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In some cultures, social and moral development is more important than whether a child speaks with proper grammar. Therefore, culture plays a huge role in what things a child will learn.
A culture that emphasizes the arts will yield educational systems more sympathetic to and supportive of the arts. Similarly, cultures that stress science will be more likely to fund science programs in school. Thus, culture affects childhood education on an institutional level too. Finally, what a child values personally is a product of his or her culture. Professional goals and personal goals are shaped by culture, as Vygotsky suggests.
4. What are the criticisms of Kohlberg's theory regarding moral development? What do you think of his theory (your opinion and give examples to support your response). What do you think the criticisms (your opinion and give examples to support your response).
Kohlberg's theory of moral development is critiqued because…
Learning Disabilities Association of America (1999). "Early Identification - Motor Skills Milestones." Retrieved Oct 12, 2008 at http://www.ldonline.org/article/6045
Lev Vygotsky." Retrieved Oct 12, 2008 at http://starfsfolk.khi.is/solrunb/vygotsky.htm
Psychologists have described personality as specific way of feeling, thinking and self-conduct (Mcleod, 2014) of an individual. Personality is the constantly changing system in the minds of individuals and made up of specific psychological traits that influence their specific self-conduct and thinking. Personality is the combination of behavior that distinguishes a person. The personality of a person is affected by genetic and biological factors as well as factors such as upbringing, environment etc.
Personality theories are broken down into two classes:
• Trait theories of personality that believe that personality depends more on biological factors
• State theories, which see upbringing and societal factors as the major determinants of personality
This paper will be exploring two personality theories: Hans Eysenck's Personality Theory and Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.
Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
This theory of personality believes that our differing personalities arise from the communication between what Sigmund Freud…
Boundless. (2016, August 17). Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Boundless Psychology: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/psychodynamic-perspectives-on-personality-77/freudian-psychoanalytic-theory-of-personality-304-12839/
McLeod, S. (2014). Theories of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-theories.html
Personality Psych Analysis of Tony Soprano
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality makes the argument that human behavior is resultant of the interrelations amongst three constituent parts of the mind including the id, ego, and superego (Petocz, 1999). This theory of personality lays substantial significance of the manner in which conflict, more often than not unconscious, amongst the areas of the mind end up shaping an individual’s behavior and personality. The Id deals with instantaneous satisfaction of basic physical needs and desires and it functions completely unconsciously. The Superego takes into account social rules and morals, and is largely referred to as a person’s conscience. The Superego develops as a child progressively learns what is deemed to be right or wrong. Lastly, the ego, unlike the instinctive Id and the ethical superego, the Ego is the sensible, realistic part of an individual’s personality…
Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development
Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development
Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…
Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.
Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258
Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…
A Brief Outline of Psychoanalytic Theory, n.d., Available at:
Bridle, S. And Edelstein, a., 2009, Was ist "das Ich"?, Available at:
Freud's Theory Of Repression
Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…
Bibliography." August 8, 2004. http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html
Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html
Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm
Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963
Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004. http://www.richardwebster.com
RCT believes that everyone desires growth and that growth is by necessity connective in relational and cultural links. Mutual empathy and mutual empowerment foster these relationships in positive ways. (Jordan, "The role of mutual")
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erickson may arguably be two of the most influential icons in the field of human development and psychology. Their fundamental concept that human's develop over a lifetime and not just in a few stages from birth to adolescence and then are frozen into psychological patterns, revolutionized thinking in the field of developmental psychology. The term Life Span Development came to the fore as Erickson devised his eight stages of psychosocial development ranging from birth to eighty years old. Later as he himself passed eighty he realized that there is yet another stage and the count became nine. (Erikson & Erikson, 1997) One can see the striking resemblance between Erickson and Freud's stages…
Comstock, Dana L., et al. "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 279-288.
Crethar, Hugh C., Edil Torres Rivera, and Sara Nash. "In Search of Common Threads: Linking Multicultural, Feminist, and Social Justice Counseling Paradigms." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 269-276
Erikson, E.H. & Erikson, J. M . The Life Cycle Completed / Extended Version. New York:
W.W. Norton. 1997
It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.
The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th edition).
Donaldson, J. (2008). Oh, behave!: Dogs from Pavlov to Premack to Pinker. Dogwise Publishing.
Mitchell, S.A. & Black, M.J. (1996). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books.
Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. (2nd edition). Routledge.
The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.
Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.
Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…
(Broderick & Blewitt).
Aside from the major issue, at least for the parents, of Jason's reserved social demeanor; there have been several other indicators of acting our behavior that he has presented. On several occasions Jason has complained of stomachaches and headaches prior to having to go to day care or even to any other playtimes where he knows his parents will not be attending. Also, if he has felt threatened by other children in outside settings he will also develop these symptoms in order to be sent home. Then, conversely, after he has been at day care he often does not want to return home and occasionally has a minor tantrum or crying fit. In instances such as these, with seemingly confusing and contradictory symptoms, one must remember that children often do not express anxieties in any direct fashion but often present with symptoms or strange ideologies that can…
Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P. The life span: Human Development for Helping
Professionals (2nd ed.). (2006) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Burgess, Kim B., and Alastair J. Younger. "Self-Schemas, Anxiety Somatic and Depressive
Symptoms in Socially Withdrawn Children and Adolescents." Journal of Research in Childhood Education 20.3 (2006): 175+.
Freud and Erikson Theory
Compare and Contrast Freud and Erikson Theory
This essay begins by discussing Psychoanalytic Theory proposed by Sigmund Freud; the theory portrays that human behaviour is the result of conflict between the biological drives that develop slowly from childhood and play a significant part in determining a person's character. After a short review of the Psychoanalytic theory and evaluating it against modern psychoanalytic perspectives, the study will then cover a quite different theory i.e. Erikson's theory that reduces the significance of biological contributions. Erikson's Theory supposes that character/personality development is determined by not only biological factors but also by historical, ethnic, and cognitive factors. Erikson's theory explains challenges or issues that people face in the modern world. The fact that words such as "inner-space," "identity crisis" and "lifespan" have gained prominence in spoken and written language is testament to Erikson Theory's relevance. The Erikson's theory also has…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Freud vs. Erikson: How Do Their Theories Compare? Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/ss/Freud-and-Erikson Compared.htm#step2
Difference Between Erikson and Freud (2011, April 5). Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-erikson-and-freud/
Hayes, N. (1999). Access to Psychology. London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton Educational
Jarvis, M. & Chandler, E. (2001).Angles on Psychology. Cheltenham, Australia: Nelson Thornes Limited.
Sigmund Feud is popularly referred to as "the father of psychoanalysis." He lived between 1856 and 1939. His work and ideas have greatly influenced psychological imaginations and popularized notions such as Freudian sleep and dream symbolism, defense mechanism, unconsciousness, and many more. These notions have greatly contributed to films, literature, and theories such as feminism, psychology, philosophy and criticism.
Freud is also known for theories such as unconscious mind, specifically those revolving around repression mechanism. He redefined sexual desire as mobile and believed that it is directed towards a wide variety of objects. His therapeutic techniques improved the understanding of transference in therapeutic relationship. The technique presumed that human beings are able to gain insight into the unconscious desires through dreams.
Freud's psychoanalysis had an objective of bringing the repressed feelings and thoughts to consciousness. Freud's successors including his daughter Anna Freud postulated that the goal of the therapy was…
This is because in America minority groups are determined by the differences in ethnic and racial characteristics that lead to unequal distribution of power, resources, prestige, and worth (Hunt & Colander, 2010). In this society, the unequal power of the majority group entails the possession of property, technology, education, and economic resources, setting this group above the rest. Blacks form part of the minority groups that receive unequal rights, but are lower than other minority groups due to historical inequality of rights as blacks were mainly in the slavery institution, causing their social isolation for an extraordinarily long period (Hunt & Colander, 2010). Moreover, Blacks are physically and culturally varied from others as they have darker complexions unlike other minority groups that are lighter and closer to the white majority group. Other minority groups arrived as workers and migrants setting their social class above that of blacks. The other reason…
Hunt, Elgin F., and Colander, David C. (2010). "Social Science an Introduction to the Study of Society." 14th Edition. Allyn and Bacon Publishers. ISBN-13: 978-0-205-70271-8.
Psychoanalytic Model (Object elations)
In this paper, the object relations psychoanalytic model will be employed for solving a family issue; the family in question is taken from movie. The paper will further delineate key object relations concepts, the theory's assumptions, and its application to the aforementioned movie.
The chosen model
The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by acts of aggression and that of sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory proposes the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them to improve interpersonal performance.
Basic Concepts in Object elations
The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not…
Balk, D. (1996). Models for understanding adolescent coping with bereavement. Death Studies, 20: 367-387.
___. (1990). The self-concepts of bereaved adolescents: Sibling death and its aftermath. Journal of Adolescent Research, 5(1): 112-132.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
Daniel, V. (2007, October). Object Relations Theory. Retrieved from Sonoma State University: https://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/objectrelations.html
It assumes a person is in control of their own fate and not a victim to it. Starting at an early age, a unique style of life is created by the person and that life-style stays relatively constant throughout the remainder of life. Working toward success, connectedness with others, and contributions to society are considered hallmarks of mental health, as well as being motivated by goals, dealing with the tasks faced in life, and social interest. Birth order is considered important in understanding a person's current personality, yet the therapy is future-minded, rather than retrospective. (Psyweb Pro, 2006)
In Adlerian therapy, the therapist will gather as much family history as possible. This data will be used to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help ascertain whether the goal is too low or high, and if the client has…
Adlerian Psychology, Psyweb.com 2006, http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Corey, Gerald (1991) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Carlson, Neil R. (1995) Foundations of Physiological Psychology
CTA: Cognitive Therapy Associates, http://www.cognitive-therapy-associates.com/therapy/adlerian-therapy.php
Landon Carter's Character through
Erik Erikson's stages of development
Erik Erikson was an American developmental psychologist who was born in Germany and went to postulate eight stages of psychological development. He developed a model that talked about the eight stages every human passes through as he grows. These stages depict and analyze a person's life from when they are baby till they die. It mentions how in every stage a person is presented with problems and challenges. Every stage depicts a crisis which has to be resolved or else it will create problems in the next stage. Thus, for a person to attain a positive personality they need to attain positive goals of that stage and progress smoothly to the next one. (osenthal, Gurney, & Moore 2)
A Walk to emember is a popular romantic drama movie released in 2002. With the setting in North Carolina, the movie revolves around…
A Walk to Remember. Dir. Adam Shankman. Perf. Mandy Moore, Shane West, Peter Coyote. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. DVD.
Beaumont, Sherry L., & Zukanovic, Ray. "Identity Development in Men and Its Relation to Psychosocial Distress and Self-Worth." Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. January (2005) Web.
Elkind, D. "Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man." New York Times. New York Times, 5 April 1970. Web. 15 November 2012.
Gross, Francis L. Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 1987.Print
Such relationships in childhood begin with the parents, and for Asher, these early relationships are also significant later, as might be expected.
However, as Potok shows in this novel, for someone like Asher, the importance of childhood bonds and of later intimate bonds are themselves stressed by cultural conflicts between the Hasidic community in its isolation and the larger American society surrounding it. For Asher, the conflict is between the more controlled religious environment of the community and the more liberal environment of the art world he joins. What Potok shows about this particular conflict might seem very different from what others experience, others who are not part of such a strict religious background and who are not artists. However, children always find a conflict between the circumscribed world of their immediate family and the world they join as they strike out on their own. This conflict is often portrayed…
Belkin, L. (2004). The Lessons of Classroom 506. New York Times Magazine, 40-53.
Bowlby, J. (1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1-10.
Erikson, E.H. (1963) Childhood and Society. New York: Free Press.
Kim, W.J., Kim, L. & Rue, D.S. (1997). Korean-American Children. In G. Johnson-Powell & J. Yamamoto (Ed.) Transcultural Child Development: Psychological Assessment and Treatment (pp. 183-207). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sexuality can be discussed and analyzed through concepts made in other works of the author. These essays revolve around the idea of sexual perversions and why they develop in the first place. In the second essay, Freud talks about the various psychosocial stages of development. The third essay revolves around the genital stage and how a person is more included to sexuality when he or she begins puberty. Freud has stated that normal sexual activity between a man and a woman and is only limited to sexual intercourse. Anything apart from that is considered a perversion or a deviation from normal human sexual activity.
Conclusion derived from this the theory of sexuality and other Freudian concepts is that: Abnormal sexual perversions develop in a person due to psychosocial conflict in life and these perversions are a threat to stability of civilization. Freud insists on the notion that sexuality is a…
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton, 1962. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Three essays on the theory of sexuality. London: Imago Pub. Co., 1949. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. The ego and the id. New York: Norton, 1961. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. The major works of Sigmund Freud. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1955. Print.
Erikson also states that the development of personality continued through the entire life cycle, rather than just during childhood as Freud has postulated. Finally, Erikson believed that each stage of development had both positive and negative elements.
Erikson's departure from the Freudian school was not readily accepted, even by those who were close to him and admired his work. In each of Erikson's developmental stages there is conflict with bipolar outcomes, as previously described. In Erikson's belief, each individual must experience both sides of the conflict in order to incorporate them into life and to synthesize these into a higher level of functioning. This differs from Freud's theory in that each stage has a name, rather than relation to pleasure from a body zone (oral, anal, etc.). According to Erikson, when the conflict is worked through in a constructive manner, this positive experience then becomes the more dominant part of…
Chapman AJ, Foot HC, Smith JR. (1995) Friendship and Social Relations in Children. Transaction Publishers, New York.
Wallerstein, R.S. (1998). Erikson's Concept of Ego Identity Reconsidered. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 46:229-247
Leffert M. (2007) Postmodernism and its impact on psychoanalysis. Bull Menninger Clin. 71; 1:22-41.
Marzi a, Hautmann G, Maestro S. (2006) Critical reflections on intersubjectivity in psychoanalysis. Int J. Psychoanal 87; 1297-1314.
working for a community mental health agency that serves male adolescents aged 14-16 who have received a diagnosis of conduct disorder. You have been asked by your director of clinical training to answer the following questions (choose only one): a) What family treatment modes have been found to be effective (best practices, evidence-based) for treating this population?
Submit an annotated bibliography with an entry for each of your resources. Include the references in proper APA format. Write a brief summary highlighting the theory, treatment, intervention, and research methodology discussed in each resource.
Authors conducted thorough review of existent studies on psychosocial conduct disorder and interventions in regards to children and adolescents. They also investigated oppositional defiant disorder. 82 experimental studies were evaluated using certain criteria created by the Clinical Psychology Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Authors concluded that the two most effective programs that met all…
Brestan, EV. & Eyberg, EM (1998) Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids Journ. Clin. Child Psyc. 27, 180-189
Burke, JD, Loeber, B., & Birmaher, R. (2002) Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years, Part II, J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 41, 1275-1293.
Kumpfer, K & Alvarado, R (2003). Family-Strengthening Approaches for the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors American Psychologist, 58, 457-465
Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality
The three major psychoanalytic theories and approaches to personality could not be more different. Freud, who focuses on early childhood and sexual urges, differs from Jung who focuses on the unconscious, who differs from Adler who focuses on human motivation and superiority (Weiten, 2005). Of course, what they all have in common is trying to tease out an understanding of human personality. This paper will compare and contrast each of Freud's, Jung's, and Adler's psychoanalytic approaches, as well as two characteristics in which this author agrees or disagrees with the theories presented. Then the focus will mainly be on Freud and his structure to personality, and finally using real world examples for his defense mechanisms. Overall, this paper strives to present a well-rounded view of Freud's theory, and the theories of his time.
The structural model for Freud's psychoanalytic theory is based on three different levels…
Burger, J.M. (2008). Personality. (7th ed., pp. 40-107). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology themes and variations. (6th ed., pp. 329-336). Belmont, CA:
Another study conducted by Deblinger, et al. (2001) also investigated the efficacy of CBT based interventions and reported that compared to the participation-based model, repeated MANOVAs indicated that those mothers attending CBT sessions showed better results in context of improvements in intrusive thoughts and negative parenting. This should be however mentioned that sample size of virtually all the intervention programs was limited ranging from 10-80 that makes it difficult to opine whether or not such studies can be implemented successfully at a larger scale.
The empirical knowledge in context of interventions in treating abused adolescents and children is still limited and needs much more research. There is a lack of follow-up programs for each intervention program being presented as both Ahmed, et al. (2007) and others compared the pre-test and post-test results within short span of implementing the program. This indicates that there is an increased need to assess…
Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 61(5), 349-354.
Chaffin, M., & Friedrich, B. (2004). Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect. Children and youth services review, 26(11), 1097-1113.
Cohen J.A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A.P. & Steer, R.A. (2004), A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402.
Cohen, J.A., & Mannarino, A.P. (1996). A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: Initial findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(1), 42-50.
He has received little personal affirmation for 'who he is' in all of the social settings in which he finds himself. He has had more success in school, but the challenges of his ADHD have resulted in disciplinary problems at time.
The first step is to find some form of social intervention to result in a more stabilized situation at home, either offering Jacob's mother support if she is at risk of violence at the hands of her husband, or attempting to offer some conflict or anger management for the couple. In school, Jacob would benefit from additional resource room support to help him deal with his ADHD, along with academic enrichment to enhance his sense of self. Jacob may also be referred to a school therapist to help him engage in more effective social interactions with peers. The school nurse may wish to discuss with Jacob's parents different medications…
Cherry, K. (2013). Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. Retrieved at:
Driscoll, M.P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon
McLeod, Saul. (2007, August). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved at:
"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).
When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).
One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…
Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.
Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.
Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
Freud and Psychoanalytic Theory
The seminal theorist selected from Chapter 7 of the Morgan (2006) text is Sigmund Freud. Freud was one of the early pioneers of psychoanalytic theory, which is still prevalent today and is associated with a psychodynamic perspective and its presence in contemporary organizations. There is a distinctive way in which psychoanalytic theory -- and many of the concepts advanced by Freud -- can influence functional cultural identity. By extension, there are a number of different ways cultural identity can pertain to a leader's influence on the perception of cultural identity and on organizational (and individual) performance.
Perhaps the core notion of psychoanalytic theory is that a person's past plays a substantial role in his or her present. The clinician utilizing this theory attempts to identify key elements in a person's past that are contributing to myriad manifestations in his or her present life, and change them…
Garcia, J.L. (1995). Freud's Psychosexual stage conception: a developmental metaphor for counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development. 73(5), 498-502.
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Enron: The smartest guys in the room. (2005). Dir: Gibney, A. Feat: Lay, K., Skilling, J., Fastow, A.
Jerry's "unfailing impulse of contrition -- a sort of chivalry" struggles against the boy's impulse to be accepted and viewed as a man (3). The lack of father figure in the story underscores Jerry's preoccupation with the group of boys.
The symbolism in "Through the Tunnel" offers a perfect opportunity to explore Freudian theory. In fact, the symbolism emerges like it would in dreams. The titular tunnel is the central image, being an overt representation of the vaginal canal. Moreover, Jerry contemplates the opening of the canal, its vulva, for a long time before entering it. References to the "promontory" of the beach, "strokes," and finally an "explosion" offer phallic imagery too. Jerry is driven to explore the tunnel by a group of boys that he longed for with "a craving that filled his whole body," (5). The longing also suggests homosexuality, which is tempered soon by Jerry's deeper desire…
This meant that men held positions of power and authority in all the public spheres including economics/business, politics/the law, and the bearing of arms. Men also possessed social status that women did not have, enabling the perpetuation of a patriarchal society.
y applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra ergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra ergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the…
By applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra Bergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra Bergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the leadership is a male-specific quality. Cather creates an overtly political novel with O Pioneer! As her protagonist single-handedly proves that women can be completely self-determined and self-reliant. This would have been a revolutionary view when Cather first published her novel.
The 1913 novel O Pioneer! By Willa Cather, one of the greatest American women writers, is a good illustration for the frontier literature in general, regardless of its political views on gender. However, Cather differentiates herself from her contemporaries and other writers in the Wild West genre, by stressing the other half of the human race: the half that is typically excluded from histories and literature alike. Cather accomplishes what Robinson comments on in "Treason Our Text," a feminist challenge to the accepted and established literary canon. The established canon of literature propagated by mainstream academia is a decidedly and unapologetically patriarchal one; that is, until the second wave of feminism (Robinson). It is therefore important to appreciate Cather's novel within her own historical context, which makes O Pioneer! truly revolutionary. Cather, although certainly not the first or only female American novelist, expands the canon of American literature by addressing the social, political, and economic worldviews from a more global and inclusive perspective, one that takes into account the lives of half of humanity. Patriarchal literature limits itself to constructing women out of stereotypes and projections of feminine ideals and mystiques; Cather simply tells it like it is (Duby, Perrot and Pantel).
The novels heroine embodies all feminine characters who disregard the complex American West during the time the novel was written. The narratives reveals out the difficulties experienced by women
Personality Development in Immigrant Children
Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.
The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.
This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and…
Almy, M. (1976). Review of 'Memory and intelligence; Understanding causality;' and' The origin of the idea of chance in children'. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 46(1), 174-177. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1976.tb01239.x
Baxter, G.D., & Rarick, C.A. (1987). Education for the moral development of managers: Kohlberg's stages of moral development and integrative education. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(3), 243. Retrieved http://search.proquest.com/docview/198088703?accountid=25340
Bandura, Albert (2001, February). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), 1 -- 26.
Berry, J.W., Phinney, J.S., Sam, D.L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant Youth: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303-332. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x
The primary concept discussed in this particular scenario regarding Elizabeth and what has come to be her sexual frustration is an inability to orgasm. Within women, such an inability to do so is oftentimes referred to as frigidity. However, it is important to note that Elizabeth is able to achieve orgasm via masturbation, which involves clitoral stimulation. Therefore, the degree of frigidity she experiences is not of the primary variety, but of the secondary variety in which a woman has achieved orgasm before -- typically through clitoral stimulation -- yet has a persistence of being unable to achieve orgasm through conventional coitus.
Among psychological theorists on this subject that include the likes of Freud, Masters and Johnson, and Kinsey, the psychologist whose work is most associated with this phenomenon is Freud. He posited the notion that there was a relatively simple explanation for women such as Elizabeth who were…
Nancy is a junior majoring in business. During spring semester of her sophomore year, she began attending meetings of the local gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender student group, primarily because she was feeling lonely and wanted talk further about her sexual feelings. ince high school, she had been quite certain that she was a lesbian, but had been reluctant to come out or to talk with anyone else about it. he had dated boys in high school, thinking that maybe she would become more interested, but she did not. ince coming to college, she had avoided the social scene for the most part. At one of the meetings in the spring, she met a young woman from the community, and they talked alone a few times. They stayed in touch over the summer, and Nancy looked forward to pursuing the relationship when she returned in the fall. Nancy and Jill…
Frankowski BL (2004) American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence "Sexual orientation and adolescents." Pediatrics 113 (6): 1827 -- 32
"Kinsey's Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale." The Kinsey Institute. http://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/ak-hhscale.html
Theories about the Construction of Gender Identity
younger brother's development since he was born in 1985, I would not have been able to until the beginning of this century. Until the early 1900s, no one was studying the changes that occurred in individuals from childhood to adulthood.
Now psychologists and other social scientists recognize that children go through similar behavioral, intellectual and mental, and physical steps while growing up. By using these theoretical steps as a guide, I can keep track of the development of my brother and any other child. It should always be remembered, however, that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help interested parties understand what to expect from a child.
The idea that specific development stages exist for adults as well as children began with the initial…
Healy, Jane. Your child's growing mind. Galena, IL: Main Street Books, 1994.
Murray, Thomas. Human development theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.
Singer, Dorothy. A Piaget primer: How a child thinks. New York: Plume, 1996.
Environmental Influences, Domain Specificity, and Heterozygous Potential:
Environmental influences have also contributed profoundly to human sexual behavior, which becomes particularly evident when one examines certain statistical tendencies pertaining to both conscious and unconscious choices in female mate selection (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). As is the case with many sexually reproducing organisms, human females have evolved a marked preference for both physical and behavioral male traits consistent with the ability to provide physical protection and to garner both natural and social resources. Females of many species prefer male suitors who display characteristics such as large relative body size, robustness, good health, and those suggesting physical strength, aggressiveness, and leadership (Margulis & Sagan 1999).
Whereas some of those traits are observable externally (such as relative size), others are imperceptible on any conscious level. This is particularly true as regards heterozygous potential conducive to healthy offspring, such as the marked unconscious preference demonstrated…
Ackerman, D. (1995) a Natural History of Love.
New York: Vintage
Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy.
New York: Henry Holt.
In Erikson's "Stage Two" children are trying to become self-confident and do things themselves ("Autonomy vs. Doubt"), like tying their own shoes even if it takes hours. Parents should let them do things because, according to Erikson, "...failure to reinforce these efforts will lead the child to doubt themselves" and doubt a parents' trust in them. hen Bambi ventured out of his little sleeping spot into the snow for the first time, surely his mom knew he would slip and slide and even get banged up a little. But she stayed in the sleeping nest spot and let Bambi learn for himself, which he did by slipping on the ice over and over before he finally got his feet under him and learned about the reality of slippery ice.
Jean Piaget put forward a theory for very young children, that he called "heteronomous moral orientation." He theorized that in the…
Disney, Walt. (2005). Bambi: 2-Disc Special Edition. Buena Vista Home Entertainment.
Burbank, California. J4756.
Levine, Melvin D. (1999). Developmental Variation and Learning Disorders: Second Edition.
Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service, Inc.
James does imply in the prologue of the Turn of the Screw that there is a deeper meaning to the governess' narrative than merely a straightforward ghost story. So it is unlikely that, as some critics claim, it was merely meant to be a simple ghost story with no deeper meaning or symbolism. However interpretation of the tale has sometimes been taken to the opposite extreme as well, with critics reading far too much in certain dialogue, passages and references than the author likely ever intended. Ultimately, Sigmund Freud would probably have a field day interpreting the sexual repression of the critics who have analyzed this novella so intently.
Cefalu, Paul a. "Rethinking the Discourse of Colonialism in Economic Terms: Shakespeare's the Tempest, Captain John Smith's Virginia Narratives, and the English Response to Vagrancy." Shakespeare Studies. 28 (2000): 85-119.
James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw: And Other…
Cefalu, Paul a. "Rethinking the Discourse of Colonialism in Economic Terms: Shakespeare's the Tempest, Captain John Smith's Virginia Narratives, and the English Response to Vagrancy." Shakespeare Studies. 28 (2000): 85-119.
James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw: And Other Short Novels. New York: New American Library. 1962.
Liddell, Robert. A Treatise on the Novel. London: J.Cape, 1947.
McCormack, Peggy. Questioning the Master: Gender and Sexuality in Henry James's Writings. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press. 2000.
While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.
viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Packer, Herbert, L. (1968) the Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford University Press.
summer of 1976 to the end of summer 1977, a reign of murderous terror gripped New York City - it was the year of the Son of Sam. David Berkowitz would eventually be arrested, tried, and convicted for the series of gun-attacks that left six people dead, seven wounded, and an entire city in fear. When caught, while there existed a potential for his being determined to be insane, Berkowitz pled guilty to the six murders and, under the sentencing rules of the time, was given twenty-five years to life. David Berkowitz comes up for parole next year.
The Son of Sam, while in jail, turned his crimes into profit by writing and authorizing books to be written about him.
Outrage against this led to the "Son of Sam Law" which now disallows criminals in jail from profiting from their crimes while behind bars.
Berkowitz has become an icon in…
Chesler, A. & Robb. A. (1996). Criminal Quotes. New York: Visible Ink Press.
Glaeser, E.L., Sacerdote, B. & Scheinkman, J.A. (May, 1996). Crime and Social Interactions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111. n2. p507(42).
Hollin, C.R. (Winter, 1994). Multiple Murder: A Review. British Journal of Criminology, 34. n1. p1(14).
2002). Michael J. Codd, New York City police commissioner Announces arrest of Son of Sam suspect. www.HistoryChannel.com.Online. Internet. Avail: www.historychannel.com/speeches/archive/speech_341.html. Info Acc: Nov 26, 2002. n pag.
The subject of this interview is a twenty-nine-year-old homosexual male of African-American descent, originally from Miami, Florida. He has been employed as a Certified Personal Fitness Trainer since his 1997 graduation from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he majored in Kinesthesiology and Movement Science
and minored in Broadcast Communications.
The subject seemed ideal for this interview because he is openly homosexual himself, but acutely irritated by the common homosexual "affect" that he characterizes as a learned or emulated set of effeminate mannerisms and speech patterns that many people have come to associate with (or even expect from) male homosexuals. The subject has repeatedly expressed his disgust with homosexuals whom he describes as "flames" or even "faggots," because as a comfortably assimilated homosexual male, he believes that he (and all homosexual males) suffer from stereotyping and the homophobia that he believes it inspires. Specifically, the subject…
1. Breedlove, Marc, S. Sexual Differentiation of the Human Nervous System.
Annual Review of Psychology (Jan 1994) Accessed April 26, 2004, at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:14857116& ; num=5& ctrlInfo=Round1a%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult
2. Branden, Nathaniel. The Disowned Self. (1989)
New York: Bantam
Feminist critics have taken a more positive view of Hulga and a more deflationary view of O'Connor's central meaning. "Nothing in O'Connor quite so flagrantly bears out the feminist theologian Mary Daly's assertion that '[t]he myths and symbols of Christianity are essentially sexist' - which is to say "rapist."(1)…it is the author's strategy in… 'Good Country People' to knock these proud female characters down a notch" (Havird 1). David Havird calls the loss of Hulga's leg and, symbolically her intellect, a kind of rape. Given the way that O'Connor frames the tale, O'Connor views it as a kind of deserved 'rape.' Manley Pointer's name supports this reading -- his manliness and taking away of Hulga's symbolic phallus or male 'member' (her leg) suggests that O'Connor views Hulga as insufficiently humble as a woman should be before God. Hulga's disdain of affection, her coldness to being kissed, and her disgust at…
Havird, David. "The saving rape: Flannery O'Connor and patriarchal religion." The Mississippi
Quarterly. Winter 1993. FindArticles.com. January 14, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3524/is_n1_v47/ai_n28633529/
Lake, Christina Bieber. "Flannery O'Connor's beatific vision." Christianity and Literature.
Autumn 2010. FindArticles.com. January 14, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb049/is_1_60/ai_n56366241/
Buddhist Psychology in the Poetry of Philip Larkin
Philip Larkin is not ordinarily thought of as a Buddhist. Larkin was -- in the opinion of many literary critics -- the quintessential English poet of the latter half of the twentieth century, and the world (and worldview) captured in his poems is largely one that reflects Britain in its new post-war and post-imperial identity. To some extent this made Larkin's poetry a clear-eyed examination of a society in the process of making do with less -- this is, I think, the meaning behind Larkin's often-quoted caustic comment, regarding the sources of his poetic inspiration, that "deprivation is for me what daffodils are for Wordsworth." But the simple fact is that Larkin is basically a pessimist, and it seems that in many cases -- most famously Schopenhauer, in addition to the long list of European writers who were directly influenced by Schopenhauerian…
As previously mentioned, Crisp is openly homosexual and his exhibitionist impulses and self-destructive behavior motivates the struggle within his life vs. unoriginal heroic desire. Similarly to Dil who lives his life, at times showing self-destruction as she guns down Jude and ties up Fergus, by her own rules, choosing to be a woman amidst a time when being transgendered was severely frowned upon. The journey for both Crisp and Dil though hard, ultimately led to a strong sense of gender identity and an awakening of both sexuality and eroticism as they found their way through gender and sex.
The journey for Crisp began after leaving his parent's home and venturing off into various jobs like a tap dance instructor and commercial artist. Although he met some initial success in these jobs, he ends up one of the few places that allows openly gay men. And even with constant ridicule from…
Isabelle and Therese from the 1968 movie Therese and Isabelle is a story about two lesbian women who defy convention by having a love affair in their boarding school. Their love is very intimate with scenes of conformity as Therese has sexual intercourse with a boy as an attempt to normafy herself as Goffman states on page 12 of his book, Stigma. Scenes in the beginning of Therese's mother preparing her for marriage put pressure on the young woman to adhere to the gender identity and sexuality society predetermined for her. The scenes are sweet and innocent laced with a tinge of fear as they are become fearful of someone coming into the room to find them making love. A scene in Isabelle's room gets interrupted by a noise the couple hear from outside the hallway. Their relationship ends much like that of Maurice and Clive.
In the novel, Maurice, Maurice and Clive are two college friends who engage in a homosexual relationship. Unlike with Isabelle and Therese, they are not as intimate and the relationship lasts longer, for two years. Similarly however, Clive like Therese wishes to conform and be normal and decides to marry leaving Maurice alone. The story however continues and Maurice finds solace and connection in Alec. However Alec blackmails him and in his attempt to cure what Dr. Larken terms, "congenital homosexuality" tries hypnosis. Eventually his desire to rebel against society's norms and be with Alec lead him and Alec to relinquish leading closeted gay lives for a happy life with each other.
Overall movies and films tend to show the world a different or unique perspective. The characters of Crisp, Dil, Isabelle, Therese, Clive, and Maurice offer a rare look into the life of a homosexual and in the case of Dil, a transgender/transsexual. These people like any other people struggle to conform, to meet the expectations of society, but also lead their own lives and fulfill their gender identity and sexual orientation. After all, sexuality is a large part of a person.
Likewise, it seems that the patient may also have sublimated repressed his anger at and maybe a perpetual rivalry with at his father by dedicating his entire life to achieving the one accomplishment that his neither his father nor any of his siblings ever achieved: catching a road runner.
Furthermore, it would seem that the patient is mainly driven by ego-based issues; specifically, he has devoted his life to fulfilling the definitions established by his father and family of origin of personal worth. Consequently, he has over-valued the goal of catching the road runner far beyond its actual worth as a meal. The fact that much of the ridicule to which he was exposed during his psychosocial developmental stages occurred during the anal phase is consistent with his rigid focus and his obsession with perfection in the form of the achievement of a hunting goal.
The patient has also apparently…
The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)
Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…
Ablon JS., & Jones EE. (1999). Psychotherapy process in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. J Consult Clin Psychol, 67:64 -- 75.
Cameron, P. (1967). Confirmation of the freudian psychosexual stages utilizing sexual symbolism.Psychological Reports, 21(1), 33-39. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.124
Sigmund, F. (1925). An autobiographical study . Retrieved from http://www2.winchester.ac.uk/edstudies/courses/level two sem two/freudautopdf.pdf
Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 53-98.
1. Freud’s five stages of psychosocial development include the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Although Freud did not test his theories empirically, on a conceptual level, these five stages do make some sense. Progression through the five stages is impeded when a person becomes fixated, their libido or drive directed towards self-fulfillment. Tension between what the id wants (especially instant gratification of any desire), and what the superego believes it should have creates neuroses, according to Freud. The ego is positioned like a mediator between the id’s desires and the superego’s restrictions and rules, creating a sense of self based on how one chooses to act upon or suppress desire.
While I believe all of these stages have relevance to all people, some people are impacted by the stages differently. Common lore in psychoanalysis is that oral fixations can lead to oral habits in adults, such as overeating or…
Sigmund Freud believed humans early on in development had a sexual need. This was seen through his perspective of desire and emotion within the unconscious part of the human mind. To Freud, sexuality is a key component to human personality and thus plays an important role in a child's development. This is evidenced in Mary Williamson's article, "The importance of fathers in relation to their daughters' psychosexual development". Essentially, daughters develop their sexuality based on their interactions with their father. By having formed a sexual attraction in a metaphorical sense to the father, without the mother's intervention, a daughter can properly develop a satisfactory gender or psychosexual identity.
The beginning of the article is a rather lengthy introduction explaining how the information provided came to be. Williamson attempts to explain her intentions within the lens of various psychoanalytic approaches covering the father-daughter relationship. She also states that the formation of…
Shoaib, M. (2014). Electra Complex in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. Lapis Lazuli -An International Literary Journal, 4(1), 169-173.
Smart, J. (2012). Disability across the developmental life span: For the rehabilitation counselor. New York, NY: Springer.
Williamson, M. (2004). The importance of fathers in relation to their daughters' psychosexual development. Psychodynamic Practice, 10(2), 207-219. doi:10.1080/14753630410001699885
Nursing and Erickson Psychosocial Developmental Theory
The objective of this study is to examine Erikson's psychosocial Developmental theory and to discuss how one might apply the theory to their selected nursing practice including a brief description of the theory, framework or philosophy.
The stages of psychosocial development proposed in the work of Erikson include personality stages, psychosexual modes, psychosocial modality and accompanying virtue. These are shown in the following chart labeled Figure 1 in this study.
Erikson's Psychosocial Development Theory Stages, Modes, Modality and Virtues
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt
retentive eliminative holding on letting go
Inititative vs. Guilt intrusive making
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. ole Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Source: Davis (1995, p. 1)
I. Use of This Theory in the Nursing…
Current Nursing (2014) Theory of Psychosocial Development. Erik H. Erikson. Retrieved from: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/theory_of_psychosocial_development.html
Davis, D. (1995) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Haverford. Retrieved from: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Erikson's Development Theory and Its Impact on Nursing (2011) Current Nursing. Retrieved from: http://emfrondren.blogspot.com/
1. As people progress through the stages of psychosocial development, they may get fixated due to suppressed desires. As all desires is driven by libido, according to Freud, any fixation can become a sexual fixation. Thus, being fixated at the oral stage would theoretically predispose one to have some type of oral fetish. Abnormal sexual behavior can be traced to fixation or stagnation, a neurosis that is due to a previous difficulty at one of the stages of development.
Freud’s theory is interesting, certainly, and has its own internal logic. However, Freud’s model is not at all scientific. Freud also focused almost exclusively on male libido, being personally perplexed by female sexual desire and by women in general (“Modules on Freud: On Psychosexual Development,” n.d.). Without any substantial research to back up his theories, Freud’s work remains theoretical. Therefore, I do not necessarily agree with the details of the theory.…
Instead of liberating women from the unjustified and prejudicial sexual double standard, the suggestions offered in connection with securing marriage proposals actually do the exact opposite by encouraging women to play into preconceived stereotypes and attitudes that ensure their continued social and sexual inequality.
Conversely, according to contemporary psychologists with formal training in human relations and psychosexual development, redressing the social and sexual inequality still faced by women in modern society requires a diametrically opposite approach to understanding the fundamental basis of moral judgment. Specifically, it requires recognizing the illusory, illogical, and unfair assumptions that are responsible for generating completely different sets of rules and behavioral expectations based on gender
(Branden, 1999; 91, 98, 111). Instead of encouraging women to continue conforming their behavior to traditional expectations imposed by invalid presumptions of "acceptable" female social and sexual conduct, the more sound advice would be to critically evaluate the worth of…
Ackerman, Diane. A Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage (1995).
Baker, Robert, and Elliston, Frederick. Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus (1998).
Branden, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam (1999).
Fein, Ellen, and Schneider, Sherrie. All the Rules: Time Tested Secrets for Capturing the Heart of Mr. Right. New York: Grand Central Publishing (2007).
ABC/23 Version X
Week 3 Review Worksheet
Week 3 Review Worksheet
Highlight the correct answer.
Angelica wants to win the beauty contest because she wants the trophy and the recognition. She is extrinsically motivated.
intrinsically avoidance extrinsically situationally
Maslow believed that all human beings strive to become self-actualized great people self-actualized goal oriented achievement oriented
James-Lange theory postulates that bodily reactions occur before the emotions and Cannon-Bard theory postulates that both the bodily reactions and emotions occur at the same time.
Cannon -- Bard theory; James -- Lange theory
James -- Lange theory; Two factor theory
James -- Lange theory; Cannon -- Bard theory
Emotional intelligence; Dual Pathway Model of Fear
Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage emotions effectively in a variety of situations.
. Mental toughness
. Erik Erickson believed that the process in which we handle specific…
1. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory -- the process of development takes place in the course of social interaction. Cultural assimilation occurs in a person through interactions with others.
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This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…
Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.
Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
The research on HPD causes is clearly linked to personality theory, and can help to understand each theory. By first examining causation research, and then by locating personality theory which supports the research, it was easy to see the validity of personality theories, and how they can be used in real world research. The research also tied in to course material by again forcing real world situations to be applied to theoretical perspectives.
As research surrounding the causes of HPD is undertaken, more is learned about factors that affect those with HPD. If a definite cause, or a list of possible causes, can be discovered through such research, treatment options specifically designed to address those causes can be developed, resulting in a higher possibility of success. This type of research is vital if those with histrionic personality disorder are to ever be fully cured. Therapy without certain cause can reduce…
American Psychological Association. (2000). Desk reference to the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV-TR.
Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., pg. 293.
Aston-Jones, G.D. (2002). Chapter 4. In K.L. Davis (Ed.), Neuropsychopharmacology: The fifth generation of progress (pp. 133-167). Nashville, TN: American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.
Britton R. (2004, Sept). Narcissistic disorders in clinical practice. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 49(4), 477-490.
Discusses the foundations and components of psychoanalysis
People today are familiar with psychoanalysis after its wide rejection as well as adulation for years. Paradoxically, the success realized in the 5th decade, particularly in Europe, divorced it from its core principles. It spread widely but not because of the attention drawn for its therapy methods. It can be said that therapy was duly overshadowed due to its application in other fields. Psychoanalysis is used in sociology, literature, anthropology, mythology, religion and ethnology. Psychoanalysis is applied jointly in three areas: as a way of investigating the mind, particularly the unconscious mind; a neurosis therapy that is inspired by the method above; as an independent discipline which is based on knowledge gotten from the application of investigative methods as well as clinical experiences. Psychoanalytical science is highlighted by Freud in his study Totem and Taboo where he dives into anthropological and…
Abend, S.M. (1979), Unconscious fantasy and theories of cure. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 27:579-596.
Arlow, J.A. (198 1), Theories of pathogenesis. Psychoanal. Quart., 50:488-514.
Grossman, W.I. (1986). Freud and Horney: A Study of Psychoanalytic Models via the Analysis of a Controversy[. The Analytic Press. Retrieved from: http://internationalpsychoanalysis.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/FreudHorney1.pdf
(2008). Psychoanalysis in Theory and Practice. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23240_Chapter_5.pdf
This is accomplished by using a number of different tactics in conjunction with each other to include: examining their lifestyle, developing client insights, establishing a strong relationship with the patient and creating a change in behavior. When interacting with children, these views are used to comprehend how: their connections with friends and family members are influencing their desire to be accepted. ("Theories of Counseling," 2010) (, Tice, personal communication, October 25, 2012)
The Freudian approach is looking at how the child is developing base upon their relationship with others and the way they are dealing with the different stages in their lives. These include: studying the unconscious mind, analyzing dreams, examining the effects on the id / ego / superego and psychosexual development. The combination of these factors are designed to provide the therapist with a complete picture of what events are impacting the social, mental and emotional development of…
School Counseling. (2012). All About Counseling. Retrieved from: http://www.allaboutcounseling.com/library/school-counseling/
School Counselors. (2012). Kids Health. Retrieved from: http://kidshealth.org/teen/school_jobs/school/school_counselors.html
Theories of Counseling. (2010). UNLV. Retrieved from: http://blogs.education.unlv.edu/csi/files/2010/02/nce-study-guide-theories-and-helping-relationships.pdf
Efford, B. (2012). Assessment for Counselors. Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole.
personality is a branch of psychology that deals with personality and variations among individuals. Personality is an organized and dynamic set of characteristics possessed uniquely by individual, and influenced by emotion, cognitions, motivation, and environment. In other words, the personality is referred as pattern of feelings, thoughts; social adjustments as well as behaviors exhibited by individual that strongly influence one's self-perceptions, expectations, attitudes and values. (Vink, Nawijn, Boomsma, & Willemsen, 2007).
The paper uses the Humanistic theory to explain the concept personality. The humanistic theory argues that people generally possess freewill that determines the way they behave. The reason for chosen humanistic theory to explain personality concept is that the theory focuses on individual subjective experiences and definitive factors that determine human behaviors. The basic idea of humanistic theory is that it focuses on the present rather than the future. The goal of humanistic theory is to assist…
On other hand, the cognitive theory believes that depression is often caused by the self-deprecating thoughts and cognitive approach try to change people negative thinking by assisting them to change the way they view themselves and the world. Social and behavioral learning approach points out that depression can be learnt through an interaction with social world and environment. These include thing people observe, and the depression can be overcome by learning the cause of depression from others. Trait approach suggests that depression is caused from an individual's character. (McCrae, 2001).
Dunlop et al. (2013) suggests different methods of overcoming depression. The authors suggest not all depressions can be treated using a medication. For example, a person suffering from bipolar disorder should consult a psychiatrist for treatment, and a medication such as mood stabilizer should be avoided in a bipolar disorder case. OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder) is a type of depression in which its treatment may be challenging. In this case, antidepressants doses are necessary to overcome the OCD.
On the other hand, a patient suffering from psychotic disorders should consult a
Psychology of Aging
Compare and contrast current research on alternative stage theories of adulthood and personality development.
Child developmentalists traditionally categorized adult personality development into stage theories (Kagan, 2001). Sigmund Freud advocated the psychosexual stage, which held that personality is shaped early in life and generally resists change. Carl Jung proposed the opposite, in that personality develops in adulthood. Other theories surfaced in the 30s an the 40s in Europe and the U.S., such as Charlotte Buhler's, which called for empirical evaluations of theoretical predictions and Erik Erikson's similarly psychoanalytic stage theory, which asserts that a person develops through stages of human needs. Eventually, these early stage theories failed empirical tests. Critics of stage theories argued that personality does not evolve systematically in adulthood. Then came the Trait Theory in the 80s, which suggested that personality only changes slightly when a person reaches age 30 (Kagan, 2001).
The Trait Theory…
ASHA (2015). Issues in ethics: cultural and linguistic competence. American Speech Language
Hearing Association. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/Practice/ethics/Cultural-and-Linguistics-Competence
Charles, S. and Cartensen, L. L. (2010). Social and emotional aging. Annual Review of Psychology.61, 383-409. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3950961
Crowell, C. R. (n.d.).Moral psychology and information ethics. University of Notre Dame.
Axelrod, S. D. (2012). "Self-awareness: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340–357.
In “Executive Development and Psychoanalytic Therapy,” Axelrod (2012) focuses on the singular concept of self-awareness, from a psychoanalytic point of view. Self-awareness, or self-knowledge, is a traditional and established goal of the psychoanalytic therapeutic process. Through psychoanalysis, the client gains insight into his or her own psyche, thereby initiating a self-driven change that has the potential to transform lives. Related concepts include self-monitoring, which can be used outside of the therapeutic relationship, as well as in therapy. Self-monitoring requires the invocation of an executive self, an aspect of the ego. Self-reflection is presented as a process that promotes self-awareness, but which is ideally promoted, guided, and enhanced by the therapist.
Axelrod (2012) focuses on emotional awareness, which can be connected to emotional intelligence. The author takes the research a step…
Classical conditioning for instance is defined as a "simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events" while Operant Conditioning is defined as learning to do/not do actions as a result of being conditioned to know what consequences to expect of the said actions. The chapter looks at the contributions of B. F. Skinner to the field work of conditioning, reinforcements and punishments used in conditioning, different methods of reinforcement (fixed-interval schedule versus variable-interval schedule). Chapter touches on the effects of violence in media on aggression of subjects watching, indicates that there is a circular relationship between media violence and aggression in persons who watch.
Chapter 6 examines the subject of memory, the three stages of memory according to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory). Information processing theory describes how sensory memory impacts working memory which in turn impacts and is then impacted by long-term…
e. fat storage. These physiological concerns are significant in that programming that was designed to maintain a nurturing position for young children the physiological environment interprets crisis as anything that creates a stressful physical demeanor. The stress and psychology of abandonment is a constant, once the abandonment by the father has occurred. The body does not distinguish between a fasting period associated with unavailable food, or drought and psychological long-term emotional stress. The human body also does not distinguish between a self imposed diet and a period of famine. It reduces its basal metabolic rate, or the rate of metabolism needed to perform its base functions, and then the recovery period would seem to be longer than expected. This is the diet conundrum, though it has also been proven that prolonged periods of psychological stress and/or depression that could be associated with abandonment by the father will also cause a…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19.
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F., & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Bifulco, a. (1998). Wednesday's Child: Research into Women's Experience of Neglect and Abuse in Childhood and Adult Depression. London: Routledge.
Caprio, Sonia. (2006) "Treating Child Obesity and Associated Medical Conditions." The Future of Children 16 (1), 209.