Some of the communication technologies include news content, internet (social media platforms), campaigns, billboard advertisements, and organized interaction forums
. These technologies are essential in enhancing interactions between the society and the state thus promotion of good or effective governance. Communication practices are forms of communication such as language, setting, mode, target audience, and content of information shared between the sender and the receiver. Communication practices and technology focuses on the promotion of transnational, public spheres, publics, and counter-publics across the globe.
The public sphere provides space for communication of ideas and projects thus valuable decisions within the institutions of the society
. The global civil society focuses on the organization and expression of values and interests of the society. Polity of the society relates to the relationship and interaction between the government and civil society through the concept of the public sphere. The process of globalization has enhanced the development of public sphere. This is through shifting of the debate or discussion from the national domain to the global debate thus realization of the emergence of ad hoc forms of global governance and global civil society. Public diplomacy is also an essential component in the determination and intervention within the context of the global public sphere.
In order for the state to remain focused on its main subjects, there must be an effective civil society with the ability to structure and channel the debates of the citizens in relation to diverse ideas and conflicting interests
. The modern society is characterized with the concept of globalization. It is ideal to note that not everything or everyone is globalized due to this characterization. Despite this notion, it is vital to understand that global networks structuring the planet are essential in influencing everyone or everything. This relates to the implementation of the concept of communication technologies and practices in the promotion or realization of the globalization of public sphere. There are various through which internet communication technology promotes the aspect of globalization of the public sphere. One of the essential aspects of this technology is the development of diverse versions of e-government. These platforms provide opportunity for interaction between the citizens and the states while enhancing accessibility of the information to the society.
The second element is the concept of advocacy/activists domain focusing on the promotion of valuable discussion among organizations with similar perceptions, goals, and values with the aim of forming political intervention. The third aspect towards globalization of the public sphere is the integration of the diverse civic forums for the purposes of deliberation and discussion among citizens. Other aspects of communication technology and practice in the globalization of public sphere include Para-political and journalism domains. There are numerous online journalism entities focusing on the promotion of democracy or discussion among the citizens in the modern society. Communication technologies and practices have created the possibility and reality of transnational, if not global, public spheres, publics and counter-publics through implementation of networks or internet for the maximization or realization of globalization
B. What are the ways in which one could argue that while communication technologies and practices have changed, many of the old anti-democratic (Bernays/Lippman/professionalization of political communication) forces are still successful in limiting the democratic potential of the new media age?
Despite the presence of radical development under the influence communication technologies and practices on the promotion of public sphere, there are still limitations such as professionalization of the political communication hindering potentiality of the new media age. New media is mostly associated with internet and social media platforms. The new media platforms are valuables towards promotion of effective and efficient interaction or communication among citizens thus acting as watchdogs to the operations of the state. There are a number of ways through which professionalization of political communication affects and limits the transparency of the new media. There are various institutions or authorities in association with the state focusing on the implementation of regulations and rules controlling the opportunity to promote the freedom of speech. Some of the regulations limiting effectiveness of the new media or communication technologies and practices in the enhancement of the concept of the public sphere include editorial policies in the newsrooms and airing policies. These limitations emerge because of the integration of private ownership in the institution of journalism.
Politicians have public relations experts and communication advisors focusing on the examination of their words or speech before airing them towards interactions with the consumers
. This limits the freedom of speech of the politicians, as they are concerned with public relations rather than effective and efficient interaction with the citizens. This also limits accessibility of the citizens to accurate and essential form of information thus incorporation of the unaccountability and lack of transparency in the service delivery
. There are also rules and regulation governing interactions and connections between the citizens and the state. This makes it difficult for the citizens to express their views because of the limitations of the new media through integration of rules and regulations. These are expressions of anti-democratic elements towards undermining the institution of democracy. Habermas notes that the current public sphere focuses on the application of organized entities towards the maximization of the available opportunities for interaction or connections with the government
. Most of these organizations or associations are online thus operating under the influence of the laws and regulations determining the content and aspects of communication. These are essential in the determination of the outcome or efficiency of interaction between the citizens and the state.
C. How can one argue that there is evidence that the conditions created by new media culture along with contemporary global consumer society ironically make real larger inclusive public spheres even harder to realize, and thus make "real" democracy even harder to realize, too?
The essence of the communication technologies towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of public sphere in the modern society is appropriate. There are various aspects of communication technologies and practice making it difficult for the understanding of the real democracy and realization of the real public sphere. This is because of the development of conflicts in various conditions in association with the concept of globalization. The first condition is the rapid pace of the implementation of the communication technologies. The pace of the global change is quickening thus hindering realization by some citizens. This hinders development or realization of the goals and objectives of an effective public sphere in the modern society. This rapid pace relates to incorporation of numerous technological advancements in the modern society
The next condition relates to the influence of global change in relation to the levels of stress on the individuals, institutions, and governments or states in the modern society. The implementation of communication practices and technologies comes with increase in the level of responsibility and demands thus the influence of stress in association with the states, institutions, and citizens. The new demands and responsibilities incur additional stress in the promotion of democracy and relevant institutions. This is an illustration of the emergence of new forms of democracy thus hindering effective understanding by the citizens, states, and vital institutions or global civic society.
The third condition creating confusion in the understanding of democracy and public sphere in the modern society under the influence of globalization is lack of substantial perceptions to facilitate the adjustments of citizens and institutions to change. This is through implementation of valuable theories or concepts with the aim of enhancing interaction between the citizens and the state. Lack of such theories in solving change implications promotes complexity in understanding real democracy and public sphere
. It is also critical to note that ineffective or inefficient mechanisms and measures in relation to provision of adequate solutions to perceived problems makes it difficult to understand public sphere and real democracy
. Ambiguity of the implementation of the communication technologies and practices in the promotion of democracy is an essence of lack of understanding of the key concepts of public sphere
. This relates to the role of the communication technologies such as internet and social platforms in inciting and promotion of peace among the masses, as evident in the case of YouTube in the Middle East.
If there is no global public sphere (around each emergent or ongoing global public issue), what positive approximations are out there
In the absence of global public sphere, there are various positive approximations focusing on the promotion of effective and efficient governance across the globe. One of the positive approximations is the concept of international relations. These approximations focus on the promotion of effective interactions between nations or states with reference to adoption and implementation of adequate international policies. The policies are vital in the promotion and development of the concept of democracy in the modern society thus facilitating interaction among nations, entities, institutions, citizens, and governments across…