Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theory
Psychodynamic & Humanistic Theory
A seminal study on the personality trait differences of therapists practicing with different theoretical orientations is an interesting place to begin this compare and contrast discussion. Tremblay, et al. (1986) administered the Personality Orientation Inventory to 90 male and 90 female psychotherapists who self-designated and were equally distributed in groups designated as behavioral (BEH), psychodynamic (PSY), and humanistic (HUM). Interestingly, the study suggested that a core therapist personality exists and that further distinction can be achieved through consideration of the patterns of personality that were associated with theoretical orientation. The caveat was that the patterns associated with theoretical orientations were characterized more by overlapping traits than unique traits. Of the three theoretical categories, the HUM group exhibited the most unique traits: they were more flexible, more accepting of personal aggression and expressing feelings in action, and differed in their development of intimate relationships. Therapists in the HUM, were more affirming of the values of self-actualization, more inner-directed and sensitive to their own feelings. Therapists in the BEH group resembled the therapists in the PSY group, more than those in the HUM group. And the therapists in the PSY group were most like the therapists in the HUM group. Interestingly, the therapists in the BEH group showed personality traits of limited flexibility and limited acceptance of their own feelings. From this, the question arises as to the effect of the personality and theoretical orientation on the therapeutic relationship between the psychotherapist or counselor and the client. This brings us to the conceptualization of personality across the two practice orientations of humanism and psychodynamics. But first, what is personality?
Personality can be defined as: "An individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persist over time and across situations" (Boreman, 2010). When the general public discusses personality, they tend to think in general terms associated with the popularized trait theory, the basis of which is not necessarily psychodynamic or humanistic. But trait theory does use a more commonly recognized lexicon than psychodynamic and humanistic theories. As a jumping off point for discussing personality and the way that personality influences human interaction, a brief discussion of trait theory follows.
Trait theory is a foundational theory of...
Traits are characteristic patterns of behavior that reflect the way people interact and their overall outlook on life. Cattell originally established trait theory through factor analysis in which he identified 16 traits that were thought to make up human personality. Eysenck reduced Cattell's constellation of traits to three dimensions termed: Emotional stability, introversion-extraversion, and psychoticism. As trait theory evolved over time, the basic dimensions coalesced into five traits that still form the basis of the theory today. The "Big Five" traits, as they are commonly called, consist of: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Culture, Emotional Stability, and Extraversion. Interestingly, the big five traits appear in cross-cultural studies, and are found in both Western and non-Western societies.
Personality in Humanistic Theory
Humanistic personality theory is based on the belief that people are fundamentally good and that they by and large engage behaviors that help them strive toward levels of higher functioning. The primary theorists of humanistic psychology are: Alfred Alder, Abraham Maslow, and Carl Rogers. Of these, Abraham Maslow is the most commonly known by the general public because his concepts of self-actualization and hierarchy of needs have been adopted by the business community and self-improvement gurus, bringing broad public exposure to the theories. Rogers expanded on Maslow's theories, postulating that people whose ideal (i.e., actualized) selves differed substantially from their real (i.e., current level of functioning) selves were likely to be unhappy.
Personality in Psychodynamic Theory
Psychodynamic theorists believe that a considerable degree of mental processes are unconscious to a degree that people may not always understand even their own behavior. Indeed psychodynamic theory holds that there are parallel streams of mental activity that may put emotion, motivation, and other thoughts in conflict. Moreover, the early experiences that people have are thought to influence them for life and to contribute strongly to the stable personality characteristics of individuals. Psychodynamic theorists believe that the conceptual images or representations that people hold of themselves and the people in their lives strongly influence the manner in which their interactions play out. Indeed, social independence occurs only when an individual successfully grapples with their aggressive and sexual conflicts in a manner that moves them…
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Importance of the therapeutic alliance in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy A vast number of therapists have jotted down the significance of the working alliance. One therapy sitting includes information which comprises of statements from both the patient and the therapist, as stated in the study conducted by Guilhardi (1997). This saying has been balanced off by Kerbauy (1999), who states that the appropriate variables in clinics are extensive groups that comprises of
Psychotherapy Theories and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy The cognitive behavioral and person-centered approaches regarding counseling and psychotherapy come from a much different developmental history and theoretical underpinnings. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a psychological approach that addresses problematic behaviors that occur from the recurrence of bad thoughts and has shown useful to treat anxiety, depression, and substance abuse disorders among others. However, there are also many psychotherapy practices that can integrated
Substance Abuse Group Psychotherapy Proposal for a Diverse Homeless Population We find several problems associated with substance abuse people in our environment. Researches show that men are more likely to develop a substance abuse personality. As a result they lose jobs and homes. Uncountable homeless families depend on substance abuse men. A variety of group treatments are employed to meet the needs of such people during the recovery process. This essay
Also known as person-centered or client-centered, Rogerian therapy, it "places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role" Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders). However, although effective with some clients: "Person-centered therapy, however, appears to be slightly less effective than other forms of humanistic therapy in which therapists offer more advice to clients and suggest topics to explore," as the
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques Case of the Fat Lady Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; Rathod, Kingdon, Weiden,