Psychodynamic Theory Essays (Examples)

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Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Does Not Go Down Easily

Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85397091

Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theory

Psychodynamic & Humanistic Theory

A seminal study on the personality trait differences of therapists practicing with different theoretical orientations is an interesting place to begin this compare and contrast discussion. Tremblay, et al. (1986) administered the Personality Orientation Inventory to 90 male and 90 female psychotherapists who self-designated and were equally distributed in groups designated as behavioral (BEH), psychodynamic (PSY), and humanistic (HUM). Interestingly, the study suggested that a core therapist personality exists and that further distinction can be achieved through consideration of the patterns of personality that were associated with theoretical orientation. The caveat was that the patterns associated with theoretical orientations were characterized more by overlapping traits than unique traits. Of the three theoretical categories, the HUM group exhibited the most unique traits: they were more flexible, more accepting of personal aggression and expressing feelings in action, and differed in their development of intimate…… [Read More]

References

Boreman, D. (2010, November). The Science of Psychology. Chapter 10 Personality. Retreived from http://www.mesacc.edu/~edmny04781/psy101_oc/Chapter_10.pdf

Leichsenring, F. & Leibing, E. (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: A meta analysis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(7), 1223-1232. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.7.1223

Shedler, J. (2010, February-March). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 65(2), 98-109. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/amp-65-2-98.pdf

Tremblay, J.M., Herron, W.G. & Schultz, C.L. (1986). Relation between therapeutic orientation and personality in psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17(2), 106-110. Retrieved at http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.17.2.106
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Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Psychodynamic

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20697898

Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality

Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches

Personality can be defined as the unique characteristics that various individuals possess. These characteristics differentiate individuals from others. In other words, personality can also be defined as a unique system of feelings, thoughts and behaviors that prevail over time and that is evident in various situations. Different psychologists have determined different approaches to study personality. Some psychologists try to examine various aspects of personality that an individual possesses, whereas, others try to understand why there are differences in the personalities of various individuals. (Morris et al., 2010)

Listed below are the two different approaches to personality;

Psychodynamic Approach

Psychodynamic theories establish the thought that our personality is an outcome of inner psychological forces which are not under the control of our conscious mind. Psychodynamic approach basically studies the energy of our unconscious mind and it also explores how this energy…… [Read More]

References

Morris, C. And Maisto, A. (2010). Understanding Psychology . Oxford: Orford University Press. pp.45-65. http://ftp.cleary.edu [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].

Unknown. (2008). Theoretical Perspectives on Human Behavior. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers. pp.53-65. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36524_PE_Chapter2.pdf [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].

Unknown. (2005). Personality. Thousand Oaks: Cluj-Napoca: University of Medicine and Pharmacy. pp.1-5.  http://psychiatry-psychology.ro/file/Stiintele%20Comportamentului%20ENG/Lecture6_Personality.pdf  [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].
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Psychodynamic Model the Model's Developmental Processes and

Words: 2966 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1938969

Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model

A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis. Most of the findings originated from the four frameworks. ( The psychodynamic, the cognitive behavior, the stress and coping model, and the family systems model).

Given the demographics of the present age, almost all adult mental shape practice will certainly include older adults. As people grow older, various changes occur, more valuable is the vulnerability to stress and illnesses. The challenges one faces through the years like the death of loved ones, loneliness and others exposes one to the…… [Read More]

ReferencesTop of For

Top of F

Blaikie, A. (2009). Ageing And Popular Culture. Cambridge U.A.: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Kerry Kelly, N., & Jack, N. (n.d). A New Model of Techniques for Concurrent Psychodynamic

Work with Parents of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Patients. Child And
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Psychodynamic Paradigm

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30045694

Psychodynamic Approach or Paradigm

The Psychodynamic Approach incorporates theories and methods originating with Freud and expanded by his followers. Freud's original approach was referred to as Psychoanalysis; which can be considered both a theory as well as a therapy method. The Psychodynamic Approach is founded upon the influence that internal processes and past experience have in determining a person's personality. These theorists believe that behavior is driven by individual's unconscious urges not necessarily rational thought. One intuitive illustration of this can be found in the contemporary field of marketing. Advertisements rarely appeal to the rational side of consumers by offering information about products; instead they target to the emotional needs and wants of individuals (Samuel, 2010).

Freud's theories developed from interactions what his patients during treatment sessions. These interactions led Freud to believe that adult behavior is driven by instinctual impulses and desires that originated in their childhood. Most of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boag, S. (2010). Repression, suppression, and conscious awareness. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 164-181.

Samuel, L. (2010). Freud on Madison Avenue: Motivation Research and Subliminal Advertising in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Taylor, E. (2009). The Mystery of Personality: A History of Psychodynamic Theories. New York: Springer.
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Psychodynamic Therapy or Counseling

Words: 1702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42098470

Psychodynamic therapy is an approach to counseling that was introduced by Sigmund Freud whose work in psychoanalytic counseling was influenced by his jealous and bitter feelings towards his younger brother and his Jewish heritage that emphasized in-depth analysis. Unlike some therapy approaches, psychodynamic therapy focuses on an in-depth analysis of an individual's thoughts while seemingly ignoring the trappings of science. In addition, this approach primarily focuses on the unconscious based on its role in human development and psychological problems. Consequently, this approach to counseling facilitates an in-depth analysis of a person's psychological problems given that the root of our problems emanate from our past. Therefore, psychodynamic therapy is a suitable approach to counseling that can be further understood through the four quadrants in integral theory.

Overview of Psychodynamic Therapy

Psychodynamic therapy is commonly known as psychoanalytic therapy and examines personality and psychological problems in terms of the unconscious. This therapy…… [Read More]

References

Bornstein, R. (2013). The Psychodynamic Perspective. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from http://nobaproject.com/modules/the-psychodynamic-perspective

Esbjorn-Hargens, S. (2009, March 12). An Overview of Integral Theory. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from https://integrallife.com/integral-post/overview-integral-theory

Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
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Psychodynamic Counselors Facilitate Change In Order to

Words: 2851 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3925431

psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?

In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.

The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.

"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.

Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.

Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
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Psychodynamic Coaching in the Workplace

Words: 1632 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63326967

Systemic Psychodynamic Coaching in the Workplace:

Workplace coaching is a term that refers to the process of equipping people in the working environment with necessary tools, opportunities, and knowledge for total development in order to enhance their effectiveness from an individual, organizational, and work perspective. Workplace coaching has emerged as a major concept in modern organizations since leaders, researchers, and organizations have identified it as a crucial competency in leadership and management (Cacioppe, n.d.). The increase in this practice has also been attributed to the fact that employees continue to request for coaching. As an important competency in leadership and management, workplace coaching has assumed different perspectives and approaches because of the existence of various coaching models such as Systemic Psychodynamic Coaching model.

The Concept of Workplace Coaching:

As previously mentioned, the concept of workplace coaching can be defined as the knowledge, skills, and processes through which people engage themselves…… [Read More]

References:

Azmatullah, S. (2013). The coach's mind manual: enhancing coaching practice with neuroscience, psychology and mindfulness. New York, NY: Routledge

Beck, U.C. (2011). Psychodynamic coaching: focus and depth. Great Britain: The Studio

Publishing Services Ltd.

Cacioppe, R. (n.d.). Why Workplace Coaching and Why Now? Retrieved May 19, 2014, from  http://www.integral.org.au/why-coaching-in-the-workplace-and-why-now
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Theories of Personality and How They Affect Human Behavior

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8462817

psychology, theories of personality abound. Two of the most significant theories of personality include psychodynamic and humanistic/existential theories. Although these two theories share some features in common, they are based on widely different assumptions about human nature and human behavior. Each describes the way personality impacts human behavior under certain situations. However, psychodynamic theory presumes that human personality is static and less likely to change. Humanistic and existential theories are built on the assumption that human personality is dynamic. The differences between psychodynamic and humanistic theories of personality also have an impact on their approaches to treatment interventions and therapy.

Psychodynamic theories of personality are based on the theories of Sigmund Freud, who believed that human personality is determined by subconscious factors and the person's psycho-sexual nature. The personality is divided into three main and immutable components according to the psychodynamic worldview. Those three components include the id, ego, and…… [Read More]

References

"A Comparison of Psychodynamic and Humanistic Therapy," (2015). Retrieved online: http://sulcatamandy.hubpages.com/hub/psychodynamic-therapy-vs.-humanistic-therapy

"Humanistic Theories of Personality," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://home2.fvcc.edu/~rhalvers/psych/Personality3.htm

McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html
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Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

Words: 2290 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71659198

Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

In this paper, there is going to an examination of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic theories. This is accomplished by focusing on: the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. These elements will show how each one can address issues impacting the patient and the long-term effects upon them.

In the world of psychology, there are different theories which are used to explain how someone reacts to various stimuli. The result is that there has been contrasting ideas about the best way to understand human behavior. Two schools of thought which are very popular are the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral approaches. (Okun, 2008)

To fully understand them requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by focusing on the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these…… [Read More]

References

Larson, P. (2012). How Important is an Understanding of the Clients Early Attachments. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (1), 10 -- 18.

Lucia, M. (2012). Therapeutic Activities and Psychological Interventions. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12 (2), 118 -- 127.

Okun, B. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. New York, NY: Brooks and Cole.

Parpottis, P. (2012). Working with the Therapeutic Relationship. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (3), 91-97
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Individual Theories of Delinquency

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88316847

Crime Theories and Juvenile Delinquency

There are many theories of crime that aim at determining or explaining why individuals resort to criminal and/or violent behavior. Among the different types of offenders are juvenile delinquents who are driven to deviancy for a number of reasons. By examining two theories of crime, behavioral and psychodynamic, one can gain a better understanding of the motivating factors behind juvenile delinquency.

One of the most relevant behavioral theories in criminology is the social learning theory. Albert Bandura posited that "people learn by what they see" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 87). He believed that violent tendencies were not inherited, but rather that they were modeled on three distinct principles: reinforcement from family members, the media, and the environment (Isom, 1998). Thus, people behave in ways that are "consistent with what we are exposed to and thus familiar with as a byproduct of our environment" (Arrigo, 2006, p.…… [Read More]

References

Arrigo, B. (2006). Criminal behavior: a systems approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Isom, MD (1998, Nov 30). Albert Bandura. The Florida State University College of Criminology

and Criminal Justice. Retrieved 8 March 2013, from http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htm

Sigmund Freud. (n.d.). The Florida State University College of Criminology and Criminal
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Bowenian Therapist to That of the Psychodynamic

Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88896282

Bowenian Therapist to that of the Psychodynamic Therapist

Bowenian Therapist vs. Psychodynamic Therapist: oles Comparison

In this text, I seek to compare the role of psychodynamic therapists with that of Bowenian therapists. However, in seeking to compare the said roles, it would be prudent to first offer a brief definition of the two theories. egarded one of the most comprehensive and perhaps earliest family systems functioning theories, "Bowen family systems theory is a theory of human behavior that views the family as an emotional unit and uses systems thinking to describe the complex interactions in the unit" (Brok and Saks 2008, p.135). Psychodynamic therapy in the words of Haggerty (2006) "focuses on unconscious processes as they are manifested in a person's present behavior."

To begin with, while many psychodynamic therapists as the National Center for Biotechnological Information - U.S. National Library of Medicine (2013) observes work with clients having substance-abuse…… [Read More]

References

Brok, M.G. & Saks, S. (2008). Contemporary Issues in Family Law and Mental Health. Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Galica, J. (2013). Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy. Retrieved July 2, 2013, from:  http://www.theravive.com/research/Bowenian-Family-Systems-Theory-and-Therapy 

Haggerty, J. (2006). Psychodynamic Therapy. Retrieved July 2, 2013, from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/psychodynamic-therapy/

National Center for Biotechnological Information - U.S. National Library of Medicine (2013). Chapter 7 -- Brief Psychodynamic Theory. Retrieved July 2, 2013, from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64952/
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Personality Theories and Assessments Though

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53496899

Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.

Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior…… [Read More]

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Personal Theory of Psychological Development

Words: 2119 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40027294

It may even be impossible to retroactively identify every influence on the development of personality. However, contemporary psychologists already understand the general patterns in which major areas of psychological influence exert themselves on the individual.

More often than not, more than one avenue of psychological inquiry is helpful. Personality development in the typical patient may have been primarily influenced by Freudian issues in infancy and subsequent specific experiences in middle childhood, and secondarily by a particular negative experience or period of conflict in the nuclear family. Therefore, in the practical sense, measuring personality development means retroactively identifying the conceptually recognized potential influences along the full spectrum of psychological approaches. y matching behavioral (and other outwardly observable) manifestations of personality formation to the identifiable potential influences, it is often possible to pinpoint the most likely route of origin for major observable elements of personality.

Toward a Cross-Culturally Appropriate Theory of Personality…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bradshaw J. (2002). Bradshaw on: The Family. Deerfield Beach, FL: HCI.

Branden N. (2001). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Basic Books.

Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.

Lewis M. And Feiring C. "Infant, Mother, and Mother-Infant Interaction Behavior and Subsequent Attachment" Child Development, Vol. 60, No. 4, (1989): 831-837.
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Comparison of Theories

Words: 1984 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66317121

Theories

It is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud's notions retain quite a bit of popularity, especially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory (or perhaps "not often explanatory" would be the better term). Instead, these overt or manifest behaviors represent some hidden motive. Sigmund Freud was trained as a neurologist and specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. His early training involved using hypnosis with the French neurologist Jean Charcot in the treatment of hysteria, the presentation of baffling physical symptoms (mostly in young women) that appeared to have no physical origin (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). Freud also partnered…… [Read More]

References

Barry, P. (2002). Mental health and mental illness. (7th ed.) New York: Lippincott.

Hall, C.S., Lindzey, G., & Campbell, J.B. (1998). Theories of personality. New York: John

Wiley.

Mcleod, S. (2007). Psychology perspectives. In Simply psychology. Retrieved December 2,
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Therapeutic Theories and Approaches

Words: 3343 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72461076

Morgan's Case Study

Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…… [Read More]

References

Counseling Staff. (2015, June 1). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from The Family Institute at Northwestern University website: https://counseling.northwestern.edu/five-counseling-theories-and-approaches/

Han, H.S., West-Olatunji, C. & Thomas, M.S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20(1), 1-11.

Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.

Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: an integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
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Comparison of Humanistic Theory With Other Similar Theories

Words: 2182 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1658723

Humanistic Theory and Its Position Among Other Counseling Theories

Humanistic Theory

The obvious limitations associated with the Psychodynamic theories led to the adoption of the humanistic approach as a response to these limitations, especially in Psychoanalysis. People like Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers felt that the psychodynamic theories that were still in existence were unable to address certain important issues such as the nature of healthy growth and the meaning of behavior adequately. Nevertheless, the outcome was not just a new variation in the theory of psychodynamic, but rather, a new approach.

The Founders of the Accepted Theories

Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers wasn't just one of the several theorists who founded the Humanistic Approach, but possibly the most important therapist that lived in the 20th century. Several surveys, which include a number of surveys carried out after the death of Carl Rogers, discovered that several other therapists named Rogers as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (U.S.). (1999). Brief Humanistic and Existential Therapies. In S.A. (U.S.), Brief Intervention and Brief Therapies For Substance Abuse. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (U.S.).

Cater, J. (2011). Combining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing. La Jolla, CA.

McLeod, s.(2007).Humanism. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org-humanistic.html.

Chong, C.L., Ng, A.M., Ching, J.Y., Beh, J.H., & Lim, P.P. (2015). A Critical Comparison of t he Psychoanalytic and Humanistic Theory. New Hampshire: Southern New Hampshire University.
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Non-Directive Communication Theories of Communication

Words: 3036 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38946940



The Rogerian Model

This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).

Motivational Interview

This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bozarth, G.O. 2011, 'How to use person-centered therapy for mental health,' eHow:

[Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_2092776_use-person-centred-therapy-mental.html

Lee, L.W. 2011, 'What is the Rogerian model?, ' eHow [Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/facts_7264316_rogerian-model.html

Lussier, Marie Therese 2007, 'The motivational interview in practice,' 53 (12) Canadian
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Multicultural Theories Of Psychotherapy

Words: 2788 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28195674

Multicultural Theories of Psychology

Multicultural Theories of Psychotherapy

Diagnosis, treatment and care of patient and their conditions are greatly influenced by cultural considerations. These actors determine beliefs and values related to health. Yet, these widespread claims about the real value of cultural role in healthcare do not come with sufficient research basis. Psychotherapists have, for a long time emphasized the need to provide multicultural psychotherapy so as to manage and reduce the ethnic and racial disparities in dealing with mental health issues. How multicultural competencies relate with other clinical process measures and treatment results has demonstrated heterogeneity it effect, though (Karen W. Tao & Jesse Owen, 2015). A famous quote by Slavoj Zizek on multi-culturalism deserves a mention here. "For the multiculturalist, white Anglo-Saxon Protestants are prohibited, Italians and Irish get a little respect, blacks are good, native Americans are even better. The further away we go, the more they…… [Read More]

References

FIVE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING COMPETENCIES. (2014, July 29). Retrieved from Delaware Valley University: http://www.delval.edu/blog/five-important-aspects-of-multicultural-counseling-competencies

Jairo N. Fuertes, Peggy Brady-Amoon, Navneet Thind, & Tiffany Chang. (2015). The Therapy Relationship in Multicultural Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Bulletin.

Jesse Owen, Mark M. Leach, & Bruce Wampold. (2011). Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22-26.

Karen W. Tao, & Jesse Owen. (2015). A Meta-Analysis of Multicultural Competencies and Psychotherapy Process and Outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 337-350.
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Traditional and Contemporary Psychodynamics Theories

Words: 872 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17550491

Tenets of Traditional and Contemporary Psychodynamics

Traditional Psychodynamics

One of the founders of traditional psychodynamics is Sigmund Freud with his approach of psychoanalytic theory with which he attempted to explain the behavior of human beings by looking at the mind and the inner thinking process of individuals, right from the time of birth. Due to his work, Freud influenced several other scholars in the line of psychology who later on came up with various arguments around the mind and the aspects that influence human behavior. Firstly and significant here, the traditional psychodynamic theory argues that there are psychological energy within the individual that are related to the attachments, continuous conflict and the motivations that the individual has. The theory further indicates that the behavior of an individual at the adulthood is widely influenced by the early childhood experiences.

The traditional psychodynamics also gave an indication that the psychological development took…… [Read More]

Reference

Cherry K., (2015).Trait Theory of Personality. Retrieved July 11, 2015 from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/trait-theory.htm

Mullen W., (1996). Study Challenges Freud's Theory of Subconscious. Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1996-09-20/news/9609200240_1_subliminal-messages-popcorn-sales-anthony-greenwald

Sage Publications, (2008).Psychoanalysis in Theory and Practice. Retrieved July 11, 2015 from http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/23240_Chapter_5.pdf
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Sigmund Freud's Theories

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17587217



The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.

Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.

Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…… [Read More]

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Theories of Psychology in Group Work

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79630563

Psychology in Group Work

Learning Theory

There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).

The learning theory of Bandura

The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:

10.1093/sf/64.1.151

Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
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Theory Therapy Levy Meehan Kelly

Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662734



Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…… [Read More]

References

Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.

Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.

Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
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Theory Its Usefulness in the Workplace Today

Words: 1362 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59285246

theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today

Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive.…… [Read More]

References

Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:

  http://www.personalityresearch.org/attachment.html  

Hinde, Robert A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 17, 1-19. Retrieved from:

http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/Hinde_describing_relationships.pd0f
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Compare Role Bowenian Therapist Psychodynamic Therapist Recently Years Thank

Words: 1454 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88684999

Psychodynamic Therapy vs Bowenian Therapy

Psychodynamic Vs Bowenian Therapist

Psychodynamic and Bowenian Therapist

ole of Psychodynamic Therapist to that of the Bowenian Therapist

Psychodynamic Therapy

Psychodynamic Sessions

ole of the Psychodynamic therapist

Bowenian Therapist

Family Systems Theory

Goals of the Therapy

ole of the Therapist

Advantages

Psychodynamic Therapy

Psychodynamic therapy focuses on helping the patients to explore the feelings and emotions that are deep inside them. These are the emotions that they might not be aware of. Psychodynamic therapy helps the people to understand how these hidden feelings and emotions are effecting there moods and behavior without them knowing about it.

Psychodynamic therapy is also known as Insight-oriented therapy, which makes the people understand the reasons for their current behavior and mood swings which might be the outcome of some past relationships that have been a cause of constant pain for them.

Psychodynamic therapy is the oldest of all the…… [Read More]

References

Galica, J. (2013). Theravive . Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy.

Haggerty, J. (2013, april 3). Psych Central. Psychodynamic Therapy.
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Five Approaches and Theory

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63575368

ole of Theory in Qualitative esearch

Five Approaches and Theory

Compare and contrast the role of theory in the five main qualitative approaches:

Ethnography, case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory

Although all five major approaches to qualitative research embrace theory to some degree or another, not all of them value the use of theory to the same degree. Broadly speaking, some cultural 'theory' is usually demonstrated within an ethnography, either through a comparative approach; an attempt to understand the culture on its own terms; a theory that seeks to understand the multiple layers of meaning within the culture in a symbolic fashion; or even a universalizing construct like feminist or Marxist theory. The extent to which this theoretical approach is emphasized will depend upon the anthropologist conducting the study. Some studies may mainly focus upon observations and detail unique aspects of a foreign culture while other studies might largely subsume…… [Read More]

References

Ethnography. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:

http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1345

Grounded theory. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:

http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1349
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Bruner's Constructivist Theory and the Conceptual Paradigms

Words: 3441 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3905232

Bune's constuctivist theoy and the conceptual paadigms of Kolb's Expeiential Leaning theoy dawing on the associated theoies ae Kinesthetic and Embodied Leaning. As also noted in the intoductoy chapte, the guiding eseach question fo this study was, "What ae the caee paths fo teaching atists seeking to deploy into the field of community at and development?" To develop timely and infomed answes to this eseach question, this chapte povides a eview of the elevant pee-eviewed and scholaly liteatue concening these theoetical famewoks to investigate the diffeent caee paths teaching atists seek to deploy into the field of community at and development, including ceative community building and adult community centes such as woking with Alzheime's Disease and stoke victims.

Adult Leaning Theoies

Kolb's Expeiential Leaning Theoy. Thee ae a wide aay of theoetical models that can be used to identify and bette undestand teaching and leaning pefeences by educatos and students,…… [Read More]

references to improve coaching and athletic performance: Are your players or students kinesthetic learners? The Journal of Physical

Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(3), 30-34.

Fowler, J. (2013, March). Art rescue in a troubled world. Arts & Activities, 153(2), 36-39.

Kerka, S. (2002). Somatic/embodied learning and adult education: Trends and issues alert. ERIC

Kessler, R. (2000). The soul of education: Helping students find connection, compassion, and character at school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
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Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach

Words: 2262 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18147981

Counselling Theories

Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach

There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).

Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…… [Read More]

References

Caldwell, K., & Claxton, C. (2010). Teaching Family Systems Theory: A Developmental-

Constructivist Perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(1), 3-21.

Gruber, K.J., & Taylor, M.F. (2006). A Family Perspective for Substance Abuse: Implications

from the Literature. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6(1), 1 -- 29.
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Counseling Theories & 8230 THERE Is No

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41114157

& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.

Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Altman. N. (2007). Renewing psychoanalysis for the 21st century. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy. Heldref Publications. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam

Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-171440479.html

Bacal, H.A. (2007). Discussion of Judy Pickles's case presentation from the perspective of psychoanalytic specificity theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. The Analytic Press, Inc.

Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
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Personal Theory of Therapy the

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78835853

These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)

Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:

1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.

2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.

3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)

eferences

Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005

Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…… [Read More]

References

Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005

Bush, Winston John. (December 22, 2003) "Learning theory: A fuller-fuller explanation of CBT" Retrieved at http://www.cognitivetherapy.com/learning.html Accessed on February 15, 2005

Cognitive Therapy for Depression" Retrieved at  http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/cognitive.htm . Accessed on February 15, 2005

Grohol, John M. (July 21, 1995) "Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists"
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Cardsmax Humanistic Theory Humanistic Learning Theory as

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80110921

Cardsmax

Humanistic Theory

Humanistic learning theory as explained by Lipscomb, & Ishmael (2009 p. 174) emphasizes feeling, experience, self-awareness, personal growth, and individual / psychic optimization. Learning, from this perspective, is positioned as both social process and psychological/intellectual endeavor. Humanism aspires to place lecturers alongside students in mutually constituted, cooperative enquiry, variously described, this form of 'peer learning community 'situates the lecturer as an authority rather than in authority. It is a form of education that, by traditional or historical standards, places novel demands upon students who are now expected to act intentionally in pursuit of learning and understanding. Humanist principles require students to join with lecturers in this endeavor, and they are implicitly expected to develop and share values concerning the importance of scholarship.

Humanistic and experiential psychotherapies coalesced around the humanistic movement that emerged in the United States and Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. A number of…… [Read More]

References

Farber, E.W. (2010). Humanistic -- existential psychotherapy competencies and the supervisory process. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 28-34. doi:10.1037/a0018847

Friedman, H. (2008). Humanistic and Positive Psychology: The Methodological and Epistemological Divide. Humanistic Psychologist, 36(2), 113-126. doi:10.1080/08873260802111036

Lipscomb, M., & Ishmael, A. (2009). Humanistic educational theory and the socialization of preregistration mental health nursing students.International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 18(3), 173-178. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0349.2009.00603.x

Watson, J.C., Goldman, R.N., & Greenberg, L.S. (2011). Humanistic and experiential theories of psychotherapy. In J.C. Norcross, G.R. VandenBos, D.K. Freedheim, J.C. Norcross, G.R. VandenBos, D.K. Freedheim (Eds.), History of psychotherapy: Continuity and change (2nd ed.) (pp. 141-172). American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12353-005
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Nursing Theory Hildegard E Peplau Hildegard E

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Nursing Theory: Hildegard E. Peplau

Hildegard E. Peplau was born in Reading, Pennsylvania in 1909. Peplau attended a diploma program in 1931 in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, completed a A in interpersonal psychology at ennington College in 1943, and received a MA in psychiatric nursing at Columbia University in New York in 1947. Finally, Peplau earned a Ph.D. In curriculum development in 1953. Hildegard's credentials include professor emeritus at Rutgers University and is known for starting the first post baccalaureate program in nursing. Peplau died at the age of 89 and had 50 years as a practicing nurse and is often acknowledged as the "mother of psychiatric nursing" although her ideas have affected all field of the nursing profession. (Lakeman, nd, p.1)

Peplau completed in 1948 the work entitled "Interpersonal Relations in Nursing" labeled as her "seminal work." (Lakeman, nd, p.1) At the time of the writing of the book, it was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jones, A. (1996) The value of Peplau's theory for mental health nursing. Br J. Nurs. 1996 Jul 25-Aug 7;5(14):877-81.

Berscheid, E. And Peplau, LA (nd) The Emerging Science of Relationships. Close Relationships (eds) Kelley, et al. (nd) WH Freeman and Company. Retrieved from: http://www.peplaulab.ucla.edu/Publications_files/Berscheid_Peplau_83.pdf

Lakeman, R. (nd) Remembering Hildegard Peplau. Retrieved from:  http://www.testandcalc.com/Richard/resources/Remembering%20Peplau%20-%20Vision%20-%20Lakeman.pdf 

Haber, J (2000) Hildegard E. Peplau: The Psychiatric Nursing Legacy of a Legend. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. New York University's division of Nursing. April 2000. Vol.6, No.2. Stanford, CT. Retrieved from:  http://jap.sagepub.com/content/6/2/56.abstract
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Object Relation Attachment Theories and

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature eview section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.

CHAPTE II

LITEATUE EVIEW

The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.

Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic

Books.
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Leadership Path Goal Theory the Boy Scouts

Words: 2436 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16812245

Leadership Path Goal Theory

The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory

Leadership theories

Path Goal Theory

Explain how the theory works and include an example

Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization

Are the followers receptive?

Would you recommend another strategy?

Transformational Leadership

Transactional Leadership

Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization

Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization

Examples

Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization

Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization

If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?

Conclusion

eferences

Introduction:

The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…… [Read More]

References:

Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.

Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.

Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
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Personality Theories Personality vs Situation Personality Refers

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45035209

Personality Theories

PERSONALITY VS SITUATION

Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).

Existentialism vs. Humanism

Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AllPsych (2002). Personality synopsis. Chapter X Humanist Theory. Heffner Media

Group, Inc. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from http://allpsyc.com/personalitysynopsis/humanistic.html

Boeree, C.G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 31,

2001 from http://webspac.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
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Personal Theory of Therapy

Words: 1899 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83171191

personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (amey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…… [Read More]

References

Beck, J. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstitute.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/#q-n-a-1773

"Cognitive Behavior Therapy." (n.d.). Beck Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstituteblog.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/

Hays, P.A. (2012). Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy in practice. Washington,

D.C.: American Psychological Association.
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Developmental Theories

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99069675

Developmental Theories

Limitations of Great Theories

The psychoanalytic theory (Saul Mcleod, 2007)

ejection of the free will

Lack of scientific support

Samples were biased. For instance, only Austrian women were considered in proving the theory

Case studies were subjective

Cognitive Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)

Does not consider biology

The section on humanism dismisses scientific approaches

The ecological validity of the experiments is low

There is subjective introspection

Behavioral Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)

It is misplaced to compare humans and animals

It ignores the role of biology such as testosterone effects

There is little free will

Dismisses meditational process

The Surprises from Harlow's experiments

Harlow noted that that the existence of systems of affection that could fill in the gap for each other was sensible; from evolutionary standpoint. Indeed, compensations that were reciprocal presented a higher chance of social survival. According to Marga Vicedo (2010), diverse affectional…… [Read More]

References

Jake Edwards. (2009, Febraury 17). New Criticism. Retrieved from Reading Theory with Jolliffe: http://jolliffereadingtheory.blogspot.in/

KESSENICH, MAUREEN, MORRISON, FREDERICK J, & BISANZ, JEFFREY. (2002). Developmental Theory. The Gale Group Inc.

Marga Vicedo. (2010). The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love. History of Psychiatry, 1-16.

Saul Mcleod. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Simplypsychology.
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Personality Theories

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61738554

Personality Theories

Psychologists have described personality as specific way of feeling, thinking and self-conduct (Mcleod, 2014) of an individual. Personality is the constantly changing system in the minds of individuals and made up of specific psychological traits that influence their specific self-conduct and thinking. Personality is the combination of behavior that distinguishes a person. The personality of a person is affected by genetic and biological factors as well as factors such as upbringing, environment etc.

Personality theories are broken down into two classes:

• Trait theories of personality that believe that personality depends more on biological factors

• State theories, which see upbringing and societal factors as the major determinants of personality

This paper will be exploring two personality theories: Hans Eysenck's Personality Theory and Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.

Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

This theory of personality believes that our differing personalities arise from the communication between what Sigmund Freud…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Boundless. (2016, August 17). Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Boundless Psychology: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/psychodynamic-perspectives-on-personality-77/freudian-psychoanalytic-theory-of-personality-304-12839/

McLeod, S. (2014). Theories of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-theories.html
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Analyzing Contextual Family Theory

Words: 1865 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95182353

Contextual Family Theory

Model Summary

Following are the foremost suppositions for change in the contextual methodology

Morals and principles are conveyed and transmitted across generations.

All dimensions are tangled and motivate people's relationships and behavioral patterns.

Evidence -- facts like genetic information, physical attributes, ethnic upbringing, fundamental histories, personal events and cycle of life.

Specific psychology: The sphere of most distinct psychotherapies and their effects.

Systemic dealings: The essentials of the traditional systemic family therapy sphere which covers configurations, rules, control, orientations, connections, reactions, etc.

Interpersonal consciences: These usually entail the "justice system" or ethical setup that particularly deals with roles, responsibilities, connectedness, caring, reciprocity, devotion, heritage, culpability, equality, and trust within tight knit relationships (mft2011, 2011).

elational ethics rely a great deal on the level of trust involved in the relationship. If the involved are not trusting or trustworthy, obligations and claims to emotions and time tend to pile…… [Read More]

References

Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., Grunebaum, J., & Ulrich, D. (1991). Contextual therapy. In A. S. Gurman, & D. P. Kniskern (Eds.), Handbook of family therapy (Vol. II, pp. 200-238). Bristol: Brunner/Mazel.

Fitzgerald, P. (2009, Setptember 28). Invisible Loyalties: Life-Giving 0r Life-Taking? Retrieved from The Bridgemaker: http://www.thebridgemaker.com/invisible-loyalties-life-giving-or-life-taking/

Goldenthal, P. (2005). Helping children and families: A new treatment model integrating psychodynamic, behavioral, and contextual approaches. Wiley.

GoodTherapy. (2015, July 30). Systems Theory / Therapy. Retrieved from GoodTherapy.org: http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/systems-theory-therapy
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Individual 20th 21st Century Angelina Jolie Obtain

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88774119

individual 20th 21st century. (Angelina Jolie) Obtain faculty approval selection prior beginning

Analyzing Angelina

There are several different facets of Angelina Jolie's life that make for a quite compelling probe into her psychological development. Jolie, one of the most well-known and bankable female actresses of the 21st century, has endured a variety of issues pertaining to aspects of her emotional and moral development that can be traced back to relationships, events, and occurrences in a life that has been filled with notoriety ever since her birth. An analysis of the most eminent of these factors reveals that the actress's hereditary influences appear to have mitigated those of her environment -- although both spheres of influence are quite prominent and represented by the culmination of her experiences. The effects of Jolie's family -- and in particular her relationship with her parents and her mother who was primarily responsible for raising her…… [Read More]

References

Kasle, J. (2003). "Angelina holds nothing back." Cosmopolitan. Retrieved from http://www.cosmopolitan.com/celebrity/exclusive/angelina-jolie-03

LeMouse, M. (2012). "Sigmund Freud's psychodynamic theories." Healthguidance.org. Retrieved from  http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/10736/1/Sigmund-Freuds-Psychodynamic-Theories.html 

Poole, O. (2002). "Father tells of Jolie's mental problems." The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved from  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/1403480/Father-tells-of-Jolies-mental-problems.html
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Developmental Psychology Case Study

Words: 2618 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37820346

Human Behavior Theories

Developmental psychology entails the changes that occur to human beings and their lives. Originally, it was concerned with children and infants: the field's expansion currently covers the entire life span of children. This field focuses on a range of topics such as psycho-physiological processes including motor skills. It also entails cognitive development involving areas such as moral understanding, language acquisition, problem solving, identity formation, emotional development, self-concept, and conceptual understanding. Developmental psychology examines the extent of development through the stage-like development vs. gradual accumulation of knowledge, and the extent to which children learn or born with innate mental structures. This report endeavors to describe the psychological, biological and socio-development of Isagani aged five years old in terms of developmental milestones and neurobiology. This study uses various theories to elucidate the degree in which a child meets expectation of normal development. It will analyze the socio-cultural and environmental…… [Read More]

References

Conger, J.K., & Kramer, L. (2010). "Introduction to the Special Section: Perspectives on Sibling Relationships: Advancing Child Development Research"

Freud, S. (1923). "The Ego and the id." Norton and Company

Goldstein, E.G. (1995). "Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice" The Free Press 2nd Edition.

Hall, C.S. (1954). A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Book.
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Munchausen's Syndrome Is There a

Words: 1941 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16916711

1529). Linked to but separate from attachment theory, cognitive theories focus on identifying deficient or distorted cognitive structures and processes that may contribute to a disorder (Mash & Barkley, 2003). Taken together, the foregoing findings suggest that both attachment theory and cognitive theory could be used to help identify internal and external factors that may contribute to the development of Munchausen's syndrome.

eferences

Buchanan, G.M. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates.

Ford, C.V. (1996). Lies!, Lies!! Lies!!! The psychology of deceit. Washington, DC: American

Psychiatric Press.

Gomez, J. (1993). Psychological and psychiatric problems in men. London: outledge.

Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and attachment theory. London: outledge.

Jacoby, D.B. & Youngson, .M. (2005). Encyclopedia of family health. New York: Marshall

Cavendish.

Mash, E.J. & Barkley, .A. (2003). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.

Murray, J.B. (1997). Munchausen syndrome/Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Journal of Psychology, 131(3),…… [Read More]

References

Buchanan, G.M. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates.

Ford, C.V. (1996). Lies!, Lies!! Lies!!! The psychology of deceit. Washington, DC: American

Psychiatric Press.
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Leadership Is a Process That Helps in

Words: 3349 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26347063

Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.

Literature review

Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday…… [Read More]

References

Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.

Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.

Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Change 2nd Edition. New York:

Collins Business Essentials.
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Abnormal Psychology Is a Field in Psychology

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15792418

Abnormal psychology is a field in psychology that addresses dysfunctions in behavior which are determined abnormally by standards of behavior .These standards have been established by clinical professionals in the field such as medical doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists. Behaviors considered to be abnormal are; schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit disorder, eating disorder, sexual deviance, obsessive compulsive disorder and anti-social disorder (Cherry, 2012). These disordered function outside the normal parameters of the functional behaviors considered to be standard. The paper will look at the origins of abnormal psychology and challenges when it comes to the classification and definition of normal and abnormal behavior. It will also look at how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline. It will finally look at the theoretical models that have led to the advancement of understanding psychopathology.

Origins of Abnormal psychology

Abnormal psychology has been undergoing tremendous changes and progress. It is a very controversial…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (2012).What is Abnormal Psychology? Retrieved May 10, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/abnormalpsychology/f/abnormal-psychology.htm

Crawford, O. (2010). Psychopathology Analysis: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives of Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from http://voices.yahoo.com/psychopathology-analysis-6147988.html
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Online Human Services Class People Counseling Career

Words: 2459 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26473822

online Human Services class people counseling career. You book paper, therefor I've downloaded Professor's lesson overviews. Please contact . The book "Effective Helping: Interviewing Counseling Techniques" Seveneth Edition By, Barbara F.

Application of helping theories

Creating efficiency and effectiveness in the counseling career is a challenge for every counselor since they are required to apply different theories of helping which emphasize on the behavior, attitude, techniques and methods that are used by the counselor. With each theory having its own set of concepts and ideas, they create a daunting task for the counselor who is required to combine these to devise a technique for counseling the client that varies on the basis of the client's personal counseling needs and bears a cultural awareness that presents effective counseling for the patient Okun & Kantrowitz, 2008.

The patient chosen in this case is one that is suffering from inferiority complex. This means…… [Read More]

References

Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Mosak, H., & Maniacci, M. (1999). The analytic~behavioral~cognitve psychology of alfred adler New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.

Okun, B.F., & Kantrowitz, R.E. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
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Personal Counseling

Words: 2354 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17119225

Counseling

Develop your theoretical orientation to the counseling process and identify how this approach compares to Cognitive Behavioral theory

Since its inception nearly fifty years ago, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has become recognized as perhaps the most effective therapeutic approach. Indeed, CBT has myriad uses, and is applied in a number of situations, including depression, personality disorders, and wellness and rehabilitation. However, there also exist limitations to cognitive behavioral therapy, mainly surrounding treatment with patients from diverse cultures. This paper develops appropriate therapeutic orientations, discussing different therapeutic concerns and approaches. First, attention is paid to the nature of people; next, the role of the individual in families and other systems is addressed. Then, multicultural considerations, wellness and prevention, and the nature of problems are discussed. Finally, the paper addresses the process of change and how the orientations enacted are successful in practice.

The nature of people

People are diverse, not…… [Read More]

References

Beck, J., & Tompkins, M. (2007). Cognitive therapy. In Handbook of Homework Assignments in Psychotherapy. (pp. 51-63). New York: Springer Science.

Brown, J. (1999). Bowen family systems therapy and practice: Illustration and critique. A.N.J.Z. Family Therapy, 20(2), 94-103.

Lay, K.R., & King, L.J. (2007) Counseling strategies. In Drug Courts: A New Approach to Treatment and Rehabilitation. (pp. 166-182). New York: Springer Science.

Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 65(2), 98-109.
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Terminology the Primary Concept Discussed in This

Words: 581 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13050544

Terminology

The primary concept discussed in this particular scenario regarding Elizabeth and what has come to be her sexual frustration is an inability to orgasm. Within women, such an inability to do so is oftentimes referred to as frigidity. However, it is important to note that Elizabeth is able to achieve orgasm via masturbation, which involves clitoral stimulation. Therefore, the degree of frigidity she experiences is not of the primary variety, but of the secondary variety in which a woman has achieved orgasm before -- typically through clitoral stimulation -- yet has a persistence of being unable to achieve orgasm through conventional coitus.

Among psychological theorists on this subject that include the likes of Freud, Masters and Johnson, and Kinsey, the psychologist whose work is most associated with this phenomenon is Freud. He posited the notion that there was a relatively simple explanation for women such as Elizabeth who were…… [Read More]

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Human Behavior and the Social Environment

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10189363

Sociology

Economic and social classes are artificial divisions of individuals and groups based on their incomes, lifestyles, and professions. Economic class stresses level of income, number and quality of material possessions, from houses to cars to electronic equipment. Social class is often a function of economic class but social class can also include the relative prestige of one's profession, unrelated to one's annual income. For example, a lawyer in the public defender's office might make less than a public sanitation worker but the lawyer is considered to be a member of a higher social class. In most modern societies, individuals are judged significantly based on economic and social class.

Likewise, individuals are judged based on their race and ethnicity. Race is an artificial construction that usually refers to physical features like skin color. Ethnicity and race are closely intertwined, but ethnicity usually incorporates cultural, historical, and nationalistic elements as well…… [Read More]

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Counseling Why Do You Think the Preventative

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3208412

Counseling

Why do you think the preventative therapy approaches have not reduced the divorce rate?

There are several reasons for the overall ineffective nature of preventative therapies when attempting to decrease the divorce rate. Primarily there are the inherent biases that exist in a therapy session, such as hypothesis conformation bias where the interviewer may seek to elicit responses that confirm his or her hypothesis. There are also self-fulfilling prophecies that cause the client to alter thoughts or actions to align with the expectations of the interviewer. Many clients are also not as motivated as others and this may lead them to provide inaccurate or false responses. All of these issues may contribute to the therapy being less effective than it could be.

2.Describe one of the approaches to marriage/couple therapy discussed in chapter 8?

Integrative behavioral couple therapy consists of two separate phases: the evaluation/feedback stage and the active…… [Read More]

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Founders and Important People Who

Words: 4886 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47202674

These persons do experience a very high level of anxiety coupled with low avoidance. Therefore they get preoccupied and do feel on a constant basis, a sense of unlovabililty along with that of unworthiness that is combined with an affirmative evaluation of others. The preoccupied style is usually formed whenever a primary care giver is inconsistent in their manner of parenting. This is marked with being loving while being responsive. This is however true only when they are able to manage but not in their response to the child's signals as pointed out by Cassidy (2000).

In adults

Several adults have been shown to be exhibiting this style and they are known to be in a constant quest to be accepted by others through the gaining of acceptance of other individuals in the community.

Fearful avoidant style

This is the last type of avoidance styles It comprises of highly negative…… [Read More]

References

Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Bartholomew, K. (1990). Avoidance of intimacy: An attachment perspective. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 147-178.

Crnic, L.S., Reite, M.L., & Shucard, D.W. (1982). Animal models of human behavior: Their application to the study of attachment. In R.N. Emde & R.J. Harmon (Eds.), The development of attachment and affiliative systems (pp. 31-42). New York: Plenum.

Fonagy, P. (2001) Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis. New York: Other Press.
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Couch Fiction A Graphic Novel

Words: 567 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31597715

The knowledge that if he were caught would 'release' him from the prison of middle-class respectability he inhabits is not just a Freudian notion but also symptomatic of an existential longing for meaning.

What signs of empathy did you see? Give at least 5 explicit examples.

Pat is a professional, trained therapist and part of her training includes the ability to show empathy or understanding of James' perspective. When James announces he is a thief she is not shocked: rather, she allows James to elaborate upon what he means. Pat is also tolerant rather than horrified by James' sexual fantasizing, given that she knows that transference and counter-transference is part of the therapeutic process. She also admits that she finds James attractive to herself.

Pat understands James' need to be trusted and the fact that he sometimes 'tests' her, such as when he does not have the money to pay…… [Read More]

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Murray L Cooper P J Wilson

Words: 1518 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43223771

Such a limited gathering of data suggests that perhaps a different outcome may have occurred had a truly careful and representative collection and analysis of data actually been performed.

Other significant limitations to this study exist. In fact, the sample of women and children was generally comprised of low risk and only primiparous mothers. Accordingly, the findings as generally stated may not accurate with regard to high risk and/or multiparous populations. Additionally, the sample itself was underpowered to actually detect the nuances between the different treatment groups. Admittedly, the research undertook to examine several different types of therapies and treatment amongst several different sets of women; and, a fastidious review of subtle differences between treatment groups was not completed. Furthermore, of the indicators that revealed a positive outcome, these indicators were based upon data from mothers which was subjective in nature as it was solely based upon the mothers' assessment…… [Read More]

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Components Contemporary Nursing Knowledge The Article Include

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56065054

components contemporary nursing knowledge. The article include: • Concept triangulation • Metaparadigms • Philosophies • Conceptual models theory.

Nursing concept: The relational theory of nursing

According to the article "A theory of the relational work of nurses" by Daniela Terrizzi DeFrino from esearch and Theory for Nursing Practice, because nursing has always been conceptualized as a 'caring' profession in a demeaning fashion, quite often some nurses are apt to deemphasize this aspect of their work. This is particularly true in the modern, time and cost-conscious healthcare environment, where the relational aspects of healthcare treatment are discounted. "The relational work exists but is, as a general rule, taken for granted as 'nice' and not valued as the skillful and effective process that it is. It is valued neither by nurses explicitly nor by management in general" (DeFrino 2010: 294). This article asks an important question: in the new world of healthcare,…… [Read More]

Reference

DeFrino, Daniela Terrizzi "A theory of the relational work of nurses." Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 23 (4): 294-311. Retrieved from FindArticles.com November 24, 2010 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7724/is_200912/ai_n45881708/
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Counseling and Psychotherapy

Words: 872 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2194585

Psychoanalytic therapy, also sometimes called insight-oriented therapy, centers around the manner in which unconscious processes are manifested within the individual's behavior. The overall goals of such therapy are to help the client become more self-aware and to understand the influence of past issues and attitudes upon their present behavior. This tends to allow the client to look inward in a more critical manner to look at unresolved issues and the symptoms those have (perhaps from past dysfunctional relationships, etc.) and how those tend to manifest in the present time with issues like substance abuse, abusive or negative behavior, or other ways that contribute to a repetitive negative pattern (Corey, 2009).

Situational Overview

John is a 33-year-old male. John has an MBA and has been working for Loadstar Bank for 5 years, and has been frustrated because he has not advanced his career at the level he wished. We have been…… [Read More]

Reference

Corey, G. (2009). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole.
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Psychology in the Year 2005 United States

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94081965

Psychology

In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.

How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?

Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…… [Read More]

Reference

Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.

Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.

Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
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Interview Was Conducted With Mrs

Words: 1405 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76165485



Her improvement as a now member of the American society and capacity to become integrated in this new society became her goal of life. Before proceeding to accomplish her goals, she told us that she had an evaluation of herself and decided that none of the fundamental values of herself as an individual had changed. he was still extremely intelligent, was still an excellent surgeon, even if she could not practice it at the current time (this did not change the intrinsic value of herself as a surgeon or as a physician, determined by her knowledge, not by her position in society) and had the capacity to activate all these latent qualities. he mobilized herself so as to reach all the objectives she had proposed for herself.

Once on the top of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Mrs. Ionescu found herself somewhere on the third level, needing both acceptance as an…… [Read More]

Subsequently, she changed her thoughts from the generally negative ones in the beginning of her stay to positive ones, better adapted to the dream that she wanted to fulfil. As such, she was able to approach her colleagues at work, develop a social life outside the hospital etc.

Mrs. Ionescu is currently a surgeon in the same hospital, a remarkable physician, a fully appreciated member of society and of the medical community. The interview revealed the underlying, fundamental traits and characteristics of her personality. We can conclude that her personality is a dynamic one that has evolved from the moment of her initial arrival in the U.S., when she felt insecure, pessimistic, melancholic, to the current state, where she is confident in her forces, able to face any challenge, sanguine and optimistic.

Heffner, Christopher. Personality Synopsis. August 2002. Chapter 5
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Case Study Introduction to

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32592810

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Case Study

Introduction to Cognitive Behavioral and ational Emotive Behavior Therapy

In general, ational Emotive Behavior Therapy (EBT) is one form of the broader category of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Westbrook & Kirk, 2005). In principle, CBT provides a clinical psychotherapeutic approach that combines the most tested and proven aspects of Freudian psychotherapy or classic psychodynamic theory with behavior and cognitive therapy (Westbrook & Kirk, 2005). Under the CBT approach, psychodynamic concepts are applied to the types of clinical issues that clearly relate to psychodynamic roots and conflicts whereas behavioral and cognitive concepts are applied to help patients change the way that they perceive and process information and self-perceptions that play roles in their presenting problems. All forms of CBT emphasize retraining the patient to question fundamental assumptions and beliefs that are part of their underlying problems (Hoffman & Smits, 2008).

The EBT approach in particular is based…… [Read More]

References

Butler, A, C., Chapman, J.E., Formanc, E.M., and Beck, A.T. "The empirical status of cognitive-behavioraltherapy: A review of meta-analyses." Clinical Psychology

Review, Vol. 26, No. 1 (2006): 17 -- 31.

Hofmann, S.G. And Smits, J.A. "Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 69, No. 4 (2008): 621 -- 632.

Westbrook, D. And Kirk, J. "The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy:
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Employees Training and Development Plan

Words: 2080 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50702300

Freud and Erikson Theory

Compare and Contrast Freud and Erikson Theory

This essay begins by discussing Psychoanalytic Theory proposed by Sigmund Freud; the theory portrays that human behaviour is the result of conflict between the biological drives that develop slowly from childhood and play a significant part in determining a person's character. After a short review of the Psychoanalytic theory and evaluating it against modern psychoanalytic perspectives, the study will then cover a quite different theory i.e. Erikson's theory that reduces the significance of biological contributions. Erikson's Theory supposes that character/personality development is determined by not only biological factors but also by historical, ethnic, and cognitive factors. Erikson's theory explains challenges or issues that people face in the modern world. The fact that words such as "inner-space," "identity crisis" and "lifespan" have gained prominence in spoken and written language is testament to Erikson Theory's relevance. The Erikson's theory also has…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Freud vs. Erikson: How Do Their Theories Compare? Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/ss/Freud-and-Erikson Compared.htm#step2

Difference Between Erikson and Freud (2011, April 5). Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-erikson-and-freud/

Hayes, N. (1999). Access to Psychology. London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton Educational

Jarvis, M. & Chandler, E. (2001).Angles on Psychology. Cheltenham, Australia: Nelson Thornes Limited.
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Treating ADHD in Children

Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85852842

Jeremy's Psychological Disorder

Jeremy is an eight-year-old boy who is having problems both at school and at home. The parents at home or teachers in school cannot succeed in instructing him to do any specific thing. Furthermore, he loses his homework and shows other signs of disorderliness. In Jeremy's life, disorganization is part of him. It is evidently hard to take care or treat him. This is a sign of disease and uncomfortable living. From the symptoms identified, it is likely that he is suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). In this paper, Jeremy's case is discussed in relation to ADHD: possible ways of treatment using the four psychological schools of thought are also identified.

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

This disorder affects the psychological stability of individuals and alters the way they face the world and handle their lives. The disorder mainly affects children at their young age.…… [Read More]

References

Barlow, D. (2011). Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-By-Step Treatment Manual (3rd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Gallagher, R., Abikoff, H.B., Spira E.G. (2014). Organizational Skills Training for Children with ADHD: An Empirically Supported Treatment. New York: Guilford Publications

Ross, A. (2014). Psychological Disorders of Children: A Behavioral Approach to Theory, Research and Therapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Veatch, R. (2010). Medical Ethics (2nd Ed.). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett.
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Conflicts in Marital Counseling Although

Words: 5050 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54799142



You can't simply say you're going to integrate the science of psychotherapy with scripture." Moore argues, "because there are only sciences and theories of psychotherapy that are contradictory and incoherent." The implication that pastoral care and counseling and not and have not been Biblical, Vicki Hollon, executive director of the Wayne Oates Institute in Louisville, insists, was creating a false dichotomy. Hollon contends that Southern officials created the proverbial straw man. "And their movement away from science reveals a lack of faith, or at least a fear that somehow science is outside the realm of God's creation and domain." Some secular counselors encourage clients, including those in marital counseling, to refrain from reading the Bible and to stop going to church if that made them feel worse. Stuart Scott, a former pastor and current professor and convert to biblical counseling, became disillusioned with the answers psychology gives. Scott states he…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019987790

Briggs, M.K., & Rayle, a.D. (2005). Incorporating Spirituality into Core Counseling Courses: Ideas for Classroom Application. Counseling and Values, 50(1), 63+. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019987790

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from: www.bartleby.com/66 / www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083

Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.). (2003). Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786085 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083

Daniel, R.L. (2003). Chapter 10 Counseling Men. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 189-207). New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786293 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005843832
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Personal Analysis of the Professional

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64344392

Similarly, I have learned that counter-transference is also a risk within any relationship potentially prone to transference (Mitchell & Black, 2003). As a practical matter, I intend to maintain awareness of any tendencies on my part toward counter-transference by being aware of any tendency to think about clients in between sessions in any manner other than in direct connection to their clinical issues. At the first sign of any potential risk of counter-transference, I would consider discontinuing the relationship and referring the patient to a colleague.

What qualities do you have that will make you an effective psychologist?

I believe my most important personal quality that will make me an effective psychologist is empathy, because I genuinely care about other people. There is empirical evidence suggesting that this is, indeed, one of the most important qualities of good psychologists (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). I believe that I am conscientious and…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2009). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Pearson.

Krasner, M., Epstein, R., Beckman, H., Suchman, a., Chapman, B., and Mooney, C. "Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 302, No. 12 (2009): 1284-1292.

McWilliams, N. (2004). Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Guilford.
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Akeelah and the Bee a

Words: 3811 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36806285



The unconscious is the part of the thoughts of which an individual is not cognizant of. Freud stated the unconscious exposes the true emotions and opinions of the person (obbins, 2006, p. 170). There are an assortment of psychoanalytic methods utilized to contact and comprehend the unconscious, alternating from approaches like hypnosis, dream analysis, and free association. Dreams help an individual navigate through the unconscious; according to Freud, they are the main means to the unconscious.

Dreams are generated from dormant and apparent content. Whereas dormant content is the fundamental significance of a dream that may not be recalled when a person awakens, evident content is the content a person does remember from awakening which can then be examined by a psychoanalytic psychologist. Tanya's dormant feelings of her late husband could have manifested in actions against her daughter. The same could be said of Akeelah. She could have forged her…… [Read More]

References

Apperly, I.A. (2008). Beyond Simulation: "Theory and Theory: Why social cognitive neuroscience should use its own concepts to study's theory of mind." Cognition, 107(1), 266-283.

Applegate, J.S. (1990). Theory, Culture, and Behavior: Object Relations in Context. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 7(2), 85-100.

Guo, W., & Tsui, M. (2010). From Resilience to Resistance: A Reconstruction of the Strengths Perspective in Social Work Practice. International Social Work, 53(2), 233-245.

Hur, M.H. (2006). Empowerment In Terms Of Theoretical Perspectives: Exploring a Typology of the Process and Components across Disciplines. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(5), 523-540.
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Psychological Research of the 21st Century Human Memory

Words: 7275 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3668581

Human Memory

Psychology

This literature review upon human memory will cover a fairly wide spectrum of ideas regarding the subject. While there will be a number of connections among the divisions or categories of this literature review, there will certainly be several distinctions or differences among them. The psychological research a part of the review will span, roughly, the duration of the 21st century thus far, with a few sources of research having taken place in 1999, just before the turn of the century. The review will approach the selected body of psychological research on human memory by dividing the research loosely into the following sections: memory distortion, repressed memories, body memory, and the changes in perspective on memory with respect to appropriate psychological/psychotherapeutic treatment.

The section of the review that focuses upon memory distortion will identify that memory distortion does, in fact, occur. The research presented in that section…… [Read More]

References:

Conway, M.A. & Pleydell-Pearce, C.W. (2000). The Construction of Autobiographical Memories in the Self-Memory System. Psychological Review, 107(2), 261 -- 288.

Health Services Commissioner. (2005). Inquiry into the Practice of Recovered Memory Therapy. Health Services Commissioner of Australia, Victoria, AU. Print.

Johnson, M.K. (2001). Psychology of False Memories. International Encyclopedia of Social & Behavioral Sciences, 5254 -- 5259.

Leijssen, M. (2006). Validation of the Body in Psychotherapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46(2), 126 -- 146.
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Suicide and How it Impacts Military Families

Words: 2840 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62023833

Suicide and How it Impacts Military Families

Description of the Case or Problem

As the number of suicides amidst the U.S. Armed Service members have constantly increased in the past decade, so has the rate of survivors affected by military suicide, leading to loss of life. Whenever a loved one loses their life as an outcome of suicide, the resulting trauma and shock might compromise the survivors' physical and mental health. This leaves the victims more susceptible to a more agonizing and intricate grief process. Those individuals bereaved by suicide are at an increasing danger of also committing suicide. Peer encouragement, a recognized recuperation method from addictions and sickness, has been clinically monitored to be broadly used by the suicide loss survivors. esearchers have given minimal interest to effective interventions for the victims of suicide loss in the general U.S. population; less is recognized regarding the efficiency of peer support…… [Read More]

References

AFSP. (2014, August 8). President Obama Announces Executive Actions to Address Veteran and Military Suicide. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: https://www.afsp.org/advocacy-public-policy/policy-news-updates/president-obama-announces-executive-actions-to-address-veteran-and-military-suicide

American Association of Suicidology. (2010). Survivors of suicide fact sheet. Retrieved from American Association of Suicidology: http://www.suicidology.org/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=232&name=D

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2010). Survivor research: AFSP and NIMH propose research agenda. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: http://www.afsp.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewpage&page_id=2D9DF73E -BB25-0132-3AD7715D74BFF585

Cerel, J., Padgett, J. H., Conwell, Y., & Reed, G. A. (2009). A call for research: The need to better understand the impact of support groups for suicide survivors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 39(3), 269-281.
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Personality the Definition of Personality

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28844403



Erik Erikson postulated that personality is a progress through a number of stages and facing conflicts in the course of progression and the in order to pass through a process, the individual has to overcome these conflicts. These internal conflicts therefore aroused defense mechanisms that thereafter dictated the personality of an individual (Kendra, 2010).

Humanistic approach

Humanistic approach emphasizes the individual worth and the centrality of the value of a person. It is pegged on the philosophy of existentialism and emphasized on creativity, spontaneity and activeness of human beings. The approach focuses on the development and possibility of humans to defeat hardship and misery as opposed to defeat and pessimis.

Under this approach, there is emphasis on free will and the experience of an individual to be fundamental in the shaping of the personality. It looks at the concept of self-actualization, which is an internal natural need for personal growth…… [Read More]

References

Kendra Cherry, (2010). Theories of Personality. Personality Psychology Study Guide. Retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm

Warren & Carmichael, (1930). Elements of human psychology (Rev. Ed.; Boston, MA:

Houghton Mifflin, 1930), p. 333. Cited in Allport, Pattern & growth in personality (1937/1961, p.36). retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://www.thepersonalitysystem.org/PFA%20What%20Is%20Personality/How%20Is%20Personality%20Defined.htm
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Freud's Dora the Case of

Words: 3466 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21031583



The picture is indeed emerging here of Freud as a chauvinist, perhaps (in the opinion of this paper) suffering from some testosterone imbalance himself; and perhaps, as Mahony writes on page 33 of his journal article, Freud was projecting his "male-bound wishes and fantasies" when he imagined that at the moment Mr. K first accosted Dora and "pressed his erection against her" she then experienced "an analogous change" (Freud's quote) in her clitoris. That seems a huge stretch and even a wild fantasy, hardly becoming a man of such professional prestige. But Freud's fantasy goes further into the abyss of his apparent bias; he argues that the traumatic incident with the middle-aged Mr. K must have summoned up "a distinct feeling of excitement" in a "normal girl."

Indeed, Freud noted earlier that Dora's father had discovered wetness in her bed sheets, from time to time. And on page 119 of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund. Freud: On War, Sex and Neurosis. New York: Arts & Science Press, 1947.

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T. "An Appraisal of the Relationship Between Women and Psychotherapy: 80 Years After the Case of Dora." American Psychologist 38.5 (1983):

Mahony, Patrick J. "Freud's Unadorned and Unadorable: A Case History Terminable and Interminable." Psychoanalytic Inquiry 25.1 (2005): 27-44.

Markotic, Lorraine. "Identifying Dora's Desire." Paragraph 22.3 (1999): 248-256.
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Silver Linings Playbook

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14863887

The 2012 movie, Silver Linings Playbook, provides a rather correct view of numerous mental health-related aspects and the impact it has on families and relationships. Bipolar disorder-diagnosed Patrick Solitano Jr. is enrolled in an eight-month court-commanded psychiatric hospital intervention after viciously assaulting a man his wife was cheating on him with. This mood disorder is accompanied by manic episodes (discrete minimum-seven-day-long periods of uncharacteristically and continually cantankerous, elevated, or expansive moods). Symptoms include escalated self-esteem, reduced need to sleep, impulsiveness, and quick speech, accurately portrayed by Pat in the movie. This results in vacillating extremely good and extremely bad moods together with acute impairment and distress, necessitating rigorous, steady medications (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Also, bipolar disorder patients typically have highly intense and charismatic personalities, as seen in Pat Jr. The character is quick to form an emotional bond with Tiffany, an unusual lady who is herself burdened by mental…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.

Bragazzi, N., Pezzoni, F., & Del Puente, G. (2014).Investigating aggressive styles and defense mechanisms in bipolar patients and in their parents.Health Psychology Research, 2(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/hpr.2014.1546

Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.

Erikson, E. (1982). The life cycle completed: A review. New York: Norton
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Conflict Management I Was Pleased

Words: 516 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93587526

I sometimes go for long periods of time where I do not talk to my brother, because it can just be too much stress. I still love my brother, but when the cost of maintaining that relationship becomes too high for me I start to re-evaluate it and withdraw.

Just understanding where these types of attitudes and conflicts come from has made me so much more aware of my own feelings, and what is going on inside of me that contributes to how I see others. Just understanding how these things work makes it easier for me to manage how I relate to others. I feel that I already caught myself getting mad the clerk at the coffee shop for taking too long with one of the customers in front of me, chatting away. I realized, though, that I was hungry and tired, and maybe if I was feeling better…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Psychology of Trauma

Words: 3530 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40788305

Psychology Dual Diagnosis: Substance elated Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders

The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of the terms. The DSM-V is a manual that is made use of by professionals in the field of medicine and mental health. They specifically refer to this manual when they are diagnosing disorders related to the mental health of a patient and the use of substances. Through the use of this manual, there is a standard way of diagnosing disorders (ockville, 2005). Substance use disorders are often found to exist with co-occurring disorders. This report highlights the assessment and treatment of substance related disorders and the co-morbid disorders.

Introduction

The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Substance-related and addictive disorders. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/documents/substance%20use%20disorder%20fact%20sheet.pdf

Bierut, L., Dinwiddie, S., Begleiter, H., Crowe, R., Hesselbrock, V., Nurnberger, J.,. . ., & Reich, T. (1998). Familial transmission of substance dependence: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: a report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry. 55(11), 982-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9819066

Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., & Drake R. E. (2004). A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev, 23,471-481.

Collins, R. L. Blane, H. T., & Leonard, K. A. (1999). In OttP. J., Tarter, R. E., Ammerman, R. T. Sourcebook on substance abuse: Etiology, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Boston: Allyn and bacon, pp.153-165.
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Innocent Child Archetype of the

Words: 1167 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17199265

Jung believed that the unconscious mind has two very distinct layers. The first layer is the personal unconscious. The personal unconscious is where the individual's memories of experiences and events reside. The collective unconscious, on the other hand, is something that we are born with. There is a shadow that Jung also talks about, which is a darker side of the personality and the shadow may be filled with darker aspects of personality (violent tendencies, etc.); these are elements that we may not recognize in our personalities. Therefore, self-actualization is the most important step to take in therapy.

Bennett (year) discusses the integrative archetypal model and how it lends itself to two separate categories of self-representation ("and, by extension, personality as an epiphenomenon of self-representation" (year)). These are the horizontal and vertical factors and they are normally discussed in terms of "splitting" (year), "which is a defensive separation of various…… [Read More]

References:

Bennett, C.L. Freedom and dignity. Chapter 8, pp. 67-83.

Palmer, P.J. (1999). Let your life speak: Listening for the voice of vocation. San Francisco: CCA Jossey-Bass, 56-72.

Schmidt, W.S. (1986). An ontological model of development. Journal of Pastoral Care,

40(1) 56-67.
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Diversity as a Barrier to Group Psychotherapy

Words: 3329 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60383525

Diversity as a Barrier to Group Psychotherapy

According to the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, the psychopathology of college students, and their demand for counseling services in university college centers (UCCs) has risen substantially over the last decade (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). Well, there are number of reasons why this is so. The most significant of these perhaps is that the modern-day college student faces significant psychological concerns in the form of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and history of hospitalization resulting from lifestyle factors. It is reported, for instance, that between 15 and 20% of college students today suffer from depressive symptoms, compared to between 5 and 6% ten years ago (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). For this reason, most UCCs have adopted and expanded the use of group psychotherapy platforms as an alternative to the traditional individual psychotherapy in a bid to address the…… [Read More]

References

Lee, J. (2014). Asian International Students' Barriers to Joining Group Counseling. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 64(4), 444-464.

Perez, S.M., Yang, K.Y., Edelman, M.W. & Jones, J.M. (2014). South-East Asian-American Children: Not the Model Minority. Children of Immigrant Families, 14(2), 121-137.

Peters, S. (2015). Barriers to Group Psychotherapy for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students. Professional Dissertation (Wright State University). Retrieved July 14, 2015 from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=wsupsych1434388016&disposition=inline

Riva, M. (2013). Emphasizing Training and Supervision. The Group Psychologist, 23(1), 1-24.
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Cognitive Therapy Provides a Structured Framework for

Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76925730

Cognitive therapy provides a structured framework for change. Describe your understanding of how this form of therapy works.

According to Cherry (2012), cognitive behavior therapy, also known as CBT focuses on helping clients to understand the thoughts and feelings that create their behaviors. If such behaviors are problematic, the client is encouraged to work on the way they think and feel about certain situations, which, it is assumed, would then also create change in the behavior. Commonly, phobias, addiction, depression, and anxiety are treated by means of CBT. This type of therapy is generally used to create short-term solutions to very specific problems, which focus on helping people to change by focusing on destructive or disturbing thought patterns that influence their behavior negatively.

The underlying cause for disturbed behaviors is then regarded as thoughts and feelings, more than repressed subconscious disturbances created by the individual's past. As such, these are…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (2012). What is Cognitive Behavior Therapy? Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychotherapy/a/cbt.htm

Haggerty, J. (2006). Psychodynamic Therapy. PsychCentral. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/psychodynamic-therapy/
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Professor D' Auria Good Will

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38229767

For that reason, the infancy: trust vs. mistrust (birth to eighteen months), will not be applied. There is not enough information provided during that time period to be able to critically analyze Will's development. Industry vs. Inferiority (ages 6-11), Identity vs. Role Confusion (ages 12-18), and Intimacy vs. Isolation (ages 19-40), however, is applicable. The fourth stage, school age: industry vs. inferiority (six to eleven years) is the age in which the child begins school and while their social world expands (Salkind, N.J., 2005). During this stage, children are able to interact with people outside of their nuclear family and begin to show skills that include playing, cognition, working in groups, and emotional expression (Berzoff, J., 2011). Will appears to be very confident in himself and does not appear to have a problem speaking in front of groups, regarding philosophy, but is still unable to reach full potential. This supports…… [Read More]

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Erikson's Perspective on the Personality of Landon Carter

Words: 5028 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30406685

Landon Carter's Character through

Erik Erikson's stages of development

Erik Erikson was an American developmental psychologist who was born in Germany and went to postulate eight stages of psychological development. He developed a model that talked about the eight stages every human passes through as he grows. These stages depict and analyze a person's life from when they are baby till they die. It mentions how in every stage a person is presented with problems and challenges. Every stage depicts a crisis which has to be resolved or else it will create problems in the next stage. Thus, for a person to attain a positive personality they need to attain positive goals of that stage and progress smoothly to the next one. (osenthal, Gurney, & Moore 2)

A Walk to emember is a popular romantic drama movie released in 2002. With the setting in North Carolina, the movie revolves around…… [Read More]

References

A Walk to Remember. Dir. Adam Shankman. Perf. Mandy Moore, Shane West, Peter Coyote. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. DVD.

Beaumont, Sherry L., & Zukanovic, Ray. "Identity Development in Men and Its Relation to Psychosocial Distress and Self-Worth." Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. January (2005) Web.

Elkind, D. "Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man." New York Times. New York Times, 5 April 1970. Web. 15 November 2012.

Gross, Francis L. Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 1987.Print