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Public Health Betrayals
A fascinating reality of public health is that when it is working, nothing is happening. People are healthy, they participate in their community's welfare, and they themselves are likely to want to be more engaged in the culture's economic and pleasurable activities. But the problem with a negative reality like this suggests Laurie Garrett in Betrayal of Trust, is that there is a tendency for governments of all types -- democratic or authoritarian, and one might guess, even those in the news today that are in the midst of disarray -- to cut back on whatever services they have. With the end result being that people don't get to live or die right (2000:7).
Garrett shows why the underlying issue of organizing a community for health is not just a matter of medical, cultural or technological advancement. She goes through a variety of stories of how different…
CBSNews, (2011), The Cost of Dying: End of Life Care. Viewable at http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-18560_162-6747002.html?pageNum=3&tag=contentMain;contentBody .
Garret, L (2000). Betrayal of Trust: The Collapse of Global Public Health, Hyperiod, NY.
Gawande, A. (2010). Letting Go: What should medicine do when it can't save your life? The New Yorker. Viewable at http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2010/08/02/100802fa_fact_gawande?currentPage=all#ixzz0uuAGwOwQ .
Wikipedia, Fred Phelps (2011). Viewable at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Phelps .
There are many things that have led to the renaissance of public health in the past 20 years. However, the most important ones include eradication of infectious diseases through vaccination, increased awareness, better hygiene control, better primary care facilities and more stress on epidemiology.
It has been stated that humans have a right to public health (Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, 2002) Keeping this in mind, public health authorities have been quite vigilant in reducing the burden of disease. Infectious disease were the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Due to the presence of vaccines and antibiotics, these diseases have been controlled to a very decent extent. Vaccination programs that go on to protect the person against diseases like TB, Diphtheria, Pertusis, Mumps, Measles and ubella have been successful in countries all over the world. Furthermore, antibiotics have been made available to cure infectious diseases…
Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health. (2002). [e-book] Available through: Public Health Leadership Society http://www.apha.org/ NR/rdonlyres/1CED3CEA-287E-4185-9CBD-BD405FC60856/0/ethicsbrochure.pdf [Accessed: 15 Mar 2014].
Schwarzenberger, G. (1943). The three types of law. Ethics, 53 (2), pp. 89 -- 97.
Scutchfield, F.D. & Keck, C.W. (1997). Principles of public health practice. Albany: Delmar Publishers.
Sharpe, P.A., Greaney, M.L., Lee, P.R. & Royce, S.W. (2000). Assets-oriented community assessment.Public Health Reports, 115 (2-3), p. 205.
Public health emergency preparedness and response.
Public health: Emergency preparedness and responses
While all areas of the nation should periodically engage in risk assessment, not all locations are equally vulnerable to different types of attacks. Public health emergencies can originate in natural causes, such as hurricanes or pandemics. Emergencies also include disasters caused by human error and emergencies due to conscious, malicious intent, such as terrorism. New York City is vulnerable to such emergencies because of its high population density as well as its political, economic, and symbolic significance.
In general, two departments coordinate emergency responses. The New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene deals with health-related issues such as the H1N1 pandemic; the Office of Emergency Management deals with catastrophic disasters such as terrorist attacks and tornadoes. The NYC Medical eserve Corps, a trained group of health professionals schooled in emergency responses in a wide variety of disciplines…
Johnson, Morgan. (2011). Public Health Preparedness. Office of Emergency Preparedness & Response. NYC Dept. Of Health & Mental Hygiene. PowerPoint.
NYC will launch national emergency response system. (2011, May 11). The Washington Post.
Retrieved May 20, 2011 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/national_emergency_alert_system_tied_to_cell_phones_to_be_announced_in_nyc/2011/05/10/AFIiZ9gG_story.html?wprss=rss_national
Qureshi, K., Gershon, R., Sherman, M. (2005). Health care workers' ability and willingness to report to duty during catastrophic disasters. Journal of Urban Health, 82, 378 -- 388
Public Health esources
1• Information about country, state, and national public health resources
Public health is the bigger science of protecting and improving the health of communities by providing services based on education, healthy lifestyles, and other forms of medical and paramedical services. Public health professionals tend to analyze the health issues of individuals, family and community. However public health also involves the control of epidemics, causalities and calamity reactions. Thus public health professionals try to prevent problems from happening or re-occurring. The basis of the delivery of public health services is on the "Public Health Laboratory Practice, Public Health Policy and Practice." ("What is Public health," 2011) These practices are however very costly and is not adapted by private agencies. ("What is Public health," 2011)
However the evolution of public health concept was made from very early times but the U.S.A. is a capitalist country with private participation in…
Fox, Daniel M; Ludden, John M. (1998) "Living but Not Dying by the Market: Recent
Changes in Health Care." Daedalus, vol. 127, no. 4, pp: 137-141.
Goh, Yethun; Pritula, Mike. (1996) "Current Research: The New Value Creators in Healthcare." The McKinsey Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 2, pp: 192-205.
Institute of Medicine (IOM). (1988) "The Future of Public Health"
One of the most fascinating problems associated with the information age, is not the lack of information but the overabundance of information one can find on any given topic. The internet drives this phenomena of abundance and can offer the individual to many choices and conflicting opinions. There is really no issue, besides health that more effectively resembles the above statement. Many people then seek information from recognized public sources. Of the nine websites listed in the assignment brief, the three that stand out, for various reasons are: American ublic Health Association - http://www.apha.org/,National Association of County and City Health Officials http://www.naccho.org / & U.S. Department of Health and Human Services http://www.hhs.gov/.
Each of these websites has a user friendly format with easy links to information that a health consumer might be looking for, but these three offer significant benefits. The first website contains the most effective answer tot the…
Public Health Foundation http://www.phf.org/
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services http://www.hhs.gov/
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/State health departments, available through ASTHO http://www.astho.org/ Local health departments, available through NACCHO http://www.naccho.org/ Association of Schools of Public Health, available through ASPH http://www.asph.org
How is public health financed in you state, povince, o county? How does the cuent budget cisis impact Public Health and Community sevices in you aea?
The issue of public health and its subsequent impact on society as a whole is becoming a vey contentious issues fo govenment. In the midst of an election yea, public health issues such as Medicae, social secuity, and disease pevention ae all becoming moe pevalent. In the state of New Jesey, public health is no diffeent in this egad. Accoding to U.S. Public Health Sevice, ove the last centuy, the aveage life span of an Ameica gew by 30 yeas. 25 of those yeas ae attibuted to an incease in public health sevices. As such, decisions make by govenments on the fedeal, state, and local level will have a pofound impact on the community. One conundum facing the state of New Jesey…
Journal Articles used
1) Charles Maynard and Michael K. Chapko Data Resources in the Department of Veterans Affairs Diabetes Care May 2004 27:b22-b26; doi:10.2337/diacare.27.suppl_2.B22
2) Charles Maynard, Michael K. Chapko. Diabetes Care. May 2004 v27 i5 pB22(5).
3) Journal of Clinical Epidemiology Volume 54, Issue 12, December 2001, Pages 1195-1203
Therefore environmental studies are of great importance to public health .the air we breathe, water that we drink, and the interaction which is complex between humans and the surrounding. Environmental studies help us understand how the build as well as the natural environment can influence the health of people in a community. It also helps us understand how the risk factors that cause certain diseases can be reduced. The environmental; risk factors can lead to development of diseases such as cancer, asthma and food poisoning. Due to incorporation of chemistry, engineering and toxicology in environmental studies there can be combined expertise that will help in answering public health related questions. Environmental health which is a discipline of both public health and environmental studies can be divided into various aspects like water quality, noise control, air quality, food protection, management of solid waste and so on. All these are important aspects…
This is particularly so for traditionally disadvantaged communities. The involvement of academic institutions would mean a larger among of revenue in order to provide these communities with the best in health care. This will reduce not only the rate of illness, but also of death in these communities, as better equipment is available and students are better prepared for their workforce duties. Preparation alone is however not enough, and the health worker should ensure that he or she regularly engage in learning opportunities in order to remain the best in their field.
There are many agencies throughout the United States that focus not only on workforce preparation, but also on continued learning. One of these is the American Public Health Association (APHA, 2008). This institution serves its associates by providing regular training opportunities via meetings and training sessions. These serve the core activity of the Association by focusing on continuing…
APHA (2008). Continuing professional education. http://www.apha.org/ programs/education/
Fauchald, Sally K. (2004, Winter). Using academic-community partnerships to improve health care services for underserved populations. Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health.
These included natural disasters such as fires and sanitation related problems such as infant mortality rates. Over the years however, health services and technology have improved to the point where many health problems may be anticipated. This is the result of experiential learning over the years from the 19th to the 20th centuries. Accordingly, the functions of health services have gradually changed their focus from response to prevention and preparedness through education. These functions manifest themselves in the strategies currently utilized by the public health care service. Rather than therefore responding to epidemics, citizens are educated to prevent illnesses by for example practicing adequate sanitation habits. In terms of disaster, technology can help citizens to be prepared for disasters, or to respond more adequately in a case where health services are disabled or difficult to access. The newly established functions of the health care system therefore directly influences its specific…
Public Health strategies and interventions changed considerably over the years from 1834-1999. The changes occurring range from vaccinations and institutions to issues such as welfare and general sanitation. Vaccinations for example increased as these were developed in response to outbreaks of serious illnesses, often resulting in large-scale death. Furthermore humanitarian and moral issues such as poverty and sex behavior increased responses to welfare sanitation difficulties as well as education relating to sexually transmitted diseases.
The greatest influences on changes in strategies and interventions may be summarized as the rise in population, urbanization, the economy, natural disasters and large-scale outbreaks of diseases resulting from sanitation issues. Strategies and interventions were then tailored to the particular needs identified by the above factors.
During the early years of the 18th century the function of the health care system was to identify needs and respond to these, as well as to cope with unforeseen disaster and disease. These included natural disasters such as fires and sanitation related problems such as infant mortality rates. Over the years however, health services and technology have improved to the point where many health problems may be anticipated. This is the result of experiential learning over the years from the 19th to the 20th centuries. Accordingly, the functions of health services have gradually changed their focus from response to prevention and preparedness through education. These functions manifest themselves in the strategies currently utilized by the public health care service. Rather than therefore responding to epidemics, citizens are educated to prevent illnesses by for example practicing adequate sanitation habits. In terms of disaster, technology can help citizens to be prepared for disasters, or to respond more adequately in a case where health services are disabled or difficult to access. The newly established functions of the health care system therefore directly influences its specific strategies.
The two most important functions include the community Helpline and a five-year strategic plan for children and families.
These functions culminate in assurance paradigms for the community, including five major councils and multiple committees. These support planning processes with regard to community health and the assessment and fulfillment of the citizens' needs. This provides the community members with the assurance that their best interest and health are at the core of the Coalition's functions.
The Gwinnett Coalition for Health and Human ervices. (2005). http://www.gwinnettcoalition.org/
The Gwinnett Coalition for Health and Human ervices (2005b). http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:zMg3gj8oZIoJ:www.gwinnettcoalition.org/pdf/finaldatareport.pdf+gwinnett+county+core+functions&hl=en
The Gwinnett Coalition for Health and Human ervices (2004). Mission and Vision. http://www.gwinnettcoalition.org/about.asp
Gwinnett County Health Department. (2005). Centers for Disease Control. GA Dept. Of Human Resources.
Gwinnett County Health Department (2005b). Gwinneth County Health tatus Report. GA Dept. Of Human Resources.
Gwinnett County Public chools (2005). Health Issues. http://www.gwinnett.k12.ga.us/gcps-edprogweb01.nsf/0/d261df1d6778feb4852567d00054c3f8?OpenDocument
The Gwinnett Coalition for Health and Human Services. (2005). http://www.gwinnettcoalition.org/
The Gwinnett Coalition for Health and Human Services (2005b). http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:zMg3gj8oZIoJ:www.gwinnettcoalition.org/pdf/finaldatareport.pdf+gwinnett+county+core+functions&hl=en
The Gwinnett Coalition for Health and Human Services (2004). Mission and Vision.
" (Federal egister, 2010)
Section 401(c) of the HITECH Act is reported to add an incentive for payments to specific Medicare Advantage (MA) organizations for their affiliated EPs who meaningfully use certified HE technology and meet other certain requirements." (Federal egister, 2010) for MA organizations in which services provided by affiliated EPs who are not meaningful users of certified EH, technology a downward adjustments of payments is stated beginning in 2015. Also required by the Act is a process to be established that ensures that no duplicate payments are made to MA organizations. In addition, hospitals that do not meaningfully use a certified EH technology will receive a reduction in their annual payment for inpatient hospital services. Critical access hospitals who meaningfully use certified EH technology will receive reasonable costs for the purchase of a certified EH technology beginning in fiscal year 2011. It is reported that meaningful…
Federal Register (2010) Part II Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 412, 413, 422 et al. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Final Rule Vol. 75 No. 144. 28 Jul 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-28/pdf/2010-17207.pdf
Standards and Certification Rules (2010) Final Rules and Regulations. HealthIT.gov. Retrieved from: http://www.healthit.gov/policy-researchers-implementers/standards-certification-rules
As the president works to pass what is most assuredly his most important legislative package to date, he is struggling against a great wall of opposition which appears to be driven by a philosophical aversion to public funding of a deeply privatized industry. The result is a tremendous amount of pressure on the president and a reigning fear in the public that he will be forced to capitulate. There are indications from the Obama Administration that the crucial nature of this issue has produced a distinct urgency in terms of passing some system overhaul. Indeed, this discussion generally supports this idea that there is an imperative to act in intervention of a wildly undesirable healthcare scenario. Thus, the nature of this legislation remains uncertain, and those who have desired the establishment of a public option and its promotion of social welfare goals may yet be bitterly disappointed. (MSNBC News Service,…
Creer, T.L. (2009). Will Healthcare Reform Actually Occur in the U.S. Chronic Illness, 5(2), 134-141.
Cummings, J. (2006). About Half of U.S. Adults Lack Confidence inboth Democrats and Republicans to Do a Better Job of Addressing Healthcare
System Concerns. The Wall Street Journal. Online at .
e can train our people, communicate with them, and ensure that they are performing correctly. There has to be an understanding that there are severe consequences for failing to ensure proper sterilization. This issue is one where I would want to guarantee 100% elimination of the problem at my facility.
HIV and teenage pregnancy are relatively straightforward issues. e need to make sure our young people are equipped with knowledge and have access to contraceptives (Kirby, Laris & Rolleri, 2007). There is no point in putting them at risk to satisfy some busybody's need to tell others how to live. e need to combine our efforts with a massive education program, because these are lessons that young people need to know -- you cannot just turn back from either of these things. They are life-changing, and young people need to be aware of this.
Lastly, automobiles are a real challenge.…
Kirby, D, Laris, B., Rolleri, L. (2007). Sex and HIV education programs: Their impact on sexual behaviors of young people throughout the world. Journal of Adolescent Health. Vol. 40 (2007) 206-217.
Shils, M., Olson, J. & Shike, M. (1994). Modern nutrition in health and disease. Lea & Febiger: Philadelphia.
Public Health and Safety
Effectiveness of Emergency Management and the eadiness of Trauma Centers
Since massive terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the anthrax scares in Washington, D.C. shortly thereafter, the effectiveness of emergency management responders and the readiness of emergency trauma centers have become national security issues. Unfortunately, the system is overburdened and may not be up to the challenge, possibly compromising the original mission for emergency rooms to provide adequate trauma care to local communities.
The nation's emergency room system is inadequate to deal with a WMD or other massive attack in terms of both funding and equipment.
In this research proposal, we will examine the need for examining why this is and what the federal government can do to remedy the need. Additionally, we need to find out to what extent federal efforts are succeeding and how and/or deficits with the federal efforts.
Analysis/Literature eview-Crisis for…
Becker, S.M., & Middleton, S.A. (2008). Research improving hospital preparedness for radiological terrorism: Perspectives from emergency department physicians and nurses. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 2(3), 174-184.
Cherry, R.A., & Trainer, M. (2008). The current crisis in emergency care and the impact on disaster preparedness. BMC Emergency Medicine, 8(7), 1-7.
Reilly, M.J., Markenson, D., & DiMaggio, C. (2007). Comfort level of emergency medical service providers in responding to weapons of mass destruction events: Impact of training and equipment. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 22(4), 297-303.
Fact Sheet. Number of Deaths for Leading Cause of Death. December 31, 2009). For Tennessee the data indicate heart disease 14,636, cancer 13, 161, and stroke 3,450 (CDC. Tennessee Fact Sheet. November 9, 2010), yet it is heart disease which strikes the Tennessee population most egregiously. Coronary heart disease is caused by "the narrowing of the coronary arteries due to fatty build- ups of plaque" (American Heart Association. January 17, 2011) invariably leading to chest pain or heart attack (American Heart Association. January 17, 2011). Aside from the harsh statistical realities of deaths and disabilities caused by heart disease mentioned previously; the financial cost of coronary heart disease in "prevention and treatment is higher than for cancer or any other diagnostic group, an estimated $286 billion in 2007, according to the annual update from the American Heart Association" (ArticlesBase. December 24, 2010). Tennessee had "total charges associated with diseases of…
Basic message of the health education outreach: The group will promote methods of preventing contraction of HIV and the benefits of undergoing HIV testing and counseling.
ationale for basic health message: Given that incidence of HIV / AIDS among the Latino communities is very high, it will be imperative to promote methods of prevention and early HIV testing and counseling.
Methods of outreach to the community for participation: Tapping of different community sectors that will permit education among their members and that will also help provide community education about HIV / AIDS. The sectors that will be encouraged to participate in the outreach will be the churches, the businesses, the youth and the elderly groups.
ationale for outreach methods: The above groups are established community leaders that have clout among its members. The variety of sectors that will be tapped will ensure wide coverage of education.
Methods of evaluating health…
Los Angeles Almanac. Retrieved June 6, 2009. Website:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) and You. (2009). Retrived June 6, 2009. Website: http://www.cdc.gov/ H1N1flu/qa.htm
Diptheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccines. What you need to Know. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
The rate of Caesarian sections has skyrocketed in recent decades in the United States, placing it far ahead of other industrialized nations.
Historical overview of C-section rates in the U.S.
Breakdown of C-section rates by race and access to insurance
Why is this a public health issue?
Higher morbidity and mortality rate for C-sections.
Poor and minority women (and their families) affected at greater rates.
One of the costs driving up healthcare in the United States.
Medical and behavioral issues.
Does the medical establishment benefit from increased C-sections?
What behaviors on the part of physicians and other medical professionals push up C-section rates?
How do fears of malpractice lawsuits weigh in this issue?
What behaviors on the part of patients push up C-section rates?
How does obesity factor in to C-section rates?
How does pregnancy education affect C-section rates?
How does prenatal care affect C-section rates?
Are C-sections to blame? (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1380877/Are-C-sections-blame-Maternal-death-rate-nearly-doubles-decade-California.html#ixzz1T6ictEZO
Callaghan, T. (2010). Policy change aims to reduce C-section rate.
Chaillet, N. et al. (2007). Identifying barriers and facilitators towards implementing guidelines to reduce caesarean section rates in Quebec. Bulletin of the World.
esearch, visit the CDC web site at CDC.GOV, and investigate the risks associated with the handling of certain substances and chemicals that one encounters in their daily lives.
Elizabeth W. Etheridge (1997), in an article appearing in the Journal of Environmental Health, said:
Among the 10 nationally notifiable infectious diseases that are most commonly reportable today, several were unknown in June 1946. The 10 most frequent nationally reportable infectious conditions in 1994 (the most recent year for which final data are available) were, in descending order, gonorrhea, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), salmonellosis, shigellosis, hepatitis a, tuberculosis, primary and secondary syphilis, Lyme disease, hepatitis B, and pertussis (5). Fifty years ago, AIDS and Lyme disease were unknown. "Infectious hepatitis" (subsequently identified as hepatitis a) had just been identified, and morbidity reports for this condition first appeared in 1947. In 1953, serum hepatitis (subsequently named hepatitis B) was recognized as a separate…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). Official web site, found online at CDC.GOV, retrieved 20 October 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002229582
Etheridge, E.W. (1997). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Journal of Environmental Health, 59(7), 16+. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from Questia database:
Although his work was initially ignored, gradually as a result of Lind's experiments, more and more ships took aboard lemon and lime juice. Because of these provisions, scurvy was eradicated as the scourge of British sailors. The epithet 'limey' also became a common insult lobbed at British seamen, because of their well-known consumption of limes.
Lind's pioneering work was to show systematically and empirically the problems with the food and water given to sailors (he also conducted experiments on the connections between the spread of typhus and infected water). Without Lind, the folk knowledge that citrus fruit could prevent scurvy would still have existed, but Lind demonstrated through an epidemiological study that eating citrus products could prevent and cure the disease better than other existing remedies. Since Lind, similar disease-eradication campaigns through nutrition have been conducted through outside authorities in the U.S., including fortifying grain-based products with thiamine to prevent…
James Lind. (2011). BBC History. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/lind_james.shtml
A short history of scurvy. (1992). Nutrition Health Review. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0876/is_n62/ai_12296592/
3. In what form or forms does the conflict between outcomes and actions present itself in this scenario?
On one hand, testing as many people as possible for AIDS, and specifically focusing testing programs upon high-risk groups seems like a good idea, given that it should result in the positive outcome of reducing the amount of unaware people engaged in high-risk sexual behavior who could infect other individuals. However, there is the issue of engaging in unfair, discriminatory testing practices and encouraging societal prejudice against a particular group that has a disproportionate number of individuals infected with AIDS.
4. Does mandatory named neonate testing sound, at first hearing, like a good idea? What about the proposal of some AIDS scholars for a testing program aimed at particular subpopulations based on statistical estimates of underlying infection rates or risky behavior patterns? At first look, does the Nahmias-Feinstein proposal for screening strategies…
By definition, this means that sicker patients receive more attention from staff than less sick patients. By contrast, hospice patients all receive much more similar attention.
Whereas the medical treatments provided by hospitals are often complicated, requiring numerous types of medical specialists, their concern for their patients' psychological state is not their specialty. Hospice staff function as, and often consider themselves "specialists" whose specialty is the emotional well-being of their patients. Many hospice staff have considerable previous experience in traditional nursing; according to them, hospital settings provide even the most caring hospital nurse only comparatively brief opportunities to contribute to their patients' emotional state and their other non-medical comfort needs (Caplan, Engelhardt & McCartney 1981). Within the hospice environment, medical care assumes a much smaller role and staff members devote more effort to their patients' comfort than to any other responsibility.
Many hospice staff members relate that much of their…
Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Caplan, a.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Humphry, D. (1991) Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted Suicide for the Dying. Secaucus: Carol Publishing
Incident Command Structure
Command staff and General staff Positions
Three Major Problems
Public Health Confusion and chaos are something that is something commonly experienced by the hospital whenever there is medical disaster going on in the city such as the case in this scenario. Nevertheless, these negative effects can be diminished if management steps up and responds quickly with a focused direction of activities and structure. The Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS) is an emergency management system which services a logical management structure, clear reporting channels, defined everyday jobs, and a mutual nomenclature to aid in unify hospitals with other emergency responders. There are clear advantages to all hospitals using this particular emergency management system
Incident Command Structure
ICS is looked at as being the model tool for command, control, and also organization of a response and delivers a means to organize the…
"Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing, April 19, 1995,." (2012, March 3). Retrieved from Final Report, City of Oklahoma City.
"Search and Rescue Operations Following the Northridge Earthquake; January 17, 1994, Los Angeles CA. (2012, December 21). FEMA -- USFA Technical Rescue Incident Report.
Cantor, A. (2014, December 3). INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM FOR STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE INCIDENTS . Retrieved from U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY: http://www.mass.gov/eopss/docs/dfs/mfa/student-guides/535-icsforstructuralcollapse.pdf
Cocanour CS, A.S. (2014, December 5). Lessons learned from the evacuation of an urban teaching hospital. Retrieved from Arch Surg: www.unboundmedicine.com/
Public Health Program Challenges in Municipalities
For public health challenges to be amicably solved, the entire community, political, legal, and government processes have to be synergized. This collaborative effort is quintessential in improving public health. A one man show would be detrimental because we have to appreciate that policies that help in running public health system require the input of the local community, the political class, and public health administrators (Gostin, 2001). The devolved nature of the public health law has seen limited scope the state and the federal government has had on the operation of public health. To that effect, local entities like boards of health, city councils, and county council have had a lot of say on how public health issues are managed within their areas of jurisdiction. Most of the available literature on public health law largely captures matters pertaining to firearms, housing, or smoking regulations. There…
Barron, D.J. (2003). Reclaiming Home Rule. Harvard Law Review, 116, 2255-2386.
Diller, P. (2007). Intrastate Preemption. Boston University Law Review,87, 1113-1176.
Gostin, L.O. (2001). Public Health Law Reform. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1365-1368.
McCarthy, K.L., Nelson, G.D, Hodge, J.G. & Gebbie, K.M. (2009). Major Components and Themes of Public Health Laws in Select U.S. Jurisdictions. Public Health Report, 124(3), 458-462.
Moskowitz, J.M., Lin, Z., & Hudes, E.S. (2000). The Effect of Working Place Smoking Ordinance in California on Smoking Cessation. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 757-761.
Public Health Inconvenient Truth
The article describes the public health sector as an institution that was established with altruistic motives, while businesses are considered as profit-oriented. This presents a ground for skepticism on the part of the public health sector, especially to protect the financial interest of its clients/beneficiaries. However, considering the current hike in the cost of care and health research, the public health sector may no longer resist such a partnership due to the observed need for financial support available through businesses (Majestic, 2009). This expected partnership between the two bodies is also seen as slightly mutually beneficial. The public health sector gets the funding it needs, while businesses get top/priority medical considerations for its staff and an improved public image. However, sharing of other resources or brand promotion in favor of the public health system is not usually inclusive of such partnerships (Majestic, 2009).
Maintaining Physical and Mental Health through Prevention
One important public health initiative is the initiative to inform, educate, and empower people about health issues. In other words, this means to engage in the promotion of health literacy, which is typically associated with preventive care (Lindau, 2002). Health literacy increases the public’s awareness of disease and what steps they can take to combat disease, such as congestive heart failure. By teaching people about eating a proper diet and getting exercise, one can inform, educate and empower the public about how to take care of their health more effectively.
This initiative is particularly significant because so many health issues in the US can be prevented if people were just better informed about what the issues were and how to avoid lifestyle habits that can increase one’s risk for those health issues. In a lot of cases it comes down to simple healthy…
Lindau, S. T., Tomori, C., Lyons, T., Langseth, L., Bennett, C. L., & Garcia, P. (2002). The association of health literacy with cervical cancer prevention knowledge and health behaviors in a multiethnic cohort of women. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 186(5), 938-943.
Needs for the 21st Century and Human Factors
In my opinion, Andrea could settle for a team bringing on board various key stakeholders. Towards this end, the team could comprise of area clinics and hospitals, sports leagues and boy/girl club leadership, school boards, as well as city councils.
To begin with, city councils would be instrumental in the shaping and implementation of policy to reign in the increase in STI infections within this particular age and gender group. On the other hand, school boards would come in handy owing to the important role that education institutions play in the promotion of healthy behaviors. The former President of the American School Health Association, Rosemary K Gerrans, points out that “school can be one of the primary sites through which children and youth learn about the factors that influence their health… also can be the site that provides or coordinates…
Alexander, S., Frith, K.H. & Hoy, H. (2017). Applied Clinical Informatics for Nurses (2nd ed). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Birkhead, G.S., Morrow, C.B. & Pirani, S. (2020). Essentials of Public Health (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Lau, F., Bartle-Car, J.A. & Biss, G. (2019). Improving Usability, Safety and Patient Outcomes with Health Information Technology: From Research to Practice. Washington, DC: IOS Press.
There are various instances whereby it would be prudent to utilize communication technology other than social media in the dissemination of public health info. These have been highlighted below:
When the target is not computer literate
It is important to note that the proper utilization of the various social media tools, and thus meaningful interactions in social media contexts, calls for a definite set of skills and capabilities (Jawad, Abass, Hariri, and Aki, 2015). These skills and capabilities could be simply referred to as technology/computer literacy skills. In some instances, some populations may not possess the said skills, i.e. those who are functionally illiterate. In such scenarios, the dissemination of public health campaigns using social media could be inappropriate. Telephone and radio ought to be taken into consideration in this case.
When brevity of content comes at an expense
In some instances, attempts to embrace a short narrative…
Jawad, M., Abass, J., Hariri, A. & Aki, E.A. (2015). Social Media Use for Public Health Campaigning in a Low Resource Setting: The Case of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking. Biomed Research International, 14(5), 87-91.
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009). Types of social media. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Thai, C.L. (2017). Public Health Campaigns in the Digital Age: Targeting and Tailoring Using Digital and Social Media. Advertising and Society Quarterly, 18(3), 43-52.
PUBLIC HEALTH 12Week 5 Assignment:Why were American Businesses Originally Motivated to offer healthcare to their employeeS? How does this choice influence healthcare in America today?The system of employer-sponsored insurance is largely a result of one event World War II, and the tax policy and wage freezes that emerged out of it (Field & Shapiro, 1993). Before the 1930s, American employers had little motivation to provide health coverage, and citizens paid their own way where medical costs were concerned (Field & Shapiro. 1993). Employees who worked in dangerous professions such as railroads, steel, and mining had access to company doctors in union-operated infirmaries or industrial clinics, but no coverage was offered for healthcare services beyond these (Rook, 2020). Private insurance in the form of Blue Cross and Blue Shield began to emerge in the 1930s following the Great Depression, where many families, hard-pressed to provide the basic necessities, found themselves…
Balcker, K., Dow, W., & Wolfson, J. (2006). Health Savings Accounts: Implications for Health Spending. National Tax Journal, 59(3), 463-75.
Borda, M. (2011). Medical Savings Account: In Search of an Alternative Method of Healthcare Financing in European Countries. Business and Economics Horizons, 6(3), 54-65.
Glied, S., & Remler, D. (2005). The Effect of Health Savings Account on Health Insurance Coverage. Taskforce on the Future of Health Insurance. Retrieved from https://www.issuelab.org/resources/9118/9118.pdf
Lowsky, D. J., Lee, D. K., & Zenios, S. (2018). Health Savings Accounts: Consumer Contribution Strategies and Policy Implications. MDM Policy and Practice, 1(1), 1-14.
Application of Public Health Concepts for the Uninsured: The Effects on the Health Sector
Application of public health is of major concern to DNP-prepared nurses in their different fields and places of practice. Since the 20th century, public health nurses have been at the forefront of improving the general health condition of different communities by providing unrelenting and selfless services to members of the public. Immunizations, workplace safety, healthier mothers and babies, family planning, and awareness campaign on tobacco health complications are some of the critical areas they have immensely impacted (“The Unique Contribution”). In this present age, top amongst the global health concerns in DNP area of study is the growing number of insured people in the world. The prevalence of life-threatening and disability-causing diseases in society has made having health insurance a necessity. According to World Health Organization (WHO), Ischemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,…
America’s Uninsured Crisis: Consequences for Health and Health Care. REPORT?BRIEF (2009). Institute of Medicine, 1-6. http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2009/Americas-Uninsured-Crisis-Consequences-for-Health-and-Health-Care/Americas%20Uninsured%20Crisis%202009%20Report%20Brief.pdf
Berchick, E.R., Hood, E. And Barnett, J.C. (2018). Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2017. Current Population Reports. United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, 1-35. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/demo/p60-264.pdf
Fact Sheet (2018). Key Facts about the Uninsured Population. Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), 1-14. http://files.kff.org/attachment//fact-sheet-key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population
The Unique Contributions DNP-Prepared Nurses Bring to the Field of Public Health. Doctors of Nursing Practice DNP. https://www.doctorofnursingpracticednp.org/the-role-of-dnp-educated-nurses-in-public-health/
The top 10 causes of death (2018). World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death
Wishner, Solleveld, Rudowitz and Antonisse (2016). A Look at Rural Hospital Closures and Implications for Access to Care: Three Case Studies. Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation. Issue Brief. Medicaid and the Uninsured, 1-16. http://files.kff.org/attachment/issue-brief-a-look-at-rural-hospital-closures-and-implications-for-access-to-care
Public Health: Leisure World Community
Leisure World is a 610 acre gated community that admits individuals of age 55 and above as members. In that sense, it is both geographic and phenomenological. The community is largely cosmopolitan, with the racial distribution of residents being wide and comprising of Caucasian, African American, Asian, and Hispanic individuals. There is, however, a predominant Caucasian population.
With the only those above age 55 being qualified to join the community, the relevance of the present recreation centers cannot be overstated – i.e. an outdoor pool and tennis court. This is more so the case given the need for this age group to engage in regular physical exercises so as to further enhance their health and wellbeing. The common health concerns among the elderly residents of this community are diabetes, hypertension, pressure ulcers, and musculoskeletal maladies. Other commonplace health concerns faced by the older adults elsewhere…
Public Health Research Methods, Theories, and ModelsTheories are described as plausible bodies of knowledge that are used to explain effects and their possible causes. Essentially, theories are useful in understanding the world owing to the fact that they control, predict, and describe the world. On the other hand, models are graphical, pictorial, or related representations of viewpoints about the world or of reality (Fried, 2021). They are routinely derived from theories. Therefore, it is important to note that models act as a connection between the real world and theories. In a research article, the researchers underlying theory or model are usually found under theoretical frameworks.The research article that I chose addresses the field of voluntary turnover of experienced nurses. In essence, the research was based on factors that contribute to the decisions that experienced nurses make to abandon their practice settings and explore other employment options (Hayward et al., 2016).…
Fried, E. I. (2021). Theories and Models: What They Are, What They Are for, and What They Are About. An International Journal for the Advancement of Psychological Theory, 31(4), 336-344.
Hayward, D., Bungay, V., Wolff, A. C. & MacDonald, V. (2016). A qualitative Study of Experienced Nurses’ Voluntary Turnover: Learning from their Perspectives. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25(9-10), 1336 – 1345.
Taxpayer Rescue Missions: Are They Ethical?
Should Americans be rescued for free, even when their stupidity is what placed them in danger? According to the United States Coast Guard, the answer is yes. As Salant (1997) points out, the Coast Guard believes that free rescues are critical for public safety because fewer people would use rescue services if they actually had to foot the bill. The National Taxpayers Union disagrees, of course. With a limited budget, the government should not be spending money on people who “intentionally put themselves in danger,” (Salant, 1997, p. 1). While I agree with the National Taxpayers Union in principle, and shake my head at many of the stupid predicaments Americans find themselves in, I side more the Coast Guard. It is simply too difficult to draw the line between behaviors that some people consider risky and others do not. Also, accidents do happen. Americans…
Allen, A. (2014). Risky behavior by teens can be explained in part by how their brains change. The Washington Post. Sept 1, 2014. Retrieved online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/risky-behavior-by-teens-can-be-explained-in-part-by-how-their-brains-change/2014/08/29/28405df0-27d2-11e4-8593-da634b334390_story.html?utm_term=.3d5d354563ab
“Distracted Driving,” (2017). Retrieved online: http://www.ghsa.org/state-laws/issues/Distracted-Driving
Salant, J. (1997).Taxpayers Pay Millions for Rescues. Accessed at http://www.glencoe.com/sec/health/pdf/taxpayers.pdf on August 22, 2016.
Titcomb, J. (2016). Coastguard called out to rescue Pokémon Go players chasing rare creature across lake. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/07/19/coastguard-called-out-to-rescue-pokemon-go-players-chasing-rare/
Public Policy for Health of the Community: The Importance of Community Centers
Laws of the city, state and nation all directly have an impact on the health and wellness of their citizens. Hence, it is crucial to foster policies at all arenas of government to adequately acknowledge the facts that can have a negative impact on the health of a community. This is why public policy and nursing are so important: nurses are consistently on the front lines of patient care and have an intimate knowledge often of the needs and vulnerabilities of a particular community. Public policy is crucial as it can impact some of the biggest sectors of human and community life—from housing, job availability, access to healthy food and the availability of high quality medical support, to the overall cleanliness of the environment lived in. For example, even public policy that appears to have no impact on…
NYSCAA. (2018). NYSCAA Public Policy – NYSCAA. Retrieved from https://nyscommunityaction.org/nyscaa-public-policy/
Seattle.gov. (2016). Community Center Strategic Plan - Parks | seattle.gov. Retrieved from https://www.seattle.gov/parks/about-us/policies-and-plans/community-center-strategic-plan
TxCouncil.com. (n.d.). Public Policy, Community Centers, Public Health | Texas Council. Retrieved from http://txcouncil.com/public-policy/
Outbreak at Watersedge: A Public Health Discovery Game
The start of the participation in the epidemiological process begins with the location of the Department of Health. The sole reason for this is to get the necessary personnel and resources which are very essential in doing an effective epidemiology process. The department is endowed with experienced medical officers like the chief epidemiologist who has a wide ranging experience in water borne diseases.
At the Department of health, together with the available health personnel I got various medical profiles of different patients handed over to me. The profile contained medical status of the patients over the last few days after they were put under observation on suspicion that they were suffering from water borne disease. Diarrhea was one of the severe symptoms. I also noted that many other patients were getting admitted to the hospital at an alarming rate. This could signify…
CDC, (2017). Parasites- Cryptosporidium (also known as ‘crypto’). Retrieved September 29, 2017 from https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/index.html
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. (2014). Annual epidemiological report: Emerging and vector-borne diseases. Retrieved September 29, 2017 from https://ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/media/en/publications/Publications/emerging-vector-borne-diseases_annual-epidemiological-report-2014.pdf
It should be noted, from the onset, that amongst many persons, behavioral, emotional, as well as mental problems happen to be rather commonplace. This is more so the case given the various challenges that people – both young and old - group tend to encounter in their daily living. RAND undertook an “evaluation of California’s state-wide mental health prevention and early intervention programs” (Eberhart et al., 2015, p. 1). It is important to note that the three initiatives that RAND sought to evaluate were inclusive of; the reduction of discrimination as well as stigma, prevention of suicide, and the mental health of students.
How was the success of the program or policy measured?
Essentially, the RAND undertook a baseline survey that covered the entire state. It should be noted that the said survey took into consideration various groups with an intention of evaluating findings for the various schemes or…
Section 1: The Disaster, Man-Made or Natural
The community I live in is susceptible to Blizzards by virtue of the location (i.e. Essex county New Jersey). The Blizzard is a severe condition of the weather that is characterized by cold temperature, reduced visibility, and strong winds by virtue of the blowing or falling snow (Weather Online, 2018). Blizzards are considered as hazards that cause disasters, therefore, leading to excessive mortality and morbidity in many places across the globe (Weather Online, 2018). Blizzards have a great impact on any affected community in relation to the topography and location of that area. The human demography of that area and the properties of the environment that has buildings also affect the impact that Blizzards might have (Weather Online, 2018).
Hypothermia is a common health consequence of Blizzards. It is important for the affected families to stay hydrated in order to avoid the condition…
Conserve Energy Future (2018). What is a Blizzard? Retrieved 28 December, 2018 from https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/facts-effects-and-formation-of-blizzards.php
Du, W., Fitzgerald, G. J., Clark, M., & Hou, X. Y. (2010). Health impacts of Blizzards. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X00008141
Earth Eclipse (2018). What is a Blizzard? Retrieved 28 December, 2018 from https://www.eartheclipse.com/natural-disaster/blizzard-causes-effects-facts.html
TNAU (2016). Disaster management, TNAU Agritech Portal. Retrieved 28 December, 2018 from http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/agriculture/agri_majorareas_disastermgt_Blizzards.html
Weather Online (2018). Blizzards. Retrieved 28 December, 2018 from https://www.weatheronline.co.uk/reports/wxfacts/Blizzard.htm
By the end of the month, we hope to reopen:
i) Academic facilities for courses that begin earlier than October
ii) Admissions processing for October 2020
i) Several laboratories and associated spaces (phased, where buildings are ready and on the basis of priority)
ii) College house for end-year examination processing (partially open with staff reporting in shifts)
iii) College health center
By the end of the month, the school administration will hold a full scale review to determine what areas can be reopened safely
We hope to reopen;
i) The library (weekdays 9am to 6pm)
ii) More academic facilities and departments
iii) Any remaining cafes and shops
iv) Any remaining laboratories
we will be reopening some office spaces on reduced capacity for staff and faculty who may wish to work on campus
We hope to begin welcoming some of our students back…
Public Health Trends and Practices
Resources I will use to remain informed and current in public health trends and practices will be RSS feeds that I can use on sites where public health news is reported, such as sites like Healthcare Global (2017) and the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2017), where news and important trends are published on the Internet as well. The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services is an especially helpful site for obtaining up-to-date information on what is happening in the U.S. on the health care front.
Another good source of public health information is the site of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All three of these sites are devoted to publishing useful information on public health trends that can be of particular importance for a professional…
American medicine is a critical element with modern society. Statistics show that the overall population of the developed world is aging. When extrapolated to the world, the healthcare statistics are exacerbated. According to research, by 2030, one in five individuals within the world will be over 60 years old. This trend is attributable to falling fertility rates, higher left expectancy rates, and overall improvement in medicine. Each of these trends coalesce to form a much more dynamic healthcare system that increase the over life expectancy of individuals throughout the world. This trend of medicine shows now signs of abating. Currently the United States spends roughly 17% of GDP on healthcare related expenditures. This amounts to roughly $11,500 per person or $1.8 Trillion in 2020 alone. By 2030, this figure is projected to be roughly 20% of GDP indicating the rapid rise in healthcare relates cost, expenditures and investments. This trend…
1. Acemoglu D, Johnson S. Disease and development: The effect of life expectancy on economic growth. Journal of Political Economy. 2007;115(6):925–985
2. Adler NE, Rehkopf DH. U.S. disparities in health: Descriptions, causes, and mechanisms. Annual Review of Public Health. 2008;29:235–252
3. Anderson G, Squires D. Measuring the US health care system: A cross-national comparison. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2010.
Professional leadership Journal – Value Systems
The art and science of leading people in an effective manner is an increasingly challenging process though it is a great opportunity and serious responsibility (Nahavandi, 2014). Leadership plays a crucial role in the success and effectiveness of any organization including those in the public health sector. Leaders influence the success and effectiveness of an organization through their roles in maintain order and focus and promoting the accomplishment of tasks. However, in light of the complexities associated with the art of leadership, it is increasingly important for leaders to adopt suitable styles and approaches that enhance their effectiveness in an organization. In light of the insights obtained from this course, an individual’s personal values play an important role in leadership.
Values are defined as enduring beliefs that an individual possess that in turn influences his/her code of conduct. Value systems not only shape an…
The Effects of Contaminated Lead Water in Newark
In recent times, there has been a consistent public outcry on continuous leaching of a significant amount of lead into Newark’s water system. However, the local municipal officials have been refuting the claims despite the fact that more than ten percent of water samples collected in 2018 were found with more than 15.8 parts per billion higher than federal lead limit of 15.0 parts per billion. It is also established that Newark’s officials have not been conducting lead and copper rule sampling as required of them, thus failing to identify high content of lead in drinking water. As a result, state department of environmental protection gave an alarm to Newark officials for exceeding the federal limits of lead in drinking water.
This paper therefore, will therefore focus on establishing the effects of Lead contaminated drinking water in Newark to the residents…
Role Paper: Primary MedicineAbstractIntroduction. Primary medicine is a fulfilling and exciting area for a nurse to work in. the role provides a nurse with the opportunity to develop a long-term nurse-patient relationship, thus, helping people manage their health within their communities. Nevertheless, working as a primary medicine nurse can also be very challenging; for instance, for one to be an excellent primary medicine nurse, he must be well organized and have excellent communication skills.Analysis. Primary medicine nurses always take the responsibility of performing the very beginning patient physical consultation before examination by the physician. Thus, involving things like recording and measuring things such as vital signs, weight, and Hight. With the passage of the affordable care act, primary medicine has seen substantial changes in the delivery of primary care and nursing roles. The changes have put more focus on more team involvement and participation and expansion of functions of each…
Cogan, J. A. (2011). The Affordable Care Act’s preventive services mandate: Breaking down the barriers to nationwide access to preventive services. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 39(3), 355-365.
Maier, C. B., Aiken, L. H., & Busse, R. (2017). Nurses in advanced roles in primary care: Policy levers for implementation.
Peikes, D., Taylor, E. F., O’Malley, A. S., & Rich, E. C. (2020). The Changing Landscape of Primary Care: Effects Of The ACA And Other Efforts Over The Past Decade: A description of primary care delivery system reform models developed and tested over the past decade by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, which was created by the Affordable Care Act. Health Affairs, 39(3), 421-428.
Smolowitz, J., Speakman, E., Wojnar, D., Whelan, E. M., Ulrich, S., Hayes, C., & Wood, L. (2015). Role of the registered nurse in primary health care: Meeting health care needs in the 21st century. Nursing Outlook, 63(2), 130-136.
Assessing the quality of quantitative research
Question 1: Study purpose/question
(a) Did the study have a clearly stated purpose/research question?
(b) Explain your response below:
The study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mobile service so as to determine the most suitable sample size and to refine the study design prior to rolling out the randomized controlled study. The study also had the dual purpose of gathering feedback from parents on the SMS reminders after the intervention.
Question 2: Relevance to nursing/midwifery practice
(a) Explain how this question was relevant to nursing/midwifery practice.
The research is extremely relevant in terms of achieving some of key objectives of nursing/ midwifery practice; the objective of reminding/ alerting parents about certain obligations they have to…
Miller, E. (2015). Controversies and challenges of vaccination: an interview with Elizabeth Miller. BMC Medicine, 13, 267. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0508-z
McKee, C., & Bohannon, K. (2016). Exploring the Reasons Behind Parental Refusal of Vaccines. The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics?: JPPT, 21(2), 104–109. http://doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-21.2.104
Hendrix, K.S., (2015). When parents hesitate about vaccines, what should health-care providers say?[online] When parents hesitate about vaccines, what should health-care providers say? Available at: [Accessed 5 Jun. 2018].
National Centre for Immunisation Research & Surveillance (NCIRS). (2017). The SKAI project: Sharing Knowledge About Immunisation. [Online] Reasons for NOT vaccinating your child » NCIRS. Available at: [Accessed 5 Jun. 2018].
Domek, G. J., Contreras-Roldan, I. L., O’Leary, S. T., Bull, S., Furniss, A., Kempe, A., & Asturias, E. J. (2016). SMS text message reminders to improve infant vaccination coverage in Guatemala: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Vaccine, 34(21), 2437–2443. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.065
National Health and Medical Research Council (2018). SECTION 2: THEMES IN RESEARCH ETHICS: RISK AND BENEFIT, CONSENT. [Online] available at: https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/book/section-2-themes-research-ethics-risk-and-benefit-consent [Accessed 5 Jun. 2018].
Spieth, P. M., Kubasch, A. S., Penzlin, A. I., Illigens, B. M.-W., Barlinn, K., & Siepmann, T. (2016). Randomized controlled trials – a matter of design. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12, 1341–1349. http://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S101938
Houle, S. (2015). An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Randomized Controlled Trials in Pharmacy Research. The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 68(1), 28–32.
A 2006 study that examined the rates of depression and other mental health disorders following the December 2004 tsunami found that large numbers of people still faced significant health impairment from the event, and that treatment had been negligible when compared to relief and rebuilding efforts in other areas (CDC 2006). These efforts would likely be made far more effective and efficient, however, if mental health issues were dealt with. Addressing the depression and other mental health maladies that the people suffered from following the tsunami would have led to a better adjusted and more productive (as well as healthier) population.
There was an effective degree of trauma care provided immediately after the tsunami struck, but preventative care measures could have been stepped up during this time to forestall and mitigate the spread of infectious diseases that often comes after a major disaster event (WHO 2005). Obviously, trauma care was…
CDC (2006). "204 South Asia tsunamis." Center for disease control. Accessed 14 November 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/tsunamis/
WHO (2005). "South Asia earthquake and tsunamis: Inter-agency rapid health assessment." World health organization. Accessed 14 November 2009. http://www.who.int/hac/crises/international/asia_tsunami/final_report/en/index.html
Health Belief Model and Health Education
Public/population health standards place the conventional medical individual care model within several determinants of health. Currently, various public health models exist and are available for a huge range of purposes such as the Health Belief Model. These various health models exist to provide an improved understanding of the dynamics relating to the health and wellbeing of populations. In addition, there are social determinants of health (SDOH), which basically refer to the political, social and economic factors that impact the health of individuals and populations. The social determinants of health also refer to the ecological model and place significant emphasis on healthcare institutions and organizations established by humans to organize or structure social processes relating to individuals and populations’ health including health education. This paper examines how the Health Belief Model can be used to address the issue of health education.
The Issue of Health…
tatistics regarding bed availability are indeed provided, but perhaps the public could benefit from more information about how the collaboration actually takes place.
Another area that could be addressed is the county's educational facilities. Currently it seems that many of the health indicators are focused on cure rather than prevention. Although immunization pracitces are mentioned, education regarding healthy living is a pertinent part of disease prevention. I would therefore like to see this added to the health indicators.
In conclusion, I find the indicators that are present comprehensive and sufficient, but it is important to educate the public regarding strategies implemented on their behalf, as well as regarding individual practices for optimal disease prevention and cure.
Georgia Division of Public Health. (2005). Health Data & Information. http://health.state.ga.us/healthdata/index.asp
Gwinnet County Health Department. (2001). Gwinnet Community Health tatus Report: Working Together for a Healthier Community. http://health.state.ga.us/pdfs/regional/gwinnethealthstatus.01.pdf
Georgia Division of Public Health. (2005). Health Data & Information. http://health.state.ga.us/healthdata/index.asp
Gwinnet County Health Department. (2001). Gwinnet Community Health Status Report: Working Together for a Healthier Community. http://health.state.ga.us/pdfs/regional/gwinnethealthstatus.01.pdf
Public Health Preparedness
The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…
Eisenstein, R., Finnegan, J. R., & Curran, J. W. (2014). Contributions of Academia to Public Health Preparedness Research. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 4), 5 -- 7.
Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M., & Schwartz, B. (2015). The Evidence Base of Primary Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Scoping Review and Stakeholder Consultation. BMC Public Health, 15, 432. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1750-1
Moore, S., Mawji, A., Shiell, A., & Noseworthy, T. (2007). Public Health Preparedness: A Systems-Level Approach. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(4), 282 -- 286. http://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.030783
Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl 1), S9 -- S11. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114496
" The far-reaching results of Koch's methods then could be applied to many fields of medical research rather than just to the diseases he investigated. This broad application and research then is what makes Koch's findings so significant.
Two specific principles from the code of public health ethics can be seen as embodied in Koch's work: The first is that the fundamental causes of disease are addressed and researched, rather then just the disease itself. Requirements for preventing the diseases Koch investigated could then be identified. The second principle achieved is that community health was achieved while respecting the rights of individuals in the community. Through his research, Koch was able to contribute to the health of individuals within communities in order to ensure the optimum well-being of the community as a whole.
History of Medicine: Robert Koch (2002, October). Online at http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/robert_koch.htm
Public health code of ethics. (2005).…
History of Medicine: Robert Koch (2002, October). Online at http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/robert_koch.htm
Public health code of ethics. (2005). Online at http://www.apha.org/ codeofethics/ethics.htm
This results in healthy, hygienic practices such as washing hands, cooking meat properly, and ensuring a sufficient daily intake of the correct nutrients without encouraging obesity.
Government legislation is another important component in public health infrastructure. This component is essential in protecting the public from unsafe foods such as unpasteurized milk, dangerous insecticides used on fruit and vegetables, and disease-carrying components in imported foods (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report., 1999).
In terms of food security, all the above components of the public health infrastructure can be utilized to help those who feel insecure of their food supply. A thorough scientific investigation can be backed by the other components in order to remedy the situation.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: afer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4840a1.htm
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20).…
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Safer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4840a1.htm
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20). Self-Reported Concern About Food Security - Eight States, 1996 -- 1998. October 20, 49(41);933-6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Public health core function that is principally addressed by the author is law. As pointed out by the author, public health law infrastructure that is sound is imperative for the reason that it institutes the powers and duties of government to safeguard injury and disease and promote the health of the population (Gostin, 2008). There are examples of how law is used in public health. To begin with, at a personal and individual level, this core function can educate, generate inducements, deter as well as punish. A good illustration is in the sense that health communication promotions provide education and encourage people to make much healthier choices and decision (Gostin, 2000). Secondly, in public health, law as a core function mandates agents of change behavior to have product designs that are much safer and also the use of property. A good example is in the sense that the government undertakes…
The problem is however that results appear less promising in the long-term. The most effective period for weight loss occurs during the first six months, whereas weight gain once again appears after this time.
hile it is a good idea to implement school and work-based programs, commercial giants such as KFC and Macdonald's make it very difficult to sustain healthy nutrition and weight loss. Advertising that tends to focus on the pleasure of eating unhealthy foods is one of the great culprits promoting obesity in the United States. Perhaps food addictions could be fought more effectively by similar means. The media could be used to promote healthy habits and curb unhealthy ones in terms of fast foods. This technique has shown promising results in smoking and could also prove useful in the food industry.
Guide to Community Preventive Services (2003, January 3). Overweight/Obesity. www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity
While it is a good idea to implement school and work-based programs, commercial giants such as KFC and Macdonald's make it very difficult to sustain healthy nutrition and weight loss. Advertising that tends to focus on the pleasure of eating unhealthy foods is one of the great culprits promoting obesity in the United States. Perhaps food addictions could be fought more effectively by similar means. The media could be used to promote healthy habits and curb unhealthy ones in terms of fast foods. This technique has shown promising results in smoking and could also prove useful in the food industry.
Guide to Community Preventive Services (2003, January 3). Overweight/Obesity. www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity
A direct contributing factor to the second determinant is the lack of energy resulting from unhealthy eating habits. Indirectly, social changes in work and economic habits result in fewer physical activities from day-to-day.
A d) To encourage more physical activities, community programs such as walking and jogging competitions could be arranged. These activities will then be focused on the whole family, with categories to focus on the abilities of men, women and children.
A e) Impact objective: Advertising to educate the public regarding the benefits of healthy foods. Education programs can also occur in schools and health clinics.
Process objective: Advertise a community activity involving jogging and walking activities. The distance will vary according the categories for men, women and children. Prizes will be used to encourage participation.
Grayson, Charlotte (2004, Aug.) Weight Loss: Health Risks Associated with Obesity. WebMD, The Cleveland Clinic. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/46/2731_1658
World Health Organization. (2005). Obesity…
Grayson, Charlotte (2004, Aug.) Weight Loss: Health Risks Associated with Obesity. WebMD, The Cleveland Clinic. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/46/2731_1658
World Health Organization. (2005). Obesity and Overweight. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/obesity/en
Public Health Study on Implications and Ethics of Syphilis
Reverby, Susan. (2003) Tuskegee's Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Studies on Social Medicine.
One of the most infamous actions (or non-actions) in American medicine was that of the Tuskegee Study of this century. The U.S. Public Health Service, on behalf of the U.S. government, observed the effects of advanced and untreated syphilis on four hundred poor black Alabama men. The experiment lasted until 1972.
How could this have occurred? The reasons are twofold -- the perception of syphilis as an illness and the rampant racism prevalent in America at the time. One of the most culturally and politically significant illnesses in human history has been that of syphilis. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that has been blamed for taking some of the greatest minds that ever lived, including Mozart's, as well as many other ordinary individuals. It has been…
public health infrastructure is a necessity for each and every nation. Public health infrastructure is a component of the larger and complex public health system (CDC, 2001,p.5).Public health infrastructure is described by Turnock (2000) as the nerve center of global public health. The objectives of the U.S. public health infrastructure encompasses the rural, urban and tribal population.In this paper, we address whether the workforce, communications and tracking systems, research and evaluation capabilities, planning and laboratory facilities are adequate. Also addressed are the most important needs in shaping and sustaining the infrastructure for dealing with the identified public health problem. The recommended changes are also indicated.
A serious public health workforce shortage is currently affecting the global and U.S. public healthcare systems. The nation is facing a shortage of critical healthcare workers like nurses, primary care physicians, behavioral as well as public health professionals. More that 64 million Americans live…
Assoociation of Schools of Public Health (2012). Confronting the Public Health Workforce Crisis.Available online at http://www.asph.org/document.cfm?page=1038
Center for Disease Control (2001). Public Health's Infrastructure -- A Status report. Available online at http://www.uic.edu/sph/prepare/courses/ph410/resources/phinfrastructure.pdf
Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public (2002).The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Institute Of Medicine
HHS (2012). Goal 5: Strengthen the Nation's Health and Human Service Infrastructure and Workforce. Available online at http://www.hhs.gov/ secretary/about/goal5.html]
Policy Process Part I
Policies are constantly being reviewed and considered to assist in enhancing the federal, state, and local health care systems. Each of the reviewed and considered policies has the potential to affect every individual on a daily basis, so careful consideration must be exercised when policies are proposed. The careful consideration requires an understanding of the process through which an idea or topic ultimately becomes a policy and legislation. An example of a topic in the health care industry that may be used to form a policy is health workforce shortages. This topic can become a policy because the United States health sector is currently experiencing an increase in workforce shortages in federal, state, and local levels. The current laws do not have adequate measures or procedures that would deal with this issue effectively. Therefore, policy makers should develop and implement legislation that specifically focuses on health…
Abood, S. (2007). Influencing Health Care in the Legislative Arena. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 12(1). Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/553404_4
Buchan, J. & Aiken, L. (2010). Solving Nursing Shortages: A Common Priority. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(24), 3262-3268.
Gebbie, K.M. (1994, June). Formulating Public Health Policy: The Case of AIDS. American
Journal of Public Health, 84(6), 888-889.
This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…
public health funding be directed towards complementary medicine?
An Argumentative Essay
Complementary medicine describes the use of therapies and herbal medicines which are not commonly practiced by doctors. The term itself refers to getting a medical treatment by doctor and simultaneously getting such therapies so both treatments work together to improve the patient's health. Many of the therapies or herbal medicines have been a part of our lives but most of us do not know that they are under the umbrella term of complementary medicine. Another term is attached to complementary medicine and that is alternative medicine. Alternative medicine is when we use only these herbal medicine or therapies as a treatment instead of conventional medicine, which is commonly practiced by medical. With the increase in preference of complementary medicine and the requests for it to be used more regularly by patients, it is gradually replacing the term…
Alameddine, M, Naja, F, Abdel-Salam, S, Maalouf, S & Matta, C. (2011, August 28). Stakeholders' perspectives on the regulation and integration of complementary and alternative medicine products in Lebanon: a qualitative study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11(71). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-71.
Clement, Y.N., Williams, A.F., Khan, K, Bernard, T, Bhola, S, Fortune, M, Medupe, O, Nagee, K & Seaforth, C.E. (2005, November 18). A gap between acceptance and knowledge of herbal remedies by physicians: The need for educational intervention. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2005, 5(20). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-5-20
Kwan, D, Boon, H.S, Hirschkorn, K, Welsh, S, Jurgens, T, Eccott, L, Heschuk, S, Griener, G.G. & Cohen-Kohler, J.C. (2008, July 14). Exploring consumer and pharmacist views on the professional role of the pharmacist with respect to natural health products: a study of focus groups. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008, 8(40). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-40
Rhodes, P.J., Small, N, Ismail, H and Wright, J.P. (2008, March 20). The use of biomedicine, complementary and alternative medicine, and ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy among people of South Asian origin in the UK. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008, 8(7). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-7.
Public Health Then and Now
I consider Fitzhugh Mullan's article "Public Health Then and Now: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: Public Health Practice, Past and Present" a very provocative yet utmost informative and challenging article for the health practitioner and interested layman alike that provides its reader with precious information about the qualities a health worker will have to have and the relationships he will have to entertain at the various stages of his work if he wants to meet his manifold professional responsibilities. Both the title of the article and its abstract (Mullan, 2000, 702) clearly describe the research problem the scope of which the author has appropriately delimited.
I think that the whole article is of eminent importance for the entire public health profession because it covers two areas that do not seem to have caught much attention in the scholarly literature: Dynamic political involvement of public…
Mary have the right to reveal this information to others? Please justify your answer based on what you know about public health and ethics.
Health information management ethics do not allow Mary to reveal the information. Medical records are used to aid decision making in clinical health circles. They are used for a range of other processes including service coordination, efficacy of health care, evaluation, legal security, research, accreditation supplications, policy making, regulation, education and a range of others. It is important to maintain the confidentiality of the information shared by patients with health officers; trust is to be maintained with the patients (Harman, Flite, & ond, 2012). If such practice is not observed, patients will be wary of sharing information. Consequently, the quality of health care would be compromised (ord, urke, & Dudzinski, 2013). Privacy has a range of other benefits apart from the direct health service provision advantages.…
Blightman, K., Griffiths, S., & Danbury, C. (2014). Patient confidentiality: when can a breach be justified? Oxford Journals.
Bord, J. D., Burke, W., & Dudzinski, D. (2013). Confidentiality. Ethics in Medicine.
Harman, L., Flite, C., & Bond, K. (2012). Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. AMA Journal of Ethics, 712-719.
Nass, S., Levit, L., & Gostin, L. (2009). Beyond the HIPAA Privacy Rule: Enhancing Privacy, Improving Health Through Research. Washington: National Academies Press.
Digital Disease Detection, commonly referred to as digital epidemiology provided strategies and methods for allowing digital-technology users to monitor infectious disease and conduct surveillance. These strategies help in the understanding of concerns and attitudes regarding infectious diseases. The process begins with the basics, such as the availability of internet access, online sharing platforms and other digital devices. These sources offer huge amounts of data. It is important to note that while these sources collect data, they do not, do so, with public health objectives in focus (Denecke, 2017).
The past few decades have seen tremendous changes in the world. There have been many and varied threats; from bioterrorism, influenza pandemics and the emergence of infectious diseases. There is also the issue of unforeseen population mobility which is among the reasons that triggered the development of public health surveillance systems. Such systems are invaluable tools in the detection and response…