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Public Policy in Local Government
In a general setting, the public policy is understood as a set of regulations implemented by the state in order to manage a specific issue within the parameters imposed by the current legislations. In a different formulation,
"Public policy can be generally defined as a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives" (Kilpatrick).
The public policies implemented by the United States government are numerous and complex, to target virtually every field of life, such as education, infrastructure, business regulation and so on. While all public policies are equally important within a democratic society, there are some policies which raise more interest from the public and this is due to their applicability in a specific context, or the impact they generate within the community.
Within the modern day society, some…
Auriol, E. (2009). Government outsourcing: public contracting with private money. Vox. http://www.voxeu.org/article/benefits-government-outsourcing accessed on December 17, 2012
Figgis, H., Griffith, G., (1997). Outsourcing in the public sector. http://126.96.36.199/prod/parlment/publications.nsf/9d987d06713c5f544a2565990002a1c5/ef5487324eb40557ca256ecf000a1fe5/$FILE/22-97.pdf accessed on December 17, 2012
Kilpatrick, D.G. Definitions of public policy and the law. MUSC. http://www.musc.edu/vawprevention/policy/definition.shtml accessed on December 17, 2012
(2004). Taxpayers benefit from government outsourcing. American Council of Engineering Companies of Colorado. http://www.acec-co.org/legislative/TaxpayersBenefitfromGovernmentOutsourcingF.PDF accessed on December 17, 2012
PUBLIC COUPTION IS AN OBSTACLE TO a COUNTY'S DEVELOPMENT
PUBLIC COUPTION AS AN OBSTACLE TO A COUNTY'S DEVELOPMENT
Public Corruption as an Obstacle to a Country's Development
Public Corruption as an Obstacle to A Country's Development
Public Corruption as an Obstacle to A Country's Development
Public corruption is viewed generally like an obstacle that stops equitable existence of developing countries. In many nations, corruption has been termed as an evil that bites to death. Many humanitarian organizations and aid systems as well as donor-states have distinct directives to deal with this problem in the society. In nations that have intensified occurrences of corruption, perceptions have been developed that corruption is pervasive and with immense benefits. The western nations perceive corruption with innate benefits to the involved people. While not being something to reckon in the society, corruption has destroyed many structural features of development in developing and developed nations (Gray…
Alatas, H., S., (1999). Corruption and the Destiny of Asia (Singapore, Simon and Schuster
(Asia) Pte. Ltd.).
Asia-Pacific Development Journal. (2000). Corruption: causes, consequences and cures,
Asia-Pacific Development Journal. Vol. 7, No. 2.
Hence amachandra did not only discuss the problems of an illiterate powerful feudal system and leave the reader in confusion but he also gives the solution. Education is the solution he concludes.
amachandra believes that the freedom of speech and the right to select religion are also basic human rights. Yet he makes a point little tricky to understand. He says that the religious freedom is much more complex than the freedom of speech. He believes so because he says that the religious beliefs define a person's coarse of actions in life (amachandra, 2008). He believes that the right to freedom for assault is more important than the human right to be left also in deciding things. Hence he says that a person should first be protected against the evil and only then can he lead to better life that offers him rest of the human rights.
The human right…
Edger, B., (n.d.). "Asbury Theological Seminary the Apostolic Ministry
Of Thinking Theologically and Publically," Public Theology Notes, thinking theologically
Edgar, B., (n.d.), "Life in God: The Experience of the Trinity in Personal and Public Life,"
The Trinity in Public Life
Public Policy Analysis
Introducing more PE into schools as a way of reducing childhood obesity
Childhood obesity is one of the most commonly-identified problems facing the nation today, yet lawmakers have struggled to address it effectively because of its multifactorial nature. "It is the No. 1 health problem in children…a study this year in the New England Journal of Medicine reported that obese children were twice as likely to die of disease by age 55" (Netter 2010). The food the child consumes at home; the food the child consumes at school; the child's level of physical activity; genetics; and possibly other as-yet unidentified factors all contribute to a child's body mass. However, while there is no 'silver bullet' solution, mandatory PE classes are an important step forward in reducing obesity. "Only six states nationwide require the recommended 150 minutes of elementary school-based physical education" (PE programs, 2012, Huffington Post). This…
Greenlaw, Ellen. (2012). What do you know about PE for kids? Web MD. Retrieved:
Netter, Sarah. (201). More students opting out of phys ed classes despite obesity epidemic.
ABC News. Retrieved:
Some of the communication technologies include news content, internet (social media platforms), campaigns, billboard advertisements, and organized interaction forums
. These technologies are essential in enhancing interactions between the society and the state thus promotion of good or effective governance. Communication practices are forms of communication such as language, setting, mode, target audience, and content of information shared between the sender and the receiver. Communication practices and technology focuses on the promotion of transnational, public spheres, publics, and counter-publics across the globe.
The public sphere provides space for communication of ideas and projects thus valuable decisions within the institutions of the society
. The global civil society focuses on the organization and expression of values and interests of the society. Polity of the society relates to the relationship and interaction between the government and civil society through the concept of the public sphere. The process of globalization has enhanced the…
Gestrich, Andreas. 2006. "The Public Sphere and the Habermas Debate." German History 24,
no. 3: 413-430.
Aestheticisation. 2006. "In Key Concepts in Political Communication." Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/sageukpc/aestheticisation
Ziyaad Lunat. 2008. "The Internet and the Public Sphere: Evidence from Civil Society in Developing Countries." EJISDC (2008) 35, 3, 1-12
Public Sector Unions
Public-Sector Unions in United States
HISTOY OF PUBLIC SECTO UNIONS
COSTS OF PUBLIC SECTO UNIONS OVE THEI BENEFITS
DEMOGAPHICS OF LABO IN AMEICA
EDGE OF PUBLIC-SECTO UNIONS OVE PIVATE ONES
THE HIDDEN COSTS OF PUBLIC UNIONS
THE DISTOTION OF DEMOCATIC POLITICS
STATE UNIONS VS. FEDEAL UNIONS
THE FUTUE OF PUBLIC SECTO UNIONIZATION
HISTOY OF PUBLIC SECTO UNIONS
Labor unions are seen as the representatives of the labor employed in our industries and are known as the advocates of the labor's rights. Although labor unions are supposed to fight for the rights of the working class but whether it is performing the role assigned to it efficiently or not, is still a matter of question. America has a century long history of labor unions. The earlier part of the century showcases a violent attitude in the labor unions' activities which grew calmer in the later end. What made…
Adler, J. (2006). A Word (or Two) about Public Sector Collective Bargaining. Public Personnel Management, 35(4), 261+. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020031015
Belman, D., & Heywood, J., & Lund, J. (1997, July). Public sector earnings and the extent of unionization. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 50, # 4. Retrieved from: https://www.msu.edu/~drdale/Publications/Public%20Sector/Public%20Sector%20Earnings%20and%20the%20Extent%20of%20Unionization.pdf
Bennet, J. & Master, M.R. (2003). The future of public sector labor-management relations. Journal of Labor Relations, 24(2) 533-544.
Brown, K.C. (2010). Public-sector unions. Retrieved from the Monthly Review.org web-site: http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/2010/brown200510.html
The assessment becomes biased, especially when a PSC is compared to the PPP bid of a willing company. Moreover, if un-affordability and budgetary limits exclude traditional procurement, the project will not progress. This is the case when the submitted bids do not reflect value for money and there is no delivery. This situation and the strong desire to deliver may indicate an inclination to bias the PSC to make PPP represent value for money (OECD). #
DFPNI. OC and FC Requirements. Northern Ireland Guide to Expenditure Appraisal
and Evaluation: Department of Finance and Personnel, 2010. Retrieved on January 19,
2012 from http://www.dfpni.gov.uk/index/finance/eap-ppp/eag_obc_OCandFCRequirements.htm
Leigland, J. Is the Public Sector Right for Developing Countries? Gridlines number 8,
PPIAF, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility, 2008. Retrieved on January 17,
2012 from http://www.info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/240061/1STHEO~1.PDF
OECD. Public-Private Partnerships Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2008.
Pangeran, M.H. And Wirahadikusumah R.D. Challenges in Public Sector Comparator
DFPNI. OBC and FBC Requirements. Northern Ireland Guide to Expenditure Appraisal
and Evaluation: Department of Finance and Personnel, 2010. Retrieved on January 19,
2012 from http://www.dfpni.gov.uk/index/finance/eap-ppp/eag_obc_OBCandFBCRequirements.htm
Leigland, J. Is the Public Sector Right for Developing Countries? Gridlines number 8,
However, there are many limitations that are seen when it comes to the public policy ideas that are generated and the value they have (Newton & Van Deth, 2005). The first limitation is the perceived value of an idea for a public policy creation or change. In other words, if the community (or at least a large portion of it) does not see the value of the idea there is very little chance that the idea will become public policy - even if it could have helped a large number of people (Audretsch, Gilbert, & McDougall, 2004). While that is not the only limitation of ideas for public policy, it is one of the strongest. In order for the policy to be modified or created, the idea to do so must get off the ground and have support behind it. That support has to come from the community and also…
Audretsch, D.A., Gilbert, B.A., & McDougall, P.P. (2004). The emergence of entrepreneurship policy. Small Business Economics, 22.
Audretsch, D.B., Grilo, I., & Thurik, a.R. (2007). Explaining entrepreneurship and the role of policy: a framework, in: David Audretsch, Isabel Grilo and a. Roy Thurik (eds.), Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship Policy. New York, NY: Edward Elgar Publishing
Blyth, M. (2002). Great transformations: Economic ideas and institutional change in the twentieth century. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Boix, C. (2003). Democracy and redistribution. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Public Private Police
elationship between private and public police
Before discussing the relationship between private and public police it is important to understand what the terms policing, private space, and public space mean. Policing can be defined as the "preservation of peace, that is, to the maintenance of a way of doing things where persons and property are free from unwarranted interference so that people may go about doing their businesses normally" (Clifford, 1992). A public space can be defined as a space that is generally open and accessible to all whereas a private space has restrictions of access.
For quite a long time it has been the duty of public police to protect the society and the property that fall under the defined areas of operation. However, in present day it is common to find private and public police working together regularly at both private and public functions. Although…
Clifford, D.S. (1992). "The Relation between Public and Private Policing" Crime and Justice
Vol. 15, pp. 399-434
Insurance Crime Prevention Institute Reports (1981) January.
Li, G. (2008). Private security and Public policing. Retrieved May 10, 2009, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2008010/article/10730-eng.htm
Public Key Infrastructure
Email communication has strongly increased in the last couple of years and its still growing. It's hard to find a company which doesn't use email to run its business processes both within the company and with external business partners and clients. Therefore, the eminent security threat to the company's network infrastructure and content of the company products should be priories. The use of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) would eliminate the threat. Public key infrastructure (PKI) can be defined as the use of public key and private key pair for authentication and proof content (H Johner, 2010).
Its combined hardware and software component, policies and different procedures together to avail stick security regulation. The public key infrastructure (PKI) is called certificate and work as digital indemnification. It offers certainty of quality of information sent and received electronically and the source and destination of such information. The information with…
IQ Suite (2009). Public-Key Infrastructures and the Encryption Methods PGP and S/MIME
PKI Fundamentals -- iQ
Adonis (2005). An Introduction to PKI (Public Key Infrastructure)
Public Health Care Agency and Contribution to Core Functions of Public Health
The objective of this study is to examine a public health agency and its contribution to the core functions of public health. The public health agency chosen in this study is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also known as the CDC for short states its mission as being that of collaborating to "create the expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health -- through health promotion, prevention of disease, injury and disability, and preparedness for new health threats." (2012, p.1) The CDC is stated to be in search of partners throughout the United States and the world who will assist in accomplishing the CDC's mission in monitoring health; detecting and investigating health problems; conducting research to enhance prevention; development and advocating sound public health…
Business Practices (2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/about/businessPractice.htm#Imp
Employment (2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/employment/recruitment/
CDC: Mission, Core Values, and Pledge (2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from; http://www.cdc.gov/about/organization/mission.htm
Top Jobs and the CDC (2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/employment/menu_topjobs.html
If we can institute more policies to make STEM education within our higher education system more inclusive, we can assume that this diversity will make STEM attractive to minority students. In order for policy makers to know where to begin with minority students, they need to know what is preventing them from getting a good STEM education, what factors have contributed to minorities who are successful in this field and what can be done to improve student's interest and success in STEM. There are a number of factors which can prevent minorities' access to a STEM education. School funding is one of the biggest obstacles. From an economic perspective, more funding is poured into the schools in wealthier neighborhoods than in poor neighborhoods. This means that the schools in wealthier districts will have more opportunities at a better education than students in the poorer districts ("Factors in K-12 Education," 2011).…
Atkinson, R.D. (2012). Why the current education reform strategy won't work. Issues in Science & Technology, 28(3), 29-36.
Bybee, R.W. (2010). Advancing STEM education: A 2020 vision. Technology & Engineering Teacher, 70(1), 30-35.
Duff, M. (2012). 10 steps to creating a cutting-edge STEM school library. Young Adult Library Services, 10(2), 24-28.
Factors in K -- 12 education that influence the success of racial and ethnic minority students in the STEM circuit. (2011). ASHE Higher Education Report, 36(6), 27-52.
evenues for the Miami Dade Police Department 2011 to 2012
Amount (in thousands of dollars)
Parking / Traffic Surcharges
("FY 2011-2012 Budget," 2011)
These numbers are showing how the Miami Dade Police Department receives additional forms of income from various fees, contract services, grants and other programs. The combination of these elements is used to provide the community with protective services.
How are the revenue amounts expected to change in the future?
The U.S. Government
In the future, revenues for the U.S. government are expected to increase. Evidence of this can be seen by looking that the below table (which is showing income projections from 2012 to 2014).
evenues Projections for the U.S. Government from 2012 to 2015
Individual Income Tax
Corporate Income Tax
Social Insurance and etirement eceipts
City of Miami Annual Budget. (2012). City of Miami. Retrieved from:
Fiscal Year 2013 Budget. (2012). GPO. Retrieved from:
Public, Personal Clouds
Amazon Web Services is an anthology of remote computing services, which make up a cloud-computing platform provided by Amazon. Nevertheless, Amazon is a renowned company in the Web business, but other companies such as Apple have a big market share. Some of the services offered by Amazon include Amazon EC2, and Amazon S3, the latter is a storage service where people can store their things, such as documents photos, or music (Amazon, 2013). The is the popular Amazon Cloud Drive, which the company established as a business strategy to raise its market share in an attempt to bridge the competitive gap from Apple.
The drive is external, and works in a similar manner as the common computer hard disk because its main purpose is storage; however, it is online-based. Most importantly, one can access the Cloud Drive from any browser, and the company offers its consumers a…
Amazon. (2013). Service legal agreement EC2. Amazon Web Services. Retrieved 22 December
2013 from http://aws.amazon.com/ec2-sla/
Amazon. (2013). About AWS. Amazon Web Services. Retrieved 23 December 2013 from http://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/
Apple. (2013). iCloud terms and conditions. Apple. Retrieved 22 December 2013 from https://www.apple.com/legal/internet-services/iCloud/en/terms.html
Public Needs to Know
Is it possible to balance the public need to know and the need for secrecy on issues relating to national security? This is a question that has been floated in quite a number of forums. While there are those who push for absolute or partial secrecy when it comes to issues touching on national security, others are convinced that the public need to know should be upheld by backing a free press. I support the latter view.
In a society considered truly self-governing, authority is delegated to political leaders, judges and legislators and the public largely depends on free information flow so as to engage in meaningful debate and make relevant contributions on public issues. According to Killenberg (2007), majority of "Americans lack the means and time to stay fully informed." This in the author's opinion has meant that members of the fourth estate have to…
FRONTLINE (2007, February 7th). Interviews: Dean Banquet. Retrieved January 28th, 2012, from PBS website: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/newswar/interviews/baquet.html
Killenberg, G.M. (2007). Public Affairs Reporting Now: News of, by and for the People. Oxford: Elsevier.
This is a contractual obligation, as money has been received for a certain service.
This is closely related to the third obligation in the model, which is "duty to the organization." The press has an obligation to provide the public with a wide variety of viewpoints in order to ensure public debate and accurate information. If a certain piece of information is withheld from the public as a result of its controversial content, this constitutes unfair censorship. The general principle of the press is to promote knowledge rather than censorship. Hence, information that could cause disagreement should not be withheld on those grounds alone.
On the other hand, the press in general also has a duty to society in terms of providing accurate information. The advertisement is in direct opposition to generally accepted facts regarding slavery. Hence publishing it on the strength merely of publishing whatever opinion is paid for…
The presence of water is also central to the architecture of mosques, albeit for religious more than aesthetic purposes.
Conclusion: Two Squares, Two Cultures
The Place de la Concorde shares more in common with the Maidan-i-Shah than is immediately apparent. The two squares are about the same size: around 8 hectares. Both have been used for multiple purposes and whisper the changes that have taken place within their respective cities. Political and social life has centered on each of these public spaces.
More than a century separates the two squares, as the Maidan-i-Shah in the early seventeenth century and the Place de Louis XV in the mid-eighteenth century. The architecture and intended use of the two squares proves to be radically different. Unlike the Maidan-i-Shah, the Place de la Concorde serves no religious function. The lack of places of worship as part of the city square speaks directly to the…
Boyer, M.C. (1996). The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments. MIT.
Carmona, M. (2003). Public Spaces, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press.
The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). Public space. Urban Design. Retrieved online: http://www.urbandesign.org/publicspace.html
Craven, J. (n.d.). Public spaces: cities, towns, and landscapes. About.com Guide to Architecture. Retrieved online: http://architecture.about.com/od/urbandesign/u/PublicSpaces.htm
Addressing this issue is a matter of policy, and difficult to address at the management level. However, extensive recruiting procedures in diverse communities may help to combat the continued disparity of advantages for many minorities. In addition, social representation can be achieved by promoting educational and employment opportunities in a variety of socio-economic settings. The use of internships can also create exposure both of public agencies and of the diverse emerging workforce.
5) There are many different variables that contribute to achieving productivity in the workplace. Research shows that employee satisfaction with their work is a major factor in determining employee productivity. Satisfaction can be improved with increased benefits, including increased wages and salaries, but another very important factor in job satisfaction is the employee's interest in their work and the belief that they are necessary. Promoting a workplace that shows how much it values its employees is essential to…
By bringing into the equation of transitional services the special needs personnel at local colleges and vocational institutions, the interagency agreement described here will ensure that upon the student's eventual arrival at one such institution, there will be people familiar with his case and prepared to accommodate his needs. These respective agency types can then help a disabled student to train a focus on the specific career goals which have been identified either with the assistance of counselors.
Using the Strategic Planning Meeting as a method to identifying willing and helpful stakeholders in the process, the public partnership in question relies heavily on such networking to both orient the community toward our collective goals and to foster natural communication between such agencies at a personal level. By inviting and bringing into contact such groups as decision-makers from local law organizations, leaders from public recreation leagues and university personnel, as well…
Graddy, E. & Chen, B. (2006). Influences on the size and scope of networks for social service delivery. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Advance Access.
Milward, H.B. & Provan, K.G. (2006). A Manager's Guide to Choosing and Using Collaborative Networks. Network and Partnership Series.
Office of Career Assessment, Planning and Placement (OCAPP). Setting a Course for Students with Disabilities & their Parents. Charlottesville City Schools. Online at www.ccs.k12.va.us/departments/items/career/docs/TransitionWebPage.pdf
(iii) Among the ones who are dependent on transit, merely 37% stated that they would drive to work by availing the services of an automobile if available. Almost 50%of those driving to work could be taken as potential transit riders depending on flexibility and convenience of availability of transit services. (iv) the other factors which would fuel more use of transit were services of non-transfer nature, express avenues and higher fees for parking. (v) Congestion in traffic was regarded as a very grave situation in 36% among the respondents and fairly serious by 28%. (Byrd, 621) d) Steps to improve transit image and attract choice riders:
Among the modes of transit, introduction of a Bus apid Transit -- BT is a novel innovation which can be promoted as a measure for improvement of the failing image of transit among the population. A good implementation normally entails several of the features…
Bailey, Lee Worth. The enhancements of technology.
University of Illinois Press. 2005.
Byrd, Joseph. P. "Perceptions of Public Transportation." In Public Transportation: Planning,
Operations and Management, G.E. Gray and L.A. Hoel, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979, pp: 617-633.
The ole of Management Information System in Decision Making in Public Administration (Case Study on Hungarian Central Statistical Office)
Organizations require appropriate information in the form of proper databases and reports which plays a pivotal role in decision making. The quality of data holds significant importance as the top management of large organizations derives its high level decisions mostly from the available data rather than inspecting the in depth core activity components. This fact is depicted by the analysis of a case study pertaining to the implementation of a Management Information System (MIS) in the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, which has ultimately improved the quality of information flow within the organization. This paper examines how the implementation of an MIS within HCSO lead to the standardization of report formats and operational data collection procedures. Not only this, the paper will also highlight the role played by an MIS…
HCSO Strategy 2005-2008 "Hungarian Central Statistical Office." Budapest (2005), Accessed
January 9, 2013 Download at:
According to Fickes, GAS 34 changes traditional government accounting to give the readers of government financial reports a more accurate reading of everything (2002). Private accounting firms do not follow these standards because they are not responsible for being accountable to the taxpayers.
udgeting and Financial Reporting in the Government
The government cannot just act as it wishes when it comes to budgeting and financial reporting. For this reason, there is the Governmental Accounting Standards oard. It is important to budget in order for there to be accurate financial reporting of government operations. The relationship that government budgeting has to financial reporting is that is has the effect of keeping the budging above board and discouraging anything that is not considered above board. Knowing that the budget can and will be made available to the public makes those doing the budget accountable for their actions.
Kloby says there may be…
Fickes, Michael. (2002). Weighing in on infrastructure valuation. American City & County, 117(8), 44-47.
Kloby, K. (2009). Less is more: Exploring citizen-based financial reporting in local government. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, 21(3), 368-392.
McGee, R.W. (2004). The philosophy of taxation and public finance. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
The private security field also underwent significant reforms in connection with the qualifications, training, and (especially) vetting of employment candidates as well Ortmeier, 2009). Ironically, instead of recognizing the comprehensive improvement throughout the private security industry after 2001, many police personnel intensified their pre-existing disdain for all non-sworn security professionals instead (Dalton, 2003).
The Conceptual Significance of Public and Private Spaces
One of the worst consequences of the antagonism on the part of police toward private security forces is that the private security industry could actually provide valuable assistance to the overall interest of national, regional, and local security. Whereas the actions of all government policing and law enforcement authorities is very strictly limited by fundamental constitutional principles (especially in connection with 4th Amendment search and seizure concepts), non-governmental security agents can operate with considerably wider latitude (Larsen, 2007). In general, private security personnel may conduct various types of searches…
Dalton D. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post-9/11 Era. Burlington, MA:
Larsen R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
Ortmeier P. (2009). Security Management: An Introduction. Uppers Saddle River,
" (Iraq Body Count). To begin to understand the extent of the problem, the media needs to address the following questions about civilian deaths: "ho is killing them? How are they being killed? ho is being killed? How do current patterns compare to earlier periods?" (Iraq Body Count). hile these questions can be answered for some of the civilian deaths, many of the murdered are targeted in anonymous killings, like bombings, while others are kidnapped and executed, making it virtually impossible to assign blame for the deaths. The highest numbers of deaths are linked to Coalition and anti-Coalition violence, but the underlying causes of those deaths are too complex to attribute to Coalition involvement in Iraq. The more insurmountable these problems became, the less press coverage they got, despite the fact that actual conditions were not improving. In fact, press coverage became so biased against Iraqis who complained about life…
Damon, Arwa. "Signs of Torture' You Can't Imagine." CNN.com. 2008. Turner
Broadcasting System, Inc. 25 Jan. 2009 http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/meast/03/12/iraq.women/index.html .
Iraq Body Count. "Post-Surge Violence: Its Extent and Nature." Iraq Body Count. 2008. Iraq
Body Count. 25 Jan. 2009 http://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/surge -
This results in healthy, hygienic practices such as washing hands, cooking meat properly, and ensuring a sufficient daily intake of the correct nutrients without encouraging obesity.
Government legislation is another important component in public health infrastructure. This component is essential in protecting the public from unsafe foods such as unpasteurized milk, dangerous insecticides used on fruit and vegetables, and disease-carrying components in imported foods (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report., 1999).
In terms of food security, all the above components of the public health infrastructure can be utilized to help those who feel insecure of their food supply. A thorough scientific investigation can be backed by the other components in order to remedy the situation.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: afer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4840a1.htm
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20).…
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Safer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4840a1.htm
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20). Self-Reported Concern About Food Security - Eight States, 1996 -- 1998. October 20, 49(41);933-6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4941a2.htm#top
The critics of the drug testing policies argue, however, that the policies work to unfairly single out specific athletes for close scrutiny, tempts many of these same athletes to find ways to cheat the test, and that testing also violates the Constitutional right of privacy (McCabe & icciardelli, 2001).
Both arguments are significant, but the main point is that these testing policies and the steroid use that they are involved with have to be dealt with by those that handle public relations, both involving the players and the media/public. Without these public relations individuals, the players could have serious problems with the way that they were viewed by the public, and those that want or do not want the testing could also be viewed rather harshly, so it is important that they have good public relations. This is not always easy, as there are many issues that must be…
Diacin, M.J., Parks, J.B., & Allison, P.C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1): 1-16
McCabe, M.P., & Ricciardelli, L.A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.
Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.
This means that the government should fund abortions despite of where they are performed whether in hospitals or clinics. This can be achieved through passing legislation to support pro-choice care for all pregnant women. Allowing abortions only in particular situations is a form of discrimination and in order to ensure that Americans have the necessary system that supports the choice of women to get an abortion, the government needs to pass legislation that funds abortion clinics. This will ensure that all women despite their social class have the right to make decisions about their childbearing and their reproductive health and not leaving this to only those who are able to afford to pay for abortion.
Shortage of abortion providers
There has been a shortage of abortion providers over the years as a result of the lack of experience in conducting abortions for doctors since despite their medical education, they are…
Jane Roe, Et Al. V. Henry Wade, District Attorney of Dallas County Roe v. Wade. U.S. Supreme Court 1973.
Haney, J. The Abortion Debate: Understanding the Issues. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Pub Incorporated, 2008. Print.
Henshaw, S.K., and L.B. Finer. "The Accessibility of Abortion Services in the United States, 2001." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 35.1 (2003): 16-24. Print.
Weisberg, D.K. Family Law. New York: Aspen Pub, 2008. Print.
A significant amount of effort is dedicated towards the process of developing new public programs since such programs are not similar to business enterprises. Therefore, the process of public budgeting requires consideration and inclusion of public policies. In essence, public policies should be translated into discussions regarding the annual budget through evaluation of the monetary demands of such policies on public revenue. During this process, policy makers should be bound by the financial requirements of the various alternatives. As part of translating public policies into discussions on annual budget, policy makers should eliminate certain policy alternatives from consideration if the alternatives create huge fiscal demands on public revenue. The need for policy makers to eliminate such alternatives is fueled by the fact that the government is permitted to collect revenue only as long as the benefits of the generated revenue exceeds the loss realized by contributors of the…
"Budget Preparation." (n.d.). International Monetary Fund. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/expend/guide3.htm
"Chapter 4 -- Budgetary Control." (n.d.). FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/w4343e/w4343e05.htm
In practice, the use of various provisions of PL 107-56 did not conform to required protocols, demonstrated the difficulty of ensuring proper adherence to intended safeguards against misuse, and, in fact, included numerous instances where government agents misused provisions intended to address terrorism for acts of political persecution and to intimidate public critics of the U.S. government (Huffington Post, 2009).
Should terrorism be treated as a criminal act or an act of war?
There are good reasons for both approaches as well as equally good reasons for arguing against both approaches. To the extent that terrorism is perpetrated by state-actors, it is appropriately prosecuted as an act of war. However, it is highly impractical (and logically indefensible) to treat lone terrorists or autonomous extremist groups who commit acts of terror as enemy combatants under the Geneva Convention, which would be required if terrorism were prosecuted as a war (Larsen, 2007).…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Huffington Post. (2009). "NSA Whistleblower Reveals Bush Administration Snooping
on U.S. Citizens, Journalists." Retrieved March 29, 2011 from the HuffingtonPost.com website, at:
If Hiibel had been arrested for driving under the influence and striking a minor child, his identity would not matter. In some of the other instances cited by the majority, such as the case of a violation of a restraining order, requesting identification under the reasonable suspicion a crime was being committed might be defensible, but under the circumstances of the case, it would seem that the conviction should have stood, but not for the reasons alleged by any of the reasons cited by the majority. Furthermore, in apprehending criminals suspected of sex offenses, terrorism, and other unspeakable acts, the minority found, that these arrests should be based upon conduct, not upon a failure to provide identification.
Volunteering one's identity is a right one has, the minority stated: "purchasing an airline ticket is a business transaction, and the airlines may condition the sale on knowing who is the purchaser. In…
Richey, Warren. (2004, June 22). Court: If police ask, you must give your name.
Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 19, 2009 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0622/p01s01-usju.html
State Supreme Court of Nevada: Hiibel v. Dist. Ct. 118 Nev. Adv. Op. No. 88.
December 20, 2002. Retrieved April 19, 2009 at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=nv&vol=118NevAdvOpNo88&invol=2
" The far-reaching results of Koch's methods then could be applied to many fields of medical research rather than just to the diseases he investigated. This broad application and research then is what makes Koch's findings so significant.
Two specific principles from the code of public health ethics can be seen as embodied in Koch's work: The first is that the fundamental causes of disease are addressed and researched, rather then just the disease itself. Requirements for preventing the diseases Koch investigated could then be identified. The second principle achieved is that community health was achieved while respecting the rights of individuals in the community. Through his research, Koch was able to contribute to the health of individuals within communities in order to ensure the optimum well-being of the community as a whole.
History of Medicine: Robert Koch (2002, October). Online at http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/robert_koch.htm
Public health code of ethics. (2005).…
History of Medicine: Robert Koch (2002, October). Online at http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/robert_koch.htm
Public health code of ethics. (2005). Online at http://www.apha.org/codeofethics/ethics.htm
Property tax relief is a subject that arises when the elderly or poor struggle to meet their property tax burdens. If they are long-term residents, they can be caught up when their neighborhood sees a dramatic increase in property values. There are sometimes mechanisms that governments use in order to provide relief.
Both tax credits and rebates can be used to help return some of the money paid or that is owing from eligible property owners, in order to help relieve from of the burden. This method is direct, and puts the money back into the hands of those who need it. However, this method relies on being able to determine who needs relief. People often have control over their financial situation so an inability to pay does not necessarily reflect somebody with a lack of opportunity to pay. It can be hard to qualify people for relief because of…
TLC. (2006). State roles in financing public school facilities. TLC Research Division. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/pubspol/OnlineFinancePubSch.pdf
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2012). Property tax reduction allocations. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452/property_tax_reduction_allocations/510335
Public Expectations of the Presidency
Public expectations of presidency
The president office in most of the developing as well as developed countries is looked as an institution for bringing improvements in the society. People often look at the office with very high hopes as they are of the opinion that the representative of the masses will have a better understanding about the problems and preferences of the people of the society. Throughout the history of USA we can observe that majority of the president came into the power because they picked up the major problem faced by the people of their times and used it as a weapon for their election campaigns (Boxer, 2009, p. 51). For example when Obama was running the election campaign he highlighted the expenses which the country has to bear to fight the war in Afghanistan and Iraq. Opinion polls and surveys at…
Boxer, A. (2009). Politics, Presidency and Society in the U.S.A. 1968-2001. History Review, (65), 51. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5040989061
Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The Paradoxes of the American Presidency. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14658955
Public elations (Corporate social responsibility)
The term 'Corporate Social esponsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an…
CEO's Message" HP Standards of Business Conduct. Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/sbcbrochure.pdf . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" 2004. Retrieved at http://www.takingitglobal.org/themes/csr/ . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/. Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Danng, Lyng. 2004. "Who is monitoring the multinational?" 17th May. Retrieved at http://www.vibewire.net/articles.php?id=2671Accessed on 7 September, 2004
A good example of some of the different texts that were utilized to insight anger and violence can be seen with one that was sent to number Anglo Saxons in the commonwealth. Where, it would encourage all youth in Western Australia to show up at Cronuella each, in an effort to protect the beach and women. This is significant, because it shows how the use of heated SMS messages could help to enrage both groups. As this form of written communication would increase the overall amounts of rage that the two side were feeling towards each other.
Visual languages were used to help increase the overall negative opinions that many Australians would feel towards the Arabs. Where, the women and men would dress differently in public (with many women covering themselves). This is problematic, because it would cause a number of groups in society to view Arabs as untrustworthy, based…
Racial Tensions at Cronuella Beach. Everything 2. 2005. Web. 29 Oct. 2010.
"Responsible Gambling and Reconcilation Australia Campaigns and Link to Celebrity Gambling Story." N.d.
Gouggin, Gerald. "SMS Riot." Journal of Media Culture. 2006. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Perera, Suvendrini. "Aussie Luck."ACRAWSA 3.1 (2007). Print.
Public Admin General Budget Allocation
Social Insurance (aid to the elderly, disable, unemployed)
Public Education (K -- Universities)
Environmental Management (regulate clear and clean water; regulate the handling & disposal of hazardous & radioactive wastes)
Support of Cultural Institutions (e.g. libraries, museums, zoo, etc.)
Conservation of Natural Resources
Management of National Parks % Lands
Manage Law and Order
Build and Maintain Roads, Dams, & Other Infrastructure
A critique of the general thought process used to reach a consensus on the various public policy categories
In choosing the public policy category, it is crucial to determine the necessary resources and measures that should prioritize the percentage budget allocation for the federal government. Security of the federal government is crucial to the development and growth of the nation. This makes security reasonable to command large portion of the budget allocation.…
Public Grooming Case
The Case: Public Grooming
Noise is not a persuasive sales pitch. The other day, a friend of mine mentioned how outrageous the noise levels have gotten in commercials; she stated that now, she immediately mutes her television before a commercial break starts because the noise level is so irritatingly loud, much louder than the program itself even. I had to agree with her, and why is it that we passively accept the noise of commercials, allowing for noise levels that are extreme to the point of being unhealthy. And notice that I use the term "noise" when referring to the sound from commercials: this isn't music or speech that I'm talking about -- it's so loud that I don't even notice what is being said but only how loud it's communicated.
I understand the method behind the loud commercials; people get attuned to the program they're watching,…
Beason, L. (2001). Ethos and error: How business people react to errors. College Composition and Communication, 53(1), 33-64.
Cialdini, R.B. (2005). Basic social influence is underestimated. Psychological Inquiry, 16(4), 158-161.
Cialdini, R.B. (2008). Influence: Science and Practice. Boston: Prentice Hall.
Public (Government) Finance
This essay examines the debate over extending unemployment benefits. The essay reviews the arguments in favor of and against further extensions, and the implications for economic and social policies. After exploring the alternatives, I make a recommendation and discuss means of measuring the success or failure of my recommendation.
The Apparent Problem/The Facts
Unemployment insurance is compensation that is provided to workers who become unemployed through no fault of their own. Unemployment provides compensation for a specific amount of time, or until a worker finds a new job. Regular unemployment provides benefits for up to 26 weeks, based on the number of weeks that the unemployed person worked in his or her claim year (Doyle, 2011).
Extended unemployment benefits provide compensation for a longer period of time, and are available for workers when they have exhausted regular state unemployment benefits during periods of high unemployment.…
Allmanblogs.com. (2010). The case against an unemployment benefits extension: the three main arguments and their rebuttals. Secrets about Unemployment website. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://blog.secretsaboutunemployment.com/unemployment-claim/the-case-against-an-unemployment-benefits-extension-the-three-main-arguments-and-their-rebuttals/
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Employment Situation Summary. BLS web site. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm
CNBC.com. (2009). Making the case for and against unemployment benefit extension. CNBC Guest Blog. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://www.cnbc.com/id/32284041/Making_the_Case_For_and_Against_Unemployment_Benefit_Extension
Doyle, A. (2011). Unemployment Extension. About.com website. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://jobsearch.about.com/od/unemployment/a/unempextension.htm
They are not considered state or local. Also, they are not legislative or judicial actions (Hall 2006).
According to their organizational chart, the Department of Veterans Affairs has many layers between the overseeing authority of Executive Power and the administration of policy demonstrated at the local level (Department of Veterans Affairs 2006). Many areas of Veterans Affairs apply to the health of veterans. However, health care for veterans is most directly authorized and managed by the Under Secretary for Health under the Secretary and Deputy Secretary for the Department of Veterans Affairs (Department of Veterans Affairs 2006). Since the Department of Veterans Affairs is managed under the executive branch of government, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs is appointed by the President of the United States (Hall 2006).
Department of Veterans Affairs. (2006). VA Organization Chart. etrieved January 12, 2007 at http://www.va.gov/about_va/
Hall, D.E. (2006). Administrative law: Bureaucracy in a…
Department of Veterans Affairs. (2006). VA Organization Chart. Retrieved January 12, 2007 at http://www.va.gov/about_va/
Hall, D.E. (2006). Administrative law: Bureaucracy in a democracy (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Public Traditional Negotiated Cash Offer:
Explain the method, and how it will raise the firm's capital and how it will benefit both company and investors
Explain each of the three types in the table below and give examples on each type
Explain how each type of them is used in raising capital and how it benefits the firm and investors and underwriters ( If it will not benefit them please state it clearly)
With this method, the company works through an investment bank using the bank as an intermediary for selling its shares. This method may raise the firm's capital since the investment bank work towards making the shares more enticing, as well as sometimes serving as underwriter and using its reputation and skills to sell the stock. The investors may benefit since the bank's intervention grants a greater reliability and guarantee to the substance of the stock, and since…
Public University System
It has a total of 234 thousand students on 10 different campuses. They were first organized 144 years ago and have been concentrating on delivering ground breaking educational services to stakeholders. ("Annual Financial eport," 2011) To determine if the university is fiscally sound requires carefully examining their financial statement and audit reports. This will be accomplished by studying the employee pension plan, analyzing how economic conditions will impact future growth, reviewing the treatment of federal grants and comparing how endowments are calculated. Together, these different elements will highlight the financial strength of the university and the way this is impacting the quality of services that are provided.
Identify and analyze the employee pension plan disclosures in the financial statements. Evaluate the impact of the GAASB proposed changes to the pension liabilities on the financial statements of the institution.
In the case of the employee pension plan, these…
Annual Financial Report. (2011). University of California Regents. Retrieved from: http://regents.universityofcalifornia.edu/regmeet/nov11/a5attach3.pdf
Post Secondary Education. (2010). GAO. Retrieved from: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10393.pdf
Munnell, A. (2012). How Would GASB Proposal. CRR. Retrieved from: http://crr.bc.edu/briefs/how-would-gasb-proposals-affect-state-and-local-pension-reporting/
This demographic understands how investment markets work and is likely to make the smart and responsible choices with these investment funds to ensure that they have a good retirement.
The demographic that is least likely to benefit from such a plan is the demographic at the lower end of the income scale, blue collar workers with less education, minorities, new immigrants, and rural people. These demographics are generally less wealthy to begin with, so they rely more on the Social Security benefits than the demographic that benefits most from having a defined contribution plan for Social Security.
A partially-privatized social security system therefore primarily benefits the type of consumer that is in the best position not to need Social Security at all. Such consumers can use their knowledge of financial markets to enhance their wealth or better protect it. Consumers that are less likely to benefit, having little knowledge of…
Ohlemacher, S. (2012). Social security adds to budget deficit. Huffington Post. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20120812/us-social-security-fact-check/
Hiltzik, M. (2012). Proposal to privatize Social Security rears its ugly head. LA Times. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from http://articles.latimes.com/2012/aug/21/business/la-fi-hiltzik-20120821
This is why Hall advocates a "disengagement" from that image of American public life. Getting some distance from this aspect of the dominant culture will enable a framework for evangelism that embraces the diversity of God's community. Thus, Christ can truly become the "all in all."
Keifert defines the two main challenges in American culture as being the moral imperative to respect diversity, coupled with the spiritual imperative to nurture the current awakening. That an awakening is taking place is evident in the growing numbers of church members, but it is also important to keep in mind what both atson and Hall say about the problems with large church culture in America. Bigger is not necessarily better. Christians need to move beyond the "supersize me" mentality and embrace a quality over quantity mentality when it comes to their ministries.
From a theological and scriptural perspective, the suggestions offered by atson…
Hall, Douglas John. "Ecclesia Crucis: The Theologic of Christian Awkwardness." In the Church Between Gospel and Culture. Hunsberger and Van Gelder.
Keifert, Patrick R. Welcoming the Stranger. Augsburg, 1992.
Watson, David Lowes. "Christ All in All: The Recovery of the Gospel of Evangelism in the United States." In the Church Between Gospel and Culture. Hunsberger and Van Gelder.
A sales tax is particularly regressive because low income people spend a greater percentage of their income. They might spend 100% of their income, which means they would pay a sales tax on all of that money. A wealthy person will spend more in terms of dollars on a sales tax, but will also not spend 100% of his or her income. Some of that income will be saved, meaning that not all of the wealthy person's income will be subject to this tax.
For poor people a higher portion of income will be taxed, and there is also less margin for tax increase in their budgets. A wealthy person can afford to pay a little more tax and still have a roof over his or her head, and food on the table. At lower income levels, even a moderate sales tax like 5% is going to put those things…
Investopedia. (2012). Regressive tax. Investopedia. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/regressivetax.asp#axzz2DYg31VBU
McKinnon, J. (2011) Huckabee presses for national sales tax. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://blogs.wsj.com/washwire/2011/07/21/huckabee-presses-for-national-sales-tax/
Montgomery, L. (2009). Once considered unthinkable, U.S. sales tax gets fresh look. Washington Post. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/05/26/AR2009052602909.html
... Only one in 100 high school seniors could write a coherent response of more than one paragraph to an essay question; and only 7% of high school seniors could read at advanced level." (Hanushek)
In the light of this vast body of very forceful evidence, we cannot but agree that our public education system has deteriorated to the extent that we can no longer expect our public schools to produce quality students. Most of our public school students lack even basic knowledge of scientific facts and mathematical concepts and their communication skills leave a lot to be desired. With such students we cannot hope to compete on a global level, not at least in the long run. This explains why more professionally qualified people from other parts of the world are so rapidly taking over American job market.
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at…
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (1983)
Eric a. Hanushek, "When School Finance Reform May Not Be Good Policy. Symposium, Investing in Our Children's Future: School Finance Reform in the 1990s," Harvard Journal on Legislation 28 (Summer 1991), 423.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics (1993).
Cited in Susan Chira, "The Big Test: How to Translate the Talk About School Reform into Action," New York Times (March 24, 1991), Sec. 4, at 1.
Public Program vluation: Quality Performance Measurement
Caiden, G and Caiden, NJ (nd) Measuring Performance in Public Sector Programs. Public Administration and Public Policy. Vol. II. Retrieved from: http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c14/1-34-05-06.pdf
Caiden and Caiden (nd) report that the link between reforms and public measurement and evaluation were not merely chance since as the reforms developed devolution was emphasized or the moving of functions and services to the government levels that were lower, along with an emphasis on privatization, decentralization of management, transparency and satisfaction of customers. It is reported that all of these were dependent on accountability maintenance and credibility.
Poister, T. (2001) Measuring Performance in Public and Non-Profit Organizations. Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from: http://glennschool.osu.edu/faculty/brown/home/810/Class%20Materials/Poister%20Performance%20Chapters%201,%202,%203.pdf
Poister (2001) writes that performance measures are "objective, quantitative indicators" of a range of performance in public programs or for public agencies. (p.3) This work reviews the early development and background of performance measurement and ensues on…
Ewoh (2011) examines the applications and types of performance measurement as well as the limitations of performance management. A comparative analysis is conducted in this study.
10. Lawrence L. Martin and Peter M. Kettner, (1996). Measuring the Performance of Human Service Programs. Sage Publications.
The work of Martin and Kettner (1996) examine performance measures in the public service organization and the specific outputs of performance measurement along with logic models. Quality performance measures and outcome performance measures are also reviewed including numeric counts and standardized measures of performance.
In surveying the player's responses to Vick's situation, the journalists were bringing about public reaction to be evaluated to determine what direction to take their stories in. It demonstrated that,.".. survey respondents who experience difficulty answering questions respond differently to related subsequent questions than do those who do not experience such difficulty (JA, Effects of urvey)."
The story of animal abuse in dog fighting was one that caused polls to be taken to measure public opinion. That public opinion was in strong support of the animals that Vick had abused and used in an abusive manner. The journalistic tactic was one wherein the journalists used the opportunity for the public to speak out, to be heard, to participate in the outcome of Vick's legal proceedings as an incentive to be surveyed publicly. "In an effort to counter mounting problems of non-cooperation, survey organizations are increasingly offering incentives to respondents, sometimes…
Some animal lovers have attempted to deal with the problem of young people being indoctrinated into the sport of dog fighting by creating more social and legal ways to be entertained, and to compete. "Concerned by the increasing number of youths involved in dog fighting, former animal control officer Sue Sternberg decided to do something about it. In 2002, Sternberg started Lug-Nuts, a program that encourages inner-city teens to enter their dogs in weight-pulling competitions instead of fights (NG JA a Humane)."
Sternberg's efforts are interesting, and there should be research devoted to the outcomes she is experiencing in the program. "Within this context, this analysis is predominantly definitional, seeking to isolate the unique features of qualitative research (JA QRRC)."
As the Michael Vick legal processes unfold, we can expect to see and hear much more about the life and fate of the American Bull Terrier.
Shi Jianqiao became a media sensation in Nationalist China during the 1930s for shooting the ex-warlord Sun Chuanfang, a leading member of the Tianjin Qingxiu lay-Buddhist society (jushilin). She shot Sun three times on November 13, 1935 in prayer hall (congregation site) on Nanma Road. Although she was prosecuted for murder, the courts returned a controversial final verdict of judicial leniency, and the Nationalist (Guomindang) regime overturned this final verdict by issuing a state pardon. These events led to a public debate on the merits and demerits of filial revenge, although contemporary accounts do not examine the larger sociopolitical implications the case may have had. Shi Jianqiao represented the female assassin's singular and violent expression of filial sentiment (xiao), as well as the female warrior code of "chivalrous virtue" (xia), and helped give rise to a new communal form of ethical sentiment - "public sympathy" (tongqing). For liberal…
Lean, Eugenia. Public Passions: The Trial of Shi Jianqiao and the Rise of Popular Sympathy in Republican China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
Public health core function that is principally addressed by the author is law. As pointed out by the author, public health law infrastructure that is sound is imperative for the reason that it institutes the powers and duties of government to safeguard injury and disease and promote the health of the population (Gostin, 2008). There are examples of how law is used in public health. To begin with, at a personal and individual level, this core function can educate, generate inducements, deter as well as punish. A good illustration is in the sense that health communication promotions provide education and encourage people to make much healthier choices and decision (Gostin, 2000). Secondly, in public health, law as a core function mandates agents of change behavior to have product designs that are much safer and also the use of property. A good example is in the sense that the government undertakes…
This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.
It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for…
Aghanwa, H.S.; Akinsola, A.; Akinola, D.O. & Makanjuola, R.O.A. (2003). Attitudes Toward Kidney Donation. J Natl Med Assoc., 95(8), 725-731.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, A.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Medical News Today (MNT). (2008). Kidney Donation Websites Raise Ethical Concerns - Public Solicitation For Organs May Favor White, Educated And Wealthy Recipients. Wiley Blackwell Publishing. Online at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/125649.php
Public relation is an important element that can lead a business or a career to success. Public relation is a form of communication that harmoniously allows the connection and involvement to other business elements, can be another business organization or another business partner. An effective public relation is in fact being used as a mode of enhancing an individual's, or an organization's, business relationship to others.
One example of an effective use of public relation is in the area of marketing. To be able to gain recognition to many customers or business partners, a good business relationship must be established between parties to build trust and confidence. This establishment of good business relationship can be achieved through an effective public relation that is exercised and demonstrated by an organization. For instance, in marketing, one way to establish this is by focusing on the elements that will provide benefits to customers.…
Public AIDS Policy -- And the Band Played on, for Republicans and Democrats alike, during this public health crisis of the 1980's
Today, it hard to remember a day before 'AIDS alks' through Central Park, before television advertisements in the voice of hoopi Goldberg proclaimed that "AIDS affects everyone," before AIDS became a public health enemy 'Number One.' But one must look back to the days when AIDS was a disease of secrecy and shame to truly learn from the illness, as it exists today. Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.' During America of the 1980's the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, it was thought only to affect those marginalized by society because of their sexuality.
Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On acts as an important journalistic and…
Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On.
Siplan, P. Aids & The Policy Struggle In the U.S. Georgetown Press, 2000.
Conclusions -- Was TAP Necessary -- A five member Congressional committee echoed a number of criticisms regarding TAP that many consumers, academics, and fiscal analysts were considering. What exactly was the Treasury's strategy with the $700 billion dollars for the supposed bail out? How can Treasury explain the significant gaps in their ability to find hundreds of billions of taxpayer money? In a nutshell, it appears that the departments that control the money given by the Congress (from the American people) have no ability to ensure that the bailed out banks will do what was needed and lend money; have no real standards of measuring success of failure of the program; and for ignoring pointed and specific questions from Congress about their performance (M. Crittenden).
The fact that many of the institutions bailed out with TAP funds, funds from the American taxpayer, did not distribute these funds back into the…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
"2007 Public Company Bankruptcies Surpassed, According to BankruptcyData.com." 17 September 2008. AllBusiness.Com. 11 April 2010 http://www.allbusiness.com/company-activities-management/financial-performance/11564300-1.html
Andrews, E., et.al. "Fed's $85 Billion Loan Rescues Insurer." The New York Times 16 September 2008: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/17/business/17insure.html?_r=1&hp .
Bardeesy, Karim. "Bailout Baloney." 2 October 2008. The Big Money from Slate. 11 April 2010 http://www.thebigmoney.com/articles/juicy-bits/2008/10/02/bailout-baloney
Bucznski, Richard. "Economic Crisis: When Will It End?" 2010. IBIS World. 9 April 2010 http://www.ibisworld.com/recession2009/
Public Goods and Thei Impact on Society
Public institutions ae set up and entusted with ensuing that the sevice which they ae chaged with is effectively implemented and the citizens live within the acceptable standads. In the context of this pape theefoe, thee public goods will be of inteest; national secuity/safety, public health and oads and bidges.
National secuity o safety of the nation is the pivotal public good that each individual in the US needs not only to get but also feel that they get. Each citizen needs to feel safe within the US in ode to be able to engage in economically beneficial activities. It is the single sevice that govenments all ove the wold stive to invest maximum amounts and even ceate liaisons with othe nations to stengthen since it is upon the foundation of the safety of a nation that all othe factos like investments, social…
references. This indicates that there is no majority voting or any other rule that can help in objectively establishing social preference, hence the 'Impossibility Theorem'(Stanford Encyclopedia, 2014). Even in political systems where the lure of democratic voting seems attractive as a means of objectively determining the will of the people on how they want to be governed, still the availability of more than one candidate makes it impossible to be fair preference of the people.
Stanford Encyclopedia, (2014). Arrow's Theorem. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/arrows-theorem/
In terms of similarities, each of these budgets contains roughly the same basic format. hile the specific charts may differ, each budget separates revenue sources and attempts to break those down. The budgets also explain the expenditures, and typically break these down to each individual program within the department.
A similarity between three of the budgets (Federal, Florida and Newark) is that they rely heavily on tables and written explanations. hile these tables are necessary in any budget, it is interesting to note that the Newark budget is significantly more visually-oriented than any of the other budgets. The graphic representation of some of the figures makes for a more user-friendly presentation. The other budgets are less likely to be understood by those without some financial training.
Each of the budgets is produced to unique specifications. There appears to be no standard with respect to the production of public budgets, so…
United States 2010 Federal Budget Summary Tables. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy10/pdf/budget/summary.pdf
State of Florida 2009-10 "People's" Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://peoplesbudget.state.fl.us/bdagencies.aspx?full=1
City of Newark 2009 Proposed Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.ci.newark.nj.us/government/city_departments/department_of_administration/2009_proposed_budget.php
Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.epa.gov/budget/2010/2010bib.pdf
Petersburg, would not discuss in detail SI's other work for agencies such as Special Operations Command, but said he hopes this work eventually will amount to a $36.5-million Navy contract. U.S. ep. Bill Young, -St. Petersburg, who has used his clout to funnel Defense Department dollars to the region, sees a bright future (Krueger).
Since 2007, SI St. Petersburg has grown to almost 70 staff members as its &D activities have expanded. In addition, the U.S. Naval Air Systems Command awarded SI and its National Center for Maritime and Port Security a five-year, $36.5 million contract to develop a maritime domain awareness system to improve port security in the United States. Other SI &D projects have included development and local testing of an innovative, energy-producing buoy device; mapping the floor of Tampa Bay in conjunction with a maritime homeland security experiment conducted by the U.S. Navy, Coast Guard and other…
Hundley, Kris. (2007). Incentives seem like small change for SRI. St. Petersburg Times. 4 Jan 2007.
Krueger, Curtis. (2008). Tech firm SRI slowly blossoming, St. Petersburg Times. 27 July 2008.
Pinellas County, (2006). Governor Bush Announces SRI International Selects St. Petersburg. 01 Dec 2006. Retrieved November 24, 2008 at http://www.pced.org/newsroom/news_view_print.asp?int_newsroomID=4324
Silva, Cristina. (2008). SRI tech research facility brings jobs, Tampa Bay Times, 29 Oct 2008.
tatistics regarding bed availability are indeed provided, but perhaps the public could benefit from more information about how the collaboration actually takes place.
Another area that could be addressed is the county's educational facilities. Currently it seems that many of the health indicators are focused on cure rather than prevention. Although immunization pracitces are mentioned, education regarding healthy living is a pertinent part of disease prevention. I would therefore like to see this added to the health indicators.
In conclusion, I find the indicators that are present comprehensive and sufficient, but it is important to educate the public regarding strategies implemented on their behalf, as well as regarding individual practices for optimal disease prevention and cure.
Georgia Division of Public Health. (2005). Health Data & Information. http://health.state.ga.us/healthdata/index.asp
Gwinnet County Health Department. (2001). Gwinnet Community Health tatus Report: Working Together for a Healthier Community. http://health.state.ga.us/pdfs/regional/gwinnethealthstatus.01.pdf
Georgia Division of Public Health. (2005). Health Data & Information. http://health.state.ga.us/healthdata/index.asp
Gwinnet County Health Department. (2001). Gwinnet Community Health Status Report: Working Together for a Healthier Community. http://health.state.ga.us/pdfs/regional/gwinnethealthstatus.01.pdf
The author of this response is asked to answer to five major questions and requirements in this assignment relative to the school shootings and focus group research done within the Clemons and McBeth text. The author is asked to look at the content analysis/problem definition, critique the facilitator, survey/focus group analysis, symbols and metaphors and answer the question of "what's next." The author will do answer to these in the order listed in the assignment.
As for the content analysis and the overall description of the problem, the case study does better than most salacious and over-dramatic media reports about events like Columbine and the like but there is still a tinge of that element present and it's not tamped down at all later on. ather than focus on the root cuases and the best ways to do deal with school shootings and the like (e.g. help parents…
Clemons, R.S., & McBeth, M.K. (2009). Public policy praxis: a case approach for understanding policy and analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Pearson / Longman.
A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…
Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468
CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/
Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf
Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
Unfortunately, the influence of the healthcare industry lobbyists is tremendous. One need only look up the publicly available information of how much large healthcare interests contribute to members of the U.S. Congress in any given year to understand why healthcare legislation continues to favor corporations over the members of the American public, almost half of whom cannot afford health insurance (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009).
Challenges, Problems and Next Steps
The principal problem responsible for the perpetuation of this issue is that political lobbying is currently an accepted process in the U.S. That poses tremendous challenges, largely because the very individuals whose attention, resolve, and action would be required to rectify the situation are those who currently benefit the most from it: elected members of the U.S. Congress. Unfortunately, only a small minority of those stakeholders -- most notably epresentative Anthony Weiner of New York and Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.