1000 results for “Public Administrator”.
public administrator is under constant scrutiny by many individuals, both above and beneath, and by the general public at large. By the very nature of the position, a public administrator is under pressure to meet performance objectives, efficiently produce visible results, and also maintain his or her integrity and values.
The public administrator is in a position of public trust. This person is in charge of important financial decision making involving significant capital. As such, it is common for their to be an air of distrust towards such officials. While actual cases of corruption and misappropriation are rare, these cases are noteworthy and effect the attitude of the public at large towards their administrative officials.
In order to break the cycle of distrust that exists within the framework of government, it is essential that the public administrator, as a leader, keep the people informed about what is going on. By…
public administrator is to provide services to the public -- and to keep the public interest in focus -- whether the administrator is an elected official or not. A public administrator might be responsible for enforcing a city or county ordinance when it comes to property values, which can become contentious because homeowners have their own ideas as to the value of their property. Public administrators might be heads of regional or local or state or even federal departments. A city manager is not elected but he or she is on the job to provide responsive leadership to laws and to the elected officials' (council members) directives.
Public policy is not made exclusively by elected officials. The word "policy" in fact just means a government is taking some form of action in response to a public need, and an administrator of a county health department, for example, makes policy regarding…
Gerston, Larry N. (2010). Public Policy Making: Process and Principles. Armonk, NY: M.E,
Jackson, Lisa P. (2011). Too dirty to fail? Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012, from http://articles.latimes.com .
Liggett, Brit. (2010). Study Shows BP Oil Spill Could Have Been Prevented by Regulation.
public administrator often goes unappreciated because these underrated professionals often work behind the scenes, in offices and in the field. But the work they do invariably affects our lives. One day as I was stopped at a red light, it occurred to me that at some point a person actually decided how many minutes this light would last, and whether or not to place it at this intersection in the first place. Driving down the road, I also contemplated the strategic planning of roads and their locations to and from the suburbs. At some point, public officials worked with consultants and other experts for things that most people take for granted every day. The locations of schools and other publicly funded facilities like water treatment plants are all determined by city planners. How much money to allocate for specific resources isn't easy and requires years of training and experience. For…
Public Administration and the ole of the Whistleblower
The role of the whistleblower in Public Administration is one that continues to be controversial. On the one hand, some members of the public view the whistleblower as an important player in the maintenance of public service offices and agencies. Individuals like Edward Snowden are seen as patriots because they expose overreach and illegal activity by agencies like the NSA which overstep their mandates. Others view the same individuals as threats to the State or to the public offices and agencies to which they belong. This view holds that the agency or office should not be exposed to public scrutiny and that theft of information or "leaks" produced by hacking are a crime that should be punished: the actions are not viewed as blowing the whistle on criminal or unethical activity within the agency or organization -- instead all of the focus…
Anand, V., Ashforth, B., Joshi, M. "Business as usual: The acceptance and perpetuation of corruption in organizations" Academy of Management Executive, 19, no. 4 (2005): 9-23.
Dekker, S. (2009). Just Culture: Who Gets to Draw the Line? Journal of Cognition,
Technology and Work, 11(3): 177-185.
Durden, T. (2016). White House Intervened To Suppress Hillary 'Secret Server' Scandal,
role as a public administrator is usually beset by conflicts. These conflicts, as in all organizations, stem from the vested interests of various individuals with their own agendas meeting personal objectives while working in a public institution. In private companies, performance stems from imperatives to meet fiscal objectives; generating revenue and having the ability to borrow more money to finance new projects. No such natural restraint exists in the public sector, where monetary success elevates one leader while destroying another. One method of getting ahead, in any situation, is to tell blatant lies about another. This is the subject of Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life.
Lying is sometimes appropriate in one's role as a public administrator. This is because the life of a public institution, as well as its funding, depends on political patronage. It is always critical that public administrators maintain that the public institution is…
Committee of Public Administrators in Criminal Justice
This report summarizes my experiences and impressions resulting from my month-long visit to the World State, primarily the city of London. My escort, ernard Marx, introduced me to all aspects of their society and took me through the life of a person born into their world from the moment of their creation in the Central London Hatchery to their deaths in the Park Lane Hospital for the Dying. He introduced me to the characteristics of the social state including the social classes, how children are raised, how people make a living, the scientific advancements of their world, and the social results of the application of these advancements. In particular, the society has been significantly affected by the use of conditioning of their young and the widespread legal use of a drug called soma. The motto of the World State is "Community, Identity, and…
Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1932.
Pearce, David. "Brave New World A Defense of Paradise-Engineering." 23 Dec. 2002. http://huxley.net
twenty-five years with the United States Postal Service, a person typically does not make any radical changes to their personal or professional lives. Yet here I am, applying for a Masters Degree in Public Administration. Why? I realize I am not the typical applicant, but it's not like I haven't thought this through, either. My goals have shifted, my values are changing, and now I need to channel my energies to public service. My core goal is managing government programs designed for economically challenged neighborhoods, and the families and individuals living in those neighborhoods. As a transition to public administration from my work at the postal service, I have started to network with community organizers and social workers in the mental health sector. Growing awareness of structural inequities that exacerbate both mental health issues and poverty have caused me to become more interested in what I can do to help,…
This essentially means breaking large jobs down into tiny jobs done by expert people. Frederick Taylor's scientific management methods called for optimizing the way that tasks were performed and simplifying the jobs enough so that workers could be trained to perform their specialized sequence of motions in the one best way. This also fits into the classic organization theory by once again referring to a group of expert people doing one job to the best of their ability.
Three levels of ethics (of the four) noted in the text include: professional ethics, organizational ethics, and social ethics. Explain each of these forms of ethics. Use examples as needed, to clarify your responses.
Professional ethics consists of the rules of what professionals should and should not do. Being a professional often comes with authority and power. A client often places trust in a professional on the basis that the…
One time or the other, these elected legislatures will find themselves in difficult situations that call for difficult ethical decisions in the processes of performing their duties just as public administrators and as some can mange such trying moments, others will fail to perform. These public administrators should ensure that they have proper interaction with the government/authorities so as to understand well how they function in the quest to establishing reliable solutions that are potential managers of public pressure to finally ensure that public action is not compromised (Stillman, 2009). For example, in the last twenty years, the pressure exerted on public administrators has been "more entrepreneurial, to find ways to do more things and new things with fewer resources, to be nimble in response to fluctuating problems and demands, has been acute" (Cook, 2007, p. 243). In addition, considering the pressure on public administration coupled by increasing global changes…
Business training schools. (n.d.). What does a public administrator do? Business-training-
schools.com. Retrieved from http://www.business-training-schools.com/a/what-does-a-public-administrator-do.html
Cook, B.J. (2007). Democracy and administration: Woodrow Wilson's ideas and challenges of public management. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press.
Dubai School of Government. (2010, April 4). Faculty positions in public administration, the Dubai school of government. International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration. Retrieved from http://www.iias-
public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.
An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.
The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…
4)Harting, Tracey L. The Science of "Muddling Through" by Charles E. Lindblom 1998, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://www.tamucc.edu/~whatley/PADM5302/theo14e.htm
5) Book review. Understanding Public Policy. Prentice Hall. Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://vig.prenhall.com/catalog/academic/product/1,4096,0130260088,00.html?type=FEA
6) Thomas Wadsworth, Book Review. Political Science. Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector, Sixth Edition, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://newtexts.com/newtexts/book.cfm?book_id=816
The science of public administration is not a direct or concrete examination. ather, the human tendencies of emotion and subtle manipulation are also included in this discipline. The purpose of this essay is to explore the ideas and major theories of the science of public administration. This essay will examine 5 patriarchal figures to highlight the evolution and transformation of the use of public power for administration purposes.
The presidency of Woodrow Wilson is mostly known in the annals of history as being a disastrous president who legislated away many of the powers and freedoms that were earned by Americans after th 19th century. Wilson's lust for war and violence misled America into World War I and summarily weakened the nation in every way possible. Wilson also failed his people by relinquishing the people's power to print their own money to the Federal eserve in 1914.…
Box, R.C. (1999). Running Government Like a Business Implications for Public Administration Theory and Practice. The American Review of Public Administration, 29(1), 19-43.
Drucker Institute (nd). Peter Drucker's Life and Legacy. Retrieved on 10 Oct from http://www.druckerinstitute.com/peter-druckers-life-and-legacy/
Frederickson, H.G. (1999). The repositioning of American public administration. PS: Political Science & Politics, 32(04), 701-712.
Hood, C. (1995). Emerging issues in public administration. Public administration, 73(1), 165-183.
Masters in Public Administration
I seek a Masters in Public Administration because I want to obtain the skills and tools to be able to make solid public decisions that positively impact the community. Public administrators are both servants and leaders and occupy an important role in society: they have to at one and the same time serve the public and put its interests before their own, and they also have to lead the public and the organization with which they are involved. It is their responsibility to manage and meet the needs of those from whom their mandate is ultimately obtained.
With a Masters in Public Administration, I expect to be able to build on the knowledge I have already obtained in my undergraduate years. This is the next level of academic experience that will enable me to enter into an administrative career with professionalism, expertise, and devotion to care…
Master of Public Administration. (2016). UTA. Retrieved from http://www.uta.edu/cappa/academics/public-affairs/public-administration/master-public-administration/
In the final purpose of accountability, where the goal is to enhance the learning capacity and effectiveness of the executive branch, we should realize that what needs to happen in this situation is that public authorities act on feedback about their own performance (Deutsch, 1963; Luhmann, 1966; Behn, 2001 as cited in Bovens et al., 2008). Thus, a good accountability mechanism, from this angle, is one that illustrates how the actor in question is learning and becoming more efficient as a result of the mechanism itself.
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, . (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management eform." International eview of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
Arnull, a. And D. Wincott. (2001). Accountability and Legitimacy in the European Union.
Oxford: Oxford University…
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, R. (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management Reform." International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
The role of the non-profit organization has transformed in many ways as society and the values inherent within that society also change and transform. The ability to create an organization with purpose and a sense of a greater duty is what makes the non-profit sector of exchange such a unique and important facet within the constructs of our society. The purpose of this essay is to address a situation where a recommendation is needed to determine the best route of approach for raising funds for a hypothetical nonprofit agency.
The background of this case deals with selecting between two options of fundraising method to improve and increase community services. This general situation is encountered by most nonprofit organizations and provides a solid background for discussing the ideas and principles inherent within the public sector. The first option imposes a user fee for individuals who currently request assistance. The second…
Association of Fundraising Professionals (nd). Donor Bill of Rights. Viewed 29 Sep 2014. Retrieved from http://www.afpnet.org/Ethics/EnforcementDetail.cfm?ItemNumber=3359
Bennet, J. (2012). The New Price of American Politics. The Atlantic, Oct 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/10/the/309086/
Frumkin, P., & Kim, M.T. (2001). Strategic positioning and the financing of nonprofit organizations: Is efficiency rewarded in the contributions marketplace?. Public Administration Review, 61(3), 266-275.
Funkhouser, M. (2014). The Failure and the Promise of Public Participation. Governing, 6 Jan 2014. Retrieved from http://www.governing.com/gov-institute/funkhouser/col-failure-promise-public-participation-government.html
Public administration is one of the constructs upon which every government functions. It incorporates the concepts of administrative responsibility and public interest upon which the idea of ethical obligation and the dilemma brought about by the privatization of government functions ride. Anytime the electorate cast their votes and express their preference for one candidate over another, they do so in the expectation that the candidate will work towards satisfying the public's interests, rather than their own, and that they will use their positions to help people, rather than dominate them. This expectation is, however, not often given the significance it deserves, despite the fact that it advances from the party that stands to either benefit or lose directly from a public administrator's actions.
The Concept of Public Interest
Although it is difficult to give an explicit definition of the constituents of public interest, experts have repeatedly referred to it as…
CAPAM Featured Report. (2010). Ethical Dilemmas in the Public Service. CAPAM. Retrieved from http://win2vin.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/ethical-dilemma-good-one.pdf
Holland, D., Nonini, D.M., Lutz, C., Bartlett, L. & Frederick-McGlathery, M., Guldbrandsen, T. & Murillo, E. (2007). Local Democracy under Siege: Activism, Public Interests, and Private Politics. New York: New York Press.
Starling, G. (2007). Managing the Public Sector (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Stillman, R. (2009). Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Public Administrators in Work First Family Assistance Program
The ole of Public Administrators in Work First Family Assistance Program
Competency 1: Summarize the Findings of the Analytical Framework
Designing an analytical framework is possible and is seen because the Act was passed into law in 1975 by the federal government. The aim of implementing the child support policy in all states was to reduce the expenditure of the public on social welfare. The North Carolina welfare is an example of child support programs where the Division of Social Service disburses funds, and 100 counties use the program. emember, TANF program is a block grant. The assistance provided by the state is for five years only to ensure that the family stays together, and a reduction of teenage pregnancies is adhered to especially because teenagers need their parents guidance and counsel.
TANF program was created after the passing of legislation in…
Ammons, D.N. (2008). Leading Performance Management. Washington, DC: ICMA Press
Ammons, D.N. & Riverbark, W.C. (2008). Factors Influencing the Use of Performance Data to Improve Municipal Services: Evidence from the North Carolina Benchmarking Project. Public Administration Review, 68(2): 304-318.
APHSA. (2010). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families: Recommendations for Reauthorization. Washington, DC: NASTA
The European Union. (2012). Excellence in Public Administration for Competitiveness in the EU Member States. Enterprise and Industry
Public Administration involves the implementation of policies of the government, and it is a term used to refer to the study of the implementation these policies and the training given to civil servants to prepare them towards that role (Dubois & Fattore, 2009). Public Administration has three different methods stemming out of distinct perspective of its function. These strategies include the managerial approach, the political approach, and the legal approach. Each of the mentioned approach emphasizes on different values, procedures and structures of how public administration functions. These approaches were theorized by Professor David osenbloom, who was a Public Administration scholar (Dubois & Fattore, 2009).
According to this approach, public administration is used in managing the performance of organizations to increase efficiency, effectiveness, and the economy of resources. This approach aims at making organizations successful. The key areas of consideration in this approach are leaders, managerial techniques, decision…
Dubois, H., & Fattore, G. (2009). Definitions and typologies in public administration research: the case of decentralization. International Journal of Public Administration, 32 (8), 704 -- 727.
Kettl, D., & Fessler, J. (2009). The Politics of the Administrative Process. Washington D.C.: CQ Press.
Menzel, D., & White, H. (2011). The State of Public Administration: Issues, Challenges and Opportunity. New York M.E. Sharpe.
Addressing this issue is a matter of policy, and difficult to address at the management level. However, extensive recruiting procedures in diverse communities may help to combat the continued disparity of advantages for many minorities. In addition, social representation can be achieved by promoting educational and employment opportunities in a variety of socio-economic settings. The use of internships can also create exposure both of public agencies and of the diverse emerging workforce.
5) There are many different variables that contribute to achieving productivity in the workplace. Research shows that employee satisfaction with their work is a major factor in determining employee productivity. Satisfaction can be improved with increased benefits, including increased wages and salaries, but another very important factor in job satisfaction is the employee's interest in their work and the belief that they are necessary. Promoting a workplace that shows how much it values its employees is essential to…
The ole of Management Information System in Decision Making in Public Administration (Case Study on Hungarian Central Statistical Office)
Organizations require appropriate information in the form of proper databases and reports which plays a pivotal role in decision making. The quality of data holds significant importance as the top management of large organizations derives its high level decisions mostly from the available data rather than inspecting the in depth core activity components. This fact is depicted by the analysis of a case study pertaining to the implementation of a Management Information System (MIS) in the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, which has ultimately improved the quality of information flow within the organization. This paper examines how the implementation of an MIS within HCSO lead to the standardization of report formats and operational data collection procedures. Not only this, the paper will also highlight the role played by an MIS…
HCSO Strategy 2005-2008 "Hungarian Central Statistical Office." Budapest (2005), Accessed
January 9, 2013 Download at:
By bringing into the equation of transitional services the special needs personnel at local colleges and vocational institutions, the interagency agreement described here will ensure that upon the student's eventual arrival at one such institution, there will be people familiar with his case and prepared to accommodate his needs. These respective agency types can then help a disabled student to train a focus on the specific career goals which have been identified either with the assistance of counselors.
Using the Strategic Planning Meeting as a method to identifying willing and helpful stakeholders in the process, the public partnership in question relies heavily on such networking to both orient the community toward our collective goals and to foster natural communication between such agencies at a personal level. By inviting and bringing into contact such groups as decision-makers from local law organizations, leaders from public recreation leagues and university personnel, as well…
Graddy, E. & Chen, B. (2006). Influences on the size and scope of networks for social service delivery. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Advance Access.
Milward, H.B. & Provan, K.G. (2006). A Manager's Guide to Choosing and Using Collaborative Networks. Network and Partnership Series.
Office of Career Assessment, Planning and Placement (OCAPP). Setting a Course for Students with Disabilities & their Parents. Charlottesville City Schools. Online at www.ccs.k12.va.us/departments/items/career/docs/TransitionWebPage.pdf
... Only one in 100 high school seniors could write a coherent response of more than one paragraph to an essay question; and only 7% of high school seniors could read at advanced level." (Hanushek)
In the light of this vast body of very forceful evidence, we cannot but agree that our public education system has deteriorated to the extent that we can no longer expect our public schools to produce quality students. Most of our public school students lack even basic knowledge of scientific facts and mathematical concepts and their communication skills leave a lot to be desired. With such students we cannot hope to compete on a global level, not at least in the long run. This explains why more professionally qualified people from other parts of the world are so rapidly taking over American job market.
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at…
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (1983)
Eric a. Hanushek, "When School Finance Reform May Not Be Good Policy. Symposium, Investing in Our Children's Future: School Finance Reform in the 1990s," Harvard Journal on Legislation 28 (Summer 1991), 423.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics (1993).
Cited in Susan Chira, "The Big Test: How to Translate the Talk About School Reform into Action," New York Times (March 24, 1991), Sec. 4, at 1.
In terms of similarities, each of these budgets contains roughly the same basic format. hile the specific charts may differ, each budget separates revenue sources and attempts to break those down. The budgets also explain the expenditures, and typically break these down to each individual program within the department.
A similarity between three of the budgets (Federal, Florida and Newark) is that they rely heavily on tables and written explanations. hile these tables are necessary in any budget, it is interesting to note that the Newark budget is significantly more visually-oriented than any of the other budgets. The graphic representation of some of the figures makes for a more user-friendly presentation. The other budgets are less likely to be understood by those without some financial training.
Each of the budgets is produced to unique specifications. There appears to be no standard with respect to the production of public budgets, so…
United States 2010 Federal Budget Summary Tables. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy10/pdf/budget/summary.pdf
State of Florida 2009-10 "People's" Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://peoplesbudget.state.fl.us/bdagencies.aspx?full=1
City of Newark 2009 Proposed Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.ci.newark.nj.us/government/city_departments/department_of_administration/2009_proposed_budget.php
Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.epa.gov/budget/2010/2010bib.pdf
Goals of a Public Administrator
The implementation of the policies devised by the government is referred to as public administration. Moreover, public administration is also a discipline that is taught in many higher education institutions. This discipline is based on the studies that revolve around the aforementioned implementation and therefore it prepares the civil servants that would be working for the public service in the future (Frederickson, 1997). The fundamental goal behind the layout of the curriculum of this discipline and the training in this field is to advance the policies and management in order for the government to function effectively (Frederickson, 1997). There are various definitions that have been used to describe this term; "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; "the management of public programs" and "the study of the process of decision making by the government, the analysis of the devised policies, the…
Alvarez, K., & Stupak, R. (1993). An Analytical Essay and Annotated Compendium on Organizational Theory: Paradigms Lost and Needed in Public Administration. International Review Of Modern Sociology, 59 -- 81.
Brown-John, C. (1990). Budgeting in the Provinces: Leadership and the Premiers Allan M. Maslove, ed. Toronto: The Institute of Public Administration in Canada, 1989, pp. xxii, 175 Tax Reform in Canada: The Process and Impact Allan M. Maslove Halifax: The Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1989, pp. xv, 96 The Politics of Public Spending in Canada Donald J. Savoie Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990, pp. xiv, 433. Canadian Journal Of Political Science, 23(03), 568 -- 571.
Frederickson, H. (1997). The spirit of public administration. Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco, 80.
Geva-May, I., & Kfir, A. (2000). Developments in Policy Analysis and Evaluation in Public Administration. Public Administration, 78(2), 409 -- 422.
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…
Abramson, Mark A., and Paul R .Lawrence .2001. The Challenge of Transforming
Administration and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision,
50(10), 1843-1860, Review 62: 555-67.
Armenakis, Achilles A ., and Arthur G .Bedeian .1999 .Organizational Change: A Review of Associates.
solid waste management in impoverished areas versus affluent areas by examining the social, economic, ethical, and political reasons for placement of landfills and other waste removal facilities in poorer neighborhoods. By exploring the background of specific social movements, the first section of the assignment will seek to explore why the government placed landfills in certain locations versus others. The essay will also seek to examine what caused the social movements. As well as why the issue evolved from placement of landfills in poorer neighborhoods to placement of landfills in minority-majority poorer neighborhoods.
The next section will seek to analyze which candidates would be best for a nonprofit. Candidate one is a business-savvy employee wishing to change things by dismissing all the older employees and hiring new ones. Candidate two is a college graduate with experience in the field. By looking at the various perspectives of public administration theory, this section…
Aston, R. (1999). The Legal, Engineering, Environmental and Social Perspectives of Surface Mining Law and Reclamation by Landfilling: Getting Maximum Yield from Surface Mines (p. 120). World Scientific.
Brownell, P. & Kelly, J. (2013). Ageism and mistreatment of older workers. Dordrecht: Springer.
Frederickson, G. (1994). Ethics and Public Administration. Routledge.
Hill, B. (2014). Environmental Justice (p. 103). Environmental Law Institute.
An understanding of the facts,
2. An understanding of the codes, roles and values at play,
3. A consideration of all alternatives,
4. A consideration of how you would feel if the plan/action was implemented,
5. A projection of consequences, and
6. A consideration of how you would justify your actions to the public.
arnard also develop a construct called, "moral basis for the solution of moral conflicts." In applying this construct to the police officer's situation, arnard suggests opening up to the co-workers/subordinates to tell them the rationale behind the decision and writing a letter to management perhaps discussing how your role is really an expanded version with duties to the subordinates along with duties and allegiance toward management.
Another potential conflict is within one's self and one's inner values. There might be conflicts between private goals and public goals or between objective and subjective responsibility. Tussman notes that…
Barnard also develop a construct called, "moral basis for the solution of moral conflicts." In applying this construct to the police officer's situation, Barnard suggests opening up to the co-workers/subordinates to tell them the rationale behind the decision and writing a letter to management perhaps discussing how your role is really an expanded version with duties to the subordinates along with duties and allegiance toward management.
Another potential conflict is within one's self and one's inner values. There might be conflicts between private goals and public goals or between objective and subjective responsibility. Tussman notes that in our society, individualism is a prominent value and the public administrator will inevitably struggle to not act in his/her own self-interest and the administrator will also struggle just to not appear as though he/she is acting upon individualist notions. In the modern era, this tendency to not be able to clearly support the public interest over the private interest has increased.
The law provides the moral minimum by which a conflict of interest arises. Indeed, there are other situations which are not strictly delineated by law wherein a conflict of interest may arise. Just because an act is legal, it does not mean it is necessarily ethical. There will also be times when we will challenge a law because it conflicts with our morals or ethics such as the Civil Rights movement of the 1950's and 1960's. Bribery, influence peddling, and information peddling are three kinds of conflicts of interest to avoid in the public domain.
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
What is Public Administration?
Marc Holzer -- in the good company of thousands of colleagues in public administration and business -- embraced the box. The box serves to as a frame to our thinking, acts as scaffolding to our decision-making, and serves our innate tendency as human beings to create meaningful patterns from our experience. And how better to improve on the box, than to further divide it into four boxes -- each of which represents the tensions we experience regarding whatever we have put into the box. The box is familiar as it serves many disciplines. Economists may love the box more than any other group, save management consultants. That said, quadrants are a useful heuristic, and I utilize that attribute here in my version as applied to public administration and the management of non-profits.
The four quadrants I describe are, on the vertical axis,…
Buckingham, M. And Coffman, C. (1999). First, Break All the Rules. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Follett, M.P. (1996). The giving of orders. In Shafritz, J.M. & Ott, J.S. (Eds.). Classics of organization theory (pp.156-162). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Gulick, Luther. 1937. Notes on the Theory of Organization. In Papers on the Science of Administration, edited by Luther Gulick and Lydal Urwick. New York. Institute of Public
Administration, Columbia University.
conservative orientation in Public Administration, a concern with order, stability and continuity. I'm not sure that's all bad."
The above statement addresses one of the central concerns - and in many ways the central paradox - of public administration, both in the practice and in the study of this field. A society that is overly resistant to change stagnates. A species that does not adapt to changing environmental and competitive conditions will decline and even become extinct; this is true of societies as well. There must be change, or there will be decline and death.
But just as lack of change can be terribly damaging if not lethal to a society, too much change can also be dangerous. Societies that prosper are those that allow for change within an established structure - and both the change and the structure are important. (This does assume, of course, that the structure is…
Ethics and Public Policy
This paper discusses the application of the major ethical theories of consequentialism (utilitarianism), deontology, and virtue ethics to a specific policy question, namely how to improve the nutrition of the nation's poor and to reduce the rise in food insecurity. It also discusses the implications of ethical theories such as determinism and moral relativism. First, the theory is discussed in the abstract, followed by an exposition of how the theory relates to real-world practice. The paper concludes with a more general reflection on the implications of ethical theories for public policy-makers. The specific merits of virtue ethics are stressed vs. The more extreme and polarizing views of deontology and consequentialism.
An ethical dilemma: Food insecurity
One of the dilemmas facing public policy-makers regarding food insecurity and the need to improve the diet of poor Americans is the balance between individual liberties and the need…
Athanassoulis, N. (2014). Virtue ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved http://www.iep.utm.edu/virtue/
Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. (2012). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy. Retrieved from:
Discussion: Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation
Agent-based modeling and simulation allows for organizations to look at their individual parts and players (the agents) to see how they perform in a simulation. In today’s society, situations can develop rapidly as information spreads via social media, and policy makers have to be prepared to address situations as they arise virtually instantaneously. One problem that I can envision is where agent-based modeling and simulation may be useful in the public sector in response to a situation where public administrators have to respond to an accusation made towards a member of their administration regarding sexual misconduct. In such a situation, the spotlight of the public can be bright and intense and any misstep by the administration could result in a barrage of ill-will and condemnation from the public.
To adequately prepare an administration for such a situation, agent-based modeling and simulation may be very useful…
Bullen's (n.d.) case study on the ed Hook initiative, Dayal's (2014) "Surfacing Innovative Solutions Through Public-Private Partnerships," and also the World Economic Forum's (2016) Global isks eport. Although these articles address different subject areas, they all tie into public administration, public planning, and public policy. Dayal (2014) shows how resources from the private sector can be harnessed to bolster the power of public sector aid agencies to provide infrastructure development and community resilience in communities around the world. Broader in scope, The Global isks eport 2016 shows how multiple challenges, from poverty and unemployment to terrorism and political instability, intersect with one another. The ed Hook case study offers a more narrow focus on one community, revealing the importance of community engagement in communications network development.
I selected the latter case study because it shows how overarching principles of community planning, infrastructure development, and public policy are all related. In…
Bullen, G. (n.d.). Case study: Red Hook initiative Wifi and Tidepools.
Dayal, A. (2014). Surfacing innovative solutions through public-private partnerships. The Rockefeller Foundation. Retrieved online: https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/blog/surfacing-innovative-solutions-through/
World Economic Forum (2016). The Global Risks Report, 2016. REF: 080116
So, even in such situations as when the countryside has also been hit by war, the local administrators are much more likely to be able to function productively as they are fundamentally closer to the need and have strong community ties and possible a strong desire for social order but more importantly for the meeting of the local publics' needs.
The importance of establishing a public administration theoretical framework that prioritizes citizenship over consumerism, in a society where so much of the citizenry relies on public services is foundational to social order and to mitigating the change that has occurred as a result of war. There is no one right answer to all the functional changes to public administration, with regard to war as the many facets of war also create many facets of change in public administration. The level of degradation to physical and psychological networks must be analyzed…
Boleman, L., & Deal, T. (2003). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. Third Ed. . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bruck, T. (1997). Macroeconomic Effects of the War in Mozambique. QEH Working Paper Series QEHWPS11, 1-63.
Chopra, J., & Hohe, T. (2004). Participatory Intervention. Global Governance, 10-27.
Denhart, J., & Denhardt, R.B. (2007). The New Public Service. Revised Edition. Armonk, NY:: M.E. Sharpe.
Application to International Trade
Evaluation of New Governance
Application of New Governance to International Trade for Free Market
In today's robust world, scholars as well as the think tanks and tools of democracy and beaurcracy have been using a term "governance" or good governance rather frequently. Where governance in needed in every aspect of corporate management and public administration, it is important to understand how the very concept of governance has evolved over time. Old theory of governance has been replaced by its contemporary version which can be seen as a pre-requisite for the free trade regime especially for exporters. Where the new governance theory has a considerable impact on international trade; its effectiveness in public and private sector cannot be ignored.
Background of New Governance
Over past two decades, public and private organizations have followed a path of evolution. 'ayner's aiders' and the '3Es' of economy, efficiency…
Brown, A.G. & Stern, R.M. 2011. 'Free trade agreements and governance of the global trading'. University of Michigan.
Cleveland, Harland. 1972. The future executive: a guide for tomorrow's managers. New York: Harper & Row.
Heinrich, Carolyn J. And Laurence E. Lynn Jr., eds. 2000. Governance and performance: new perspectives. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Lynn, Laurence E. Jr., Carolyn Henrich, and Carolyn J. Hill. 2001. Improving governance: a new logic for empirical research. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Justice & Social Change
The author of this report has been exposed to several topics during the course of the current class. As explained in the parameters for this assignment, the author has discussed or read about organizational ethics, comparative ethics, the ethics of dissent, human rights, liberty, equity and equality. However, the topic of discussion for this report is justice. There is a lot of symbolism and imagery associated with justice including the statue of a blindfolded woman with a scale in her hand, among other things. The author will explain the meaning behind the symbolism. The author will also answer how the author's personal concept of justice influences the author's decisions as it relates to the ethical responsibilities of a public administrator. While being an ethical public administrator is often a straightforward task, there are some areas and situations that are less than easy to navigate.
Frederickson, H.G. (1990). Public administration and social equity. Public Administration Review, 50(2), 228 -- 237. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Mittelman, J.H. (2002). Making globalization work for the have nots. International Journal on World Peace, 19(2), 3 -- 25. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Yeager, S.J., Bartley Hildreth, W., Miller, G.J., & Rabin, J. (2007). The relative effects of a supervisory emphasis on ethical behavior vs. political responsiveness.
Public Integrity, 9(3), 265 -- 283. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Performance Effects of Transformational Leadership in Public Administration," Doina Popescu Ljungholm examines a number of components of job performance for those in public administrator positions that work with the government. The focus of the study examined in the article is on how individual perceptions help explain employee behavior, leadership within the context of democratic governance, public administrators within their context of democratic governance, and leadership policies in public sector settings (Ljungholm, 2014). The author's goal was to build upon prior research that suggested that there was a moral component to transformational leadership, the impact of that leadership on public service motivation, how leadership can promote the moral values that promote public service, and what relationship exists between leadership and team performance (Ljungholm, 2014).
Ljungholm examines the concept of mission valence. Mission valence is not directly impacted by transformational leadership, but refers to an employee's perceptions of how the company impacts…
Ljungholm, D.P. (2014). The performance effects of transformational leadership in public administration. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 6(1), 110-115.
Guerrilla Government and Waldo's Map of Ethical Obligations of a Public Servant
Public administrators are frequently faced with conflicting interests that demand a subjective analysis that can lead to suboptimal outcomes unless their professional obligations are taken into account. To gain some additional insights into these issues, this paper provides an explanation of the Nevada Four guerrillas' competing obligations using Waldo's map of ethical obligations of a public servant. An explanation concerning the impact of the guerrillas' actions on the individuals involved, the organization, and public policy is followed by a discussion concerning this author's disagreement with their actions and why.
eview and Discussion
The term "guerrilla government" is used to describe actions that are taken by career public servants that are contrary to the policies of their superiors for various reasons, primarily because they are dissatisfied with these policies but other reasons play a role as well (O'Leary, 2014).…
Cooper, T.L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (6th ed.). New York, NY: Jossey-Bass.
Chapter 8, "Safeguarding Ethical Autonomy in Organizations: Dealing with Unethical Superiors and Organizations" (pp. 197 -- 239)
O'Leary, R. (2014). The ethics of dissent: Managing guerrilla government (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Chapter 2, "Guerrilla Government and the Nevada Wetlands"
Public Administration and its Analysis
This is a paper on the concept and basis of Public Administration and the importance it holds in the field of management.
Defining the Breadth and Scope of Public Administration
In the early years of public administration was hailed as a strong and positive as a professional force for studying and putting into practice for the improvement and revamping of the administration of the federal, state and legislative government but also sure of the political and ethical authenticity of the field of public administration in performing that role.
In what is now known as the Classical period, the mind set of the people that were in the field of public administration were based on the resulting derivative of the theory and principles of values from the intellectual side of political science and, in the main part, from constitutional democratic theory. Woodrow Wilson is considered to…
Preface to Public Administration, A Search for Themes and Direction" by Richard J. Stillman II, copyright 1991 by St. Marin's Press, Inc. As the primary reference source":
U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996). Current Population Reports. No. P25-1130.
Noam, Eli (1995). Electronics and the Dim Future of the University. Science 270 (October 13): 247-249..
Klay, William Earle and Lance DeHaven-Smith (1997). It's the Economy (Values, Stupid! Findings of the FloridaScan Project. Futures Research Quarterly 13:4 (Winter): 51-73.
This is because, the various goals and the costs of providing these services are directly tied to this protocol. Once this takes place, it means that there are greater amounts of accountability. This is the point, that an agency can be able to improve communication and corroboration in achieving their different objectives. These elements are significant, because they are illustrating how the current approach that is being utilized, can improve their ability to address a wide variety of issues. However, in order for this kind of approach to be able to deal with a host of challenges it must be fully implemented. Otherwise, this will not change the environment of the agency and it will lead to similar kinds of problems in the future. (Heinrich, 1999, pp. 363 -- 378)
Clearly, performance management systems are helping and hurting the way various levels of governments are delivering various services. The reason…
Forrester, J. (1997). Budgetary Reform through Organizational Learning. Administration and Society, 28 (4), 466 -- 484.
Heinrich, C. (1999). Do Government Bureaucrats Make Effective Use of Performance Management Systems. Journal of Public Administration, 9 (3), 363 -- 378.
Joyce, P. (2003). Linking Performance and Budgeting. George Washington University, 4 -- 47.
Melkers, J. (2005). Models of Performance Measurement. Public Administration Review, 65 (2), 180 -- 189.
This debate does not include the fact that peer pressure in many public schools causes families to spend much more on "street clothes" so that their kids are not embarrassed or bullied because they do not have the latest fashions. (a single pair of the least expensive GAP girl's jeans can run $30 -- two to three times the cost of uniform pants or skirt). It seems clear that the argument that public school uniforms are more expensive may be difficult to prove.
The second, and most often used, argument against school uniforms is that they stifle self-expression and inhibit individuality. These are normally arguments from parents of children who have not yet participated in a school uniform policy. Most parents, in my research, who have a child who goes to a public school with a uniform policy say that their child expresses their individuality and self-expression in many other…
Educationbug.org. "Public SChool Uniform Statistics." 2010. educationbug.org. 17 March 2010 .
LBUSD. "School Uniform Fact Sheet." 2010. Long Beach Unified School District (LBUSD). 17 March 2010 .
public schooling harming our society?
The survey in this research effort will be intended to a randomly selected group of Americans outside the education system. This data will be collected to learn the attitudes and opinion of the public at large in relation to the public education system. The intent is to take a fresh and new look at the overall practicality, effectiveness and economics of the system and to learn what people are thinking about their personal experiences with their schooling.
The focus group source of data will help examine the research question by gathering data about how leaders in education are self-assessing their own performance. In this group, the goal is to attain honest and frank responses to important challenges that the public school system is providing. This group should include administrators, teachers, teachers aides, coaches and any other professional working directly in the public school…
Module 1 Activity. Provided by customer.
Administrative Strategies for Effective Communication
Education contains multiple responsibilities. One starts the learning process in the world from within the family nurture, before continuing to pursue formal education in schools and academy. However, human does not stop learning from their family. Getting exposed to higher education, they also learn things from hands-on experiences and from what are happening in their surroundings.
This reveals the fact that family and environment are two contributing factors, in addition to formal education process in official institution in a community. The three factors determine how education makes one person in the society a distinct, honorable man.
With the great potentials, now education has been a regional issue. Fully conventional learning processes have been attempted within the education system. However, with the growing needs to perform effective schooling and to gain the best academic result, educators realize the need to incorporate the three factors: school, parents,…
Chalkboard Tips and Resources. 1996. The Family Resource Coalition's Report "Parents Leading the Way" Vol. 15 No. 2. Web site: http://www.handinhand.org/parentinvolve.html.
ERIC Document. Communities Connecting Family and Schools. Strong Families, Strong Schools. Web site: http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/families/strong/community.html
ERIC Document. School-Family Web site: http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/families/strong/sfp.html.
ERIC Documents. Family Involvement. Strong Families, Strong Schools. http://eric-web.tc.columbia.eu/families/strong/involve.html.
Anti-Bullying as a Policy Change
Students have been bullied while at school since the beginnings of education. Originally they might have been bullied by the people who taught them, but much of that does not continue into the present say. However, students bullying other students does continue. Every child needs an advocate at their school whose function it is to make sure that they are not being bullied. Many times this happens informally when a school does not have a bullying program, but it can also happen formally. The need for advocacy programs within schools, both primary and secondary, that allow children to feel that they are safe from the time that they leave their homes until they arrive back at home in the afternoon is elemental. Because of the backlash that has happened at some schools due to being bullied, it is more vital than ever. Students…
Aluede, O., Adeleke, F., Omoike, D., & Afen-Akpaida, J. (2008). A review of the extent, nature characteristics and effects of bullying behavior in schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(2), 151-163.
Buck, L., & Willer, B. (2008). Advocacy for young children. In S. Feeney, A Galper, and C. Seefeldt Eds. Continuing issues in early childhood education (pp. 391-405). Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.
Hirschstein, M.K., Edstrom, L.V.S., Frey, K.S., Snell, J.L., & Mackenzie, E.P. (2007). Walking the talk in bullying prevention: Teacher implementation variables related to initial impact of the steps to respect program. School Psychology Review, 36(1), 3-21.
Jacobsen, K.E., & Bauman, S. (2007). Bullying in schools: School counselors' responses to three types of bullying incidents. Professional School Counseling, 11(1), 1-8.
CHIP: To Abolish or Not to Abolish
The State Children Health Insurance Plan (SCHIP), commonly referred to as CHIP (Children's Health Insurance Plan), is an insurance plan run by the Department of Health and Human Services, and which administers funds to states to enable them provide quality insurance coverage to eligible children within their jurisdictions. To be eligible for CHIP, a child needs to be from a family whose level of income is too low to qualify for private insurance coverage, but too high to be considered for Medicaid (Holtz-Eakin, 2014). With the introduction of the Obama Care Policy, however, which expanded the list of persons eligible for both Medicaid and CHIP, there came so many overlaps between CHIP and other secondary insurance options that budgetary allocations and funding to the former were threatened. Owing to this, there is a lot of controversy over whether funding to the CHIP ought…
CBO. (2014). An Update to the Budget and Economic Outlook 2014 to 2024. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO). Retrieved May 6, 2015 from http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/45653-OutlookUpdate_2014_Aug.pdf
Ewing, M.T. (Ed.). (2008). State Children's Health Insurance Program. New York, NY: Nova Publishers
GAO. (2012). What GAO Found. The Government Acounting Office (GAO). Retrieved May 7, 2015 from http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-648
Holtz-Eakin, D. (2014). The Children's Health Insurance Program: Status and Outlook. The United States Senate Committee on Finance: Subcommittee on Health. Retrieved May 6, 2015 from http://www.finance.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Testimony%20of%20Douglas%20Holtz-Eakin%20-%20Senate%20Finance%202014-09-16.pdf
Public Awareness Campaign: Child Exploitation on the Internet
Growing up in an era where the internet and video games take up more than 25% of a child's time made me realize just how integral technology has become to children's lives, and how vital it is that we increase our awareness on the dangers and benefits of technological advancement. Through this proposal, I intend to educate people, as well as myself, on how to handle the security risks that children are exposed to, online.
eports about children being abused and brutalized, either on the internet, or in the real world, have become an integral part of the news today. Not a day goes by without such kinds of reports; and what is even worse is that hundreds of cases remain unreported, and the culprits are left scot free, with immense avenues to identify and devour more unsuspecting children (Byron, 2008). Such…
Byron, T. (2008). Safer Children in a Digital World. The Report of the Byron Review. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/DCSF-00334-2008.pdf
ITU. (2012). Child Online Protection. International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://www.itu.int/osg/csd/cybersecurity/gca/cop/policy.html
NSPCC. (2014). How to Help Your Child Stay Safe Online: Tips, Controls, and Conversations to Help Keep Children Safe on the Internet and Social Networks. NPSCC. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://www.nspcc.org.uk/help-and-advice/for-parents/online-safety/how-to-help/help-child-safe-online_wda99633.html
Thierer, A. (2007). Two Sensible Education-Based Legislative Approaches to Online Child Safety. The Progress Freedom Foundation. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://www.pff.org/issues-pubs/ps/2007/ps3.10safetyeducationbills.html
Public administrators now play an increasingly prominent role in policy decision-making. This is to the point where their names and likenesses become inadvertently attached by the media to a policy and its implications. A current case in point would be Defense Secretary Donald umsfeld and the role he plays in shaping America's policy towards Iraq. Due to the media's focus on his opinions regarding that policy, the general public has come to identify him as one of the individuals most responsible for developing and supporting it.
The war in Iraq had always been a contentious issue for both the U.S. And the world since before its inception. Now the situation in postwar Iraq has become the latest hot topic for debate. It continues to cause political battles to be fought along party lines between American policymakers in the Bush administration and those in Congress. The main issue now is in…
Sammon, B. (2004, Dec. 4). Rumsfeld agrees to stay on as defense chief. The Washinton Times. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2004 from the Washington Times Website.
Bush comments on Thompson terror worries.( 2004, Dec. 4). The New York Times.
Retrieved Dec. 4, 2004 from the New York Times Website. .
Philosophy of Public Administration
Policy Making Process
Policymaking is the act of making laws or setting principles for a business or a government. The process includes the essentials of agenda setting, decision making, implementation of the policy and evaluation of the set standards to understand its impact upon the citizens and the society as a whole. The policy formulated needs to be effectively communicated at all organizational levels to ensure positive execution. The stated elements of policy making would be discussed individually in the paper.
Policy makers start the process by setting up an agenda to gain public and elite support. The agenda should be such so that it could narrow a set of feasible subjects to the set that essentially becomes the center of attention. The problem highlighted in an agenda should be convincible and captivating for the government officials and people external to the government and diligently associated…
Bamberger, M. (2009, June). Making Smart Policy: Using Impact Evaluation for Policy Making. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTISPMA/Resources/383704-1146752240884/Doing_ie_series_14.pdf
Cockrel, J. (1997). Public Policy Making in America. Retrieved from http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/ip/ip19/ip19.pdf :
speech of a public institution's faculty member to be protected under the Pickering/Connickline of cases, what criteria must be satisfied? Do these criteria suitably balance the interests of faculty members and the institution in the higher education context?
There are really two key principles that must be satisfied. The first is that the court determines whether the speech in question hinges on a matter of public concern. If it does, the court takes further criteria into consideration such as:
Whether the statement impairs discipline in school or harmony amongst superiors or amongst cookers.
Whether the statement has a negative impact on close working relationships
Whether the speech interferes with the way the operator usually conducts his business,
Yes, these criteria take the interests of faculty members and school into consideration.
Specifically, what was the fatal flaw in the instructor's speech? Was it the profanity itself? Or was it the belittling…
Modern Situational Policing Philosophy and Operational Methodology:
Operational methodology in modern police administration ranges from the no- tolerance approach end of the spectrum to the community policing end of the spectrum.
Instituting the right operational methodology requires the flexibility to adapt to the local environment and the procedural mechanisms to evaluate successes and failures. Both systems have their advantages where conditions are conducive to their methods; neither works particularly well where it is reflects only administrative decisions without careful consideration of the operational environment (Nolan et al. 2005).
Generally, the no tolerance approach is a function of the so-called "broken windows" theory, according to which seemingly minor issues such as the lowest level violations and the cosmetic deterioration of physical property correspond to increased crimes of more serious nature (Ellison 2006). The idea of no tolerance means mandatory enforcement of quality-of-life violations such as loitering, leash law infractions,…
Duff, H.W. Concerned Reliable Citizens' Program. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 75 No. 8 (Aug/06).
Ellison, J. Community Policing: Implementation Issues. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 75 No. 4 (Apr/06).
Hodges, K. Tracking "Bad Guys": Legal Considerations in Using GPS. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 76 No. 7 (Jul/07).
Nagosky, D.P. The Admissibility of Digital Photographs in Criminal Cases. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 74 No.12 (Dec/05).
Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
Adler, a. (1946). Understanding human nature. New York: Permabooks.
Ashour, a.S. (1973). The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: An Evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 9: 335-76.
Bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman. (Bass, B.M. 1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bennis, W., and B. Nanus. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
Perspectives of a Teacher and an Administrator on Education
This is a report on the results of an interview with two veteran educational professionals, a 2nd grade teacher and an administrator. These interviews were conducted to better understand the subject's viewpoints on education and to gain insight as to why they chose to pursue their careers in education. The teacher reported she had been in the classroom for 24 years as a teacher and had experience as an instructional aide previously. The administrator stated he had taught for 19 years before he assumed his duties as a principal eight years ago. The teacher's highest level of education was a Bachelors Degree in Education plus 30 units of graduate work, while the administrator said he had a Masters in Administration and supervision. Both subjects revealed that they each had a sister in the profession and the teacher's mother had…
hat It Takes To Be A Database Administrator
A database can be defined as an organized collection of data, most probably in digitized form. Data is organized within such databases primarily in such a way that it displays and supports the processing of the relevant aspects of the information as it is required by those who use the database. Databases are usually software management systems that are quite complex. The complexity is embedded in these databases to ensure the presence of security, and is also inherent due to the nature or quality of the information they carry, i.e., large amount of important data. [1: Microsoft. "Database Basics." Microsoft Office. March 2012 .]
Nowadays, the utilization of databases is so widespread amongst every sector of the business, that almost every other product, whether small or large, and technology, whether existing or latest, is dependent upon the usage of databases…
Work CitedSpeciss College. ."Database Administrator." 19 March 2010. .Microsoft. "Database Basics." Microsoft Office. March 2012 .Prakken Publications. "Database Administrator?" (n.d.).SFIAPlus. "Database Administrators." British Computer Society (Retrieved 2012-02-06).Staff, Yahoo! Education. "Telecommuting Careers." Yahoo! Education. March 2012 .]
Nevertheless, the role of a Database Administrator is a vital one for his or her employers, as most of the functions in these organizations heavily rely on the successful performance of the duties of a DBA. Although a tough job, this makes them one of the most sought after professionals by enterprises all over the economy, rewarding them accordingly with heavy pay checks for the nature of the work they perform.
A philosophy of caring and compassion is necessary but not sufficient for effective nurse administration. Nurse administrators assume additional duties and responsibilities when they manage health care facilities. In addition to understanding the regulations affecting day to day operations, nurse administrators need to have a firm command of financial management and human resources management expertise. Nurse administrators also need to know about how to form strategic alliances with partners in the community, government, and private sector. Essentially, nurse administrators tend to be relatively far removed from the job of actual nursing and provision of care, while also keeping in mind the need for patient-centric policies. Strong communication skills, organizational and coordination skills, leadership skills, and of course, strategic management skills are among the core characteristics of an effective nurse administrator.
Scope and Standards
A nurse administrator serves in an executive, managerial, and leadership position. The nurse administrator serves in…
Managers and human resource administrators therefore have to be aware not only of the legal aspects related to diversity but also to the dynamic potential that is an intrinsic part of this diversity.
With egard to the criminal justice system, diversity is an important part of protecting the rights of the employees, as well as adding to the depth of skills and talents in the system itself. A good example is the diversity training program developed by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice Human esources Division. This program allows for the protection of the rights of employees and subscribes to affirmative action legislation, while at the same time allowing for the application of the criminal law Federal Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Laws. These EEO laws include the Civil ights Act of 1964 (Title VII), 1967's Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), the American Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and the…
Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences: Code of Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.acjs.org/pubs/167_671_2922.cfm
Allen L. ( 2010) Rights of Employees in Public Criminal Justice Agencies. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/list_7257805_rights-public-criminal-justice-agencies.html#ixzz1CJtL1yzw
Chaires R. And Lentz S. Criminal justice employee rights: An overview. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 18(2), pp. 259-288). Retrieved from https://springerlink3.metapress.com/content/r6332435227u2273/resource-secured/?target=fulltext.pdf&sid=yg4izprlpy1eoz45mlixk355&sh=www.springerlink.com
NEW LEGISLATION GIVES CRIMINAL JUSTICE EMPLOYEES GREATER 'PEACE
Secondly, the student must meet the requirements for a home education program, which include the same curriculum as listed in Florida Statutes, 232.246(1) (Florida Statute 232.0201, 1993). During the time of participation, the student must show evidence of academic progress, as determined by an evaluation which may include a review of the student's work by a certified instructor, grades obtained through correspondence courses or community colleges, or standardized test scores (Florida Statute 232.0201, 1993). The student must register with the school at the beginning of the term in which they wish to participate (Florida Statute 232.425, 2003).
These requirements are difficult enough to enforce, but as noted, with proper testing and evaluation by qualified instructors, the curriculum and grading of home educated students appears to be very manageable. In the State of Florida, then, the academic requirements for sport participation are equal for both public and home educated students. Although…
Colb, S. (2005). Should home-schooled have access to public school programs? Retrieved from FindLaw database through CNN.com. Web site: http://www.cnn.com/2005/LAW/06/30/colb.home.school/ .
Craig Dickson Act, Florida State Statute, 2003, 232.425.
Exceptional Student Support Services (ESSS). (2002). Home School Brochure. Sanford, FL: Exceptional Student Support Services.
Florida State Statute, 1993, 232.0201.
Denhardt, Robert . (2008) Public Administration: An Action Orientation. elmont, CA: Wadsworth
In the chapter 9, Denhardt is talking about effective leadership inside public services organizations. As, the best entities will use communication, decision making, self-awareness, motivation and group dynamics to help inspire employees. Where, public sectors managers are concentrating how these elements can contribute to increased amounts of accountability and transparency inside the government itself. Once this takes place, it means that most organizations will be responsive to the needs of constituents. This is the point that effective leadership can improve the overall services that are being provided to stakeholders. (Denhardt, 2008, pp. 329 -- 366)
Summary 2: Ingraham, P. (2004). Models and Assumptions for Leadership Development. Review of Public Personal Administration, 24 (2), 95 -- 112.
In the article that was written by Ingraham (2004), she is discussing the impact of changes that are taking place on public…
Denhardt, R. (2008). Public Administration: An Action Orientation. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Ingraham, P. (2004). Models and Assumptions for Leadership Development. Review of Public Personal Administration, 24 (2), 95 -- 112.
As a result, American public schools require policies and curriculum practices that specifically address these increasingly important issues. In this regard, there must be a comprehensive curriculum developed that provides the level of education concerning other peoples and their cultures for America's public school students. Time is of the essence and half-measures will not be sufficient to meet these important needs. Policymakers must take action today to address these pressing issues before even more violence and multicultural strife wrack the nation's schools. In this regard, the WebQuest approach to encouraging students to learn more about other cultures has been proven to be an effective adjunct to the public school teacher's repertoire of tools, and this method should be applied to the issue of fostering intercultural harmony in the nation's public schools.
Brawarsky, S. (1997). Carnegie Corporation's Youth Intergroup elations Initiative. eport of a meeting convened by Carnegie Corporation of…
Brawarsky, S. (1997). Carnegie Corporation's Youth Intergroup Relations Initiative. Report of a meeting convened by Carnegie Corporation of New York. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 426-165).
Downey, P., & Milson, a.J. (2001). WebQuest: Using Internet resources for cooperative inquiry. Social Education, 65(3), 144.
Ihator, a. (2000). Understanding the cultural patterns of the world -- an imperative in implementing strategic international PR programs. Public Relations Quarterly, 45(4), 38.
Merryfield, M.M. (2001). The paradoxes of teaching a multicultural education course online. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(4), 283.
Ineffective Public Policy -- No Child Left Behind
One of the most widely criticized educational policies of recent years was / is No Child Left Behind. It is widely referred to an ineffective policy (or legislation). Despite high hopes and bipartisan support, the policy has not worked out as planned. This paper delves into the problems with No Child Left Behind -- and will present the changes that could make it stronger and more effective.
No Child Left Behind -- The Problems and Criticisms
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation (signed into law by President George . Bush in 2002) was launched, according to authors Deborah Meier and George ood, in a bipartisan spirit in order to do something "positive in the wake of the terrorist attacks" of September 11, 2001 (Meier, et al., 2004). In the Introduction to their book, Meier and ood, founding members of the Forum…
Alexander, Lamar. "A Better Way to Fix No Child Left Behind." The New York Times.
Retrieved November 1, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2011.
Meier, Deborah, and Wood, George. Harrison. Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child
Left Behind Act is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Peculiar Ethics of Public Leadership: Pragmatism as a Framework for Action in Public Service
The objective of this study is to examine pragmatism as a framework for action in public services. Towards this end, this work will conduct an extensive review of literature in this area of study.
According to the work of Keith F. Snider entitled "ethinking Public Administration's oots in Pragmatism: The Case of Charles A. Beard" reports that pragmatism because very prominent "around the turn of the 20th century…through the ideas of well-known writers such as William James and John Dewey." (2008) Comaeger (1950) stated that pragmatism is "almost the official philosophy of America." (Stever, 2008) The work of Shields (nd) explains that classical pragmatism "is attractive because it has both depth and complexity." Shields states that these characteristics "have made it difficult to summarize and easy to misinterpret." (nd) Classical pragmatism has been held by scholars…
Dewey, J. (1927). The public and its problems. New York: Henry Holt.
Dewey, J. (1929). The quest for certainty. New York: Minton, Balch.
Dewey, J. (1998). The essential Dewey (vol. 1, L.A. Hickman & T.M. Alexander, Eds.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Garrison, J. (2000) Pragmatism, and Public Administration. Administration & Society; Sep 2000; 32,4:ABI/INFORM Global.
, although more governments are including citizen satisfaction survey results to address the lack-of-quality-indicators criticism. Ultimately, the article's key findings can be summarized in the four lessons learned from the states that the authors provide: (1) the importance of working proactively to identify roles and responsibilities; (2) the importance of committed leadership; (3) the importance of balancing political, managerial and performance measurement accountability; and (4) The importance of clarity and simplicity.
The article also brings to light the legitimacy of other readings in this unit; most notably, Wamsley and colleagues' (1987) Public Administration and the Governance Process. Although this essay was written almost a quarter of a century ago, the statements expressed about accountability and transparency are as relevant today as they were at the time of the writing. Wamsley et al.'s "concern for the more inclusive principals we commonly call the public interest" (p. 301) largely mirror the concerns…
Behn Robert. "The New Public Management Paradigm and the Search for Democratic Accountability," International Public Management Journal. 1998. (1:2):131-164
Brown, Trevor and M. Potoski. Transaction Costs and Institutional Explanations for Government Production Decisions. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 13:4 (2003): 441-468.
Johnston, Jocelyn, Barbara Romzek and Curtis Wood. The Challenges of Contracting and Accountability Across the Federal System: From Ambulances to Space Shuttles. Publius: The Journal of Federalism. 2004 (34:3): 155-182.
Klingner, Donald, John Nalbandian and Barbara Romzek, Politics, Administration and Markets: Conflicting Expectations and Accountability. American Review of Public Administration. 32:2 (2002): 117-144. .
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, although more governments are including citizen satisfaction survey results to address the lack-of-quality-indicators criticism. Ultimately, the article's key findings can be summarized in the four lessons learned from…Read Full Paper ❯