Psychodynamic Theory Essays Examples

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Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Does Not Go Down Easily

Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85397091

Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theory

Psychodynamic & Humanistic Theory

A seminal study on the personality trait differences of therapists practicing with different theoretical orientations is an interesting place to begin this compare and contrast discussion. Tremblay, et al. (1986) administered the Personality Orientation Inventory to 90 male and 90 female psychotherapists who self-designated and were equally distributed in groups designated as behavioral (BEH), psychodynamic (PSY), and humanistic (HUM). Interestingly, the study suggested that a core therapist personality exists and that further distinction can be achieved through consideration of the patterns of personality that were associated with theoretical orientation. The caveat was that the patterns associated with theoretical orientations were characterized more by overlapping traits than unique traits. Of the three theoretical categories, the HUM group exhibited the most unique traits: they were more flexible, more accepting of personal aggression and expressing feelings in action, and differed in their development of intimate relationships. Therapists in the HUM, were more affirming of the values of self-actualization, more inner-directed and sensitive to their own feelings. Therapists in the BEH group resembled the therapists in the PSY group, more than those in the HUM group. And the therapists in the PSY group were most like…… [Read More]

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Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Psychodynamic

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20697898

Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality

Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches

Personality can be defined as the unique characteristics that various individuals possess. These characteristics differentiate individuals from others. In other words, personality can also be defined as a unique system of feelings, thoughts and behaviors that prevail over time and that is evident in various situations. Different psychologists have determined different approaches to study personality. Some psychologists try to examine various aspects of personality that an individual possesses, whereas, others try to understand why there are differences in the personalities of various individuals. (Morris et al., 2010)

Listed below are the two different approaches to personality;

Psychodynamic Approach

Psychodynamic theories establish the thought that our personality is an outcome of inner psychological forces which are not under the control of our conscious mind. Psychodynamic approach basically studies the energy of our unconscious mind and it also explores how this energy transforms into the behavior that various individuals portray at different situations. (Morris et al., 2013) This perspective focuses on how different internal processes such as, needs, desires, emotions and drives lead towards motivating individual behavior. This perspective evolved over time and its emphasis has shifted from innate or unconscious processes…… [Read More]

Morris, C. And Maisto, A. (2010). Understanding Psychology . Oxford: Orford University Press. pp.45-65. [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].

Unknown. (2008). Theoretical Perspectives on Human Behavior. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers. pp.53-65. [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].
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Psychodynamic Approach to Intervention-Reflect on

Words: 2008 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29868639

On the other hand, I believe it is a more adequate approach because they are more imaginative and engage more readily in the roles they have to enact. And also children and adolescents are more suggestible and ready for role-play or fantasy enactment. However, even adults find it easier to adopt certain roles in order to express their intrapsychic conflicts.

Psychodrama is the perfect representative of a therapeutic situation, in which conditions can be manipulated and conflicts allegorically expressed and interpreted. The advantage is that it offers the opportunity to bring into discussion (and enactment) not only past conflicts, but also present or even future ones. Moreover, it provides the advantage of group work and group interpretation.

An important fact to be stated is that psychotherapeutic approach depends very much on the school in which the analyst is formed. All in all, the theory supporting psychodynamic therapy originated in and is informed by psychoanalytic theory. There are four major schools of psychoanalytic theory, each of which has influenced psychodynamic therapy. The four schools are: Freudian, Ego Psychology, Object Relations, and Self-Psychology. Contemporary object relations theory distinguishes between psychoanalytic theories that emphasize biological drives such as sexuality and aggression, on the…… [Read More]

Fonagy, P.(1999) Relation of Theory and Practice in Psychodynamic Therapy,

Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, Vol. 28, No. 4, Pages 513-520
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Psychodynamic Paradigm

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30045694

Psychodynamic Approach or Paradigm

The Psychodynamic Approach incorporates theories and methods originating with Freud and expanded by his followers. Freud's original approach was referred to as Psychoanalysis; which can be considered both a theory as well as a therapy method. The Psychodynamic Approach is founded upon the influence that internal processes and past experience have in determining a person's personality. These theorists believe that behavior is driven by individual's unconscious urges not necessarily rational thought. One intuitive illustration of this can be found in the contemporary field of marketing. Advertisements rarely appeal to the rational side of consumers by offering information about products; instead they target to the emotional needs and wants of individuals (Samuel, 2010).

Freud's theories developed from interactions what his patients during treatment sessions. These interactions led Freud to believe that adult behavior is driven by instinctual impulses and desires that originated in their childhood. Most of these impulses stem from sexual desires and but also represent behaviors that are generally prohibited by society. Therefore such impulses are kept hidden by using defense mechanisms such as repression or suppression (Boag, 2010).

Furthermore, in order to uncover these repressed unconscious wishes and desires, which for Freud were the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Boag, S. (2010). Repression, suppression, and conscious awareness. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 164-181.

Samuel, L. (2010). Freud on Madison Avenue: Motivation Research and Subliminal Advertising in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
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Psychodynamic Model the Model's Developmental Processes and

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Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model

A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis. Most of the findings originated from the four frameworks. ( The psychodynamic, the cognitive behavior, the stress and coping model, and the family systems model).

Given the demographics of the present age, almost all adult mental shape practice will certainly include older adults. As people grow older, various changes occur, more valuable is the vulnerability to stress and illnesses. The challenges one faces through the years like the death of loved ones, loneliness and others exposes one to the risk of mental illnesses. Furthermore, the body grows weak and pale. This paper analyzes the relationship between mental health and ageing. The paper looks into the unending scientific researches and years of clinical trials of Daniel L. Segal in his book " Ageing and Mental health." The aim of this…… [Read More]

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Blaikie, A. (2009). Ageing And Popular Culture. Cambridge U.A.: Cambridge Univ. Press.
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Psychodynamic Counselors Facilitate Change In Order to

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psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?

In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.

The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role their unconscious plays in this. Psychodynamic theory categorizes the analysis of a person's character by analyzing emotional and inner forces such as the relationship between emotional states and a person's motivation, on a subconscious level and how this plays out with regards to a person's behavioral and mental state of…… [Read More]

"Psychodynamics," Psychology Wikia [online] viewed March 23, 2011,

Snowden, R 2006, Teach Yourself Freud. McGraw Hill, San Francisco.

Taylor, RB, De Soto, CB & Lieb, R 1979, 'Sharing Secrets: Disclosure and Discretion in Dyads and Triads', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1196-1203.
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Psychodynamic Coaching in the Workplace

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Systemic Psychodynamic Coaching in the Workplace:

Workplace coaching is a term that refers to the process of equipping people in the working environment with necessary tools, opportunities, and knowledge for total development in order to enhance their effectiveness from an individual, organizational, and work perspective. Workplace coaching has emerged as a major concept in modern organizations since leaders, researchers, and organizations have identified it as a crucial competency in leadership and management (Cacioppe, n.d.). The increase in this practice has also been attributed to the fact that employees continue to request for coaching. As an important competency in leadership and management, workplace coaching has assumed different perspectives and approaches because of the existence of various coaching models such as Systemic Psychodynamic Coaching model.

The Concept of Workplace Coaching:

As previously mentioned, the concept of workplace coaching can be defined as the knowledge, skills, and processes through which people engage themselves in making the maximum impact and continually developing themselves and organizations in light of constant change. While this coaching process utilizes similar communication processes with therapy or counseling, it is not the same as counseling or therapy. The difference between the two is attributed to the fact that therapy focuses…… [Read More]

Azmatullah, S. (2013). The coach's mind manual: enhancing coaching practice with neuroscience, psychology and mindfulness. New York, NY: Routledge

Beck, U.C. (2011). Psychodynamic coaching: focus and depth. Great Britain: The Studio
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Theories of Personality and How They Affect Human Behavior

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8462817

psychology, theories of personality abound. Two of the most significant theories of personality include psychodynamic and humanistic/existential theories. Although these two theories share some features in common, they are based on widely different assumptions about human nature and human behavior. Each describes the way personality impacts human behavior under certain situations. However, psychodynamic theory presumes that human personality is static and less likely to change. Humanistic and existential theories are built on the assumption that human personality is dynamic. The differences between psychodynamic and humanistic theories of personality also have an impact on their approaches to treatment interventions and therapy.

Psychodynamic theories of personality are based on the theories of Sigmund Freud, who believed that human personality is determined by subconscious factors and the person's psycho-sexual nature. The personality is divided into three main and immutable components according to the psychodynamic worldview. Those three components include the id, ego, and superego. The id is the part of the personality that is childlike, needy, and interested in instant gratification. The ego is the part of the personality that is constructed in the social world, and in which the individual becomes heavily invested. The superego operates like a general conscience of moral…… [Read More]

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Psychology Theories of Personality Focus on Inner

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37863305


Theories of personality focus on inner traits of individuals, which may or may not be viewed as static. The most important schools of personality psychology include Psychodynamic Theory, Freud's Theory of Personality, Humanistic Theory, B.F. Skinner's Theory of Personality, Social Learning Theory, and Evolutionary Personality Theory. While all these theories share in common their goal to explain, analyze, and understand human behavior in terms of personality explanations, there are important differences in these main approaches. The differences will affect theory but also practice of psychology.

Behaviorism was one of the earliest expressions of psychological inquiry. Therefore, it makes sense to begin with an understanding of behavioral theories of personality. Behaviorism suggests that individual behavior is the key to understanding personality. Because of its emphasis on behavior rather than emotion or cognition, behavioral theories of personality are relatively weak and limited in scope. However, it is still worth understanding the contributions of B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson to the study of personality.

Psychodynamic theories of personality are highly relevant to the study of psychology because they have become pervasive in the understanding of human nature. Sigmund Freud's theory of personality falls under the rubric of Psychodynamic theories of personality.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Theories of Personality. Retrieved online:

McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: 
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Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

Words: 2290 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71659198

Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

In this paper, there is going to an examination of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic theories. This is accomplished by focusing on: the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. These elements will show how each one can address issues impacting the patient and the long-term effects upon them.

In the world of psychology, there are different theories which are used to explain how someone reacts to various stimuli. The result is that there has been contrasting ideas about the best way to understand human behavior. Two schools of thought which are very popular are the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral approaches. (Okun, 2008)

To fully understand them requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by focusing on the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. Together, these elements will provide specific insights about how they focus on understanding human behavior and those factors which are influencing it. (Okun, 2008) (Larson, 2012)

Discussion of two preferred theories: a discussion of two preferred theories covered in the textbook, demonstrating your critical thinking about the theories.

Psycho…… [Read More]

Larson, P. (2012). How Important is an Understanding of the Clients Early Attachments. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (1), 10 -- 18.

Lucia, M. (2012). Therapeutic Activities and Psychological Interventions. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12 (2), 118 -- 127.
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Individual Theories of Delinquency

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88316847

Crime Theories and Juvenile Delinquency

There are many theories of crime that aim at determining or explaining why individuals resort to criminal and/or violent behavior. Among the different types of offenders are juvenile delinquents who are driven to deviancy for a number of reasons. By examining two theories of crime, behavioral and psychodynamic, one can gain a better understanding of the motivating factors behind juvenile delinquency.

One of the most relevant behavioral theories in criminology is the social learning theory. Albert Bandura posited that "people learn by what they see" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 87). He believed that violent tendencies were not inherited, but rather that they were modeled on three distinct principles: reinforcement from family members, the media, and the environment (Isom, 1998). Thus, people behave in ways that are "consistent with what we are exposed to and thus familiar with as a byproduct of our environment" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 87). Atkinson, Atkinson, Smith, and Bem (1990) expand on Bandura's claims and state, "When children observe and subsequently imitate their parents, they learn how adults are reward or punished in specific situations, and these experiences influence their own sense of morality" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 169). However, when there is a…… [Read More]

Arrigo, B. (2006). Criminal behavior: a systems approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Isom, MD (1998, Nov 30). Albert Bandura. The Florida State University College of Criminology
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Bowenian Therapist to That of the Psychodynamic

Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88896282

Bowenian Therapist to that of the Psychodynamic Therapist

Bowenian Therapist vs. Psychodynamic Therapist: Roles Comparison

In this text, I seek to compare the role of psychodynamic therapists with that of Bowenian therapists. However, in seeking to compare the said roles, it would be prudent to first offer a brief definition of the two theories. Regarded one of the most comprehensive and perhaps earliest family systems functioning theories, "Bowen family systems theory is a theory of human behavior that views the family as an emotional unit and uses systems thinking to describe the complex interactions in the unit" (Brok and Saks 2008, p.135). Psychodynamic therapy in the words of Haggerty (2006) "focuses on unconscious processes as they are manifested in a person's present behavior."

To begin with, while many psychodynamic therapists as the National Center for Biotechnological Information - U.S. National Library of Medicine (2013) observes work with clients having substance-abuse related problems, most Bowenian therapists work with family units and marital couples. A Bowenian therapist recognizes the need for members of the family to identify themselves as individuals. For this reason, therapy founded on this particular theory attempts to be not only neutral but also "de-triangled from the client and…… [Read More]

Brok, M.G. & Saks, S. (2008). Contemporary Issues in Family Law and Mental Health. Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Galica, J. (2013). Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy. Retrieved July 2, 2013, from: 
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Object Relations Theory

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95159815

Object Relations Theory

What exactly is 'Object Relations Theory'? What does it deal with? What is it about? The Theory as such is based on the belief and conviction that every single person has within themselves a completely world of relations and relationships that may well be quite different and at times even infinitely more compelling and forceful and convincing than what actually is happening in their real world filled with real people. The Theory as such lays primary emphasis and focuses on all the various interactions and also on all the various processes that an individual would naturally use to internalize those processes and, on the large and enormous role that such processes play on the psychological development of an individual. Therefore, it can be stated that the very term 'Object Relations' would mean the so called 'real relationships' that a person would have with others, but also to all the various internal mental representations of others, and to those internal images of one's own self also. However, one must remember that when uses the term 'object relations theory', the word need not be always synonymous with what one generally refers to as a 'relationship', rather, it refers to…… [Read More]

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Personality Theories and Assessments Though

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53496899

Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.

Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior as consistent, but rather see the underlying cognitive rules that determine an individual's behavior in a given situation as consistent. Both use objective tests to asses personality, however, with social-learning theorists also using simple observation as a measure.

The Jungian word test at appears to be a mostly objective…… [Read More]

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Personal Theory of Psychological Development

Words: 2119 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40027294

It may even be impossible to retroactively identify every influence on the development of personality. However, contemporary psychologists already understand the general patterns in which major areas of psychological influence exert themselves on the individual.

More often than not, more than one avenue of psychological inquiry is helpful. Personality development in the typical patient may have been primarily influenced by Freudian issues in infancy and subsequent specific experiences in middle childhood, and secondarily by a particular negative experience or period of conflict in the nuclear family. Therefore, in the practical sense, measuring personality development means retroactively identifying the conceptually recognized potential influences along the full spectrum of psychological approaches. By matching behavioral (and other outwardly observable) manifestations of personality formation to the identifiable potential influences, it is often possible to pinpoint the most likely route of origin for major observable elements of personality.

Toward a Cross-Culturally Appropriate Theory of Personality Development

The simultaneity of multiple psychological influences on personality development greatly complicates the prospect of drawing definitive conclusions about the exact origin of psychological outcomes expressed as elements of personality. Similarly, the influence of the human socialization process and social culture adds another tremendously complicated factor.

Classic experiments by Skinner…… [Read More]

Bradshaw J. (2002). Bradshaw on: The Family. Deerfield Beach, FL: HCI.

Branden N. (2001). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Basic Books.
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Forrest Gump Analysis of Jenny Theories

Words: 2150 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75289089

Mustanski et al. (2007) have conducted research on genetics and disposition and have found genetics can influence personality, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and social deviance. Since her father was clearly abusive and appeared to be a drinker as well, his impulsiveness and social deviance was evident. In looking at internal psychological states things like goals and self-efficacy beliefs are main determinants of behavior (Vancouver, More, & Yoder, 2008)

External factors influencing Jenny's personality, were her interactions socially within the environment in which she lived. Also contributing to her self-schema and how she viewed the environment was the development of knowledge structures. The different social and interpersonal experiences Jenny faced developed a self-schema that was different from those around her. Since Forrest was the only person she had that was positive in her life, her experiences drove her toward a negative self-schema. This would be the only way she might be able to understand the abuse she received throughout her lifetime.

Another external factor Jenny had to deal with was the stigma of being an abused child. She did her best to hide what was happening to her but it did not help her self-esteem. Pachankis (2007) proposes individuals with a concealable…… [Read More]

Tamir, M., John, O.P., Srivastava, S., & Gross, J.J. (2007).Implicit theories of emotion: Affective and social outcomes across a major life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 92[4], 731-744.

Vancouver, J.B., More, K.M., & Yoder, R.J. (2008). Self-efficacy and resource allocation:

Support for a nonmonotonic, discontinuous model. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93[1], 35-47.
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Comparison of Theories

Words: 1984 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66317121


It is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud's notions retain quite a bit of popularity, especially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory (or perhaps "not often explanatory" would be the better term). Instead, these overt or manifest behaviors represent some hidden motive. Sigmund Freud was trained as a neurologist and specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. His early training involved using hypnosis with the French neurologist Jean Charcot in the treatment of hysteria, the presentation of baffling physical symptoms (mostly in young women) that appeared to have no physical origin (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). Freud also partnered with the Viennese physician Josef Breuer who practiced a revolutionary "talking cure" to reduce patients' symptoms by talking with them about how they felt as well as using hypnosis to remove emotional barriers to their feelings. He eventually abandoned the use of hypnosis in favor of a process he termed…… [Read More]

Barry, P. (2002). Mental health and mental illness. (7th ed.) New York: Lippincott.

Hall, C.S., Lindzey, G., & Campbell, J.B. (1998). Theories of personality. New York: John
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Comparison of Humanistic Theory With Other Similar Theories

Words: 2182 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1658723

Humanistic Theory and Its Position Among Other Counseling Theories

Humanistic Theory

The obvious limitations associated with the Psychodynamic theories led to the adoption of the humanistic approach as a response to these limitations, especially in Psychoanalysis. People like Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers felt that the psychodynamic theories that were still in existence were unable to address certain important issues such as the nature of healthy growth and the meaning of behavior adequately. Nevertheless, the outcome was not just a new variation in the theory of psychodynamic, but rather, a new approach.

The Founders of the Accepted Theories

Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers wasn't just one of the several theorists who founded the Humanistic Approach, but possibly the most important therapist that lived in the 20th century. Several surveys, which include a number of surveys carried out after the death of Carl Rogers, discovered that several other therapists named Rogers as one of the most powerful therapists that influenced their way of thinking as well as their clinical practice more than any other human that has ever lived, including the famous Sigmund Freud. To have a good understanding of this, you must first understand something about Rogers as a person, and…… [Read More]

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Non-Directive Communication Theories of Communication

Words: 3036 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38946940

The Rogerian Model

This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).

Motivational Interview

This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling imbalances (Lussier 2007). It is also perceived as a patient-focused approach, as Rogers intended, wherein the patient's perspective, interests, values and concerns are central. It is directive as opposed to Rogers' nondirective approach. As a method of communication, it is designed to enhance the natural change of a patient's motivation.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Wagner, K. 2011, 'Theories of communication in counseling,' eHow [Online]

Available at

Zimring, F 1999, 'Carl Rogers,' Prospects [Online] Available at
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Traditional and Contemporary Psychodynamics Theories

Words: 872 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17550491

Tenets of Traditional and Contemporary Psychodynamics

Traditional Psychodynamics

One of the founders of traditional psychodynamics is Sigmund Freud with his approach of psychoanalytic theory with which he attempted to explain the behavior of human beings by looking at the mind and the inner thinking process of individuals, right from the time of birth. Due to his work, Freud influenced several other scholars in the line of psychology who later on came up with various arguments around the mind and the aspects that influence human behavior. Firstly and significant here, the traditional psychodynamic theory argues that there are psychological energy within the individual that are related to the attachments, continuous conflict and the motivations that the individual has. The theory further indicates that the behavior of an individual at the adulthood is widely influenced by the early childhood experiences.

The traditional psychodynamics also gave an indication that the psychological development took place in five stages that were fixed depending on the age of the individual. It is worth noting that the traditional psychodynamics borrowed a lot from the unconscious fantasies and the symbols which they argue were the main factors that were responsible for the shaping of personality. The theory indicates…… [Read More]

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Sigmund Freud's Theories

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17587217

The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.

Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.

Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief that you can succeed despite past failures. Criticisms for this theory include that it ignores the unconscious and emotional aspects of personality.

Biological Theory- believes that the brain and chemical activity contribute to a person's personality. Genetics studies particularly with twins and adopted children have shown that genetics have a…… [Read More]

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Theories of Psychology in Group Work

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79630563

Psychology in Group Work

Learning Theory

There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).

The learning theory of Bandura

The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one another through modeling, imitation, and observation. This theory has often been referred to as link between cognitive and behaviorist learning theories. This is because the theory has incorporated motivation, attention, and memory. Bandura provides suggestions, arguing that the learning process must be perceived through observation and modeling behaviors, emotional reactions,…… [Read More]

Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:

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Theory Therapy Levy Meehan Kelly

Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662734

Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a brief explanation of other modes of treatment, particularly simple cognitive therapy, which is not abandoned but used in a systematic manner to help educate the patient of the need for change and restructuring of behavior. The Schema Therapy used is described by the authors through a stepped system including; (1)…… [Read More]

Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
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Theory Its Usefulness in the Workplace Today

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theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today

Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive. The child's future personality development becomes unfulfilling: avoidant and resistant personality types either passively or actively show hostility toward the parent while anxious types are overly dependant upon external parental reinforcement and praise (Attachment theory, 2002, Great ideas). On a macro scale, a general parenting style adopted by a culture,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from: 
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Psychodynamic Approach

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31230388

staff meeting problems that one manager, Stan Williams, is experiencing. Each month Stan puts together a staff meeting for this company, a company which provides technical services to clients; the meeting is attended by eight professionals. Four of the professionals work in the technical department, three work in sale and marketing and the final professional works in finance. However, these competent individuals generally are not communicating together as adequately as they can in order to create the most harmonious or productive meeting team. For a team with individuals as experienced as they are, one would naturally expect the results and the process of each meeting to be more comprehensive and more cohesive.

The problem that this particular meeting group is experiencing is that Stan has thus far been unable to guide the meetings in a harmonious and balanced fashion. This presentation will demonstrate how Stan needs to better conduct the meetings and how he needs to allow more of the professionals to share their opinions, not just the sales and marketing staff. The client has a clear and obvious interest in following the arguments and recommendations made in this presentation because it will offer a concerted analysis about the given…… [Read More]

McKenna, E. (2000). Business Psychology and Organisational Behaviour. London: Psychology Press.

MT. (2013). Leading Equals. Retrieved from
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Compare Role Bowenian Therapist Psychodynamic Therapist Recently Years Thank

Words: 1454 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88684999

Psychodynamic Therapy vs Bowenian Therapy

Psychodynamic Vs Bowenian Therapist

Psychodynamic and Bowenian Therapist

Role of Psychodynamic Therapist to that of the Bowenian Therapist

Psychodynamic Therapy

Psychodynamic Sessions

Role of the Psychodynamic therapist

Bowenian Therapist

Family Systems Theory

Goals of the Therapy

Role of the Therapist


Psychodynamic Therapy

Psychodynamic therapy focuses on helping the patients to explore the feelings and emotions that are deep inside them. These are the emotions that they might not be aware of. Psychodynamic therapy helps the people to understand how these hidden feelings and emotions are effecting there moods and behavior without them knowing about it.

Psychodynamic therapy is also known as Insight-oriented therapy, which makes the people understand the reasons for their current behavior and mood swings which might be the outcome of some past relationships that have been a cause of constant pain for them.

Psychodynamic therapy is the oldest of all the modern form of therapies. It came out of several theories and approaches of the Freudian Psychoanalysis. The basic idea behind the Psychoanalysis is that a person's unusual behavior is due to some past events and experiences. Psychoanalysis deals with sessions that focus on exploring a person's feelings and emotions from…… [Read More]

Galica, J. (2013). Theravive . Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy.

Haggerty, J. (2013, april 3). Psych Central. Psychodynamic Therapy.
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Five Approaches and Theory

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Role of Theory in Qualitative Research

Five Approaches and Theory

Compare and contrast the role of theory in the five main qualitative approaches:

Ethnography, case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory

Although all five major approaches to qualitative research embrace theory to some degree or another, not all of them value the use of theory to the same degree. Broadly speaking, some cultural 'theory' is usually demonstrated within an ethnography, either through a comparative approach; an attempt to understand the culture on its own terms; a theory that seeks to understand the multiple layers of meaning within the culture in a symbolic fashion; or even a universalizing construct like feminist or Marxist theory. The extent to which this theoretical approach is emphasized will depend upon the anthropologist conducting the study. Some studies may mainly focus upon observations and detail unique aspects of a foreign culture while other studies might largely subsume the details to an exploration of the 'theory' the anthropologist choose to bring to explain the actions of the participants.

In general, a good ethnography will not subsume hard data and actual observed experiences to an unyielding and unbending theory -- the theory must be modified to fit the data,…… [Read More]

Ethnography. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:
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Bruner's Constructivist Theory and the Conceptual Paradigms

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Bruner's constructivist theory and the conceptual paradigms of Kolb's Experiential Learning theory drawing on the associated theories are Kinesthetic and Embodied Learning. As also noted in the introductory chapter, the guiding research question for this study was, "What are the career paths for teaching artists seeking to deploy into the field of community art and development?" To develop timely and informed answers to this research question, this chapter provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning these theoretical frameworks to investigate the different career paths teaching artists seek to deploy into the field of community art and development, including creative community building and adult community centers such as working with Alzheimer's Disease and stroke victims.

Adult Learning Theories

Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory. There are a wide array of theoretical models that can be used to identify and better understand teaching and learning preferences by educators and students, including Kolb's experiential learning theory which has been shown to be effective in explaining how adults learn (Akella, 2010). In this regard, Kolb (1984) defines experiential learning as a "holistic integrative perspective on learning that combines experience, cognition and behavior" (p. 21). Adult learning, from Kolb's perspective, is "a continuous…… [Read More]

Akella, D. (2010, March). Learning together: Kolb's Experiential Theory and its application.

Journal of Management and Organization, 16(1), 100-105.
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Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach

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Counselling Theories

Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach

There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).

Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to the complexity of the concept, there lacks an adequate definition. For instance, addiction is a spiritual illness, behavioral disorder, and people, or rather the addicts find drugs their god, in the context of behavior and spiritual revival (Sremac, 2010). Many prior studies agree that the crucial aspects of addiction include:…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Caldwell, K., & Claxton, C. (2010). Teaching Family Systems Theory: A Developmental-

Constructivist Perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(1), 3-21.
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Counseling Theories & 8230 THERE Is No

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41114157

& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.

Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom line" (Altman, 2007, ¶ 4). A recent study related in the New York Times and Newsweek, regarding the treatment of depression, found antidepressant medication alone proved superior to psychotherapy alone. The addition of psychotherapy, nevertheless, complemented the efficacy of the medication. One individual who conducted the study contends that as…… [Read More]

American Journal of Psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy Belfer

Education Center. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
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Personal Theory of Therapy the

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78835853

These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)

Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:

1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.

2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.

3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)


Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at Accessed on February 15, 2005

Bush, Winston John. (December 22, 2003) "Learning theory: A fuller-fuller explanation of CBT" Retrieved at Accessed on February 15, 2005

Cognitive Therapy for Depression" Retrieved at Accessed on February 15, 2005

Grohol, John M. (July 21, 1995) "Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists"

Types of Therapies. Retrieved at Accessed on February 15,…… [Read More]

Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at Accessed on February 15, 2005

Bush, Winston John. (December 22, 2003) "Learning theory: A fuller-fuller explanation of CBT" Retrieved at Accessed on February 15, 2005
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Psychoanalytic Theory and Behavioral Theory There Are

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Psychoanalytic Theory and Behavioral Theory

There are numerous types of psychological theories and with them approaches for modifying human happiness and behavior. Psychoanalytic theory and behavioral theory are two of the most overwhelming and notable theories in this field. Exploring them adequately not only illuminates the field of mental health, but the truly endless possibilities for treatment approaches for a professional in this field.

Psychoanalytic Theory

"This is one of the oldest theories of psychology in which patients are viewed within a model of illness or 'what is lacking'" (Grohol, 2004). Each person is viewed as being composed of a particular dynamic that starts when they are extremely young and then proceeds throughout life; this theory focuses on the idea that all problems or issues which adults face can find their origins in one's childhood (Grohol, 2004). This type of therapy is so traditional and widely considered extremely "old school," so much so that many therapists don't practice this type of psychoanalysis anymore, aside from psychiatrists who have often spent tremendous amounts of time being analyzed themselves (Grohol, 2004).

As stated, childhood factors tremendously in this type of therapy. This means that professionals who use this type of theory as…… [Read More]

Cherry, K. (2013). What Is Behavioral Therapy? Retrieved from

Corey, G. (2011). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Belmont: Brooks/Cole.
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Humanistic Behavioral and Psychodynamic Approaches to Mental

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81993329

humanistic, behavioral, and psychodynamic approaches to mental illness, and associated therapeutic modalities. Mental illness is one of the most important health issues in North America today. It can have an enormous impact on personal and professional lives of millions of individuals. As such, an understanding of the three most common models of mental illness is important to understanding the concept of mental illness as a whole.

The humanistic model of mental illness derives from existential philosophy, and first emerged in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s. This model is centered on the idea that a person's reality comes from their unique perception of the world around them. Freedom of choice means that individuals are able to make choices and be responsible for their personal decisions and actions. The humanistic model focuses on the actualizing tendencies of humans to grow and explore personal potential.

In the humanistic model abnormal behavior and mental illness come from several different factors. Mental illness can come when society begins to see certain people or groups of people as more valuable or powerful than others. Further, in the humanistic model, mental illness can come from the individual's unhealthy need to derive self-regard from other…… [Read More]

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Cardsmax Humanistic Theory Humanistic Learning Theory as

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80110921


Humanistic Theory

Humanistic learning theory as explained by Lipscomb, & Ishmael (2009 p. 174) emphasizes feeling, experience, self-awareness, personal growth, and individual / psychic optimization. Learning, from this perspective, is positioned as both social process and psychological/intellectual endeavor. Humanism aspires to place lecturers alongside students in mutually constituted, cooperative enquiry, variously described, this form of 'peer learning community 'situates the lecturer as an authority rather than in authority. It is a form of education that, by traditional or historical standards, places novel demands upon students who are now expected to act intentionally in pursuit of learning and understanding. Humanist principles require students to join with lecturers in this endeavor, and they are implicitly expected to develop and share values concerning the importance of scholarship.

Humanistic and experiential psychotherapies coalesced around the humanistic movement that emerged in the United States and Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. A number of psychologists, including Maslow, Rogers, Moustakas, and May, dis-satis-ed with the dominant paradigm, began to analyze the values, assumptions, and methods of psychological practices and thought. These writers were at odds with the nomothetic and reductionistic stance of the natural sciences being applied to the study of human experience. They called…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Farber, E.W. (2010). Humanistic -- existential psychotherapy competencies and the supervisory process. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 28-34. doi:10.1037/a0018847

Friedman, H. (2008). Humanistic and Positive Psychology: The Methodological and Epistemological Divide. Humanistic Psychologist, 36(2), 113-126. doi:10.1080/08873260802111036
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Nursing Theory Hildegard E Peplau Hildegard E

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Nursing Theory: Hildegard E. Peplau

Hildegard E. Peplau was born in Reading, Pennsylvania in 1909. Peplau attended a diploma program in 1931 in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, completed a BA in interpersonal psychology at Bennington College in 1943, and received a MA in psychiatric nursing at Columbia University in New York in 1947. Finally, Peplau earned a Ph.D. In curriculum development in 1953. Hildegard's credentials include professor emeritus at Rutgers University and is known for starting the first post baccalaureate program in nursing. Peplau died at the age of 89 and had 50 years as a practicing nurse and is often acknowledged as the "mother of psychiatric nursing" although her ideas have affected all field of the nursing profession. (Lakeman, nd, p.1)

Peplau completed in 1948 the work entitled "Interpersonal Relations in Nursing" labeled as her "seminal work." (Lakeman, nd, p.1) At the time of the writing of the book, it was considered "too revolutionary for a nurse to publish a book without a medical practitioner as co-author and it was not published until 1952. Peplau's book was published in nine languages. (Lakeman, nd, p.1)

I. Theory of Psychodynamic Nursing

Peplau's theory of psychodynamic nursing involved comprehension of one's own behavior and…… [Read More]

Jones, A. (1996) The value of Peplau's theory for mental health nursing. Br J. Nurs. 1996 Jul 25-Aug 7;5(14):877-81.

Berscheid, E. And Peplau, LA (nd) The Emerging Science of Relationships. Close Relationships (eds) Kelley, et al. (nd) WH Freeman and Company. Retrieved from:
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Object Relation Attachment Theories and

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature Review section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.



The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to the fact verbal abuse signs prove more difficult to recognize and prove than the more obvious signs of physical abuse. (Vardiganm, 2008)

During this clinical case study dissertation's Literature Review chapter, this researcher presents information, as well as diverse contentions accessed from a barrage, more than 25, of credible sources,…… [Read More]

American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
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Interpersonal Relationship Theory

Words: 1436 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39696996

Grand Theory in Nursing

Nursing theory

Classification of nursing theories

Nursing theories are classified into there broad categories. These theories are grand theories, middle-range theories and situation specific theories. Grand nursing theories are very broad in scope and present general propositions and concepts in the nursing discipline. The theories at this level give both a reflection and provide insights that are useful in the nursing practice but they are not designed to be used as empirical testing tools. This gives a limit to the grand theories when it comes to giving directions, explanations and predictions of nursing in specific situations. The grand theories have the intention of being pertinent to all instances in the field of nursing. One such Grand theory as will be used in the context of this paper is the interpersonal theory whose main theorist or proponent behind it is Hildegard E. Peplau.

Second are the Mid-range theories which have a narrower scope as compared to grand theories. They are often used to bridge the gap that exists between grand theories and the actual nursing practice. They are only concerned with a specific area of interest within the discipline of nursing. They give propositions and concepts at…… [Read More]

Antipuesto, J.(2008). Nursing Theory and Theorists. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from 

Olin, J.(2011). 7 Nursing Theories to Practice By. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from
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Edwin Sutherland's Differential Association Theory

Words: 4613 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48469926

Warlords have apparently been in the process of financing their various struggles against the Western States in two different contexts. One is that which occurs in the several drug producing countries of the world, that is, those that come under the so called 'Golden Triangle', and the struggles that occur in the various different drug trafficking routes, like for example, in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there has been a complete erosion and fall of the central and the state authorities in military and in economic and in political areas. All these drug warlords in fact preside over anarchy, while at the same time attempting to manage the chaos in which they are forced to live. (Segell, 1997)

Therefore, the drug warlord becomes an individual who is a parochial militarist, and one who thrives on the lack of central authority on the one hand, while on the other, makes several attempts to corrupt the existing structures so that he may be able to further his own personal ambitions, in any manner that he chooses to do so. An important fact to remember is that these drug warlords impose no age restrictions of nay sort on the members of their gang, and the…… [Read More]

Alonso, A; Rutan J.S. (November, 1984) "The impact of object relations theory on psychodynamic group therapy" The American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol: 141; No: 11; pp: 1376-1380.

Buckley, Peter. (2003) "Revolution and Evolution - A Brief Intellectual History of American
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Leadership Path Goal Theory the Boy Scouts

Words: 2436 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16812245

Leadership Path Goal Theory

The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory

Leadership theories

Path Goal Theory

Explain how the theory works and include an example

Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization

Are the followers receptive?

Would you recommend another strategy?

Transformational Leadership

Transactional Leadership

Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization

Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization


Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization

Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization

If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?




The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also deploy various leadership and management practices in order to motivate their members. It further leads them for successful operations and achievement of desired objectives. The businesses incorporate different techniques and leadership practices including transformational and transactional styles to achieve results.

The boy scouts and military use path goal theory in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.

Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
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Personality Theories Personality vs Situation Personality Refers

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45035209

Personality Theories


Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).

Existentialism vs. Humanism

Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche. They were later joined by Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger and Albert Camus (Cobertt). Existentialism uses phenomenology as philosophical approach. This refers to the careful and thorough study of phenomena, the creation of Edmund Husserl. Phenomena consist of the contents of consciousness one experiences and allows to reveal experiences to consciousness…… [Read More]

- (2003). Individual, existential and humanistic psychology. General Psychology. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from

Corbett, B. (1985). What is existentialism? Philosophy Department: Webster University.

Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from
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Personal Theory of Therapy

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personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (Ramey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact that people have several interacting narratives that contribute to the development of sense of self. As a result, the issues that people bring to therapy are not limited within the clients themselves but are affected and shaped by cultural discourses regarding identity and power (Madigan, 2011). This article explores personal…… [Read More]

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Humanism Versus Existentialism Modern Psychological Theories

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Humanistic and Exestential Therapyies

Humanistic Existential Theories

Strengths and limitations of humanistic and existential theories

Over the course of the 1950s and 1960s, there was an increasing emphasis on new theories of the human personality and on ways of treating psychological disorders that offered alternatives to conventional psychodynamic, Freudian theory and the deterministic behaviorism of Skinner. Both humanistic and existential theories offered an alternative perspective. "They are united by an emphasis on understanding human experience and a focus on the client rather than the symptom. Psychological problems (including substance abuse disorders) are viewed as the result of inhibited ability to make authentic, meaningful, and self-directed choices about how to live" (Brief interventions, 1999). In humanistic and existentialist thought, there is a unity of philosophical speculation about how to enable the client to live a meaningful life.

Humanistic theories of psychology stress the fundamentally 'good' nature of all human beings. All human beings strive for a state of conscious self-actualization although sometimes this quest may be thwarted. It is the therapist's job to support this innate impulse. Developed in response to the very negative view of the human character espoused by psychodynamic and behaviorist theories, the founder of humanistic theory Carl…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Contextual Family Theory

Words: 1865 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95182353

Contextual Family Theory

Model Summary

Following are the foremost suppositions for change in the contextual methodology

Morals and principles are conveyed and transmitted across generations.

All dimensions are tangled and motivate people's relationships and behavioral patterns.

Evidence -- facts like genetic information, physical attributes, ethnic upbringing, fundamental histories, personal events and cycle of life.

Specific psychology: The sphere of most distinct psychotherapies and their effects.

Systemic dealings: The essentials of the traditional systemic family therapy sphere which covers configurations, rules, control, orientations, connections, reactions, etc.

Interpersonal consciences: These usually entail the "justice system" or ethical setup that particularly deals with roles, responsibilities, connectedness, caring, reciprocity, devotion, heritage, culpability, equality, and trust within tight knit relationships (mft2011, 2011).

Relational ethics rely a great deal on the level of trust involved in the relationship. If the involved are not trusting or trustworthy, obligations and claims to emotions and time tend to pile up. The emotional ledger of every person needs to be clear and accounted for, without discrepancies and dues. Any arrears are damaging to one's personal self, their relationships and future generations.

Reasoning: any individual's cognitive thinking and ability goes a long way in keeping the person alert to their responsibilities…… [Read More]

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Human Nature Allows a Person to Demonstrate

Words: 3708 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34709070

Human nature allows a person to demonstrate the cognitive, social and emotional behaviors that enable him or her to function in society and satisfy biological, psychological and emotional needs. The drive to display such behaviors is inborn but is shaped through environmental forces. New behaviors are learned and unlearned through experience and instruction. Functional human beings are able to read the situation, identify their goals and select from a repertoire the most appropriate behaviors to satisfy their needs. Psychodynamic theory explores how the conflict between inner drives and social expectations determine human behavior. Redecision theory attempts to influence human behavior through an exploration of childhood experiences and identifying dysfunctional decisions to replace them with more productive and relevant ones. Finally, constructivist theory seeks to increase the individual's level of consciousness and personal responsibility to encourage functional behavior learning.


A number of theories such as psychodynamic theory, redecision theory and constructivist theory are used to explain how human nature and behavior are shaped through the interaction of hereditary, environment and personal volition. These theories prescribe enriching explanations of how early childhood experiences may create impressions, meaning patterns and decisions that become rooted in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Brabender, V.A., Fallon, A.E., & Smolar, A.I. (2004). Essentials of group therapy. John Wiley & Sons.

Bronson, M.B. (2000). Self-Regulation in Early Childhood: Nature and Nurture. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
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Individual 20th 21st Century Angelina Jolie Obtain

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88774119

individual 20th 21st century. (Angelina Jolie) Obtain faculty approval selection prior beginning

Analyzing Angelina

There are several different facets of Angelina Jolie's life that make for a quite compelling probe into her psychological development. Jolie, one of the most well-known and bankable female actresses of the 21st century, has endured a variety of issues pertaining to aspects of her emotional and moral development that can be traced back to relationships, events, and occurrences in a life that has been filled with notoriety ever since her birth. An analysis of the most eminent of these factors reveals that the actress's hereditary influences appear to have mitigated those of her environment -- although both spheres of influence are quite prominent and represented by the culmination of her experiences. The effects of Jolie's family -- and in particular her relationship with her parents and her mother who was primarily responsible for raising her -- have proven to have had a profound impact on the actress's life, as an examination of a pair of personality theories succinctly demonstrates.

In many ways, Jolie's heredity explains her meteoric rise to fame and stardom as an actresses fairly simply. Both of her parents were actors, her brother…… [Read More]

Kasle, J. (2003). "Angelina holds nothing back." Cosmopolitan. Retrieved from

LeMouse, M. (2012). "Sigmund Freud's psychodynamic theories." Retrieved from 
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Developmental Psychology Case Study

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Human Behavior Theories

Developmental psychology entails the changes that occur to human beings and their lives. Originally, it was concerned with children and infants: the field's expansion currently covers the entire life span of children. This field focuses on a range of topics such as psycho-physiological processes including motor skills. It also entails cognitive development involving areas such as moral understanding, language acquisition, problem solving, identity formation, emotional development, self-concept, and conceptual understanding. Developmental psychology examines the extent of development through the stage-like development vs. gradual accumulation of knowledge, and the extent to which children learn or born with innate mental structures. This report endeavors to describe the psychological, biological and socio-development of Isagani aged five years old in terms of developmental milestones and neurobiology. This study uses various theories to elucidate the degree in which a child meets expectation of normal development. It will analyze the socio-cultural and environmental factors that play a role in the child's development. The report uses the psychodynamic theory to explain how a child's behavior is developed.

It is important to appreciate the fact that many factors like environment, personal characteristics, and social context affect either positively or negatively on the development. The way…… [Read More]

Conger, J.K., & Kramer, L. (2010). "Introduction to the Special Section: Perspectives on Sibling Relationships: Advancing Child Development Research"

Freud, S. (1923). "The Ego and the id." Norton and Company
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Munchausen's Syndrome Is There a

Words: 1941 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16916711

1529). Linked to but separate from attachment theory, cognitive theories focus on identifying deficient or distorted cognitive structures and processes that may contribute to a disorder (Mash & Barkley, 2003). Taken together, the foregoing findings suggest that both attachment theory and cognitive theory could be used to help identify internal and external factors that may contribute to the development of Munchausen's syndrome.


Buchanan, G.M. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates.

Ford, C.V. (1996). Lies!, Lies!! Lies!!! The psychology of deceit. Washington, DC: American

Psychiatric Press.

Gomez, J. (1993). Psychological and psychiatric problems in men. London: Routledge.

Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and attachment theory. London: Routledge.

Jacoby, D.B. & Youngson, R.M. (2005). Encyclopedia of family health. New York: Marshall


Mash, E.J. & Barkley, R.A. (2003). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.

Murray, J.B. (1997). Munchausen syndrome/Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Journal of Psychology, 131(3), 348.

Murdach, a.D. (2006). Social work and malingering. Health and Social Work, 31(2), 155-156.

Revelle, W. (1995). Personality processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 295-296.

Trask, P.C. & Sigmon, S.T. (1997). Munchausen Syndrome: A review and new conceptualization. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4, 346-358.

Turvey, B.E. (2002). Criminal profiling:…… [Read More]

Buchanan, G.M. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates.
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Leadership Is a Process That Helps in

Words: 3349 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26347063

Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.

Literature review

Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday lives. Leadership is normally used to refer to a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people (Kotter, 1990). For the past 100 years, much attention has been paid to leadership. Some of the current theories of the nature and exercise of leadership are authentic leadership, new-genre leadership, complexity leadership,…… [Read More]

Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.

Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.