Public Budgeting Over the Last A-Level Coursework

  • Length: 10 pages
  • Sources: 5
  • Subject: Economics
  • Type: A-Level Coursework
  • Paper: #23572794
  • Related Topic: Public, Budget Cuts, Revenue

Excerpt from A-Level Coursework :

Revenues for the Miami Dade Police Department 2011 to 2012

Revenue Source

Amount (in thousands of dollars)

General Funds


911 Fees


Parking / Traffic Surcharges


Federal Grants




Contract Services




("FY 2011-2012 Budget," 2011)

These numbers are showing how the Miami Dade Police Department receives additional forms of income from various fees, contract services, grants and other programs. The combination of these elements is used to provide the community with protective services.

How are the revenue amounts expected to change in the future?

The U.S. Government

In the future, revenues for the U.S. government are expected to increase. Evidence of this can be seen by looking that the below table (which is showing income projections from 2012 to 2014).

Revenues Projections for the U.S. Government from 2012 to 2015


Individual Income Tax

Corporate Income Tax

Social Insurance and Retirement Receipts

Excise Taxes


$1.16 trillion

$370.24 billion

$869.60 billion

$65.06 billion


$1.35 trillion

$347.74 billion

$959.07 billion

$88.05 billion


$1.47 trillion

$429.59 billion

$1.38 trillion

$98.57 billion

("Fiscal Year 2013 Budget," 2012) ("Fiscal Year 2013 Historical Tables," 2012)

These figures are indicating that revenues for the federal government are expected to increase between 2012 and 2014.

The State of Florida

The State of Florida is expected to see a different trend with a slow increase in the total amounts of revenues. A good example of this can be seen by looking at the below table (which is highlighting how these figures are expected to change between 2012 and 2013).

Revenues for the State of Florida from 2012 to 2013



Lottery Receipts

Tobacco Settlement

Other Areas


$31.62 billion

$1.09 billion

$370.60 million

$24.19 billion


$31.12 billion

$1.02 billion

$370.60 million

$22.85 billion

("Governors 2012 Budget," 2012)

These figures are showing how the state will continue to face pressure from lower than expected revenues.

The City of Miami

In the case of the City of Miami, the government is expected to see lower than expected revenues. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the below chart (which is looking at future income growth for 2012 and 2013).

Revenue Projections for the City of Miami from 2012 to 2013


Total Amount of Revenues


$699.70 billion


$693.83 billion

("City of Miami Annual Budget," 2012)

The figures are showing how revenues are expected to decline for the city during this time. Part of the reason for this, is from the lingering effects of the real estate market and its impact on the local economy.

The Miami Dade Police Department

The revenues are expected to decline for the Miami Dade Police Department in the future. This is because the city is continuing to face budgetary challenges. In the next year, these amounts are expected to be about 10% lower. This has forced the department to seek additional layoffs and they want the higher benefits costs passed on to employees. These issues are important, in showing the challenges facing the department from lower fees, grants and other sources of revenues. ("In Miami Dade Union Fight," 2012) ("FY 2011-2012 Budget," 2011)

How does the budget fit with the mission of each domain?

The way that the budget fits for each domain is to address specific issues that are affecting a certain level of government. From the federal perspective, it is designed to deal with issues that are impacting events on a national basis. For example, one agency that is helping to support farmers is the Department of Agriculture. They provide a number of programs to ensure that they have access to resources that will help them to be successful over the long-term. The way that this occurs is through having a series of loans from private and government programs. In the last two years, the federal government has been increasing the amounts of funding for this area. The below table is highlighting the different programs and the kinds of assistance that are provided by the federal government.

The Programs that are provided by the Department of Agriculture from 2011 to 2012


Federal Direct 2011

Federal Direct 2012

Private Lender Supported 2011

Private Lenders Supported 2012

Farm Loans

$1.93 billion

$2.02 billion

$3.06 billion

$3.09 billion

Commodity Credit Corporation

$7.10 billion

$7.33 billion

$4.76 billion

$5.05 billion

Rural Utilities / Business Service

$7.02 billion

$9.59 billion

$1.82 billion

$1.38 billion

Rural Housing Service

$2.14 billion

$2.25 billion

$15.29 billion

$24./33 billion

("Fiscal Year 2013 Budget," 2012)

These figures are showing how the focus of the federal government's budget is to address issues that are impacting the nation as a whole.

The way that the state's budget is in line with its domain is to address areas that are impacting the citizens of Florida. For example, the estimated budget projections for funding education are expected to be $142.50 billion. This is an increase of $137.29 billion for 2011. These numbers are important, in highlighting how the state government is concentrating on addressing those issues that are impacting the citizens of Florida. ("Governors 2012 Budget," 2012)

As far as the City of Miami is concerned, they are focused on addressing those issues that of most significance on the local level. For example, in 2011 there were a number of different services that were provided to the general public. The below table is illustrating the areas where these funds were spent during this time.

Areas that Received Major Amounts of Funding from the City of Miami in 2011


Amount Spent

Code Enforcement

$3.09 million

Solid Waste

$18.93 million

Public Works

$14.05 million


$68.04 million


$117.61 billion

Parks and Recreation

$21.56 million

("City of Miami Annual Budget," 2012)

These numbers are showing how the local government is focused on delivering those services that are in the most demand.

The Miami Dade Police Department budget is designed to provide additional financial assistance in dealing with possible threats to the community. Evidence of this can be seen by with the following areas that are receiving considerable amounts of funding to include: facility projects, information technology, fuel / courts costs and expenses associated with contract services just to name a few. ("FY 2011-2012 Budget," 2011) This is showing how all resources of the department are focused on achieving these objectives at all times.

How can the budget be improved and revenue estimation be accurately accessed at each level?

The best way that the budgetary process can be improved at each level is to take into account the worst case scenario. This will ensure that all projections are based upon conservative estimates. In the event that there are sudden shocks, is when these numbers will reflect more realistic projections. This is different from the current approach that is taking place at all levels of government. What is happening is there is more of a focus on how to make these numbers look good (based on political considerations).

At the same time the state, city and police department need to work together to create standards for addressing potential shortfalls. The way…

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