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, irritability, hypomania, impulsivity, and gastrointestinal distress (Kerr, 2008). In addition, it may be too early to tell what the consequences of long-term (more than 20 years) use of fluoxetine might be on the human brain (Murray, 2006).
As a psychoactive drug, fluoxetine works by affecting the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters in the brain are synthesized in neurons, stored in vesicles, and upon nerve impulse stimulation, are released into the synaptic cleft. Here they…
Borne, R. (1994). Serotonin: the Neurotransmitter for the '90s. Drug Topics, 108+.
Keltner, N. (2000). Mechanisms of Antidepressant Action: In Brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 69.
Kerr, L. (2008). Is Social Anxiety Making Us Depressed? Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 16+.
Murray, T.J. (2006). The Other Side of Psychopharmacology: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 309+.
In addition, they may not see anything wrong with actions that would otherwise be considered dangerous (Penrod, 2003).
Examining the body at a crime scene involves many different things. How the person died is important, but not always obvious. Many pictures are taken at the scene, and any evidence that might be left on the body (hair, blood, etc.) is collected (Scheck, Neufeld, & Dwyer, 2000). From that point, it is left up to investigators to determine whether the person was killed in that spot or moved in from somewhere else. It is also important to determine whether there is any damage to the body and whether that resulted in death, as well as how long the person has been dead. All of these things can be used together in order to help determine what happened to the victim of a crime (Scheck, Neufeld, & Dwyer, 2000).
Penrod, S. 2003 Eyewitness identification evidence: How well are witnesses and police performing? Criminal Justice 18(1): 36-47.
Scheck, B., Neufeld, P, and Dwyer, J. Actual Innocence. New York: Doubleday, 2000.
Heroin Impact on Caucasian Family?
A large number of Caucasian families are plagued with the issue of heroin use, mostly consumed via injections. This is a major public health issue. Viral hepatitis, HIV and other dangers associated with heroin dependence, as well as social harm resulting from accompanying poverty and crime, exceed those of almost all other drugs used. A majority of Caucasian households are indirectly as well as directly impacted by the aforementioned diseases.
Increased pureness and decreased drug costs are potential factors contributing to the trend of decreased age of first-time consumption and increased initiation into habitual consumption in the Caucasian population. As heroin dependence can be successfully cured, primary care providers need to check their patients for this problem.
This paper serves two purposes. Firstly, it attempts to study substance abuse's socio-economic effects on Caucasian people. Secondly, depending on this analysis, it attempts to provide recommendations on…
function for the Gateway ehabilitation Center (GC) is the drug and alcohol treatment that assists addicts in kicking their dependency on either drugs or alcohol. As the GC website touts "if you are abusing alcohol or other drugs, Gateway ehab's personalized treatment plans can help. Our highly trained experts will give you the tools you need to reclaim your health -- and rediscover a life worth living" (GC, 2015). In other words, GC is a regional Center with locations throughout Ohio and Pennsylvania that offers a variety of treatment options for addicts of alcohol and drugs.
GC offers treatment services to those men, women, and youth addicts from Eastern Ohio and Western Pennsylvania. There are 20+ locations, with a main campus in Alquippa, Pennsylvania. There are four locations in Ohio and 16 locations in Pennsylvania. Services are geared towards males, especially the Extended Care division that includes a…
Ford, L.K. & Zarate, P.; (2010) Closing the gaps: The impact of inpatient detoxification and continuity of care of client outcomes, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 42, p. 303-314
GRC (2015) Hope has a home, accessed on May 9, 2015 at http://www.gatewayrehab.org/
McCrystal, P. & Percy, A.; (2010) Factors associated with teenage ecstasy use, Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 17(5) p. 507-527
National Institute on Drug Abuse; (2012) Principle of drug addiction treatment: A research-based guide (3rd edition), accessed on May 9, 2015 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/frequently-asked-questions/how-effective-drug-addiction-treatment
The term consciousness has been defined as "mental awareness of sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings" (Brown, et al. 2003, p. 166). Most human beings live in three states of consciousness: waking, sleeping, and dreaming. Two other states of consciousness, meditation and drug-altered consciousness, can be induced. This essay will explore these five states further and will conclude with a discussion on their psychological relevance.
Most of our lives are spent in waking consciousness, that is, a state of clear and organized alertness (Brown, et al., 2003). When we are awake, our perception of time, places, and events are real and often accurate. An electroencephalograph (EEG), a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain, reveals that a person in the waking state has low-amplitude brain wave patterns that are fast and irregular.
Contrary to popular beliefs, sleep does involve some awareness (Lindsay et al., 2004). The…
Brannon, L. & Feist, J. (2007). Health psychology: an introduction to behaviour and health.
Belton, CA: Wadsworth.
Brown, P., Coon, D., Malik, R., & McKenzie, S. (2003). Psychology: a journey. Scarborough,
ON: Thompson Nelson.
Environmental Interventions for Patients With Dementia
Dementia is a neurocognitive disorder that has been treated in various ways throughout all history. The modern era has proposed pharmacological interventions in the past but these have proved dangerous and degrading to the quality of life that dementia patients and their loved ones prefer. For this reason, environmental interventions have emerged as an alternative method for treating elderly dementia patients. This intervention method consists of altering the environment in which the patient lives by accommodating for the needs of the patient with clearly identifiable pathways, open spaces for communication, naturalistic settings, adequate stimuli and private rooms for quiet. This paper discusses the fundamental principles of environmental interventions for patients with dementia and includes a justification for this approach as a suitable alternative to prevailing psychoactive drug interventions. It also includes a discussion of the historical context of the disorder, its current description according…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2015). Non-pharmacologic Interventions
for Agitation and Aggression in Dementia. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/index.cfm/search-for-guides-reviews-and-reports/?productid=1999&pageaction=displayproduct
Bupa. (2015). A dementia friendly society. Bupa. Retrieved from https://www.bupa.com/corporate/our-purpose/healthy-ageing-and-dementia/reports-and-publications/a-dementia-friendly-society
Fleming, R., Purandare, N. (2010). Long-term care for people with dementia:
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
Psychology Dual Diagnosis: Substance elated Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders
The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of the terms. The DSM-V is a manual that is made use of by professionals in the field of medicine and mental health. They specifically refer to this manual when they are diagnosing disorders related to the mental health of a patient and the use of substances. Through the use of this manual, there is a standard way of diagnosing disorders (ockville, 2005). Substance use disorders are often found to exist with co-occurring disorders. This report highlights the assessment and treatment of substance related disorders and the co-morbid disorders.
The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Substance-related and addictive disorders. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/documents/substance%20use%20disorder%20fact%20sheet.pdf
Bierut, L., Dinwiddie, S., Begleiter, H., Crowe, R., Hesselbrock, V., Nurnberger, J.,. . ., & Reich, T. (1998). Familial transmission of substance dependence: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: a report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry. 55(11), 982-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9819066
Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., & Drake R. E. (2004). A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev, 23,471-481.
Collins, R. L. Blane, H. T., & Leonard, K. A. (1999). In OttP. J., Tarter, R. E., Ammerman, R. T. Sourcebook on substance abuse: Etiology, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Boston: Allyn and bacon, pp.153-165.
Security at workplaces is not only the responsibility of the management, but all the parties in the premises. Therefore, it is important that everyone is involved one way or another in maintenance of security. In a company the size of Walter Widget, with 240 personnel, it can be challenging to maintain high security standards.
With the increasing nationwide crime against workplaces and businesses, the stakes in workplace security are high. Walter Widget must be concerned about theft of any kind including trade secrets, computer information and other resources. The firm needs to take necessary steps to prevent other security risks such as arson, vandalism and workplace violence.
Workplace crime affects production. According to Bressler (2007) businesses are prone to a wide variety of crimes and need to take action in prevention of criminal activities that influence profitability. Workplace crime affects the employees, because it results insecurity at work. Safety at…
Bressler, M.S. (2007). The Impact of Crime on Business: A Model for Prevention, Detection & Remedy. Journal of Management and Marketing Research.
Burke, M.E., & Schramm, J. (2004 ). Getting to Know the Candidate Conducting Reference Checks. Alexandria: Research SHRM.
Deitch, D., Igor, K., & Ruiz, A. (1999). The Relationship Between Crime and Drugs: What We Have Learned in Recent Decades. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs .
Idaho National Engineering and Enviromental Laboratory. (2004). Personnel Security Guidelines. U.S. Department of Homeland security. Idaho Falls: Idaho national Engineering and Enviromental Laboratory.
The author of this report has been asked to assess the situation of a single mother of three kids. The mother is very paranoid about losing her children but there are some very real concerns in terms of what the mother is apparently doing and how some of the children are acting. The author is asked to answer a number of questions. These include how the professionals could and should collaborate so as to best serve both the mother and the children involved in the situation, from an ethical and legal standpoint of course. The role of each professional in the situation will be discussed in detail. The function that each professional would serve will be discussed. The author is also going to place one's self as the "lead" person on the team and will then describe what could and should happen in relation to this situation and…
Fabia-czyk, K. (2011). Decision making on ambiguous stimuli such as prosody by subjects suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and without psychiatric diagnosis. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 64(1), 53-68.
Lo, C. C., Monge, A. N., Howell, R. J., & Cheng, T. C. (2013). The Role of Mental Illness in Alcohol Abuse and Prescription Drug Misuse: Gender-Specific Analysis of College
Students. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45(1), 39-47.
Requirements for licensure for psychologists under the American Psychologist Association (APA) set certain educational and ethical standards that govern the profession. Now clinical psychology is, much like medicine and law, a discipline accorded respect in society, and an individual who seeks counseling can feel confident being open and trusting of a licensed therapist. A therapist cannot claim to be a professionally licensed therapist under the law, unless he or she possesses specific qualifications. Licensing is vital to maintaining trust in the profession, as ethical questions grow more contentious regarding psychotherapy, such as the question therapists that do research funded by drug companies on psychoactive drugs, or who testify to the competency of a defendant or witness to stand trial or make decisions about his or her health. Licensing and standardization of qualifications increases confidence that the individual is giving acceptable advice based in evidence and professional ethics.
Certain aspects of…
Competency. (2009). Ascension Health. Retrieved March 2, 2009 at http://www.ascensionhealth.org/ethics/public/issues/competency.asp
Lloyd, Raymond. (2009). A Guide to Psychology and its Practice.
Retrieved March 2, 2009 at www.GuideToPsychology.com
Rosenfeld, Barry. (2002). The psychology of competence and informed consent: Understanding decision-making with regard to clinical research. Fordham Urban Law Journal. 30.
The colleague and friend I selected has worked with me on fundraising projects and has been a neighbor and friend of our family for several years. She is respected in the community for her advocacy for children's education in particular, but also for her support of local nonprofit organizations that raise money and awareness of the homeless, of the local teen center, and of the group that fights to protect open space from development, so it can remain as habitat for wildlife.
Describing the Situation
hat I would like to have Elaine change is her diet; but especially I would like to change her attitude about -- and her indifference to -- exercise. I would like to coax her into starting slow and going for walks, with me and another friend we have in common, and get her into the consciousness that walking is enjoyable and healthy as well.…
Health. (2014). Why Exercise, Not Diet, May Explain Our Obesity Problem. Retrieved July 17, 2014, from http://news.health.com .
The Office of Minority Health. (2012). Obesity and African-Americans. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved July 17, 2014, from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov.
Vina, J., Sanchis-Gomar, F., Martinez-Bello, V., and Gomez-Cabrera, M.C. (2012). Exercise
Acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise. British Journal of Pharmacology,
Evidence has been cited suggesting that ECT is particularly efficacious with psychotic depression. Experimental research and reviews of the literature tend to conclude that ECT is either equal or superior to antidepressant medication in the treatment of severe depression. In one study both depressed men and women were helped by ECT, but women tended to improve more with ECT than with imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. Men tended to improve more with imipramine. Both men and women improved more with ECT than with phenalzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It has been suggested that MAOIs and serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSIs) may be less clinically effective than heterocyclic antidepressants for severe depression. Thus, ECT's favorable comparison with imipramine is a strong endorsement.
The side effect of ECT that has received the most attention is memory loss. ECT results in two kinds of memory loss. The first involves quick forgetting of…
Breggin, P.R. (n.d.). Electroshock: Scientific, ethical, and political issues. Retrieved from http://www.sntp.net/ect/breggin1.htm
Electroconvulsive therapy. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). (2011). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/electroconvulsive-therapy/MY00129
And the movements which typify chronic movement disorder are probably subserved by the same structures within the basal ganglia as those which underpin compulsive behaviors and complex tics" (p. 470).
In addition to the other disorders associated with Tourettes, there are (not surprisingly) many emotional and social problems that affect its sufferers. Many sufferers of Tourettes are afraid to go out in public for fear of embarrassment, and many have very low self-esteem. There are also noted problems of aggression in Tourettes sufferers, not only because the tics themselves can manifest themselves aggressively, but also because the victims are angry that they were 'cursed' with this debilitating and often humiliating disorder. Making matters even worse is the fact that feelings of anger and stress can actually increase the symptoms of Tourettes (Prestia, 2003).
While there is no known cure for Tourettes, there are ways of reducing the emotional and social…
Brady, E. (2006, January 5) How Jessica's learning to live with Tourette's, the Birmingham Post (England), 4
Carr, a. (1999) the handbook of child and adolescent clinical psychology: A contextual approach, Routledge
Hendren, G. (2002), Tourette Syndrome: A new look at an old condition, the Journal of Rehabilitation, 68, 22-30
Prestia, K. (2003), Tourette's Syndrome: Characteristics and interventions, Intervention in School & Clinic, 39, 66-70
Beyond the ability of the individual to carry out daily activities, there is the issue of quality of life. So a person who can get up and go to work but finds no pleasure in normal activities is someone whose symptoms still merit concern from the mental health professional (Hood & Johnson, 2006, pp. 27-9.)
Psychiatrists: The Medical Model of Treatment
For many people the most obvious professional to seek treatment from when faced with the symptoms of mental disorders is a psychiatrist. (Maybe because we've grown up reading the psychiatry cartoons in The New Yorker!) Psychiatrists are medical doctors and so their basic response to the symptoms of mental disorders will tend to be a medical one. This encompasses an overall examination of the person's health. (For example, a psychiatrist might run a series of thyroid function tests to determine if a patient's depressive symptoms were related to thyroid…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition.
Davies, T. (1997, 24 May.). ABC of mental health: Mental health assessment. BMJ: 314.
Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. New York: Wiley.
Hood, A. & Johnson, R. (2006). Assessment in counseling: A guide to the use of psychological procedures. Washington DC: American Counseling Association.
discrete section and instead can be found only in the introduction, where the paper demonstrates the historical research connection made between past and present experiences of mostly relational violence against women (i.e. when the perpetrator of violence is well-known to them) and psychological health. The work established a brief history of the connectivity of violence and psychological distress or poor health claiming that the historical perspective lacked the connection between violence and poor psychological health. There is also further review in the discussion section of the work where the findings are played against historical research related to the current research works, further supporting the importance, premise and hypothesis of the work.
Does the review establish the need for and importance of this study?
The work then goes on to demonstrate the research base for the establishment of this connection and/or the connection between violence and poor health but contends that…
Romito, R., Turan, J.M., & De Marchi, M. (2005). The impact of current and past interpersonal violence on women's mental health. Social Science & Medicine 60, 1717-1727. Romito.
Neuman, W.L. (2006). Chapter 4 The Meanings of Methodology. Social work research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (5th ed., pp. 70-95). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
It is only then that Neo-can begin to fulfill his role as the metaphorical intermediary between worlds. As McCullagh (1999) reports, "when Neo/Reeves wakes up from his VR slumber and unplugs from The Matrix, he joins a ragtag band of rebels led by the charismatic Morpheus (Lawrence Fishburne). Their plan: To overthrow the artificial intelligences that have robbed humanity of reality." (McCullagh, p. 1) The ambition to do so can only be instilled in Neo-by forcing him to confront the realities that had detained him. He does this with increasing acceptance and, consequently, success, as the film proceeds.
The result is an experience for the audience that is especially compelling, placing an individual of seemingly ordinary if not somewhat antisocial characteristics and demonstrating him to be capable of doing nothing short of dismantling the artifices and illusions that keep us from freedom.
McCarl, R. (2011). Robert Nozick's 'Experience…
McCarl, R. (2011). Robert Nozick's 'Experience Machine.' Ryanmccarl.com.
McCullagh, D. (1999). The Matrix: A Cyberpunk Triumph. Wired.com.
Nozick, R. (1977). Anarchy, State, and Utopia. Basic Books.
Nozick, R. (1998). Why Do Intellectuals Oppose Capitalism? CATO Institute.
Jung and auditory hallucinations
Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.
Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…
Ardery, Philip. "Ramifications of Julian Jaynes's Theory of Consciousness for Traditional General Semantics." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 61, no. 1 (2004): 83+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/ . Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.
Bemak, Fred, and Lawrence R. Epp. "Transcending the Mind-Body Dichotomy: Schizophrenia Reexamined." Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development 41, no. 1 (2002): 14+. Database online. Available from Questia,
The Cold War of the communist and the capitalist countries gay way to spying worldwide, together with the political and military meddling in the inside matters of the poor countries. Some of these developments led to a negative consequence which called for much of the distrust and uncertainty towards the government that came after the cold war. Examples of these outcomes are the serious reaction of the Soviet Union towards the famous uprising against communism, which included the Hungarian evolution of 1965, also the invasion in 1961 of the Cuban Bay of Pigs by the U.S. And the Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968. The lie of Dwight D. Eisenhower, president of the U.S. In 1960, about the extent of the U2 episode led to an even greater distrust amongst the public against the government (Eisenstadt, 1956).
The establishment in the U.S. was disintegrated into political and military framework after…
Bellah, Robert. "New Religious Consciousness and the Crisis of Modernity." In The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles dock and Robert Wuthnow, 1976.
Braungart, Margaret M. And Richard C. Braungart. "The Life-Course Development of Left- and Right-Wing Youth Activist Leaders from the 1960s." Political Psychology, 1990, 11:243-82.
DeMartini, Joseph R. "Social Movement Participation, Political Socialization, Generational Consciousness, and Lasting Effects." 1983, Youth atul Society 15:195-223.
Dunham, Charlotte Chorn, and Vern L. Bengtson, "The Long-Term Effects of Political. Activism on Intergenerational Relations." Youth and Society, 1992, 24:31-51.
nurse working as a psychiatric-Mental health facility and have been asked to complete a suicide assessment on a client.
What are the different areas you would need to assess? List at least two questions you would ask to assess each area.
Suicide assessment begins with understanding the behavior of the patient. A patient may be acting in a way that causes the nurse to question the possibility of risk. Questions to ask might be: Is the behavior unusual for this person? Has their behavior changed drastically after a tragic event? (Mohr,, 743). Next the nurse needs to establish a therapeutic relationship that is built on trust. This relationship should have begun prior to the behavior change. Nurses should ask about family, talk honestly about issues that the patient wants to hear about, and try to seek a common ground that will help build rapport. If the patient is in crisis…
Freedberg, S. (2007). Re-examining empathy: A relational-feminist point-of-view. Social Work,
Gaering, R.E., Saini, M., & McNeill, T. (2007). Experiences and implications of social workers practicing in a pediatric hospital environment affected by SARS. Health and Social Work,
Glass, J.E., Ilgen, M.A., Winters, J.J., Murray, R.L., Perron, B.E., & Chermack, S. (2010). Inpatient hospitalization in addiction treatment for patients with a history of suicide attempt: A case of support for treatment performance measures. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs,
Kintzle, S., & Bride, B.E. (2010). Intervention following a sudden death: The social work-medical examiner model. Health and Social Work,
Caffeine Improves Visual-Motor Performance
Acute Caffeine Ingestion Improves Visual-Motor esponses
Caffeine represents the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, so understanding how this chemical affects an individual's physiology is essential to providing the best healthcare advice for the general public. Towards this goal, the response times of college students were studied before and after ingestion of water, ed Bull, or coffee. The task involved clicking a mouse button as fast as possible in response to a computer monitor screen changing color. Compared to water, response times improved by almost 6 and 13 seconds for ed Bull and coffee, respectively. Based on published information, which suggests the ed Bull and coffee ingestion would provide approximately 80 and 122 mg of caffeine, respectively, these results indicate a dose-dependent improvement in task performance as the caffeine dosage increased. Although between subjects variability was high, these results are remarkably consistent…
Bruce, M., Scott, N., Lader, M., & Marks, V. (1986). The psychopharmacological and electrophysiological effects of single doses of caffeine in healthy human subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 22, 81-7.
Brunye, T.T., Mahoney, C.R., Leiberman, H.R., & Taylor, H.A. (2010). Caffeine modulates attention of network function. Brain and Cognition, 72, 181-8.
Caffeineinformer. (2014). Drip Coffee: Caffeine levels. Retrieved 16 Mar. 2014 from http://www.caffeineinformer.com/caffeine-content/coffee-drip .
Jacobson, B.H. & Thurman-Lacey, S.R. (1992). Effect of caffeine on motor performance by caffeine-naive and -- familiar subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 74, 151-157.
' If a person does not disclose their drinking behavior if they seek outside help, they may be misdiagnosed as having an anxiety disorder. Mixing alcohol and medications for anxiety disorders can have lethal consequences, as well as prolonging a process of addiction." (Losinno, p. 1)
This denotes that especially in the face of trauma, those who are predisposed to dissonant responses and unhealthy coping mechanisms will struggle at a higher level to be liberated of chemical dependency. ith respect to treatment, outreach to specific risk groups such as those who are proven to be vulnerable to PTSD should be seen as a primary intervention strategy. Military veterans, families that have suffered the loss of a loved one, victims of system abuse and victims of traumatic injuries are all targeted candidates for this type of intervention.
3. Discuss genetic impact of chemical dependency? hat is the likelihood of some individuals…
Gans, S. (2006). New Genes Found for Excessive Alcohol Drinking. About Alcoholism.
Grinsteinner, K. (2006). Targeting Teen Drinking. Hibbing, MN: The Daily Tribune.
Losinno, N.D. (2007). Double Trouble: Anxiety and Substance Abuse. Employee Assistance Program Manager.
Stephens, P. & Smith, R. (2012). Substance Abuse Counseling: Theory and Practice. Merrill Education/Prentice Hall.
Chemical Addiction Progress More apidly in Young People than Adults?
Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).
Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly…
Chapter 2 -- The Role of PPC in a Managed Care Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/tips/13b.htm
Chemical Dependency. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aboutdrugtreatment.org/chemical_dependency.htm
Chemical Dependency. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.galaxrecovery.com/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
Drug and Alcohol Information. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
Different routes of cocaine administration can produce different adverse effects. egularly snorting cocaine, for example, can lead to loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and an overall irritation of the nasal septum, which can lead to a chronically inflamed, runny nose. Ingested cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene, due to reduced blood flow. Persons who inject cocaine have puncture marks and tracks, most commonly in their forearms. Intravenous cocaine users may also experience an allergic reaction, either to the drug, or to some additive in street cocaine, which can result, in severe cases, in death. Because cocaine has a tendency to decrease food intake, many chronic cocaine users lose their appetites and can experience significant weight loss and malnourishment. The human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, which intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects 3. The mixture of cocaine and alcohol is the…
1. Quaglio G, Lugoboni F, Pajusco B, Fornasiero a, Mezzelani P, Lechi a. [Clinical manifestations of cocaine abuse]. Ann Ital Med Int. Oct-Dec 2004;19(4):291-301; quiz 302-293.
2. White SM, Lambe CJ. The pathophysiology of cocaine abuse. J Clin Forensic Med. Mar 2003;10(1):27-39.
3. Velasquez EM, Anand RC, Newman WP, 3rd, Richard SS, Glancy DL. Cardiovascular complications associated with cocaine use. J La State Med Soc. Nov-Dec 2004;156(6):302-310; quiz 311.
4. Sofuoglu M, Kosten TR. Novel approaches to the treatment of cocaine addiction. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(1):13-25.
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…
Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.
Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall
Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.
Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
Any drug that alters the brain chemistry, impairs cognitive functions, and creates an addictive personality cannot be recommended as safe. While there is no suppressing the fact that controlling illegal marijuana use continues to be a financial and administrative bottleneck, they are overridden by the potential harmful health consequences of legalizing marijuana.
Marijuana has been in use for thousands of years for its medicinal properties. With the development of new synthetic drugs there was a gradual decline in its use from the early part of the 20th century. Today however, though illegal, it continues to be a widely used drug in the United States for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In the year 2000 alone there were more than 2.4 million new users of marijuana and the drug is supposedly consumed by more than 76% of all drug users. [NCADI] The comparatively safer and proven remedial properties of…
1) Edward A. Jacobs, "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth,"
PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. 1825-1826
2) Wayne Hall, Louisa Degenhardt and Michael Lynskey, "The Health and Psychological Effects of Cannabis Use," Chapter 5, Monograph Series No 44, 2nd Edition,
Accessed on March 24th 2005,
psychological effects of drugs. Specifically it will discuss the psychological effects of marijuana on the brain. Many factors of marijuana use can affect the brain, and these affects can be long-term and very harmful. Using marijuana may seem harmless, and less harmful than other types of drugs, such as alcohol, but it is very harmful, and can have long-term affects on people who use it regularly.
Marijuana has many chemicals that are harmful. Doctors Bell and Hall note that THC is the most well-known and harmful of these chemicals. They write, "Among them, THC is the most psychoactive in humans, producing euphoria, relaxation, intensification of ordinary sensory experiences, perceptual alterations, diminished pain, and difficulties with memory and concentration" (Bell & Hall, 2005). These affects do not typically last longer than a few hours, depending on how much of the drug the subject ingests, but the affects on the brain can…
One of the reasons marijuana can be so harmful to the brain is because people tend to start to use it at a young age, like adolescence, when the brain is not fully formed and is still maturing (Agosti, Nunes & Levin, 2002). This early drug use can lead to the abuse of other drugs, but it can also have lasting affects on the brain and the way it functions, because it hits the brain before the brain is ready for drug use. Because marijuana and other illegal drugs are also usually very addicting, they create an urge in the user to continue using them, and so dependence on them can grow, adding to the problem of long-term damage.
There is another problem associated with brain function and marijuana use. Authors Agosti et al. note, "Longitudinal studies have also found a significant association between chronic cannabis use, mental disorders, and social morbidity" (Agosti et al., 2002). Therefore, use of marijuana, especially early use, can ultimately lead to the use of more dangerous drugs, and chronic use can lead to many mental problems. Unfortunately, studies show that marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in use in America today, and that 81% of illegal drug users use marijuana (Trevino & Richard, 2002). What this means for the brains of these users is that they will show additional memory loss, confusion, and other signs of brain damage as their life progresses, especially if they continue to use the drug throughout their lives. It can even lead to mental disorders and death as previously noted. Thus, marijuana is more dangerous than many people believe.
Many proponents of marijuana believe that it should be legalized, but about 55% of the American population is against legalizing the drug (Trevino & Richard, 2002). Proponents of the drug cite many studies that have not shown any damaging affects of the drug, but these studies have consistently been disproved by more effective studies such as those cited here. There will always be a segment of the population that wants to legalize marijuana, especially those who use it for its claimed medicinal affects. However, scientific studies show that marijuana use is harmful to the brain and to the overall health of the user,