Psychology Of Aging Essays (Examples)

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Aging Critical Issue in Aging

Words: 3649 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65154410

Suicide ates Among Geriatric Persons

The causes of death among the elderly are traditionally associated with the normal aging process or what would be called natural process, diseases associated with age and the debilitations it can cause. Yet, other factors also contribute to the cause of death an individual might succumb to, widowhood, retirement, forced relocation, and/or loneliness especially around the holidays. (Huyck Hoyer 1982) Still other studies are making it clear that murder and suicide rates are increasing dramatically among the elderly. (cf., Birren, Schaie, 1977) (Nussbaum, Pecchioni, obinson & Thompson, 2000, p. 294) Suicide was the eleventh leading cause of death among persons over the age of 65 in 1982. (iley, 1983, p. 144) Some strides have been made and between the years 1983 and 1998 suicide averaged as the fourteenth leading cause of death for persons over the age of 65, lower than the average for all…… [Read More]

References

Birren, J.E., & Schaie, K.W. (Eds.). (1977). Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York:

Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Coleman, P.G. (1995). 2 Facing the Challenges of Aging: Development, Coping, and Meaning in Life. In Handbook of Communication and Aging Research, Nussbaum, J.F., & Coupland, J. (Eds.) (pp. 39-68). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hudson, C.G., & Cox, A.J. (Eds.). (1991). Dimensions of State Mental Health Policy. New York: Praeger Publishers.
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The Many Aspects and Angles of Aging

Words: 2458 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95442427

Psychology of Aging

Compare and contrast current research on alternative stage theories of adulthood and personality development.

Child developmentalists traditionally categorized adult personality development into stage theories (Kagan, 2001). Sigmund Freud advocated the psychosexual stage, which held that personality is shaped early in life and generally resists change. Carl Jung proposed the opposite, in that personality develops in adulthood. Other theories surfaced in the 30s an the 40s in Europe and the U.S., such as Charlotte Buhler's, which called for empirical evaluations of theoretical predictions and Erik Erikson's similarly psychoanalytic stage theory, which asserts that a person develops through stages of human needs. Eventually, these early stage theories failed empirical tests. Critics of stage theories argued that personality does not evolve systematically in adulthood. Then came the Trait Theory in the 80s, which suggested that personality only changes slightly when a person reaches age 30 (Kagan, 2001).

The Trait Theory…… [Read More]

References

ASHA (2015). Issues in ethics: cultural and linguistic competence. American Speech Language

Hearing Association. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/Practice/ethics/Cultural-and-Linguistics-Competence

Charles, S. and Cartensen, L. L. (2010). Social and emotional aging. Annual Review of Psychology.61, 383-409. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3950961

Crowell, C. R. (n.d.).Moral psychology and information ethics. University of Notre Dame.
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Psychology Definitions Psychosis Loss

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85134043



Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.

Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.

Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.

Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.

Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.

Chapter 14

Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…… [Read More]

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Psychology Development Early Childhood Medelein N Moody

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43288987

Psychology Development

Early Childhood

Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.

The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.

The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.

The results that were observed showed…… [Read More]

Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46

The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.

The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
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Psychology Identify and Describe Piaget's

Words: 975 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35802687



Question: Explain the factors that cause or are associated with eating disorders, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, and juvenile delinquency.

Answer: While these problems appear to be divergent, they are however linked together by a common factor and that is poor self-esteem. There is a close relationship between self-esteem elements that promote it, and the absence of some of the problems listed. The converse is also true that persons who have self-esteem issues are more prone to have an eating disorder, engage in risky sexual behavior, abuse substances, and be delinquent.

Self-esteem is essentially how the individual views himself or herself or values the self. Ideas of self-esteem are developed very early in childhood and as the individual matures, the sense of self may become damaged. Persons who have a damaged conception of themselves usually think that others see them as damaged when it is really how they see themselves. Even…… [Read More]

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Psychology Neuropathological Disorders Amyotrophic Lateral

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25396256

Genes that are involved in the large families with a lot of individuals with ALS are sometimes called causative genes since they are usually sufficient to cause ALS devoid of any other genes or factors being involved. Genes involved in the smaller ALS families can either be susceptibility or causative genes (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), 2005).

There appears to be no clear cause in the majority of ALS cases and there is just one medication, riluzole, has been shown to modestly prolong survival. esearch has recognized some of the cellular processes that take place after disease onset, including mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, generation of free radicals, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis, but for most people the underlying cause is unknown. While ALS is measured to be a multifaceted genetic disorder in which multiple genes in amalgamation with environmental exposures merge to render a person susceptible, few genetic or environmental risks have…… [Read More]

References

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). (2005). Retrieved from http://www.chg.duke.edu/diseases/als.html

Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

ISBN: 9780558851910.

Gordon, P.H. (2011). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. CNS Drugs, 25(1), 1-15.
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Cognition and Aging

Words: 4217 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31466565

Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process

The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.

Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…… [Read More]

Is there anything special about the aging of source memory?

Psychol Aging. 2005 Mar;20(1):19-32.

PMID: 15769211 [PubMed - in process]
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Secondary Aging Many People Think

Words: 1688 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51376675



Furthermore, as Baltes makes clear, there are some events that are generally going to impact people at various stages in their lives. For example, an East European Jew who survived World War II would probably have a historical influence that changed other age-expectations, which could impact other longevity factors. Time in a concentration camp, which would be normative for the Jewish cohort in that place and time period, would also likely impact the age of marriage, parenthood, and other culturally normative behaviors that might impact health and longevity in one's old age. While that might seem to be a dramatic example, the reality is that most generations are going to have cohorts impacted by at least one event of similar magnitude. For the practitioner working with geriatric clients, knowing the historical events that are most likely to have impacted the client and how those are likely to interact with the…… [Read More]

References

Anstey, K., Stankov, L., & Lord, S. (1993). Primary aging, secondary aging, and intelligence.

Psychology of Aging, 8(4), 562-70.

Bee, H.L., & Bjorklund, B. (2010). Journey of adulthood, 7th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Prentice Hall.
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Fact Versus Reality With Aging

Words: 1771 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51797683

society we seem to place research on the brain in high regard. In what ways is this sentiment positive for science and the care of humans, and in what ways might this be negative? Does neuroscience always hold the "best" answers?

A way in which the focus on the brain is positive is that it is indeed true that the brain is really the "center of action" in a lot of ways. When it comes to the most intriguing, fascinating and important parts of the body, the two top really have to be the brain and the heart. The heart is the catalyst for things like circulation, oxygen flow and so forth. The brain, however, has many more important things behind it including the nervous system in general, memory and so forth (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2011; YouTube, 2015; YouTube, 2015).

However, ordaining the study of the mind as it currently…… [Read More]

References

Cavanaugh, J., & Blanchard-Fields, F. (2011). Adult development and aging. Australia: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

YouTube. (2015). Emotion and Aging: Exploding the Misery Myth. YouTube. Retrieved 23 December 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXhrrbQCElw

YouTube. (2015). Insight into Psychology of Aging with Valerie Abel. YouTube. Retrieved 23 December 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-31glZYYr8
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Social Psychology

Words: 1921 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51524486

Optimism and Pessimism Relates to Stress and Coping with Cancer

An increasing amount of research links negative and positive emotional states to wellness or ill health. The negative or pessimistic emotions seem to have a negative effect on the immune system and on general health. Pessimism has been shown to be unhealthy and have adverse effects on health, including increasing the risk of cancer and preventing recovery from the disease. On the other hand, positive or optimistic emotions have been shown to strengthen immune function and bring good health. (Gillman, 1989)

There is a wealth of research that suggests optimism has a positive association with better mental and physical health, as well as coping with stress. Pessimism has been linked to a higher risk of death before the age of 65, while positive emotions, like optimism, are linked to lowered production of the stress hormone cortisol, better immune function, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Schultz, Richard. Bookwala, Judith, Scheier Michael. "Pessimism, Age, and Cancer Survival." Psychology and Aging, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp 304-309.

Brissette, I., Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (2002). The role of optimism and social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 102-111.

Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and self-regulation. In E.C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 31-51). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Gillman, Jane. The Science of Optimism and Hope: Research Essays in Honor of Martin E.P. Seligman. Templeton Foundation Press, 1999.
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Healthy Aging for Some Time

Words: 2094 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36255820

Leaning does not only imply facts, but continual and fluid evolution of the brain. This is the identical process that the brain takes when improving itself and reducing aging. If the brain continues to receive stimuli and appropriate chemicals for energy, then it follows tat there will be increased brain function and activity. If the voltage, just as in a battery, becomes stronger, then activity increases. As the brain is continually stimulated, more building materials are produced that allow information to become part of our experience. Interestingly, the variety and frequency of certain exercise programs, in fact, "teach" the body at different rates. Using different intensities of movement, concerns of overeating, weight regulation, quality of life, and especially depression are mitigated (Douglas, 2009).

Finally, the healthcare and other market modifiers will need to change and evolve as the population ages. The global baby bust will change financial markets, investing, products,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Aging Statistics. (2010, June 30). Retrieved from Administrator on Aging - U.S. Health & Human Services: http://www.aoa.gov/aoaroot/aging_statistics/index.aspx

Does Population Aging Affect Financial Markets? (2012). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from:  http://www.nber.org/bah/winter05/w10851.html 

Dynamics of Population Aging in the Modern World. (2002, January). Retrieved from Longevity-Science.org:  http://longevity-science.org/Population_Aging.htm 

Family Caregivers: The Issues They Face Are Everyone's Concern. (2010). Capella University,
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Successful Aging What Do You

Words: 3063 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99893583

If anything, such a person may have regrets over having wasted too much of life on impersonal achievements and selfish pursuits.

6. Do you agree that in later life men become more nurturing and women more assertive? What do you think are the findings that could support or challenge that observation?

The observation that men tend to become more nurturing, less competitive, less aggressive, and "gentler" in later life and that women tend to become less emotional and more confident or assertive would seem to be substantially true. That is largely attributable to hormonal changes; specifically, aging males tend to produce much less testosterone and post-menopausal females secrete less estrogen in their later years (Pinker, 2002). Naturally, those hormonal changes would be expected to result in various behavioral changes in areas where human behavior (and gender-specific behavior in particular) are products of the secondary sex hormones (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008;…… [Read More]

References

Bearon LB. "Successful Aging: What does the 'good life' look like?" Concepts in Gerontology Vol. 1, No. 3, (Summer 1996).

Birren JE. And Schaie KW. (2006). Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. Burlington,

MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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The Signs of Aging and Wisdom in the Elderly

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88217648

Interview With the Elderly

As Cavanaugh and Blanchard-Fields (2014) assert, "We cannot understand adults' experiences without appreciating what came before in childhood and adolescence" (p. 4). The interviewee, therefore, was asked to describe her childhood experiences on the farm where she grew up. She recalled a life that was much more rugged and basic than today's childhood experiences. She described having to help with the slaughter of pigs, which she did not like, because it smelled terribly. She described the flowers that her father grew and the greenhouse that was popular. She talked about the stone house and how it was divided up among her parents and her siblings and how they would have curtains separating "rooms" and how there was no such thing as television when she was a child. These experiences clearly shaped her character and her perspective of things as she grew older and the world around…… [Read More]

References

Abel, V. (2013). Insight into Psychology of Aging. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-31glZYYr8

Carstensen, L. (2012). Emotion and Aging: Exploding the Misery Myth. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXhrrbQCElw

Cavanaugh, J. C. & Blanchard-Fields, F. (2015). Adult development and aging. (7th

Edition). Stanford, CT: Thompson Learning.
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Aging in the World Today

Words: 1321 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94237820



It is an unfortunate fact that Alice's self-perception and its reinforcement by social and media images of age and aging is hardly unique. Older people, and especially those in retirement and care communities, tend to be perceived as old, frail, and unable to continue any sort of contribution to society. This tends to hasten the aging process and, in cases like Alice's, perpetuates a vicious cycle in which aging becomes a curse rather than the blessing that she was first to those around her and then to her husband.

According to Holstein, Parks, and Waymack (2011, p. 11), one important component of care giving and retirement communities is respecting the autonomy of older individuals by providing them with meaningful choice. This means that older people in such communities should be provided with choices that match their remaining cognitive and physical abilities.

When applied to Alice's case, her residence in the…… [Read More]

Reference

Holstein, M.B., Parks, J.A., and Waymack, M.H. (2011). Ethics, Aging, and Society. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
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Psychology of the Aging

Words: 463 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87275934

Keys to Successful Ageing

The concept of ageing has undergone considerable change in the past decade or so (Garnett, 2004, p. 3). The literature reviewed on successful ageing focused on three key components: (1) avoiding disease; (2) remaining engaged with life through meaningful work, activities, and relationships, and (3) maintaining high cognitive and physical function (Tsao Foundation (2004); Garnett; Balandin (Sep. 2004); Keys to vital ageing (2004)). As more and more people are beginning to realize, as the general population ages, ageing also has many positive factors, such as learned resilience and survival in the face of adversity, which may serve one well during the ageing process itself (Garnett, p. 3). ecommendations from the Institution on Ageing include: eating a balanced diet; exercising regularly; getting regular check-ups; not smoking; maintaining personal contacts, and maintaining a positive attitude about oneself and about life by doing what makes one feel happy, satisfied,…… [Read More]

References

Balandin, S. Searching for successful ageing. The Courier. Retrieved Dec. 18, 2004 from http:www.thecourier.co.uk/output/2004/09/02/newsstory6289222t0.asp.

Garnett, C. Keys to successful ageing. HealthPlus. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2004 from http://

Vanderbiltowc.wellsource.com/dh/Content.asp?ID=1391.

Continuing engagement with life. Tsao Foundation. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2004 from http://www.tsaofoundation.org/articles/successful04.html.
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Psychology to Advertising the Field

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29290892

282). Furthermore, research supports that an audience is more likely to be persuaded when the persuasion technique matches their attitude functions. Thus, people in the advertising industry are far more likely to be successful persuaders when they carefully consider the predominant attitude type of their audience and tailor their advertisements to that specific group.

A final example of the contributions of psychology to advertising is a highly significant one. In 1957, Vance Packard wrote a book titled The Hidden Persuasion, which discussed the psychoanalytical techniques used by many advertising companies (Nelson, 2008). The book sold millions of copies, was translated into 12 languages, and remained on the U.S. bestseller list for a year. Nevertheless, it was highly criticized by many academics and people in the advertising industry who wrongfully assumed that it was focused mainly on subliminal messages. However, Packard never actually used the term "subliminal" and focused very little…… [Read More]

References

Gresko, J., Kennedy, L. & Lesniak, J. (1996). Social psychological factors underlying the impact of advertising. Retrieved from Miami University Website:

http://www.users.muohio.edu/shermarc/P324ads.shtml

Kardes, F.R. (2005). The psychology of advertising. In Brock, T.C. & Green, M.C. (Eds.),

Persuasion: psychological insights and perspectives (p. 281-303). Thousand Oaks,
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Enforcement of Psychology Treatment for the Mentally Ill

Words: 8451 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95839705

Psychology Treatment

For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.

Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.

Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
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Social Psychology Is the Study

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43188761



Looking at a problem from several different angles and viewpoints is the ultimate goal of group work and group decision-making. Having people who are different from one another helps to avoid 'groupthink' and contributes to in-depth discussions and better ideas than could be found in a group where the participants were basically all alike (Chartrand, van aaren, & argh, 2006). How a person reacts to others and to the situation, though, can seriously affect the outcome of the group. Society is made up of many different kinds of people, so a good group will be comprised of the same. This will help to ensure the success of whatever decision that the group comes to, since there will be a greater suggestion that the public will be receptive to it, as based on the opinions of the various group members.

oth internal and external information must be tracked in order to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chartrand, TL, van Baaren, RB, & Bargh, JA. (2006). Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: Consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 135(1), 70-77.

Livingston, BA & Judge, TA (2008). Emotional responses to work-family conflict: An examination of gender role orientation among working men and women. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93(1), 207-216.

Molden, DC & Dweck, CS. (2006). Finding "meaning" in psychology: A lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist. 61(3), 192-203.
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Memory and Learning and Cognitive Psychology

Words: 2891 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79054100

Learning and Cognitive Psychology Related to Memory

Memory has control over everything that an individual does and is a part of cognitive psychology that deals with all the human behavior and mental processes. It is divided into different categories with each of them performing their particular functions. The paper investigates the different types of memories and their purpose as each one plays its part in keeping the memory part of the brain functioning. The nature, maintenance, retrieval and capacity of memory are also discussed along with the different factors that influence it. The paper also discusses the application of TRS model on the working memory, which leads to the prediction that maintenance activities should postpone concurrent processing.

Introduction

Memory is what drives our everyday life, makes us relate to or recollect things from the past and in many ways defines our behavior. We take it for granted as the effort…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baddeley, A.D., Thomson, N., & Buchanan, M. (1975).World length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 575-589.

Blankenship, A.B. (1938). Memory span: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 35, 1-25.

Brener, R. (1940). An experimental investigation of memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 467-482

Bousfield, W.A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229 -- 240. doi:10.1080/00221309.1953.9710088
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Musical Activity and Cognitive Aging

Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94152998

The assessment was done in one session which included estimation of verbal, attention, memory, working memory, intellectual and language functions of the participants. The researchers used the American Adult eading Test to estimate the premorbid verbal intelligence of the participants where they were required to read irregular words which cannot be pronounced correctly using the rules of phonics out loud. This provided a good estimate of the Verbal IQ of the participants on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. It was also a stable and valid measure of the premorbid intellectual functioning of the older demented and non-demented adults.

The verbal intelligence and general intellectual ability of the study participants was estimated through the administration of the information subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and it provided a stable and valid measure despite the advanced age of the participants. The performance of the subject's verbal memory was measuring using the…… [Read More]

References

Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda, and Alicia MacKay. "The Relation between Instrumental Musical Activity and Cognitive Aging." Neuropsychology 25.3 (2011): 378 -- 86. Print.
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Human Psychology Compare and Contrast

Words: 1437 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12504386

It is a time when parents are overworked, stressed, and frequently sleep-deprived for prolonged periods of time. Those are all significant potential stressors that contribute to depression; naturally, where a single parent faces those stressors and obligations alone, the magnitude of stress would be expected to increase proportionately.

Furthermore, single parenthood is probably directly associated with higher instances of loneliness and emotional emptiness as compared with parenthood within a stable nuclear family environment with a supportive spouse. Indeed, being single late into adulthood (especially for women) is a likely source of anxiety and depression. The prospect of finding a partner is greatly reduced by virtue of single parenthood, both as a practical matter having to do with time management and energy as well as in terms of motherhood being a potential barrier to the interest of many prospective partners. Finally, all of the available research (Brugha, Sharp, & Cooper, 1998;…… [Read More]

References

Anstey, K. "How important is mental activity in old age?" Australian Psychologist, Vol.

34; (1999): 128-131.

Brugha, T.S., Sharp, H.M., and Cooper, S.A. "The Leicester 500 Project. Social support and the development of postnatal depressive symptoms, a prospective cohort survey." Psychological Medicine, Vol. 28; (1998): 63 -- 79.

De Wolff, M.S. And van Ijzendoorn, M.H. "Sensitivity and attachment: A meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infant attachment." Child Development, Vol. 68;
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Schizophrenia Affects Development & Aging

Words: 1188 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75664398

An initial psychotic episode is often the result, with immediate in-hospital treatment recommended for testing and observation. Treatment includes anti-psychotic medication and patients often respond well, particularly in milder cases of the illness. (Csernansky, 2001) However, a general inability to adapt socially will persist and prevent a "normal" existence for these individuals. In one case, a female patient described her general personality despite medication as characterized by "low self-esteem, hypersensitivity to criticism, hyperempathy, excessive generosity, susceptibility to manipulation, and social awkwardness" (eichenberg-Ullman, 2010). In addition, substance abuse, inability to hold a job, risk of suicide, and unwanted pregnancy are typical themes in these patients' lives. (Csernansky, 2001) in the case of pregnancy, females often suffer complications beyond their mental illness, such as poor prenatal care, risk of violence during pregnancy, and reduced likelihood of having a male supportive figure (staff, 2007)

In the middle phase of schizophrenia, or the first…… [Read More]

References

Collier, E. (2007). Challenging the concept of "burned out" schizophrenia. Mental Health Nursing, 14.

Csernansky, J.G. (2001). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Heinrichs, R.W. (2001). In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nicole, V. (2007, 11-21). Schizophrenia and Pregnancy: Genetic Links and Effects. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.associatedcontent.com: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/454786/schizophrenia_and_pregnancy_genetic_pg2.html?cat=70
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Future of Psychology Is a

Words: 1159 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96534223



Another area of development in psychology that is likely to see great amounts of growth over the next couple of decades is Evolutionary Psychology. Evolutionary theory has made great inroads into the science of Psychology over the past decade. The theory has been both controversial and informative, leading to new areas of inquiry and helping psychologists to gain a greater understanding of human behavior, thought, development and history (ozin, 2010). When psychologists are able to determine that one aspect of humanity has evolutionary roots, they can rule out other causes, such as culture or environment, which can then in turn lead to a better understanding of how the human mind functions. The more we understand about how the brain functions, the better equipped we are to battle against the dysfunctions of the brain (ozin, 2010).

As the majority of the population begins to age, there will be a growing interest…… [Read More]

References

Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink. New York: Black Bay Books.

Goodwin, C.J. (1999). A History of Modern Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hayflic, L. (2000). The Future of Ageing. Nature, 408, 267-269.

Neisser, U. (2009). Cognitive Psychology. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 17, 2009, from Grolier Online http://gme.grolier.com.ccny- proxy1.libr.ccny.cuny.edu/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0066790-0
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Diversity and Psychology Derived From the Greek

Words: 1273 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68981267

Diversity and Psychology

Derived from the Greek word, psyche "meaning 'breath, sprit, soul' and the Greek work logia meaning the study of something," the study of psychology is "the science of the mind and behavior" (Nordqvist, 2009). In the medical dictionary, psychology is "The profession (clinical psychology), scholarly discipline (academic psychology), and science (research psychology) concerned with the behavior of humans and animals and, related mental and physiological processes" (Nordqvist, 2009). In short, psychology is the science that answers the ever fascinating questions of how and why people and organisms think and behave in the manner in which they do. Psychology is imperative in the study of understanding and exploring one another and the people that surround us- society often looks to the study of psychology to explain the diverse population that inhabits the world. To that end, the concept of diversity is also another essential concept to comprehensively understand.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Manesse, Jeanne, Saito, Gloria, & Rodolfa, Emil. (n.d.). Diversity-based psychology: what practioners need to know. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkley; University of California, Davis and University of California, San Diego, Califonia, USA. Retrieved from http://www.psychboard.ca.gov/licensee/diversity-based.pdf

McClintock Greenberg, Psy. D, Tamara. (2010, January 28). What is diversity in psychology?. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/21st-century-aging/201001/what-is-diversity-in-psychology

Nordqvist, Christian. (2009, June 22). What is psychology? what are the branches of psychology?. Retrieved from  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154874.php 

Perner, Lars. (2010). Consumer behavior: the psychology of marketing. Retrieved from  http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/
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James Hillman's Re-Visioning Psychology Is

Words: 1565 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83081839

I sih Hillman could be more direct with this point.

Explication Paper 6

Hillman might perhaps more accurately be called a philosopher than a psychologist; his views are incredibly expansive and rooted in what is ultimately a conjectured construct of human understanding and existence. This is made abundantly clear in these sections regarding character and the development of personhood and human individuals' sense of self. Again, language and its influence is very much at the heart of Hillman's explanation of how our understanding of character has developed and should develop, claiming that both consciousness and unconsciousness should always be characterized, thus making us fully aware and responsible for ourselves and our world rather than passive entities obedient to the laws of cause and effect and the limitations of language as it now stands.

Much of what Hillman says in these excerpts is so esoteric that it is difficult to understand.…… [Read More]

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nursing home anthropology of aging

Words: 2319 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45153596

Social Construction of Aging in Nursing Homes

Aging is socially constructed. Using the perspective of symbolic-interactionism, it is possible to show the precise processes whereby the social construction of aging takes place inside specific institutional contexts, like the American nursing home. The American nursing home offers insight into the culturally constrained concept of aging, for attitudes towards aging bodies and aging as a philosophical concept are informed by cultural milieu, worldview, and value construction. Biological aging is not social aging. The positive aging movement and the harmonious aging movement offer counterpoints to traditionally antagonistic and negative views of aging. Especially as the population of the United States and other industrialized nations shifts towards the older end of the age spectrum, it becomes important to reconsider the biological, psychological, and social processes and functions of aging.

The nursing home offers the opportunity to examine aging from a multidisciplinary perspective, while using…… [Read More]

References

Bengtson, V.L. & Deliema, M. (2016). Theories of aging and social gerontology. In Gerontology: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions. ABC-CLIO.

Featherstone, M. & Hepworth, M. (1995). Images of positive aging. In Images of Aging. Taylor & Francis.

Gergen, K.J. & Gergen, M.M. (2000). The new aging. Social Structures and Aging. New York: Springer. Retrieved online: http://www.swarthmore.edu/sites/default/files/assets/documents/kenneth-gergen/The_New_Aging.pdf

Katz, S. (2005). Cultural Aging. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online, Jan-Feb 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.cjsonline.ca/pdf/culturalaging.pdf
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Great Consistency Change Debate Understanding Personality

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32582303

Psychology

In the 1950's in Kansas City married couples ages 40 through 90 were put through a series of psychological tests to gain insight into the optimal idea of aging (USC, 2010). The Kansas City study lent to the idea of the disengagement theory which states that optimally aging adults gradually withdraw from society and social obligations as they age. Cumming and Henry, whom devised the disengagement theory, argued that the theory sufficiently explained why the elderly reduce their workload, social interactions, amount of new activities, and seem to have increased wisdom (USC, 2010). One suggested reasoning for adults' disengagement in life is because of the departure from society that takes place with death. In order to reduce emotional pain, many adults attempt to sever ties with friends and loved ones beforehand (USC, 2010). The other possibility is that lessening social obligations and commitments essentially frees elderly people as they…… [Read More]

Reference List

The Psychology of Aging. (2009) University of Southern California. .

F. De Fruyt, R.R. McCrae, Z. Szirmak, & J. Nagy (2004). The Five-factor Personality

Inventory as a measure of the Five-factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian comparisons with the NEO-PI-R. NCBI Vol. 11 (3), 207-15.

Belsky, J. (1999). The Psychology of Aging: Theory, Research, and Interventions. Grove,
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Biological Psychosocial and Developmental Theories of Aging

Words: 750 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51110901

Aging

Biological, Psychosocial, & Developmental Theories of Aging

Biological, Psychosocial, and Developmental Theories of Aging

Aging is a manifestation of events that occur over a span of time. This is not a uniform process, individuals' age differently, and there are major differences between normal, optimal, and pathological aging. As one ages the balance between gains and losses, such as becoming more intelligent and becoming less healthy, is thought to become less positive.

Biological Theories of Aging

Biological theories of aging classify aging as genetic (heredity) and non-genetic (wear and tear). Most believe that several mechanisms are operating at the same time to cause aging and there is probably not a single cause of death, but many causes. Current thinking includes 1) the vital substance theory -- we are all born with a certain amount of substance and as it is consumed we age and die, 2) the genetic mutation theory…… [Read More]

References

"Biological aging theories." (2009). Azinet LLC. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from  http://www.programmed-aging.org/theories/ 

Boyd, D. & Bee, H. (2006). Lifespan development. (4th ed.). Boston MA: Pearson Education Inc.

Hernandez, C. (2008, August 20). Lifespan perspective on human development. Health and Wellness Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/950617/lifespan_perspective_on_human_development.html?cat=70

"Theories of aging" (NDI). Angelfire.com. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from  http://www.angelfire.com/ns/southeasternnurse/TheoriesofAgingC3.html
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Biology When Studying Psychology IT's

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54609156

Drug treatment and behavior therapy may be useful, rather than analysis.

Also, psychological symptoms may produce biological phenomenon, like sleep disturbances. "Sleep disturbances and unipolar depression are such intransigent bedfellows that troubled sleep is considered a hallmark of the mood disorder," for example. (Marano, 2003) However, insomnia can also fundamentally unbalance the brain's natural state of homeostasis, causing the symptom of depression, as well as manifesting itself as a symptom of depression itself.

Behavioral problems in children can have their roots in biology. Children without enough sleep or proper nutrition are more likely to act out inappropriately, and without treating these biological causes, simply addressing the children's purely psychological feelings or even giving them coping mechanisms such as rationally discussing the issues, will matter little. Children and adolescents also have different sleep needs, and different internal time 'clocks' because their bodies are still busily growing at night. Children and adolescents,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldman and C. Barr. (2002) "On the Addicted Brain." New England Journal of Medicine. 347:843. Retrieved 10 Oct at http://scienceweek.com/2003/sb031003-6.htm

Marano, Hara E. (2003) "Insomnia and Depression." Psychology Today.

Retrieved 10 Oct at http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/index.php?term=pto-2862.html&fromMod=popular_depression
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Adult Aging

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40140618

Lubben, James E. And Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn. 2003. " An international approach to community health care for older adults." Family and Community Health. October-December. available from Proquest Database.

In this article, Lubben and Damron-Rodriguez propose a model for community-based primary healthcare that could be more responsive to the needs of the growing elderly population around the globe. Lubben and Damron-Rodriguez base their study by analyzing the results and ramifications of the community healthcare approach developed by the World Health Organization Kobe Centre for Health Development (WKC). Based on the results of the WKC approach, the authors make recommendations regarding changes needed to allow community healthcare organizations to better serve the needs of older adults.

The authors observe that one important aspect of the WKC approach is the promotion of healthy ageing. By delaying disability through educating individuals regarding the importance of nutrition and family support, the WKC thus advocates a community-based…… [Read More]

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Mental Aging Is a Natural

Words: 794 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81272481



he author's method was simply collecting older data through secondary sources like previous studies and researches. He examined the methods used in these studies and critically evaluated them and also mentioned their limitations according to his assessment.

he author has not clearly discussed the significance of his results but he has thoroughly mentioned the results from previous studies and their positive and negatives have been identified too. He shows why some results cannot be trusted and why some were optimistic but are not relevant his particular hypothesis. For example in one study he found that though the results were optimistic, they are not relevant because the researchers had focused on immediate effects on mental exercise instead of its long-term benefits. In other words, the author agrees that there is a significant difference in mental performance immediately after a mentally stimulating exercise but he doesn't agree that the benefits would last…… [Read More]

The article concludes that there is no significant difference in the rate of mental aging between people who engaged in stimulating exercises and those who did not. I do agree that author has done a good job of evaluating previous studies and their limitations, but I do not agree with his conclusion. The article is widely cited which shows that many experts trust the results or find the article useful in their studies but due to the lack of a scientific method for comparison, examination and evaluation of studies, it is difficult to disregard the results found by others and agree with author's conclusion. His conclusion is mostly a matter of opinion and for that reason; I do not think it can be assigned much weight. I have also observed that people who have led a very active life in pursuance of mental activities generally age much slower mentally. Their cognition level remains very high compared to in-active individuals and they tend to speak more clearly, understand others better and if other health issues are not a problem, they are generally very agile mentally and demonstrate better mental faculties.

REFERENCE

Salthouse TA. Mental exercise and mental aging. Perspectives on Psychological Science 2007;1:68-86.
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Meta-Theories and Aging Meta-Theories a

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53732675

The theory describes stages as patterns of behavior which are typical for a certain development period and it leads to a different pattern that is more advanced and more unusual Olson & Byron, 1942()

The organismic meta-theory is represented by Erikson's theory of personality which illustrates an important feature of the development in an organismic viewpoint. At each stage of development, there is the resolution of a particular crisis which is a turning point and which serves as a healthy balance between the opposing traits of the particular stage of development. The resolution of this crisis leads to the development of a virtue which is a good thing. If the crisis goes unresolved, the person struggles with the crisis and this impedes the healthy development of the individual Hoogendyk & ichardson, 1980()

The organismic view is associated with the structural or qualitative changes. It states that a person is different…… [Read More]

References

Courtright, J.A., Fairhurst, G.T., & Rogers, L.E. (1989). Interaction Patterns in Organic and Mechanistic Systems. The Academy of Management Journal, 32(4), 773-802.

Engel, M. (2004). What's Wrong with Contextualism, and a Noncontextualist Resolution of the Skeptical Paradox. Erkenntnis (1975-), 61(2/3), 203-231.

Glennan, S. (2002). Rethinking Mechanistic Explanation. Philosophy of Science, 69(S3), S342-S353.

Halliday, D. (2007). Contextualism, Comparatives and Gradability. Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, 132(2), 381-393.
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Abnormal Psychology Many Women Are Afraid of

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87866701

Abnormal Psychology

Many women are afraid of getting older and are willing to do right about anything to appear always young. infarct many people perceive it is rude to ask a woman her age since the society has no room to accommodate old women and the changes that their bodies go through. It is not possible for women in the society not to struggle with issues of their appearance .this has resulted to many women trying to change how they look as they age so that they can be accepted in the society. They go to an extent of denying themselves food and applying anti-wrinkle cream so that they maintain their states of their bodies and faces.

Aging is always a taboo subject with women as compared to their male counterparts. Women are afraid of the aging factor due to the perceptions in the society. The society tends to create…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2012). Aging and Depression. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/aging-depression.aspx

United Nations. (1999). Gender and ageing: problems, perceptions and policies. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from  http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/aging.htm 

REHAB ASIA. (2011).Gender and substance abuse.Retreieved November 29, 2012 from http://alcoholrehab.com/alcohol-rehab/gender-and-substance-abuse/

CalmClinic. (2012).Destructive Anxiety Habits. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.calmclinic.com/anxiety/destructive-habits
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings

An Abstact of a Dissetation

This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods. The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any othe even faintly scientific endeavo. Its oiginal pupose was not even to cue mental affliction.…… [Read More]

references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.

A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.

Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.

The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.

Summary
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Relationships in Late Adulthood

Words: 2368 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35889364

Psychology

Changing elationships in Late Adulthood

Late adulthood is often mistakenly viewed as a time of relaxation, where everything slows and an individual's life becomes more consistent and less stressful. In reality, late adulthood is a time of great change. Individuals retire, children move away, lifestyles alters significantly, and social ties decline. Most significantly, a person's relationships change significantly in late adulthood. This includes relationships with siblings, spouses, friends, children, and grandchildren. By considering these relationships and how they change, it will be shown that late adulthood is far from being a time of reduced stress. It may become a time of reduced stress if the individual makes the transition successfully, but the actual process of transition involves many significant changes.

One of the significant changes that occurs during late adulthood is that individuals often become more involved with their siblings. Stark and Hall (1988) suggest that this is partly…… [Read More]

References

Berk, L.E. (2004). Development through the lifespan. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Butler, R.N. (1968). The life review: An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged. In B. Neugarten (Ed.), Middle age and aging (pp. 486-496). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Goldberg, E. (2002). "A healthy retirement." AORN Journal, 76(5), 873-874.

Keith, P.M., & Schafer, R.B. (1985). Equity role strains and depression among middle-aged and older men and women. In W.A. Peterson & J. Quadagno (Eds.), Social bonds in later life: Aging and interdependence (pp. 37-49). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
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Male Psychology Suicide Suicide Ranks

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79569580

Males are not only stronger than most of their female counterparts, the methods of suicide tend to be more lethal as well. According to research, "the higher male suicide rank is explained in part by males' more frequent use of lethal methods (e.g. firearms and hanging), but surely that cannot be the entire explanation," (Maris et a. 2000:75). This is true. There is a whole array of explanations lurking within the mental state of the individual, as well as the external world.

In face, gender differences found within the context of society itself can also be attributed to the increased risk for males. Within most of the world, men are considered the providers. Thus, there is lots of social pressure to succeed and become a provider, which the female is not expected to do. This pressure can then build up, and with social pressure to act like a man and…… [Read More]

Larson, Ruth. (1998). Lithium prevents suicides. Insight on the News. 14(18):39-40.

Leibling, Alison. (1992). Suicides in Prison. Routledge Press.

Weaver, John C. & Munro Doug. (2009). Country living, country dying: rural suicides in New Zealand, 1900-1950. Journal of Social History. 42(4):933-937.
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Prospective Memory and Aging Prospective

Words: 6199 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16388304

Windy McNernev and obert West (2007), both with the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, India, explain that returning the DVD while running errands depicts an illustration of effective prospective memory. Substantial documentation signifies that in various instances, the accessibility of one's effective memory ability or attentional resources can be vital for the comprehension of deferred intentions.

ichard L. Marsh, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Jason L. Hicks, Louisiana State University, Baton ouge, Louisiana and Gabriel I. Cook (2006), University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, examine whether ask interference, having an intention, creates a cost to other ongoing activities. In the journal article, "Task interference from prospective memories covaries with contextual associations of fulfilling them," Marsh, Hicks and Cook report contemporary research indicates that particular intentions held over the shorter term interfere with other tasks. As the collective effect of such costs would prove prohibitively costly in everyday life, Marsh, Hicks…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Breneiser, J.E., & McDaniel, M.A. (2006). Discrepancy Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13(5), 837+. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035215935

Brewer, G.A., Knight, J.B., Marsh, R.L. & Unsworth, N. (2010). Individual differences in event

based prospective memory: Evidence for multiple processes supporting cue detection.

Memory & Cognition. Psychonomic Society, Inc. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-2018212151.html
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Somatic Psychology the Somatic Relationship

Words: 4540 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41758563

This was a clear gap in the research that was examined. The proposed research study will attempt to fill this gap by examining the importance of the adult child and parent relationship and its affect on the physical body.

Methodologies found

A number of different study methods were found amongst the studies in the literature review. Many of the studies that examined the use of psychotherapy with the treatment of a condition used a comparative study method. Clinical trials used a comparative study method in most cases. However, studies that were found to be theoretical in nature tended to use either a qualitative interview method or quantitative study methods.

No single method of study was found to be more prevalent in the group studied during the literature review. The method selected was highly dependant on the subject matter and the research question being asked in the study. no single method…… [Read More]

References

Baranek, G. (2002). Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 32 (5): 397-422).

Birditt, K., Miller, L., Fingerman, K., and Lefkowitz, E. (2009). Tensions in the parent and adult child relationship: Links to solidarity and ambivalence. Psychol Aging. 24(2):287-95.

Burkhardt a, Rudorf S, Brand C, Rockstroh B, Studer K, Lettke F, & Luscher K. (2007). When
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Multicultural Psychology

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46195784

Multicultural Psychology

Japanese Culture

Culture is commonly understood as a set of shared beliefs, values, goals and other such common ideas practiced by a group. It is an integration of art, architecture, language, food, music, lifestyle, religion and other such facets which are the defining feature of every culture. Amongst the several varying cultures of the world, this paper would focus on the Japanese culture thereby highlighting its practices and also linking it with the traditional psychological theories.

The Japanese culture is a complex system which is seen to go through a number of transformations. The initial establishment had an influence from the Chinese and Korean practices. As a matter of fact, it was the military that actually ruled the country. However, apart from going through several military conquests, instabilities and isolation, the Japanese culture took a new turn under the influence of the Western presence ultimately making Japan the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Berg M. (2011). Racism in the Modern World: Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer and Adaptation. Berghahn Books. USA.

James B. (2005). Asian Culture Brief: Japan, National Technical Assistance Center, Vol. 2, No. 6. Hawaii.

Immigration Bureau (2005). Statistics for Foreign Residents in Japan. Ministry of Justice. Japan Immigration Association

Ritts, V. (2000). Culture and aging. Retrieved on 7th September, 2011, from http://users.stlcc.edu/vritts/aging.html#top.
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Future of Professional Psychology

Words: 777 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21853345

onald F. Levant (n.d.), candidate for position of president of the American Psychological Association, sees the future of professional psychology as one where a shift will take place from its being focused on mental health issues per se, to its being perceived as a discipline that deals with health in general.

Although not explaining his reasons for the occurrence of this difference in perception, his theory may likely originate from the fact that contemporary psychology tends to focus on the biopsychological / pharmaceutical determinants of human mental welfare, particularly with its interest on the brain, and from its reduction of so many of its sub-fields (such as addiction, depression, disease, and so forth) to medical models. From there it is a short step to equivocating certain areas of psychology with medicine and, once done, psychology seems inseparable from the discipline of Medicine. Levant (n.d.) states that with psychology entering the…… [Read More]

Reference

Gfereorer, J. et al. (2003). Substance abuse treatment need among older adults in 2020: the impact of the aging baby-boom cohort, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 69, 127-135

Levant, RF (nd) The future of professional psychology. Retrieved on 10/26/2011 from:

 http://www.apadivisions.org/division-31/publications/articles/individual/levant-future.pdf 

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). NIDA InfoFacts: High School and Youth Trends. Retrieved on 10/26/2011 from:
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Explaining Aging Using Development Theories

Words: 1367 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49793689

Life-Trajectory of Kevin

Development Theory: The Life-Trajectory of Kevin

Kevin was born on a sheep farm in 1942, halfway between Canberra and Melbourne. As a young man he left farming to work in construction in Melbourne, where he met and married his wife. They raised three children together, but the marriage faltered once the children left to start their own lives. They separated amicably, continued to stay engaged with their families, and Kevin successfully transitioned to retirement despite a diagnosis of diabetes in his mid 50s.

Timeline

Birth. WWII (BBC, 2014)

Age 8. Korean Conflict. The market price of wool reaches an all-time high (ABS, 2007).

Age 15. Leaves school to work on sheep farm full-time

1962 -- Age 20. Leaves farming for construction work in Melbourne

1965 -- Age 23. Vietnam Conflict (BBC, 2014). egisters for National Service and serves 2 years, but never sees combat

1970 -- Age…… [Read More]

References

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics). (2007). The wool industry -- looking back and forward. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/1301.0Feature%20Article172003?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=1301.0&issue=2003&num=&view=.

Atchley, R.C. (1989). A continuity theory of normal aging. Gerontologist, 29(2), 183-90.

BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). (2015). Australia profile -- Timeline. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-15675556.

Heybroek, L., Haynes, M., & Baxter, J. (2015). Life satisfaction and retirement in Australia: A longitudinal approach. Work, Aging and Retirement. First published online 1 April 2015. Retrieved from http://workar.oxfordjournals.org/content/1/2/166.
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psychology and human development aging

Words: 788 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67145883

Distinguish among analytic, creative and practical thinking and give an example of each. Explain how culture can influence the extent to which these different types of thinking are valued.

Analytic thinking refers to the ability of a person to take a complex problem and break it down into constituent parts, to find solutions or identify the root causes. However, analytic thinking does not just refer to one's ability to solve problems. Analytic thinking can help a person study and understand music, art, or literature. Creative thinking applies to many different scenarios, too, and can also be used for solving problems. The essence of creative thinking is freedom, allowing the mind to come up with an abundance of ideas without self-censorship, adopting a new schema, paradigm, or worldview. Although creative thinking is typically associated with the arts, it is just as evidence in science and other fields that depend on fresh…… [Read More]

References

Davis, F. (n.d.). 100 Years and Counting: What Makes a Centenarian? Retrieved online:  http://www.silvercentury.org/polFeatures.cfm?doctype_code=Feature&doc_id=346#.WEjE76IrKRs 

Goodman, S. (2015). Commonalities among centenarians. The Centenarian. Retrieved online:  http://www.thecentenarian.co.uk/commonalities-among-centenarians.html 

Scheibe, S. (2012). The golden years of emotion. Retrieved online:
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Psychodynamic Model the Model's Developmental Processes and

Words: 2966 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1938969

Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model

A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis. Most of the findings originated from the four frameworks. ( The psychodynamic, the cognitive behavior, the stress and coping model, and the family systems model).

Given the demographics of the present age, almost all adult mental shape practice will certainly include older adults. As people grow older, various changes occur, more valuable is the vulnerability to stress and illnesses. The challenges one faces through the years like the death of loved ones, loneliness and others exposes one to the…… [Read More]

ReferencesTop of For

Top of F

Blaikie, A. (2009). Ageing And Popular Culture. Cambridge U.A.: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Kerry Kelly, N., & Jack, N. (n.d). A New Model of Techniques for Concurrent Psychodynamic

Work with Parents of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Patients. Child And
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Assessing Anxiety and Depression in General Populations

Words: 5453 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55847602

Test Development

This research is a mixed methods study designed to explore the perceptions of self-identifying individuals with anxiety and depression regarding any relation between their conditions and their ability to access appropriate healthcare under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Five respondents completed the questionnaire constructed explicitly for this research study. A review of the literature serves as a canvas of instruments also developed for assessing Axis 1 disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). The research on instrumentation included the following: 1) The SCID, 2) the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 3) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 4) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), and 5) Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder -- Adult (an emerging online measure provided in association with the DSM-5).

Their responses negate the theoretical construct, however, an insufficient number of respondents in this pilot study meant…… [Read More]

Reference:

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.

Appendix C - Screening for Depression

If you suspect that you might suffer from depression, answer the questions below, print out the results, and share them with your health care professional.

Over the last two weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?
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Cognitive Changes Developmental Cognitive Occur Starting Age

Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19195806

Cognitive Changes

Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.

Developmental and cognitive changes

The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).

Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…… [Read More]

References

Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.

Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.

Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...

Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
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Community Health Promotion Project Design

Words: 1937 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784666

Caregivers of Alzheimer's Patients

Community Health Promotion Project Design

As we have discovered in the first part of the study, Alzheimer's is a major health issue for the population of seniors 65 years and older. Alzheimers costs taxpayers and individuals billions of dollars for the provision of care for those who can no longer care for themselves. Alzheimer's is an expensive disease and many times it is the family who must bear much of the expense. We found that the financial strain of caring for someone who has Alzheimer's creates an incredible amount of stress on family members. However, we also found that perhaps even greater than the financial strain, Alzheimer's places in incredible load on the family as they are usually the ones who must care for their family member.

The aggregate for this study consists of family members who must care for other members of the family who…… [Read More]

References

Belle SH, Czaja SJ, & Schulz R, (2003). "Using a new taxonomy to combine the uncombinable: Integrating results across diverse interventions." Psychology and Aging. 18:396 -- 405

Gitlin LN, Belle SH, & Burgio LD, et al. (2003). "Effect of multicomponent interventions on caregiver burden and depression: The REACH multisite initiative at 6-month follow-up." Psychology and Aging. 2003;18:361 -- 374.

Wisniewski, S., Belle, S. & Marcus, S. et al. (2003). The resources for enhancing old climbers caregiver health (REACH): project design and baseline characteristics. Psychological Aging. 18 (3), 375-384.
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Does Temperament Correlate to Physical Health and Longevity

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85810438

Temperament Correlate to Physical health and Longevity?

This research project explores if an individual's temperament is correlated with longevity or physical health. Temperament, "…refers to those aspects of an individual's personality…" (Kagan, 2005). The traits of temperament are considered more innate, and less learned. If a specific temperament could be labeled as associated with increased physical health or longevity, perhaps researchers could aid individuals who become ill earlier. This research could provide important research for the medical community.

Some major reasons this study is important:

Provide insight into relationship of emotions and the physical effects they can have on an individual.

Learn more about life longevity and ways to increase it for patients.

Learn more about temperament

Potentially find evidence of an internal chemical association with temperament.

Emotions can affect overall well-being and health. This has been studied for some time. An individual who is depressed may over-eat or under-eat,…… [Read More]

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Caregiver Grief and Loss Introduction-

Words: 2321 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81232945



There are certainly different approaches to the theory of anticipatory mourning. Clearly, one of the major issues within the literature surrounds the communication between the dying person and the caregiver, and both caregiver and patient and those who will be most affected or will mourn their loss. Conventional theory finds that preparing for loss involves experiencing most of the features of grief prior to the demise of the patient; numbness, anger or blame, fear, desperation, and even despair. However, an important difference is that the period of mourning begins before death occurs, and while contact and communication with the dying person is still a viable option. Because of this, there are additional emotions involved; hope, nostalgia, kindness, tenderness, and opportunity for closure (Fulton, 2003). It is this sense of hope, this feeling that there may still be something that can be done for the patient that is the focus of…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Caregiving Statistics. (2010, February). Retrieved from National Family Caregivers Association: http://www.thefamilycaregiver.org/who_are_family_caregivers/care_giving_statstics.cfm

Aliiance, F.C. (2010, September). Selected Caregiver Statistics. Retrieved from:Circlecenterads.info:  http://www.circlecenterads.info/documents/FCAPrint_SelectedCaregiv...pdf 

Boerner, Schulz and Horowitz. (2004). Positive Aspects of Caregiving and Adaptation to Bereavement. Psychology and Aging, 19(4), 668-75.

Davidson, F. (2002). The Caregiver's Sourcebook. New York: McGraw Hill.
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How Care Givers Can Help the Elderly

Words: 1639 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92228932

person creative? In what ways do you think creativity can be supported and enhanced by the environment?

What makes a person creative is the combination of imagination and will and exercising of that interaction. A creative person is one who can do things in a unique way -- one who is imaginative and likes to take part in the creative process by developing ideas and utilizing latent skills within the individual that all concepts and expressions to be manifested in any number of ways. Creativity stems from a desire to produce works, whether art or writing or sewing or knitting or architecture -- anything that one can put the mind to accomplishing -- in a manner that is pleasing. It does not even have to be something that is aesthetically pleasing to all. For some creative people, what they make is only admired by a few or maybe even by…… [Read More]

References

Abel, V. (2013). Insight into Psychology of Aging. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-31glZYYr8

Carstensen, L. (2012). Emotion and Aging: Exploding the Misery Myth. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXhrrbQCElw

Cavanaugh, J. C. & Blanchard-Fields, F. (2015). Adult development and aging. (7th

Edition). Stanford, CT: Thompson Learning.
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Age and the Perception of Psychological Climate

Words: 1880 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1649243

Psychological Climate

The notion of the individual's environment as a direct determinant of one's behavior has been a cornerstone of learning theorists such as Skinner (1953) and Lewin's field theory (B = f [P, E]; Lewin, 1951). While Skinner concentrated on how environmental contingencies and reinforcement shaped behavior, Lewin's original conceptualization consisted of both dispositional characteristics of individual that include both genetic and the chacterological variables (P; the Person) and the psychological environment (E; the psychological environment). As attempts to explain the totality of influences on a person's behavior as developed by Lewin the notion of psychological environment was expanded to include the social, situational, and organizational influences that contribute to behavior (Forehand & Von Haller, 1964; Glick, 1985). The term "organizational climate" has been used to identify these different types of environmental influences that exist within organizations; however, as Glick (1985) discusses this term has not been well defined…… [Read More]

References

Erikson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York W.W. Norton

Forehand, G.A., & Von Haller, G. (1964). Environmental variation in studies of organizational behavior. Psychological bulletin, 62(6), 361-382

Glick, W.H. (1985). Conceptualizing and measuring organizational and psychological climate:

Pitfalls in multilevel research. Academy of Management review, 10(3), 601-616.
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Health Maintenance Organization Impact on

Words: 13949 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80930377

" (AAF, nd)

The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)

One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…… [Read More]

Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html

Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512

Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
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Psychosocial Issues in Retirement and

Words: 2154 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48826282



In this regard many studies on ageing concluded that there is a definite correlation between psychosocial factors and both physical and metal health. Stuart-Hamilton, (2006), in the Psychology of Ageing: an Introduction states that "... If an older person has a strong sense of social identity, this may cushion (but not remove) the negative effects of a decline in physical health" (Stuart-Hamilton, 2006, p. 183). However, retirees like Albert who do not have a sense of identity or of social 'belonging' can be subject to a wide range of negative effects. This is also supported by studies which suggest that "...psychosocial factors mediated the impact of illness on the ability of old people's daily living activities" (Stuart-Hamilton, 2006, p. 183).

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, there is a growing awareness of the psychological and sociological problems that the retired and elderly person faces when he or she retires from the active…… [Read More]

References

Blazer D. 2002, Self-efficacy and depression in late life: a primary prevention proposal, Aging Mental Health, vol. 6, no.4, pp.315-324.

Brody, J. (1981) PERSONAL HEALTH. [Online] Available at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE6DD1238F934A15756C0A967948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=all[1Jan 2009].

CHAPTER 3 -- PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES, [Online], Available at http://www.geriatricsreviewsyllabus.org/content/agscontent/social6.htm[1 Jan 2009].

Fry P, and Debats D. 2002, Self-efficacy beliefs as predictors of loneliness and psychological distress in older adults, International Journal Aging Human Development, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 233-269.
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Substance Abuse in the Elderly

Words: 4246 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50685726

Substance / Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly

Substance/alcohol abuse among the elderly 60 years and older

Alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly is a significant social problem, not only because people in this age group tend to have very permissive attitudes towards social drug and alcohol usage but also because the stressors that accompany aging may result in increases in drug or alcohol usage to problematic levels. While people may begin experiencing age-related problems in their 40s and 50s, it is not generally until their 60s that most people begin to experience significant physical or emotional challenges related to age. These challenges are often accompanied by major life changes, such as retirement, the death of a spouse or friends, relocation, and diminished physical and intellectual capabilities. These changes may mean a lack of access to the coping mechanisms that have traditionally served the individual, leading to a rise in…… [Read More]

References

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2012). Substance abuse among older adults: Treatment improvement protocol (TIP) series, No. 26. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-3918. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Finkelstein, E., Prabhu, M., & Chen, H. (2007). Increased prevalence of falls among elderly individuals with mental health and substance abuse conditions. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(7), 611-619.

Folkman, S., Bernstein, L, & Lazarus, R.S. (1987). Stress processes and the misuse of drugs in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 2(4), 366-374.

Garland, E.L., Schwarz, N.R., Kelly, A., Whitt, A., & Howard, M.O. (2012). Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement for alcohol dependence: Therapeutic mechanisms and intervention acceptability work. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 12, 242-263. doi:10.1080/1533256X.2012.702638
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People Help Themselves An Interdisciplinary

Words: 12988 Length: 47 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92004923

The study will also be important to those in the future, because scientists have not yet found ways to cure these chronic illnesses or correct some of these problems that are seen today, and therefore it stands to reason that there will be more people in the future who will have to face the same problems as those with chronic illnesses and traumatic injuries today.

Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is relatively large, simply because there has been a great deal written about chronic illness and injuries from the perspective of the physician and from the perspective of the patient. Both sides are important, although the focus here will remain largely on the patient perspective. Because there are so many people today that suffer from a chronic illness or traumatic injury, much study has been done about these individuals. Despite these studies, however, not a lot…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, B.L. (2002). Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 590-610.

Brannon, L., & Fiest, J. (2004). Health Psychology: Vol.. An Introduction to Behavior and Health (Fifth ed.) Belmont CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.

DiMatteo, M. (2004). Social Support and Patient Adherence to Medical treatment: A Meta- analysis. Health Psychology, 23(2), 207-218.

Eitel, P., Hatchett, L., Friend, R., Griffin, K.W., & Wadhwa, N.K. (1995). Burden of Self-Care in Seriously Ill Patients Impact on Adjustment. Health Psychology, 14(5), 457-463.
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The Dilemma of Decision Making in Humans

Words: 1563 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33662913

Decisions

We humans make a whole lot of important decisions daily. While some are very unconscious biological decisions, most are decisions arising from conscious efforts. All human activities center on decision-making. This makes all of us decision-makers. As a matter of fact, every sound decision choice begins with a successive, focused, strategic-thinking process. Self-incurred tutelage still holds a whole lot of people bound. Tutelage simply implies that the person involved is unable to make his or her own decisions. In this tutelage, self-incurred is not based on the inability to reason, but may be due to lack on courage and resolution to make use of it without anything or anyone telling that individual what to do (Arsham, 2015).

How Human Beings Make both isky and Logical Decisions

People are inundated with both big and small decisions daily. One area of cognitive psychology that has received lots of attention is, understanding…… [Read More]

References

Acevedo, M., & Krueger, J. (2004). Two egocentric sources of the decision to vote: The voter's illusion and belief in personal relevance. Political Psychology, 115-134.

Arsham, H. (2015, September 8). Applied Management Science: Making Good Strategic Decisions. Retrieved from http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/opre640.htm

deBruin, W., Parker, A., & Fischoff, B. (2007). Individual differences in adult decision- making competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology., 938-956.

Dietrich, C. (2010). Decision Making: Factors that Influence Decision Making, Heuristics Used, and Decision Outcomes. Retrieved from Student Pulse: http://www.studentspulse.com/articles/180/decision-making-factors-that- influence-decision-making-heuristics-used-and-decision-outcomes
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Psychosocial and Developmental Assessment of

Words: 1878 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48279234

A relatively recent phenomenon in the American family is the increase in young adults living at home. This development changes the conditions of midlife for many parents who expected an empty nest at this stage of their lives (Birren & Schaie, 2001).

elationships between parents and their adult children also are changing at this time because the "children" are now adults so they relate to their parents on a different level. For example, Colleen told me that her oldest son has even shared with her some intimate details about his love life. She said it was almost as if they were two women friends talking about their relationships. Where their conversations used to consist of talk about homework cleaning their rooms, now they talk to each other on a much more even playing field.

Attitudes toward this stage in life are changing as well. The impact of the "empty nest"…… [Read More]

References

Birren, James E. & Schaie, K.W. (2001) Handbook of the psychology of aging, 5th ed. Academic Press

Erikson, E. (1950), Childhood and Society., New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Gould, R.L. (1998). Transformations: Growth and development in adult life. New York: Touchstone Books

Lachman, M.E. (2001) Handbook of midlife development, Wiley & Sons