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TQM -- Total Quality Management in the orkforce -- Fad or Fascinating Management tool -- or both?
Total Quality Management has the unfortunate distinction of being an excellent management system that bears a name that sounds more like a trademark than what it is, a philosophy of management that is both psychologically astute and scientific in its nature. Rather than pointing fingers at individual employees, it encourages managers to take responsibility for their staff as a whole and implement solutions to clearly defined and remediable problems, thus producing real results rather than mere corporate reshuffling of staff.
From a definitional, knowledge perspective, the concept of total quality management or TQM, stresses that quantitative or scientific measurement by managers "should be used as a helpful tool, not a weapon." (Hunicke, 2001) From the level of comprehension, one can, by using TQM, increase one's understanding as a manager of how…
Wayne J. Hunicke. (2001) "How To Implement A TQM Process." TQM. Retrived on July 14, 2004 at Advantage Systems Website http://www.dbainc.com/public_html/dba2/library/meawork.html
Even before we refer to our theme, it is best that we give out a definition of what a stakeholder is. As such, a stakeholder is "any individual or group which can affect or is affected by an organization's activities."
If we are to start with some of the non- profit organizations stakeholders, we first need to know exactly what these organizations refer to and than determine which are those directly concerned with their activity.
According to an essay on the Internet, there are three types of non- profit organizations: "(a) foundations; (b) academic and research institutions; and - field-based and other non-governmental organizations." If we refer to these separately, we will conclude there are different groups of interest for each.
Let us first refer to foundations. As we know, these can have many missions, anything from fighting a disease (research foundations) to sustaining education in poor countries…
2. DOT Force. A Strategy for Consultation. November 2001. On the Internet at http://funredes.org/mistica/english/cyberlibrary/participants/docuparti/eng_doc_04.html
Public Management and the Prospects of a Personal Career in Government
Public service may be a noble pursuit, but alas, the author of this essay is not suited for it. A career in government, although it may be theoretically altruistic in its benefits to others and the personal rewards it gives a government employee, also has many disadvantages for those whom pursue it as their main course of vocational existence. And many of these theoretical rewards, for both the employee and the worker, are in fact illusory
First of all, from a purely 'knowledge' point-of-view, government careers tend to pay less in real dollar amounts than careers in the private sector. They thus tend to attract less qualified people, in terms of education and accomplishments, to make an admittedly rough but fair statement. Government jobs also tend to select individuals based upon grades on civil service exams or, through grades…
Public Management and Administration of ater Scarcity Scenario
You are a successful upper manager at an important federal agency. The President and Congress have become concerned about scarcity of potable water in the United States. (ater levels in lakes, reservoirs, and rivers have been dropping steadily, perhaps as a result of climate changes.) Because of the faith the President and Congress have in you, you have been confirmed as the head of a new but relatively small agency to address this threat. In an unusual move, you are given adequate funding and a free hand in designing this new agency. hat do you want this agency to look like? How big would it be? hat kind of organizational design would you want? How will it behave?
From a purely knowledge-oriented perspective, the current drought may be due to a variety of causal factors, including climate shifts, poor conservation, or a…
Kloza, Brad. (2004) Wet Water Shortage. Science Central. Retrieved on July 16, 2004 at http://www.sciencentral.com/articles/view.php3?article_id=218391704
Kulzick, Raymond (2001) "Organizational Types." Retrieved on July 16, 2004 at http://www.kulzick.com/milesot.htm
Like what was stated previously one of the biggest issues facing China was large amounts of corruption taking place. This caused many local governments to experience runaway deficits and inefficiency. Under new public sector management, the government would address this issue by: using a combination of privatization / government-based models that were discussed earlier, it reduced the size of government, improved the rule of law and they would allow the free market to set prices (to a certain extent). These different elements would provide a way of reducing corruption, by taking power out of the hands of government officials. Instead, this power would be divided in a loosely-based confederation between the government and various private entities. This is significant, because it shows how these reforms were able to reduce corruption, by providing various checks and balances of government officials. (Lunt 2010)
E government would be used as a tool to…
China a very Short History, n.d.
New Zealand a very Short History, n.d.
South Korea a very Short History, n.d.
United Kingdom a very Short History, n.d.
Still, compared to most Asian countries, which continue to struggle with highly hierarchical political systems, South Korea has developed and implemented more open reforms. It has to be noted that the efforts made to better reform the South Korean public sector have been determined by a natural sense of alignment to international features and a relative emergence of the country from its communist past.
In both cases of South Korea and New Zealand, the implementation of the reform has generated important impacts on all three components of the public sector mix -- the market, the hierarchy and the networks. As it would be generally expected, the principles of the market were adopted into the public sector. The federal agencies became more focused on efficiency, performance and even began to outsource part of their operations. A particular application of the market principles within the public context is the creation of the…
Bhatnagar, S.C., 2004, E-government from vision to implementation: a practical guide with case studies, SAGE, ISBN 0761932593
Boston, J., 2001, The challenge of evaluating systemic change: the case of public management reform in New Zealand, Learning from International Public Management Reform, Vol. 11
Davies, L., Wright, K., Price, C.W., Experience of Privatization, Regulation and Competition: Lessons for Governments, Economics and Social Research Council, ISSN 1745-9648
Fortin, Y., van Hassel, H., 2000, Contracting in the new public management: from economics to law and citizenship, IOS Press, ISBN 158603037X
The History, Evolution And Purpose Of Public Management
The following study discourses that the new perspective of public management has addressed inadequacies and failures in public sector performance in recent years. The concepts applied locate problems lying in the scope and processes of public administration and public sector activity. The centralized bureaucracies, inefficiency and waste in resource use have addressed issues of inadequate accountability mechanisms among other matters in public management. The memo illustrates the shift in which traditional public administration has transformed into new public management in the consideration of immediate theoretical backgrounds. The principal agendas of reform within new public management are representative of the experiences, and possible adaptation of changes in the governance structures international basis.
In Europe, authorities are expected to ensure that the levels of performance are consistent with existing performance. This scale applies to the top 25% authorities where time targets are…
Behn, Robert, D. (1995). The Big Questions of Public Management. Public Administration Review 55(4):313-324.
Behn, Robert D. (1998). The New Public Management Paradigm and the Search for Democratic Accountability. The International Public Management Journal 1(2):131-164.
Box Richard et al. (2001). New Public Management and Substantive Democracy. Public Administration Review 61(5):608-619
Organizational Theory and Public Management:
Marx, Weber, and Freud.
When one considers the vast topic of organizational theory, one of the foremost names in modern study is undoubtedly Robert . Denhardt. As a professor of Public Administration at Arizona State University, he has authored numerous works on the topic of human behavior as it relates to public organization. Of course, in today's world, this area of study is no small thing -- for in virtually every society the role of the organization -- especially the public/governmental organization is of tremendous influence on the lives of humankind. In such an environment, then, Denhardt has come to focus directly on issues of behavior and ethics -- and draws heavily on the ideas of Weber, Marx and Freud to illustrate just how the governing theories and scholarly assumptions concerning organizational theory has developed into what one recognizes today.
Of course, one of the…
Adler, Yael. "Organizational Behavior and Freud." Vault. 2001> http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3& ; ch_id=402& article_id=18863& cat_id=2071< (22 February 2005).
Burrell, G. And G. Morgan. Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis. London, Heinemann. 1979.
Denhardt, Robert B. Theories of Public Organization. Fourth Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. 2002.
Price, Alan. "Classical Organization Theory: Bureaucracy, Power and Control." HRM Guide. > http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/history/classical_organization_theory.htm < (22 February 2005).
Indeed, the reference to "institutional sclerosis" concerns the fact that virtually every conceivable interest in contemporary society is protected by a variety of laws that provide for extensive advising, participation and appeal procedures, a process that further exacerbates the inability of public administrators to remain responsive to their constituents (Klijn & Koppenjan 241). These authors emphasize that, "This results, among other things, in the Not In My Backyard (NIMBY) syndrome, where parties block the creation of arrangements of collective interest (such as the location decision concerning an industrial site, a road, an asylum centre, etc.) based on their own private interests" (Klijn & Koppenjan 241).
According to King and her associates, current public participation processes have four major components as follows:
The issue or situation;
The administrative structures, systems, and processes within which participation takes place;
The administrators; and,
The citizens (318).
This arrangement means that those with the most…
Barzelay, Michael. The New Public Management: Improving Research and Policy Dialogue. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Brudney, Jeffrey L., Sergio Fernandez, Jay Eungha Ryu and Deil S. Wright. (2005). "Exploring and Explaining Contracting Out: Patterns among the American States." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 15(3):393.
Feltey, Kathryn M., Cheryl Simrell King and Bridget O'Neill Susel. (1998). "The Question of Participation: Toward Authentic Public Participation in Public Administration." Public Administration Review 58(4):317-319.
The ole of Management Information System in Decision Making in Public Administration (Case Study on Hungarian Central Statistical Office)
Organizations require appropriate information in the form of proper databases and reports which plays a pivotal role in decision making. The quality of data holds significant importance as the top management of large organizations derives its high level decisions mostly from the available data rather than inspecting the in depth core activity components. This fact is depicted by the analysis of a case study pertaining to the implementation of a Management Information System (MIS) in the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, which has ultimately improved the quality of information flow within the organization. This paper examines how the implementation of an MIS within HCSO lead to the standardization of report formats and operational data collection procedures. Not only this, the paper will also highlight the role played by an MIS…
HCSO Strategy 2005-2008 "Hungarian Central Statistical Office." Budapest (2005), Accessed
January 9, 2013 Download at:
By bringing into the equation of transitional services the special needs personnel at local colleges and vocational institutions, the interagency agreement described here will ensure that upon the student's eventual arrival at one such institution, there will be people familiar with his case and prepared to accommodate his needs. These respective agency types can then help a disabled student to train a focus on the specific career goals which have been identified either with the assistance of counselors.
Using the Strategic Planning Meeting as a method to identifying willing and helpful stakeholders in the process, the public partnership in question relies heavily on such networking to both orient the community toward our collective goals and to foster natural communication between such agencies at a personal level. By inviting and bringing into contact such groups as decision-makers from local law organizations, leaders from public recreation leagues and university personnel, as well…
Graddy, E. & Chen, B. (2006). Influences on the size and scope of networks for social service delivery. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Advance Access.
Milward, H.B. & Provan, K.G. (2006). A Manager's Guide to Choosing and Using Collaborative Networks. Network and Partnership Series.
Office of Career Assessment, Planning and Placement (OCAPP). Setting a Course for Students with Disabilities & their Parents. Charlottesville City Schools. Online at www.ccs.k12.va.us/departments/items/career/docs/TransitionWebPage.pdf
Public Program vluation: Quality Performance Measurement
Caiden, G and Caiden, NJ (nd) Measuring Performance in Public Sector Programs. Public Administration and Public Policy. Vol. II. Retrieved from: http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c14/1-34-05-06.pdf
Caiden and Caiden (nd) report that the link between reforms and public measurement and evaluation were not merely chance since as the reforms developed devolution was emphasized or the moving of functions and services to the government levels that were lower, along with an emphasis on privatization, decentralization of management, transparency and satisfaction of customers. It is reported that all of these were dependent on accountability maintenance and credibility.
Poister, T. (2001) Measuring Performance in Public and Non-Profit Organizations. Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from: http://glennschool.osu.edu/faculty/brown/home/810/Class%20Materials/Poister%20Performance%20Chapters%201,%202,%203.pdf
Poister (2001) writes that performance measures are "objective, quantitative indicators" of a range of performance in public programs or for public agencies. (p.3) This work reviews the early development and background of performance measurement and ensues on…
Ewoh (2011) examines the applications and types of performance measurement as well as the limitations of performance management. A comparative analysis is conducted in this study.
10. Lawrence L. Martin and Peter M. Kettner, (1996). Measuring the Performance of Human Service Programs. Sage Publications.
The work of Martin and Kettner (1996) examine performance measures in the public service organization and the specific outputs of performance measurement along with logic models. Quality performance measures and outcome performance measures are also reviewed including numeric counts and standardized measures of performance.
Management Account in the Public Sector and Management Accounting in the Private Sector: A Comparative Review
The late 20th and early 21st centuries have brought increasing change to almost every country in the world, Australia included. Globalism describes, in fact, the increasing unification of the world through economic means (reduction of trade barriers, support of international trade, and mitigation of export and import quotas). They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies. Additionally, the idea of globalism and international trade has changed the way Australian's view public and private businesses and the opportunities afforded them because of investment,…
Alexander Performance Management, Inc. 2004, Private vs. Public Sector, viewed May 2012, .
Broadbent, J & Laughlin, R 1988, 'Public Private Partnerships: An Introduction', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol 16, no. 3, pp. 332-41.
Financial Accounting Standards Board 2012, Convergence with the International Accounting Standards Board, viewed May 2012, http://www.fasb.org/international/convergence_iasb.shtml .
Funnell, W & Cooper, K 1998, Public Sector Accounting and Accountability in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
This role is in response to clients' demands for a single trustworthy individual or firm to meet all of their financial needs. However, accountants are restricted from providing these services to clients whose financial statements they also prepare." (U.S. Department of Labor, ureau of Labor Statistics, 2009)
1. Public Accounting
The work entitled: "The Reality of the CPA's Role" states that modern CPAs work "behind the scenes as trusted advisors in nearly all significant business decisions. Successful accountants display the ability to think strategically and creatively and to be problem solvers and business advisors." (Douglass, 2006) Douglass states that the views of the CPA are widely varied "...whether from the viewpoint of the investing public or from the perspective of the companies that engage CPAs to audit their financial statements or perform other functions. In fact, many people not involved in the business management or accounting profession may perceive CPAs…
Douglass, Kevin (2006) the Reality of the CPA's Role New Jersey CPA Magazine, April 2006. Accounting and Auditing. Online available at: http://www.amper.com/publications/amper-cpa-role.asp
Erard, Brian (1992) Taxation with Representation: An Analysis of the Role of Tax Practitioners in Tax Compliance. Journal of Public Economics 52 (1993) 163-107. North-Holland. Online available at: http://aysps.gsu.edu/isp/files/ISP_SUMMER_SCHOOL_2008_ERARD_TAXATION_WITHOUT_REPRESENTATION.pdf
Financial accounting for Local and State School Systems (2005) Chapter 4: Governmental Accounting. National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Online available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/h2r2/ch_4.asp
Garrison, Ray H. And Noreen, Eric W. (2009) What is Managerial Accounting/Cost Accounting. Accounting Management. Online available t: http://www.accountingformanagement.com/
Public Administration and its Analysis
This is a paper on the concept and basis of Public Administration and the importance it holds in the field of management.
Defining the Breadth and Scope of Public Administration
In the early years of public administration was hailed as a strong and positive as a professional force for studying and putting into practice for the improvement and revamping of the administration of the federal, state and legislative government but also sure of the political and ethical authenticity of the field of public administration in performing that role.
In what is now known as the Classical period, the mind set of the people that were in the field of public administration were based on the resulting derivative of the theory and principles of values from the intellectual side of political science and, in the main part, from constitutional democratic theory. Woodrow Wilson is considered to…
Preface to Public Administration, A Search for Themes and Direction" by Richard J. Stillman II, copyright 1991 by St. Marin's Press, Inc. As the primary reference source":
U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996). Current Population Reports. No. P25-1130.
Noam, Eli (1995). Electronics and the Dim Future of the University. Science 270 (October 13): 247-249..
Klay, William Earle and Lance DeHaven-Smith (1997). It's the Economy (Values, Stupid! Findings of the FloridaScan Project. Futures Research Quarterly 13:4 (Winter): 51-73.
The coercive style: decisions are made top-down with little emphasis on individual ideas; it is best used in situations of crisis, but in the long run, it negatively affects the employees' morale levels
The authoritative style: sets clear goals and directions; rewards based on performances; individuality; it is stimulating for the dedicated employees; does not work if the manager is too demanding or when the employees work in teams
The affiliative style: based on the creation of a pleasant working environment; may lack control and stimulation; high performances only in a compact and hard working group, sharing common goals
The democratic style: employees' ideas are listened to; team work and participation are encouraged; could create a pleasant environment, but may lack control and direction
The pacesetting style: rapid pace of work, high expectations and performance-based rewards; might stifle creativity and generate a tense environment
The coaching style: based on roles…
Atrill, P., McLaney, E.J., 2007, Management Accounting for Decision Makers, 5th Edition, Pearson Education
Davidmann, M., 2006, Style of Management and Leadership, http://www.solhaam.org/articles/clm2.htmllastaccessed on February 17, 2009
Hannagan, T., Bennett, R., 2007, Management: Concepts and Practices, 5th Edition, Pearson Education
Ison, M., Kempton, K., 2007, the Impact of Management Style, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Retrieved at http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/179185/the-impact-of-management-style.pdfonFebruary 17, 2009
The role of the non-profit organization has transformed in many ways as society and the values inherent within that society also change and transform. The ability to create an organization with purpose and a sense of a greater duty is what makes the non-profit sector of exchange such a unique and important facet within the constructs of our society. The purpose of this essay is to address a situation where a recommendation is needed to determine the best route of approach for raising funds for a hypothetical nonprofit agency.
The background of this case deals with selecting between two options of fundraising method to improve and increase community services. This general situation is encountered by most nonprofit organizations and provides a solid background for discussing the ideas and principles inherent within the public sector. The first option imposes a user fee for individuals who currently request assistance. The second…
Association of Fundraising Professionals (nd). Donor Bill of Rights. Viewed 29 Sep 2014. Retrieved from http://www.afpnet.org/Ethics/EnforcementDetail.cfm?ItemNumber=3359
Bennet, J. (2012). The New Price of American Politics. The Atlantic, Oct 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/10/the/309086/
Frumkin, P., & Kim, M.T. (2001). Strategic positioning and the financing of nonprofit organizations: Is efficiency rewarded in the contributions marketplace?. Public Administration Review, 61(3), 266-275.
Funkhouser, M. (2014). The Failure and the Promise of Public Participation. Governing, 6 Jan 2014. Retrieved from http://www.governing.com/gov-institute/funkhouser/col-failure-promise-public-participation-government.html
One time or the other, these elected legislatures will find themselves in difficult situations that call for difficult ethical decisions in the processes of performing their duties just as public administrators and as some can mange such trying moments, others will fail to perform. These public administrators should ensure that they have proper interaction with the government/authorities so as to understand well how they function in the quest to establishing reliable solutions that are potential managers of public pressure to finally ensure that public action is not compromised (Stillman, 2009). For example, in the last twenty years, the pressure exerted on public administrators has been "more entrepreneurial, to find ways to do more things and new things with fewer resources, to be nimble in response to fluctuating problems and demands, has been acute" (Cook, 2007, p. 243). In addition, considering the pressure on public administration coupled by increasing global changes…
Business training schools. (n.d.). What does a public administrator do? Business-training-
schools.com. Retrieved from http://www.business-training-schools.com/a/what-does-a-public-administrator-do.html
Cook, B.J. (2007). Democracy and administration: Woodrow Wilson's ideas and challenges of public management. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press.
Dubai School of Government. (2010, April 4). Faculty positions in public administration, the Dubai school of government. International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration. Retrieved from http://www.iias-
The science of public administration is not a direct or concrete examination. ather, the human tendencies of emotion and subtle manipulation are also included in this discipline. The purpose of this essay is to explore the ideas and major theories of the science of public administration. This essay will examine 5 patriarchal figures to highlight the evolution and transformation of the use of public power for administration purposes.
The presidency of Woodrow Wilson is mostly known in the annals of history as being a disastrous president who legislated away many of the powers and freedoms that were earned by Americans after th 19th century. Wilson's lust for war and violence misled America into World War I and summarily weakened the nation in every way possible. Wilson also failed his people by relinquishing the people's power to print their own money to the Federal eserve in 1914.…
Box, R.C. (1999). Running Government Like a Business Implications for Public Administration Theory and Practice. The American Review of Public Administration, 29(1), 19-43.
Drucker Institute (nd). Peter Drucker's Life and Legacy. Retrieved on 10 Oct from http://www.druckerinstitute.com/peter-druckers-life-and-legacy/
Frederickson, H.G. (1999). The repositioning of American public administration. PS: Political Science & Politics, 32(04), 701-712.
Hood, C. (1995). Emerging issues in public administration. Public administration, 73(1), 165-183.
In the final purpose of accountability, where the goal is to enhance the learning capacity and effectiveness of the executive branch, we should realize that what needs to happen in this situation is that public authorities act on feedback about their own performance (Deutsch, 1963; Luhmann, 1966; Behn, 2001 as cited in Bovens et al., 2008). Thus, a good accountability mechanism, from this angle, is one that illustrates how the actor in question is learning and becoming more efficient as a result of the mechanism itself.
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, . (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management eform." International eview of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
Arnull, a. And D. Wincott. (2001). Accountability and Legitimacy in the European Union.
Oxford: Oxford University…
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, R. (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management Reform." International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
Public Human esources Management
Challenges facing human resource management
Human esource Management is the element of the organization that deals with the human aspect of the organization. The business world today, is very competitive. Every organization must align its resources to the organizational goals and objectives. According to Gill (2009), the employees of an organization are part of its assets just as capital and technology. Proper utilization of human resource can account for the success of an organization. This study will examine the challenges that the human resources management is facing in its commitment towards contributing to organizations' prosperity. It will further, explore how human resource management can overcome the challenges to remain relevant.
The role of human resource management
Human esource Management performs an imperative role in the organization. Its role involves giving job descriptions, assigning of salaries, establishing policies that govern the personnel and capacity building of the…
Ullah, M. (2010). A systematic approach of conducting employee selection interview.
International Journal of Business & Management, 5(6), 106-112
Arthur, J.B. (2011). 'Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover', Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 670-687.
Jing, W. Huang, T. (2005). Relationship between Strategic Human Resources Management and Firm Performance, International Journal of Manpower, 26 (5),434-449.
Public Administration: Presenting for the Future
Immigration Policy eform
The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number…
Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf
Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity
With the turn of the 21st century, a dramatic increase is being witnessed in the international flow of labor with repercussion for domestic labor supply and management. The native, racial and emigre mixture of the employees is predominantly important for the workplace. The importance of this domestic cultural multiplicity in the labor force, highlighted by worldwide influences and necessities, has lately encouraged the researchers to focus on the companies' and managers' response to diversity, be it of any form (Watson, Spoonley, & Fitzgerald, 2009).
If the workforce of the present times is compared with the one that was found 20 years ago, it will be easy to observe that there are "more white women, people of color, disabled persons, new and recent immigrants, gays and lesbians, and intergenerational mixes (i.e., baby boomers, Generation Xers, and Generation Nexters)" (iccucci, 2002) today. This situation has given birth…
Hemphills, H., & Hayne, R. (1997). Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now. Westport, CT: Quorum Book. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/23366693/discrimination-harassment-and-the-failure-of-diversity
King, A.S. (1995, December). Capacity for Empathy: Confronting Discrimination in Managing Multicultural WorkForce Diversity. Business Communication Quarterly, 58(4), 46+. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-18023663/capacity-for-empathy-confronting-discrimination-in
Ollapally, A., & Bhatnagar, J. The Holistic Approach to Diversity Management: HR Implications. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(3), 454+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-210224380/the-holistic-approach-to-diversity-management-hr
Riccucci, N.M. (2002). Managing Diversity in Public Sector Workforces. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/100875091/managing-diversity-in-public-sector-workforces
The use of managerial accounting to keep profit margins where they need to be and make sure that individual product offerings are not a net drain on the company is not the only thing that Thai Airlines can and must do to keep a competitive edge and to protect themselves from things like corporate malfeasance and terrorists attacks, but it is certainly a major thing that should be take into account and otherwise dealt with in a timely and complete nature. It will not be easy for Thai Airlines to keep their competitive edge largely because other firms will be doing the exact same calculations and measurements. However, not doing so would be ceding progress and adeptness to their competitors. As such, not doing managerial accounting should be a non-starter for Thai Airlines.
AccountingExplained.com. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting Introduction | Accounting Explained. Accounting Explained | Financial and Managerial…
AccountingExplained.com. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting Introduction | Accounting Explained. Accounting Explained | Financial and Managerial Accounting Notes. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://accountingexplained.com/managerial/introduction/
CEIBS. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Decision-makers_CEIBS. China Europe International Business School. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.ceibs.edu/execed/index/8079.shtml
CSUN. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting. California State University, Northridge. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.csun.edu/~hfact004/Managerial.html
McGraw-Hill. (2013, May 12). The Work of Management and the Need for Managerial Accounting Information. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073526703/student_view0/ebook/chapter1/chbody1/the_work_of_management_and_the_need_for_managerial_accounting_information.html
Given the fact that the entire organizational structure relies on performance, one needs to ensure that (1) performance levels are reasonably defined and (2) that these performance levels are known to all employees within the organization.
In this sense, an organization that will be implementing the respective framework needs to make sure that the performance levels are reasonably defined. Perhaps an external structure or organization can help defined reasonable levels for outcomes.
The problem we have previously discusses seems to have itself a counterpart in terms of the performance measurement and reporting systems. First of all, measuring performance means that there are specific performance criteria that can be used. These are, in part, related to the strategic planning details I have mentioned on the previous paragraphs.
Second of all, one needs to take into consideration the reasonability of the person who is making the assessments. Again I suggest here someone…
Furuholt, (2006) argues that lack of management engagement to the acceptance of information systems has been a barrier to the implementation of information systems. The issues are even common with organizations in the developing countries where management does not give enough priority to the information systems implementation. Importantly, implementation of information systems requires management support since management will need to approve fund that would be used for IS implementation. Generally, younger people are more interested in the it tools than older people. In a situation where number of older working team outnumbers younger working team within an organization, the IS implementation may be cumbersome.
More importantly, lack of knowledge of information systems may serve as barrier to its implementation. In the developed countries, private and public organizations have already aware the importance of information systems to the organizations. Many organizations in developed countries already realize that it tool is a…
Abukhzam, M. & Lee, a. (2010). Factors affecting Bank Staff attitude towards E-banking adoption in Libya. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries: 42(2): 1-15.
Ali, S.N.A. (2010). E-government services: an exploration of the main factors that contribute to successful implementation in Libya. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.
Bartol, K.M. (1982). Managing Information Systems Personnel: A Review of the Literature and Managerial Implications. MIS Quarterly.
Boh, W.F. & Yelling, D. (2007). Using Organizational Architecture Standards in Managing Information Technology. Journal of Management Information Systems. 23 (3): 163 -- 207.
This allows for proper safety since Via Christi is located in Wichita, Kansas, which is the biggest city in the state (Via Christi, 2011).
In regards to the internal environment, all employees and patients are treated with dignity and respect. The facilities' each have in place safety measures for fires and tornadoes. Each person is asked how they can get assistance, and clinical staff tells the patients what it is they are going to do before they do it, so that no harm or offense is done to anyone without their consent. Infection Control is taught and enforced, such as frequent hand washing or using hand sanitizers for anyone who enters or leaves the hospital (Via Christi, 2011).
Explain how management contributes to its effective or non-effective performance
Via Christi management contributes to the effective performance of the hospital. They maintain and stress that everyone is treated with "human dignity,…
Via Christi . (2011, January). Standardized Orientation for Personnel. Retrieved April 9, 2011,
from Via Christi Hospitals Inc.:
S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…
Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.
Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov
Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Addressing this issue is a matter of policy, and difficult to address at the management level. However, extensive recruiting procedures in diverse communities may help to combat the continued disparity of advantages for many minorities. In addition, social representation can be achieved by promoting educational and employment opportunities in a variety of socio-economic settings. The use of internships can also create exposure both of public agencies and of the diverse emerging workforce.
5) There are many different variables that contribute to achieving productivity in the workplace. Research shows that employee satisfaction with their work is a major factor in determining employee productivity. Satisfaction can be improved with increased benefits, including increased wages and salaries, but another very important factor in job satisfaction is the employee's interest in their work and the belief that they are necessary. Promoting a workplace that shows how much it values its employees is essential to…
This qualitative study, which used the methods of case study, in-depth interviewing, and focus group discussions (FGDs) is particularly vital to the implementation of change in organizational structures, from being a hierarchical to being decentralized. Like Perry, the study puts the manager's role as the most pivotal within the organization, primarily because s/he serves as the 'catalyst' for change and innovation in it.
Other literature also stress the role of power and control in helping the "new managers" of the 21st century to further develop their significant positions in the organization. Hill's (2005) study of managers for the century reflects how learning is achieved through experience, backs up theoretical assumptions that management for the 21st century does not demonstrate parallelism between its theories and actual applications. This assertion is mirrored in a theoretical study by Drejer (2004) and Klagge (1998), wherein he found out that training and learning for new…
Balogun, J. (2004). "Organizational restructuring and middle manager sensemaking." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47, Issue 4.
Callanan, G. (2004). "What would Machiavelli think? An overview of the leadership challenges in team-bases structures." Team Performance Management, Vol. 10, No. 3.
Drejer, a. (2004). "Back to basics and beyond: Strategic management -- an area where theory and practice are poorly-related." Management Decision, Vol. 42, Issue 3.
Hill, L. (2004). "New manager development for the 21st century." Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 18, Issue 3.
If one takes the broad generalization of the mega-environment (general environment); one finds the conditions and trends that make up the organizational culture or even the society in which one operates. This term actually encompasses a number of similar and disparate factors. The technological part of the environment tends to focus on knowledge; the economic element the means of production, distribution and consumption of wealth; the legal-political element focuses on the governmental or rule-based systems to organize the society; the international element the external relationships, and the socio-cultural environment the attitudes, values, norms, believes and behaviors of a particular group or organization (Organizational Environment and Culture, 2008). All these forces are a sum total of how organizations act and react -- whether regionally or internationally.
The legal-political element of the environment is the systems that organize that environment, the rules that are enforced, and the overall manner in…
Organizational Environment and Culture. (2008). Zainbooks.com. Retrieved from:
Bendell, T. (2005). Structuring Business Process Improvement Methodologies. Total Quality Management, 16(8-9): 969-78.
Brown, L.M. And B.Z. Posner. (2001). "Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership," Leadership and Organizational Development. May, 2001: 274-80.
g. In U.K.), organizations are tempted to use positive discrimination for corresponding to contemporary requirements. This implies hiring disadvantaged applicants regardless of their professional competency. For instance, last year, UK's Gloucestershire Police and Avon and Somerset police confessed to have rejected white men for hiring women and ethnic minorities in order to meet Government requirements (http://www.workplacelaw.net/display.php?resource_id=8292&keywords).This is an extremely negative phenomenon as it succeeds in increasing the gap among different groups. Therefore, when encouraging such a strategy, authorities should pinpoint the rationale behind it and should organize conferences and workshops debating this issue.
Piturro, Marlene. 2007. Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce. http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&listelement=3&cat_id=1102 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Price Eboni, Gozu Aysegul, Kern David, Powe Neil, Wand Gary, Golden Sherita, and Cooper Lisa. 2005. The Role of Cultural Diversity Climate in Recruitment, Promotion, and Retention of Faculty in Academic Medicine. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1490155#N0x914e898.0x9306d20 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
usinesses doubt the benefits of…
Piturro, Marlene. 2007. Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce. http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3& ;ch_id=402&article_id=19018&listelement=3&cat_id=1102' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Management Case Study
Where the Rubber Meets the Road
Total quality management (TQM), defined in the most simplistic of terms, is the incremental improvement of all facets of a business to increase customer satisfaction and, in turn, company viability. Although TQM is often applied first to manufacturing functions in an organization (zero defects, on-time production), the intent of TQM is equally meaningful in all aspects of business, from administrative (zero defects in billing and timely collection of accounts receivable), to distribution (no breakage, just-in-time delivery) to management (appropriate incentive structures, timely and accurate stakeholder reporting). The increased efficiency and competitiveness created through TQM initiatives is not limited to only the manufacturing sector, with many of the benefits of TQM occurring in the service sector, too.
In the case of ridgestone/Firestone, TQM was not pursued prior to the recall of its 6.5 million tires in 2000, as evidenced by the magnitude…
Case study: Where the rubber meets the road
Managing Risks Associated With Stress
Describe how to maintain life balance and manage risks associated with stress
Maintaining life balance requires happiness. Even during stress, an individual should not allow all the stressors to take a toll on him/her. Avoiding stressors is the most appropriate way of managing stress. Developing new habits could help remove and distract an individual from stressful situations, pressures and stressors, which is essential in managing stress permanently. In this modern world, individuals must learn to change and minimize their exposure to stressful situations. While this technique does not change the situations causing stress, it enables an individual to change his/her relationship and reaction to the stressful situations hence maintaining a life balance.
Early Warning Systems are often used to identify officers at risks of family violence. Describe how to use an early warning system to identify officers at risk of using excessive force.
If these managers are unfit at achieving such objectives, the change process will not be effective.
Establish the vision and the strategy
Any change management process must start by building a vision that the new organization will be based on. Same as all companies are built on a vision of their founders, so should the new organization that will result after the change management process, be built on a vision.
Although the manager will create the vision of the new organization, he should make sure that all the stakeholders in included in the process. The vision should not only be directed at how the museum will look like from an artistic point-of-view, but it should also be directed towards its employees and how they will participate in the change management process and in the new organization, and towards the new image that the Louvre will present in comparison with similar…
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3. Cellars, T. (2007). Change Management Models. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/237685/change_management_models_a_look_at.html .
4. ADKAR -- A model for change management (2007). Change Management Learning Center. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-adkar-overview.htm .
Management Approach That Offers the Best Outcomes
for Knowledge Development
Understanding business, and what that process contains, is extremely complex. It takes years of study and focus to gain even a rudimentary idea of all a company has to do to remain viable. A company has to have employees who understand their jobs, clear work goals for all concerned in the business, accounting practices that tell the actual financial workings of the company and keep government agencies happy, along with many other processes among the strata. Threads run through all of the working practices of an organization which tend to bind it together. These can be tangible communication channels (email, phone lines, other forms of information technology), or they can be intangible. These intangible communication lines are another layer of complexity which the organizations managers have to control and mold. How people deal with one another is the way an…
Cohen, Debra J. "Knowledge Development -- Future Focus: Emerging Issues -- in Human Resource Management." HR Magazine (2003). Web.
de Dreu, Carsten K.W., and Evert van de Vliert. Using Conflict in Organizations. New York: Sage Publications, 1997. Print.
Fischler, Michael L. "From Crisis to Growth…Race, Culture, Ethnicity, Conflict and Change." Education 124.2 (2003): 396-398. Print.
"Knowledge." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2011.
Assessing the Many Management Challenges George Faces
Having stepped into Stevenson Company transportation department as its new supervisor, George is quickly overwhelmed by a department in disarray, chaotically operating without any leadership or guidance. The major management issues George faces is predicated on the lack of clarity regarding roles, authority and organization structure and clarity of performance expectations. In short, the management issues George faces are what happens when senior management abdicates leadership of a given area of a business, allowing personal agendas and resentment to ester instead of implementing clear performance expectations. The lack of willingness to change and improve is more attributable the managers of dysfunctional teams than the teams themselves (James, Wooten, Dushek, 2011).
The first and most significant management issue is getting the transportation department integrated back into the company. The many symptoms of its malaise and dysfunctional nature can be attributed to its lack…
James, E.H., Wooten, L.P., & Dushek, K. (2011). Crisis management: Informing a new leadership research agenda. The Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 455.
Jaques, T. (2012). Crisis leadership: A view from the executive suite. Journal of Public Affairs, 12(4), 366.
Kovjanic, S., Schuh, S.C., & Jonas, K. (2013). Transformational leadership and performance: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of basic needs satisfaction and work engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(4), 543.
Mathis, R.L., & Jackson, J.H. (2011). Human Resource Management (13th ed.). Cengage Learning.)
Management esponsibility and Accountability
Define Accountability and esponsibility
The positions assumed by workers imply a responsibility to complete particular functions associated with those positions. A number of studies have described the term responsibility, when employed in company affairs, as referring to an area of obligation or perhaps duty designated to an individual because of the dynamics of the individual's position, function, or perhaps job. esponsibility might therefore be viewed as being a package of commitments associated with employment or operation. Narrowly outlined, role explains employment classification, which, subsequently, includes, although is not necessarily limited to, functionality (Pimpa, 2010).
Accountability is actually a notion with numerous meanings. It is almost always utilized synonymously through the use of these ideas as responsibility, answerability, as well as administration. However what specifically can this idea imply? Within the most literal meaning, the term accountability indicates simply the "ability" or perhaps the "possibility" that a…
Ackerman, J. (2004). Co-Governance for accountability: Beyond exit and voice, World Development, 32 (3), pp.447-463.
Bazerman, M.H., & Banaji, M.R. (2004). The social psychology of ordinary ethical failures. Social Justice Research, 17(2), 111 -- 115.
Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., & Rhodes, C. (2007). Business ethics as practice. British Journal of Management, 17, 1 -- 16.
Fisscher, O., Nijhof, A., & Steensma, H. (2003). Dynamics in responsible behavior. In search of mechanisms for coping with responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2 -- 3), 209 -- 224.
I think the two top skills to possess are probably time management and interpersonal skills. The definition of time management it is the process of planning, creating awareness, and harnessing control over the amount of time spent on specific activities to increase the overall level of efficiency and effectiveness. These principles and processes vary from one company to another but they are critical to any organizations effectiveness. I would focus on time management to improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the organization.
Many scholars and business leaders have discussed how the principles of managing time are used in time processes and they can serves as a guide for people. If used they might help to foster manage time however there are more than one technique that can be applied to time management. Thus the specific time management plan must be chosen for the organization and management strategy.…
Deming, W. (2011, September 22). The Deming System of Profound Knowledge. Retrieved from The W. Edwards Deming Institute: http://deming.org/index.cfm?content=66
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Zeithami, V., Berry, L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The Behavioral Conseqences of Service Quality. Journal of Marketing, 31-46.
In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).
In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.
The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.
Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…
Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.
Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.
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Management of Technology in Developing Countries Such as Iran
Technology management arrangements of developing countries vary from those of first world ones. The requirement for skill in these states is not growing from within, but somewhat cropping up from new wares imported from first world countries. Technological growth in addition does not consequence from inner data and research, but resulting upon the technology transmission from abroad. In these environments, technology management by customary way is barely effective. These are troubles facing the Islamic epublic of Iran these days and as a consequence organizations controlling the technology management endure non-compliance, then technological development does not trail an accurate trend (obertson, 2002).
Lack of distinctive management, vagueness of technological precedence's, misunderstanding of policy-making roles and inter-organization implementation and management, tremendous government involvement in all fields and lack of specialist manpower are amongst the vital troubles of the topic (Sveiby et. al 2001).…
(1.) Abou-Zeid, E.S. "A Knowledge Management Reference Model." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(5), 2002. pp. 486-499.
(2.) Bender S. And Fish A. "The Transfer of Knowledge and the Retention of Expertise: The Continuing Need for Global Assignments." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), 2008. pp. 125-135.
(3.) Beveren, V.J. "A Model of Knowledge Acquisition that Refocuses Knowledge Management." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 2002. pp. 18-22.
(4.) Bhatt, G. "Organizing Knowledge in the Knowledge Development Cycle." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(1), 2009. pp. 15-26.
Where, the benchmarks will show if the system is helping or hindering the company from achieving its objectives. This is significant, because when it is used in conjunction with flexibility, you can be able to effectively adapt to changes in the markets. With flexibility providing the necessary ingredients to implement such changes, while the use of benchmarks will identify when a management system is becoming unproductive. (Ireland, 2008, pp. 33 -- 39)
The use of knowledge management is when an organization is collecting and analyzing the total amounts of knowledge at their disposal. This would include analyzing all available: resources, employee / managerial skills and documents. This is significant, because it provides a way for an organization to quickly collect and analyze a wide variety of information. At which point, managers can be able to effectively place the different resources and personnel of the company, in those areas where they…
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Flamholtz, E. (1998). Case Studies in Changing the Game. Changing the Game. (pp.81 -- 90). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ireland, D. (2008). Promoting Integrity and Ethical Behavior. Understanding Business Strategy. (pp. 33 -- 39). Mason, OH: South Western.
By using this type of planning, any company can simulate what would take place in a crisis, and can determine what would be done if it were to actually occur. The old adage of "practice makes perfect" may seem very cliche, but there is some truth to the statement. Even though no company wants or expects to have a crisis in it or technology, the companies that are truly prepared for just about every eventuality will be the companies that have the smallest amount of damage based on the significance of the crisis that takes place (Dezenhall & Weber, 2007). A contingency plan has to stipulate who will perform what activities, so that there is no confusion about that issue during a crisis. This is especially true with a spokesperson, because there should only be one person who is designated to speak for the company and who will provide information…
Barton, L. (2007). Crisis leadership now: A real-world guide to preparing for threats, disaster, sabotage, and scandal. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Dezenhall, E. & Weber, J. (2007). Damage control: Why everything you know about crisis management is wrong. New York, NY: Portfolio Hardcover.
Ulmer, R.R., Sellnow, T.L., & Seeger, M.W. (2006). Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up vs. Top-down Budget Plans, 2010).
The budget rules that are prepared by top management are passed down through successive levels within the company. Managers at each level may make additions and offer greater detail for their subordinates. The managers at each level prepare the plans for items under their control. The budgeting process will caution management of possible problems that may occur. By knowing the problems, solutions may be formulated. For example, at the valleys in cash flow, a shortage of cash may occur. Knowing this ahead of time allows management to arrange for a short-term loan for the financing need rather than face an unexpected financing crisis. In a similar element, planning allows for a smooth manufacturing program to result in both lower production costs and lower inventory levels. It steers clear of a crisis circumstances requiring overtime or high transportation charges…
Fuller, Julia. (2010). How to Make a Budget for an Organization. Retrieved August 7, 2010,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/how_4464789_make-budget-organization.html
How to Prepare A Sound Budget Process. Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up versus
Top-down Budget Plans. (2010). Retrieved August 7, 2010, from Online Success Center
Diversity is a fact of American and International business and is a broader, more complex issue than one might initially believe. A universally vital element of global commerce, Diversity has spawned an abundance of theorists, journals and specialists, some of whom are encountered in this composition. Addressing the remarkable breadth and complexity of Diversity, this essay reviews: the nature of Diversity; legally protected classes within the United States; aspects of Diversity that fall outside the scope of U.S. legal protections; the benefits of Diversity for employers; the differences/challenges presented by Diversity for employers; general business adjustments/accommodations for Diversity; and suggested specific business adjustments/accommodations for Diversity. Though this work cannot exhaustively address all aspects of Diversity, it is meant to give a good overview of modern businesses' Diversity issues and possible solutions.
Nature of Diversity:
"Diversity" involves legally protected classes of people but also involves other classes of…
Akbari, H. (2008). Education business professionals for year 2010 and beyond: Six critical management themes and skills to emphasize. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 7(7), 57-62.
Comperatore, E., & Nerone, F. (2008). Coping with different generations in the workplace. Journal of Business & Economic Research, 6(6), 15-30.
Domina, C.S. (2011). Our strength is in our Diversity: Fact or fancy? Journal of Diversity Management, 6(1), 1-9.
Figiel, V.L., & Kummel Sasser, M.A. (2010). Factors contributing to employee decisions to ignore Diversity policies. Journal of Diversity Management, 5(4), 11-17.
Another trait of leadership Zinni and Klotz (2009) explore is the ability of a leader to communicate clearly and articulately with the organization and the public. He can no longer afford to be the faceless top of a chain of command. It behooves the modern leader to develop a variety of decision making skills, such as honing his intuition, learning to quickly recognize developing patterns and trends, and quickly communicating his directions and intentions. This also means that today's leader must be able to show the way through times of crisis and change. A leader's ability to calmly steer a course in times of turmoil is crucial to the survival of any enterprise. Finally, a modern leader needs to think and act strategically. He must plan out the future course of action and guide the organization toward achieving the vision he has articulated. He must be able to hold fast…
Cooper, I.D., (2007, May/June). The impotence of importance -- reflections on leadership. Annals of family medicine, 5:261-262. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from www.annfammed.org (25)
Li, C., (2010). Open Leadership: How social technology can transform the way you lead. San Fransico, CA: Jossey-Bass Wiley.
Shulstad, R.A., (2009, summer). Perspectives on leadership and management. Air & space power journal, 11-17. Superintendent of Documents. Retrived June 28,2010, from http://www.airpower.au.af.mil (24)
Spurgeon, P., & Cragg, R., (2007). Is it leadership or management? Clinician in management. 15: 123-125. In R. Chambers, K. Mohanna, P. Spurgeon, & D. Wall, (Eds.). How to succeed as a leader. Oxford, U.K.: Radcliffe Publishing. (21)
Taking the relationship of employee morale and its linkage with organizational culture to the most extreme case, Yaghi (2007) studied how decision-making processes are implemented in companies where there is a dominant organizational culture. Selecting a faith-based organization as one of the cases for the study, the author determined how decision-making is mainly influenced by the organizational culture, influenced by the values of solidarity, guardianship, and (belief in a) mission (361). While from an organizational effectiveness perspective, this kind of decision-making is not recommended, Yaghi ultimately pointed out that organizations with a highly-organized and dominant culture results to improved employee morale and commitment, mainly because subsistence to the values of solidarity, guardianship, and commitment to the mission "strengthen (the) relationship among organization's members" (357).
From this review of literature relevant to employee morale and its link with organizational culture, it was established how person-to-job fit or subjective fit in the…
Deem, J. (2010). "The relationship of organizational culture to balanced scorecard effectiveness." SAM Advanced Management Journal.
Dixon, M. And D. Dougherty. (2010). "Managing the multiple meanings of organizational culture in interdisciplinary collaboration and consulting." Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 47, No. 1.
LaGuardia, D. (2008). "Organizational Culture." T+D (Training and Development).
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Again, this might seem like simple good sense; making decisions based on the factual merits of the situation rather than on face-saving or boss-pleasing seems like the only rational way of doing business. Not paying attention to political whims, however, can have serious repercussions for individuals and organizations alike, and truly depoliticizing decisions requires a great deal of introspection, honesty, and self-awareness in the top management officials and decision makers in a company (Hamel 2009).
Achieving this depoliticization is certain to be even more difficult than establishing a democracy of information, as it is difficult to convince people to relinquish power willingly once they have it. The problem is that politicized decision making is only a hair's breadth away -- one might even say is simply a euphemism for -- corrupt decision making. Few debates or issues are more heavily politicized than long-term (and even short-term) government planning, and though…
Burk, M. (1999). "Knowledge Management: Everyone Benefits by Sharing Information." Public roads 63(3).
Hamel, G. (2009). "Moon shots for management." Harvard business review (February), pp. 91-8.
Newman, P. (2009). "Markets, experts and depoliticizing decisions on major infrastructure." Urban research and practice 2(2), pp. 158-68.
5. Concerns Associated with the System
The legal concerns associated with the system are relatively reduced and are included in the same category as all the legal concerns faced by companies all over the world. In other words, the system must focus on being objective and fair; otherwise, the company stands the risks of being sued for discrimination and unfair treatment of the staff members.
The objectivity and fairness of the system is not only a matter for legal concerns, but also for ethical ones. If the employees come into contact with information of biased evaluations, they will lose their trust in the entity. This will lead to reduced performances, low employee morale or even high employee turnover rates, generating additional expenditure. Foremost, all these will negatively impact the company's image and perception on the market.
6. Possible Challenges in a Multicultural Workforce
Generally speaking, the appraisal system is objective…
Bowman, J.S., 1999, Performance Appraisal: Verisimilitude Trumps Veracity, Public Personnel Management, Vol. 28
Kovach, R.C., 1994, Matching Assumptions to Environment in the Transfer of Management Practices: Performance Appraisal in Hungary, International Studies of Management and Organization, Vol. 24
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Let's say the original company will usually take a primarily leadership dominated approach to its business organization, allowing its employees to have many freedoms and responsibilities. The merging company, however, has a motivation approach that places more emphasis on management and incentives. In order to ensure that both performance and job satisfaction remain high for all employees in the newly merged corporation, steps will have to be taken to implement both styles of motivation.
Thus, according to the theory of Covey, a management approach will have to have a strategy that lays out goals and incentives for those employees who prefer this style of management. However, within this structure opportunities for leadership will be created. For example, one motivational incentive could be more independence for the employee. In other words, in order to get the newly merged company efficiently operating quickly, the business managers will best be served by trusting…
Covey, Stephen M.R. The Speed of Trust the One Thing that Changes Everything. New York: Free Press, 2006.
Political and Management Issues
The article Patronage or Cronyism demonstrated two common issues that are somehow usually apparent in public and government agencies - management issues and political issues. First, the article revealed management issues that involve the following.
A hiring of consultants that served little evidence of performance during their service inappropriate over-paying of consultants (which, from the article, the members of the DHS commented on Kramer's salary suggesting that "the consultant was paid for one month nearly what they would receive in an entire year") cronyism was in one way or another insinuated by the article's author because both Kramer and Schilling, who both earns too much worth of money monthly, are also both previously related to Foster
Political issue, particularly associating the Republicans and the Democrats, was also presented by the article's case of the DHS involving Foster, Kramer, and Shilling. The issue on Schilling came…
Mellick, M.B., Meyer, C.K. Patronage or Cronyism.
Drake University, 30-33.
Therefore, it is important that they understand the influence of violence on their behavior.
The most important objectives of this campaign are represented by:
Increasing awareness on this issue
Improving the activity of authorities in such situations
Changing violent behaviors
The resources that the campaign is based on are represented by supporters, reputation from other campaigns, and the help of authorities. It is important that the campaign benefits from an increased number of supports. This is because they can help promote the campaign and its objectives. The reputation from other campaigns is intended to attract a higher number of sponsors. The success of this campaign relies on the relationship between the ed Cross and the authorities in these countries.
The targets of this campaign are represented by:
People that observe violent behavior in others
People that practice such violent behaviors
There are several messages addressed by the campaign. The…
1. Annual Report (2010). ICRC. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
2. Kimbarovsky, R. (2009). 10 Small Business Social Media Marketing Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from http://mashable.com/2009/10/28/small-business-marketing/ .
3. Guion, M. (2008). Internet Usage Gaps in Developing Countries: Challenges and Solutions. InfoTech. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from http://it.tmcnet.com/topics/it/articles/36595-internet-usage-gaps-developing-countries-challenges-solutions.htm .
First of all, they are aimed to remove any barriers from the path to formation of an entrepreneur. This could easily refer to an increased and easier access to education or the removal of discriminatory practices. The second set of initiatives is oriented towards the specialization of the entrepreneurs and could refer to specialized courses, training or the sharpening of the senses and the skills it takes to become a good entrepreneur.
E: Example: the list of examples in the field of entrepreneurs' initiatives is rather broad, moreover since the contemporary business and scholarly communities are increasingly focused on the role and responsibilities of the entrepreneur. The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation has set the basis for numerous such initiatives, the most relevant examples in this sense being offered by the Advancing Innovation Initiative, the Initiative for Closing the Gap for omen and Minority Entrepreneurs or the Urban Entrepreneur Partnership Initiative.…
Schaper, M., Volery, T., 2004, Entrepreneurship and Small Business: A Pacific Rim Perspective, Wiley
2008, Grants and Initiatives - Entrepreneurship, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, http://www.kauffman.org/initiatives.cfm?topic=entrepreneurshiplast accessed on June 4, 2008
2008, Fragments of Donald Trump's Speech, Retrieved from You Tube, http://youtube.com/watch?v=HXYURZOwbtg&feature=related , June 4, 2008
2008, Michael Dell's Advice to Entrepreneurs, Retrieved from You Tube, http://youtube.com/watch?v=bBsCZpomy24&feature=related , June 4, 2008
Evaluation & Discussion of a Quotation
"Managers who believe that the psychological needs of their subordinates, rather than the objective requirements of the task determine what is to be done, destroy the integrity of the manager/subordinate relationship and with it respect for their authority."
Managers that acknowledge the existence of the psychological needs of their subordinates, yet ignore those needs are making a serious managerial error with such a decision. Managers who do not value their subordinates are not fit to be leaders or managers. Proper managers would know that one of their greatest assets in any work related task is the staff they manage. People are the most valuable resources within any company or organization. When those who are appointed to lead are not aware of this, their actions will follow suit, as will disaster quite likely. The subordinates that any manager supervises and leads have needs. Certainly…
This differentiation refers to the management and administration of the agricultural resources of the kingdom. This in turn involved an organized network of royal foundations. (Wilkinson 116) the second area of administrative concern was the processing of government revenue and "…its redistribution to the various state operations…" (Wilkinson 116) Wilkinson in his book also deals extensively with managements issues in relation to the Egyptian treasury. (Wilkinson 125)
In understanding the background to management in ancient Egypt one has to continually take into account the wide range of concerns and activities that required ordered control and administration. As Erman states in his work Life in Ancient Egypt (1894), "The enormous properties belonging to the temples required of course complicated machinery for their administration & #8230;certain members of the priestly college were deputed to manage the affairs of the treasury, the commissariat and the correspondence…" (Erman 303)
Taking into account the above…
This essentially means breaking large jobs down into tiny jobs done by expert people. Frederick Taylor's scientific management methods called for optimizing the way that tasks were performed and simplifying the jobs enough so that workers could be trained to perform their specialized sequence of motions in the one best way. This also fits into the classic organization theory by once again referring to a group of expert people doing one job to the best of their ability.
Three levels of ethics (of the four) noted in the text include: professional ethics, organizational ethics, and social ethics. Explain each of these forms of ethics. Use examples as needed, to clarify your responses.
Professional ethics consists of the rules of what professionals should and should not do. Being a professional often comes with authority and power. A client often places trust in a professional on the basis that the…
Managing Fisheries and How Perceptions Affect the Management of Ecosystem Services Provided by Fisheries in the Pacific Ocean
Carl Safina is the host of the Public roadcasting Service 'Saving the Ocean" and as well has written several books and at focus in this work is the book of Safina entitled "Song for the lue Ocean." Safina emphasizes how the oceans are the last and dying unconquered territories on earth. Safina brings to the attention of the reader that threats that are caused to the oceans in the name of progress and growth for the human race.
Safina's book reports a truth seeking mission as he traveled the world's oceans. Safina relates in his book that "the scientists grossly underestimate the numbers" of bluefin tuna in the northern Atlantic and relates that the "legendary great shoals of cod…along the Grand anks of Canada…have been decimated, causing the government of…
Safina, C. (nd) Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas, Henry Holt and Company.
Norse, EA (nd) Review of the book "Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's
Coasts and Beneath the Seas,' by Carl Safina. Retrieved from: http://mcbi.marine-conservation.org/publications/pub_pdfs/Norse_NaturalHistory_1998.pdf
"Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas" (nd) Carl Safina. Retrieved from: http://carlsafina.org/publications/books/song-for-the-blue-ocean/
Even a casual observer of American politics over the last several years would recognize the theater to which Bolman and Deal refer as it applies to organizational processes. IN Congress, for example, elected representatives devote tremendous effort to the theatrical aspects of portraying themselves as open-minded, desirous of compromise with political opponents, consistency with their prior statements and campaign promises, and (especially) commitment to principles of good faith in general. Unfortunately, it seems that the theater of political processes have come to completely dominate the political processes through which elected representatives are supposed to represent the wishes of their constituents. In particular, the influence of professional lobbyists has thoroughly undermined the political processes articulated in the U.S. Constitution and political representatives, all while elected officials maintain the theater of the formal political process. They routinely rely on obfuscating language to hide the fact that their actions on Capital Hill…
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…
Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328
Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
Most audit managers assign supervisory tasks to senior auditors and, in general, consistently encourage more senior auditors to fulfill a mentor role within the audit team.
The dual benefit of this practice is that it fosters greater team unity and a healthier organizational culture, in addition to enabling junior auditors to learn technical skills from their more senior associates. Very often, the types of relationships maintained by senior auditors within their audit teams is one of the most important criteria considered in conjunction with possible recommendations for future promotion of senior (GS-13) auditors to management at the GS-14 level. By the time auditors reach the GS-13 level, they are not readily distinguishable from one another in technical skill (or they would not have risen above the GS-12 level).
Therefore, it is precisely their performance in the unofficial role of "supervisory" auditor that is most often considered the difference between auditors…
Kinicki, a., Williams, B. (2005) Management: A Practical Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nowalinski, G. (2001) a Brief History of the HHS Office of Inspector General USDHHS Office of Inspections and Evaluations. Washington, DC: GAO
U.S. Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General Public Website, Retrieved March 24, 2008, at http://oig.hhs.gov/organization/OAS/index.html