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Public Communication Ethics Response A

Words: 2137 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46331261

This is a contractual obligation, as money has been received for a certain service.

This is closely related to the third obligation in the model, which is "duty to the organization." The press has an obligation to provide the public with a wide variety of viewpoints in order to ensure public debate and accurate information. If a certain piece of information is withheld from the public as a result of its controversial content, this constitutes unfair censorship. The general principle of the press is to promote knowledge rather than censorship. Hence, information that could cause disagreement should not be withheld on those grounds alone.

On the other hand, the press in general also has a duty to society in terms of providing accurate information. The advertisement is in direct opposition to generally accepted facts regarding slavery. Hence publishing it on the strength merely of publishing whatever opinion is paid for…… [Read More]

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Public Personnel the Merit System

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28940543

Addressing this issue is a matter of policy, and difficult to address at the management level. However, extensive recruiting procedures in diverse communities may help to combat the continued disparity of advantages for many minorities. In addition, social representation can be achieved by promoting educational and employment opportunities in a variety of socio-economic settings. The use of internships can also create exposure both of public agencies and of the diverse emerging workforce.

5) There are many different variables that contribute to achieving productivity in the workplace. Research shows that employee satisfaction with their work is a major factor in determining employee productivity. Satisfaction can be improved with increased benefits, including increased wages and salaries, but another very important factor in job satisfaction is the employee's interest in their work and the belief that they are necessary. Promoting a workplace that shows how much it values its employees is essential to…… [Read More]

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Public Attention Drawn to Cruelty

Words: 2074 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36045776

In surveying the player's responses to Vick's situation, the journalists were bringing about public reaction to be evaluated to determine what direction to take their stories in. It demonstrated that,.".. survey respondents who experience difficulty answering questions respond differently to related subsequent questions than do those who do not experience such difficulty (JA, Effects of urvey)."

The story of animal abuse in dog fighting was one that caused polls to be taken to measure public opinion. That public opinion was in strong support of the animals that Vick had abused and used in an abusive manner. The journalistic tactic was one wherein the journalists used the opportunity for the public to speak out, to be heard, to participate in the outcome of Vick's legal proceedings as an incentive to be surveyed publicly. "In an effort to counter mounting problems of non-cooperation, survey organizations are increasingly offering incentives to respondents, sometimes…… [Read More]

Some animal lovers have attempted to deal with the problem of young people being indoctrinated into the sport of dog fighting by creating more social and legal ways to be entertained, and to compete. "Concerned by the increasing number of youths involved in dog fighting, former animal control officer Sue Sternberg decided to do something about it. In 2002, Sternberg started Lug-Nuts, a program that encourages inner-city teens to enter their dogs in weight-pulling competitions instead of fights (NG JA a Humane)."

Sternberg's efforts are interesting, and there should be research devoted to the outcomes she is experiencing in the program. "Within this context, this analysis is predominantly definitional, seeking to isolate the unique features of qualitative research (JA QRRC)."

As the Michael Vick legal processes unfold, we can expect to see and hear much more about the life and fate of the American Bull Terrier.
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Public Information on Kidney Donation

Words: 1145 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80584463

This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.

It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Aghanwa, H.S.; Akinsola, A.; Akinola, D.O. & Makanjuola, R.O.A. (2003). Attitudes Toward Kidney Donation. J Natl Med Assoc., 95(8), 725-731.

Kranenburg, L.; Schram, A.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.

Medical News Today (MNT). (2008). Kidney Donation Websites Raise Ethical Concerns - Public Solicitation For Organs May Favor White, Educated And Wealthy Recipients. Wiley Blackwell Publishing. Online at
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Public health officials using computers to manage outbreaks

Words: 2252 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52537041


Digital Disease Detection, commonly referred to as digital epidemiology provided strategies and methods for allowing digital-technology users to monitor infectious disease and conduct surveillance. These strategies help in the understanding of concerns and attitudes regarding infectious diseases. The process begins with the basics, such as the availability of internet access, online sharing platforms and other digital devices. These sources offer huge amounts of data. It is important to note that while these sources collect data, they do not, do so, with public health objectives in focus (Denecke, 2017).

The past few decades have seen tremendous changes in the world. There have been many and varied threats; from bioterrorism, influenza pandemics and the emergence of infectious diseases. There is also the issue of unforeseen population mobility which is among the reasons that triggered the development of public health surveillance systems. Such systems are invaluable tools in the detection and response…… [Read More]

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Public Admin Case Study

Words: 2017 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 85270192

PA Problem

The science of public administration is not a direct or concrete examination. ather, the human tendencies of emotion and subtle manipulation are also included in this discipline. The purpose of this essay is to explore the ideas and major theories of the science of public administration. This essay will examine 5 patriarchal figures to highlight the evolution and transformation of the use of public power for administration purposes.

Woodrow Wilson

The presidency of Woodrow Wilson is mostly known in the annals of history as being a disastrous president who legislated away many of the powers and freedoms that were earned by Americans after th 19th century. Wilson's lust for war and violence misled America into World War I and summarily weakened the nation in every way possible. Wilson also failed his people by relinquishing the people's power to print their own money to the Federal eserve in 1914.…… [Read More]


Box, R.C. (1999). Running Government Like a Business Implications for Public Administration Theory and Practice. The American Review of Public Administration, 29(1), 19-43.

Drucker Institute (nd). Peter Drucker's Life and Legacy. Retrieved on 10 Oct from

Frederickson, H.G. (1999). The repositioning of American public administration. PS: Political Science & Politics, 32(04), 701-712.

Hood, C. (1995). Emerging issues in public administration. Public administration, 73(1), 165-183.
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Public Sphere the Case for

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16449673

..[that is]...the natural reed of all peaceable folks" (66). Furthermore, Bohman states that Kant includes peace in this list of goals (179). Integrating these ideas and expounding on them, one can determine that the goal of the global public sphere is, indeed, what is best for society -- freedom from harm, fear, and discrimination. Thus, the goals of the public sphere can be summed up in the words "peace" and "social justice." In order to achieve these goals, however, a secondary, and perhaps one should say causal, goal of the public sphere is to express their opinions for societal betterment in a way that cannot be denied by the more powerful individuals.

Having set these goals, it is important to distinguish what this type of social public sphere will look like in order to determine its structure. Although one large, national state may be an intriguing idea, Kant is more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bohman, James. "The Public Sphere of the World Citizen."

Wilson, Charlotte M. "Democracy or Anarchism."
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Public Schooling Harming Our Society The Survey

Words: 414 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46151240

public schooling harming our society?

The survey in this research effort will be intended to a randomly selected group of Americans outside the education system. This data will be collected to learn the attitudes and opinion of the public at large in relation to the public education system. The intent is to take a fresh and new look at the overall practicality, effectiveness and economics of the system and to learn what people are thinking about their personal experiences with their schooling.

Focus Group

The focus group source of data will help examine the research question by gathering data about how leaders in education are self-assessing their own performance. In this group, the goal is to attain honest and frank responses to important challenges that the public school system is providing. This group should include administrators, teachers, teachers aides, coaches and any other professional working directly in the public school…… [Read More]


Module 1 Activity. Provided by customer.
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Public Relations Has Successfully Distanced

Words: 2106 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17708887

In creating a brand it is impossible for Pr campaigns to lie. People however tend to divide PR in good and bad. A PR campaign trying to convince people to wear the seatbelt fastened while driving is considered good, a PR campaign trying to discredit a political candidate's opponents is considered bad. If the former case is pretty clear, the latter one makes s wonder where the border between ethics and efficiency is. We must always keep in mind the fact PR has become and ethical profession therefore regardless of its final purpose it must respect a code of ethics which is universally valid (doing otherwise would compromise it, its very success depends on this).

One example of an extremely efficient PR campaign is the one initiated by the candidate to be president arack Obama. The campaign included all the possible media, press, TV, radio, advertising and the internet. Through…… [Read More]


Bernays, E 1998, 'Counselling not communications', International Public Relations Review, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 28-32.

Gower, K 2008, 'U.S. corporate public relations in the progressive era', Journal of Communication Management, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1-19, .

Heath, RL 2001, 'Shifting foundations: public relations as relationship building', in RL Heath & GM Vasquez (eds.), Handbook of public relations, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, pp. 1-9.

Ledingham, JA 2003, 'Explicating relationship management as a general theory of public relations', Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 181-198, EBSCOhost, Communication & Mass Media Complete
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Public Admin Issues

Words: 5174 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41038897


The role of the non-profit organization has transformed in many ways as society and the values inherent within that society also change and transform. The ability to create an organization with purpose and a sense of a greater duty is what makes the non-profit sector of exchange such a unique and important facet within the constructs of our society. The purpose of this essay is to address a situation where a recommendation is needed to determine the best route of approach for raising funds for a hypothetical nonprofit agency.

The background of this case deals with selecting between two options of fundraising method to improve and increase community services. This general situation is encountered by most nonprofit organizations and provides a solid background for discussing the ideas and principles inherent within the public sector. The first option imposes a user fee for individuals who currently request assistance. The second…… [Read More]


Association of Fundraising Professionals (nd). Donor Bill of Rights. Viewed 29 Sep 2014. Retrieved from 

Bennet, J. (2012). The New Price of American Politics. The Atlantic, Oct 2012. Retrieved from 

Frumkin, P., & Kim, M.T. (2001). Strategic positioning and the financing of nonprofit organizations: Is efficiency rewarded in the contributions marketplace?. Public Administration Review, 61(3), 266-275.

Funkhouser, M. (2014). The Failure and the Promise of Public Participation. Governing, 6 Jan 2014. Retrieved from
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Public Education About History Is a Problem

Words: 2024 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74415010

American Cynicism

The Vietnam ar represented a series of first, all of them seismically changing and affecting the United States in terms of how it wages wars and the outcomes garnered as a result. To be sure, America was wildly successful in wars for the most part up to that point with the Civil ar and orld ar II perhaps being the most quintessential examples. However, the public's rise against the Vietnam ar, the fact that the United States lost the war, that the United States (according to many) could not possibly have won the war if they wanted to and so forth all set a new standard for warfare after that much like the atom bomb did after orld ar II. hile wars are still something the United States is successful at, the media sphere and public cynicism have changed warfare forever and that same public cynicism has become…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloom, Alexander. Long time gone: looking back at sixties America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Pew. "Public Attitudes Toward the War in Iraq: 2003-2008." Pew Research Center RSS.  / (accessed June 19, 2014).

Symonds, William. "America The Uneducated." Bloomberg Business Week.  (accessed June 19, 2014).

Bloom, Alexander. Long time gone: looking back at sixties America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
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Public and International Death Penalty Opinions

Words: 2054 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 73587870

Death Penalty

Anckar, arsten. "Why ountries hoose the Death Penalty." Brown Journal of World

Affairs 21.1 (2014): 7-25. Business Source Premier. Web. 28 Mar. 2016.

This source focuses on why countries choose to use the death penalty to punish certain crimes. The crimes punished for with the death penalty vary but the use of the death penalty is typically for one or more several common reasons. For the countries that do choose the death penalty, the reason is usually because it is seen as the "ultimate" form of punishment and is typically (but not always) reserved for crimes of a very obscene and/or violent nature. In the vast majority of cases, the taking of a life is required for those that get death sentences. For countries that do not choose the death penalty, it is typically avoided because it is seen as ineffectual, barbaric to engage in despite the nature…… [Read More]

Convergences and Divergences." American Journal of Criminal Law 41.2 (2014): 189-

207. Legal Collection. Web. 28 Mar. 2016.

- This report looks at the various convergences and divergences that exist when it comes to the death penalty and mass incarceration. The focal point in terms of time is April 2014. The report focuses on American's penal policy, its historical trends when it comes to executions and so forth. To explain what is meant by the above, there seem to be some ideas and patterns when it comes to the death penalty and mass incarceration that are converging. Meaning, more and more people are agreeing about the subject. At the same time, there are also clear divisions emerging such as opinion differences between states.
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Canadian Public Policy Creation Influences

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34409938

Public policy development is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders and institutions. Moreover, the nature of public policy development varies depending on whether the policies are foreign or domestic. Holloway (2006) points out the three key influences on foreign policy in Canada, including information coming from foreign embassies with direct access to international issues and affairs. Other influences on foreign policy include formal analysis, which often takes place domestically. Finally, bureaucratic machines regulate messages incoming to government offices (Holloway, 2006). Yet the influences on Canadian domestic policy include ancillary issues ranging from shifts in social norms and values to recent judicial action. For example, Pal (2013) points out the role of both the courts and public opinion on the legalization of same-sex marriage. The three most important influences on Canadian public policy in general include public opinion (expressed in terms of values and norms), the courts (expressed through judicial action),…… [Read More]


Holloway, S.K. (2006). Canadian Foreign Policy. Peterborough: Broadview.

Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.
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Public Needs to Know Is it Possible

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28880023

Public Needs to Know

Is it possible to balance the public need to know and the need for secrecy on issues relating to national security? This is a question that has been floated in quite a number of forums. While there are those who push for absolute or partial secrecy when it comes to issues touching on national security, others are convinced that the public need to know should be upheld by backing a free press. I support the latter view.

In a society considered truly self-governing, authority is delegated to political leaders, judges and legislators and the public largely depends on free information flow so as to engage in meaningful debate and make relevant contributions on public issues. According to Killenberg (2007), majority of "Americans lack the means and time to stay fully informed." This in the author's opinion has meant that members of the fourth estate have to…… [Read More]


FRONTLINE (2007, February 7th). Interviews: Dean Banquet. Retrieved January 28th, 2012, from PBS website: 

Killenberg, G.M. (2007). Public Affairs Reporting Now: News of, by and for the People. Oxford: Elsevier.
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Public Issue Life Cycle Life

Words: 1964 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 31667075

" (Iraq Body Count). To begin to understand the extent of the problem, the media needs to address the following questions about civilian deaths: "ho is killing them? How are they being killed? ho is being killed? How do current patterns compare to earlier periods?" (Iraq Body Count). hile these questions can be answered for some of the civilian deaths, many of the murdered are targeted in anonymous killings, like bombings, while others are kidnapped and executed, making it virtually impossible to assign blame for the deaths. The highest numbers of deaths are linked to Coalition and anti-Coalition violence, but the underlying causes of those deaths are too complex to attribute to Coalition involvement in Iraq. The more insurmountable these problems became, the less press coverage they got, despite the fact that actual conditions were not improving. In fact, press coverage became so biased against Iraqis who complained about life…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Damon, Arwa. "Signs of Torture' You Can't Imagine." 2008. Turner

Broadcasting System, Inc. 25 Jan. 2009 .

Iraq Body Count. "Post-Surge Violence: Its Extent and Nature." Iraq Body Count. 2008. Iraq

Body Count. 25 Jan. 2009 -
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Public Funding of Abortion Clinic

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89504329

This means that the government should fund abortions despite of where they are performed whether in hospitals or clinics. This can be achieved through passing legislation to support pro-choice care for all pregnant women. Allowing abortions only in particular situations is a form of discrimination and in order to ensure that Americans have the necessary system that supports the choice of women to get an abortion, the government needs to pass legislation that funds abortion clinics. This will ensure that all women despite their social class have the right to make decisions about their childbearing and their reproductive health and not leaving this to only those who are able to afford to pay for abortion.

Shortage of abortion providers

There has been a shortage of abortion providers over the years as a result of the lack of experience in conducting abortions for doctors since despite their medical education, they are…… [Read More]


Jane Roe, Et Al. V. Henry Wade, District Attorney of Dallas County Roe v. Wade. U.S. Supreme Court 1973.

Haney, J. The Abortion Debate: Understanding the Issues. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Pub Incorporated, 2008. Print.

Henshaw, S.K., and L.B. Finer. "The Accessibility of Abortion Services in the United States, 2001." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 35.1 (2003): 16-24. Print.

Weisberg, D.K. Family Law. New York: Aspen Pub, 2008. Print.
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Public Grooming Case the Case Public Grooming

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36917735

Public Grooming Case

The Case: Public Grooming

Noise is not a persuasive sales pitch. The other day, a friend of mine mentioned how outrageous the noise levels have gotten in commercials; she stated that now, she immediately mutes her television before a commercial break starts because the noise level is so irritatingly loud, much louder than the program itself even. I had to agree with her, and why is it that we passively accept the noise of commercials, allowing for noise levels that are extreme to the point of being unhealthy. And notice that I use the term "noise" when referring to the sound from commercials: this isn't music or speech that I'm talking about -- it's so loud that I don't even notice what is being said but only how loud it's communicated.

I understand the method behind the loud commercials; people get attuned to the program they're watching,…… [Read More]


Beason, L. (2001). Ethos and error: How business people react to errors. College Composition and Communication, 53(1), 33-64.

Cialdini, R.B. (2005). Basic social influence is underestimated. Psychological Inquiry, 16(4), 158-161.

Cialdini, R.B. (2008). Influence: Science and Practice. Boston: Prentice Hall.
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Public Expectations of the Presidency Public Expectations

Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7865237

Public Expectations of the Presidency

Public Expectations

Public expectations of presidency

The president office in most of the developing as well as developed countries is looked as an institution for bringing improvements in the society. People often look at the office with very high hopes as they are of the opinion that the representative of the masses will have a better understanding about the problems and preferences of the people of the society. Throughout the history of USA we can observe that majority of the president came into the power because they picked up the major problem faced by the people of their times and used it as a weapon for their election campaigns (Boxer, 2009, p. 51). For example when Obama was running the election campaign he highlighted the expenses which the country has to bear to fight the war in Afghanistan and Iraq. Opinion polls and surveys at…… [Read More]


Boxer, A. (2009). Politics, Presidency and Society in the U.S.A. 1968-2001. History Review, (65), 51. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Questia database: 

Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The Paradoxes of the American Presidency. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Questia database:
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Public and Privacy Issues State

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 87911228

If Hiibel had been arrested for driving under the influence and striking a minor child, his identity would not matter. In some of the other instances cited by the majority, such as the case of a violation of a restraining order, requesting identification under the reasonable suspicion a crime was being committed might be defensible, but under the circumstances of the case, it would seem that the conviction should have stood, but not for the reasons alleged by any of the reasons cited by the majority. Furthermore, in apprehending criminals suspected of sex offenses, terrorism, and other unspeakable acts, the minority found, that these arrests should be based upon conduct, not upon a failure to provide identification.

Volunteering one's identity is a right one has, the minority stated: "purchasing an airline ticket is a business transaction, and the airlines may condition the sale on knowing who is the purchaser. In…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Richey, Warren. (2004, June 22). Court: If police ask, you must give your name.

Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 19, 2009 at 

State Supreme Court of Nevada: Hiibel v. Dist. Ct. 118 Nev. Adv. Op. No. 88.

December 20, 2002. Retrieved April 19, 2009 at
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Public Schools' Incorporation of Sexual Education and

Words: 496 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84827300

Public schools' incorporation of sexual education and family planning courses have led to a decline in teen-age pregnancies.

Sexual education curriculum

Background of history of school incorporation

Who takes the classes

What is taught

Perceived effects on teenagers thoughts about sexuality

Knowledge of sexually transmitted disease

Impact on self-esteem

Peer pressure to engage in sexual acts

Forms of preventing pregnancy


Forms of birth control

School's role in providing information

Family's role in providing information

Comparison of number of teenage pregnancies from 20, 10 and 5 years ago V. Conclusion

Government-funded health agencies have recorded a dramatic drop in teenage pregnancies over the past decade reaching an overall record low according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This decrease is related directly to the inclusion of sexual education in public junior high schools and high schools.

Although sex education was first proposed in the early 1950s, the…… [Read More]

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Public Admin Case Study

Words: 3769 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 58515936

Public Administration

The ole of Management Information System in Decision Making in Public Administration (Case Study on Hungarian Central Statistical Office)

Organizations require appropriate information in the form of proper databases and reports which plays a pivotal role in decision making. The quality of data holds significant importance as the top management of large organizations derives its high level decisions mostly from the available data rather than inspecting the in depth core activity components. This fact is depicted by the analysis of a case study pertaining to the implementation of a Management Information System (MIS) in the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, which has ultimately improved the quality of information flow within the organization. This paper examines how the implementation of an MIS within HCSO lead to the standardization of report formats and operational data collection procedures. Not only this, the paper will also highlight the role played by an MIS…… [Read More]


HCSO Strategy 2005-2008 "Hungarian Central Statistical Office." Budapest (2005), Accessed

January 9, 2013 Download at:,595444&_dad=portal&_sche 

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Public and Private Policing Functions

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7564262

The private security field also underwent significant reforms in connection with the qualifications, training, and (especially) vetting of employment candidates as well Ortmeier, 2009). Ironically, instead of recognizing the comprehensive improvement throughout the private security industry after 2001, many police personnel intensified their pre-existing disdain for all non-sworn security professionals instead (Dalton, 2003).

The Conceptual Significance of Public and Private Spaces

One of the worst consequences of the antagonism on the part of police toward private security forces is that the private security industry could actually provide valuable assistance to the overall interest of national, regional, and local security. Whereas the actions of all government policing and law enforcement authorities is very strictly limited by fundamental constitutional principles (especially in connection with 4th Amendment search and seizure concepts), non-governmental security agents can operate with considerably wider latitude (Larsen, 2007). In general, private security personnel may conduct various types of searches…… [Read More]


Dalton D. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post-9/11 Era. Burlington, MA:


Larsen R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.

Ortmeier P. (2009). Security Management: An Introduction. Uppers Saddle River,
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Public Relation Corporate Social Responsibility

Words: 2864 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60296730

Public elations (Corporate social responsibility)

The term 'Corporate Social esponsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an…… [Read More]


CEO's Message" HP Standards of Business Conduct. Retrieved at . Accessed on 7 September, 2004

Corporate Social Responsibility" 2004. Retrieved at . Accessed on 7 September, 2004

Corporate Social Responsibility" Retrieved at Accessed on 7 September, 2004

Danng, Lyng. 2004. "Who is monitoring the multinational?" 17th May. Retrieved at on 7 September, 2004
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Public Communication in December 2005

Words: 2469 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46084230

A good example of some of the different texts that were utilized to insight anger and violence can be seen with one that was sent to number Anglo Saxons in the commonwealth. Where, it would encourage all youth in Western Australia to show up at Cronuella each, in an effort to protect the beach and women. This is significant, because it shows how the use of heated SMS messages could help to enrage both groups. As this form of written communication would increase the overall amounts of rage that the two side were feeling towards each other.

Visual languages were used to help increase the overall negative opinions that many Australians would feel towards the Arabs. Where, the women and men would dress differently in public (with many women covering themselves). This is problematic, because it would cause a number of groups in society to view Arabs as untrustworthy, based…… [Read More]


Racial Tensions at Cronuella Beach. Everything 2. 2005. Web. 29 Oct. 2010.

"Responsible Gambling and Reconcilation Australia Campaigns and Link to Celebrity Gambling Story." N.d.

Gouggin, Gerald. "SMS Riot." Journal of Media Culture. 2006. Web. 31 Oct. 2010

Perera, Suvendrini. "Aussie Luck."ACRAWSA 3.1 (2007). Print.
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Public Admin the Ideal of

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92008463

Though it is not often popular to say, it must be acknowledged that certain jobs in law enforcement -- specifically police and corrections officers -- attract personalities with control issues or problems with aggression. This is not meant to suggest that all or even most people who occupy these jobs have these issues, but the appeal of these jobs to people who do have these qualities should be obvious. The essence of such jobs is to maintain order, and in the case of corrections officers it is to exert control over a population of usually compliant but unwilling individuals. For those with an axe to grind, whether consciously or not, this can look like an appealing outlet for aggressive behaviors in a scenario where these behaviors are often required and will seldom, it is assumed, lead to reprimand or punishment.

The fact that the problem has been allowed to persist…… [Read More]

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Public Schools Have Failed U S

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96461177

... Only one in 100 high school seniors could write a coherent response of more than one paragraph to an essay question; and only 7% of high school seniors could read at advanced level." (Hanushek)

In the light of this vast body of very forceful evidence, we cannot but agree that our public education system has deteriorated to the extent that we can no longer expect our public schools to produce quality students. Most of our public school students lack even basic knowledge of scientific facts and mathematical concepts and their communication skills leave a lot to be desired. With such students we cannot hope to compete on a global level, not at least in the long run. This explains why more professionally qualified people from other parts of the world are so rapidly taking over American job market.


The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at…… [Read More]


The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (1983)

Eric a. Hanushek, "When School Finance Reform May Not Be Good Policy. Symposium, Investing in Our Children's Future: School Finance Reform in the 1990s," Harvard Journal on Legislation 28 (Summer 1991), 423.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics (1993).

Cited in Susan Chira, "The Big Test: How to Translate the Talk About School Reform into Action," New York Times (March 24, 1991), Sec. 4, at 1.
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Public Passions

Words: 4266 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82628012

Public Passions

Shi Jianqiao became a media sensation in Nationalist China during the 1930s for shooting the ex-warlord Sun Chuanfang, a leading member of the Tianjin Qingxiu lay-Buddhist society (jushilin). She shot Sun three times on November 13, 1935 in prayer hall (congregation site) on Nanma Road. Although she was prosecuted for murder, the courts returned a controversial final verdict of judicial leniency, and the Nationalist (Guomindang) regime overturned this final verdict by issuing a state pardon. These events led to a public debate on the merits and demerits of filial revenge, although contemporary accounts do not examine the larger sociopolitical implications the case may have had. Shi Jianqiao represented the female assassin's singular and violent expression of filial sentiment (xiao), as well as the female warrior code of "chivalrous virtue" (xia), and helped give rise to a new communal form of ethical sentiment - "public sympathy" (tongqing). For liberal…… [Read More]


Lean, Eugenia. Public Passions: The Trial of Shi Jianqiao and the Rise of Popular Sympathy in Republican China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
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Public Accounting Corporate Accounting and

Words: 3822 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3509043

This role is in response to clients' demands for a single trustworthy individual or firm to meet all of their financial needs. However, accountants are restricted from providing these services to clients whose financial statements they also prepare." (U.S. Department of Labor, ureau of Labor Statistics, 2009)

1. Public Accounting

The work entitled: "The Reality of the CPA's Role" states that modern CPAs work "behind the scenes as trusted advisors in nearly all significant business decisions. Successful accountants display the ability to think strategically and creatively and to be problem solvers and business advisors." (Douglass, 2006) Douglass states that the views of the CPA are widely varied "...whether from the viewpoint of the investing public or from the perspective of the companies that engage CPAs to audit their financial statements or perform other functions. In fact, many people not involved in the business management or accounting profession may perceive CPAs…… [Read More]


Douglass, Kevin (2006) the Reality of the CPA's Role New Jersey CPA Magazine, April 2006. Accounting and Auditing. Online available at: 

Erard, Brian (1992) Taxation with Representation: An Analysis of the Role of Tax Practitioners in Tax Compliance. Journal of Public Economics 52 (1993) 163-107. North-Holland. Online available at: 

Financial accounting for Local and State School Systems (2005) Chapter 4: Governmental Accounting. National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Online available at: 

Garrison, Ray H. And Noreen, Eric W. (2009) What is Managerial Accounting/Cost Accounting. Accounting Management. Online available t:
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Public Health Preparedness

Words: 3218 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73950972

Public Health Preparedness

The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…… [Read More]


Eisenstein, R., Finnegan, J. R., & Curran, J. W. (2014). Contributions of Academia to Public Health Preparedness Research. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 4), 5 -- 7.

Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M., & Schwartz, B. (2015). The Evidence Base of Primary Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Scoping Review and Stakeholder Consultation. BMC Public Health, 15, 432. 

Moore, S., Mawji, A., Shiell, A., & Noseworthy, T. (2007). Public Health Preparedness: A Systems-Level Approach. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(4), 282 -- 286. 

Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl 1), S9 -- S11.
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Public Administration Policy Reform Supporting

Words: 1747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 49045463

This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to introduce a competitor into the marketplace, said charter school supporters." (O'Donoghue, 2010)

Summary and Conclusion

It is very likely that laws will be changed and policy reformed relating to charter schools in the state of Virginia as to do otherwise means to miss the $350 million in funding opportunity for Virginia's school system and it appears highly unlikely that in the present state of the economy that Virginia will be willing to shun this much in educational funding.


Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at:

Schaeffer, Adam . (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at:

raunlich, Christian (2009)…… [Read More]


Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at:

Schaeffer, Adam B. (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: 

Braunlich, Christian (2009) Virginia Needs More Public Schools. Bacon's Rebellion. 18 Jan 2009. Online available at: 

Grimes, Cathy (2010) Virginia Seeks $350 Million in Federal Race to the Top Education Funds. Daily Press.21 Jan 2010. Online available at,0,5686858.story
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Habermas the Public Private Divide The

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34257133

So how did notions of free speech as a private right, which could not be impinged upon by the government? Newspapers were not owned by the government, they put forth their own views, not political propaganda, thus they were private, and free speech became a private right of all citizens. Newspapers could influence public opinion, the collective opinions of individuals about government, but newspapers were not directly affiliated with the government (96).

Of course, this relatively neat division on paper is far messier in actual, lived history. Habermas points out collective needs of citizens often must be addressed by the public arms of government, even though they may pertain to private needs. The need to be protected from unsafe cars produced by private industry might be a private demand, but it is a law that must be enforced by the public arm of the government. Also, the private sphere of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Habermas, Jurgen. "The Public Sphere." From Media Studies: A Reader.

Edited by Paul Marris and Sue Thornham. Pp. 92-97.
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Political Science Opinions

Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89067642

political opinions he or she holds?

What causes an individual to hold the political opinions he or she holds?

Political Attitudes Toward Immigration and acial Stereotypes

Immigration has been a prominent political issue heighted by legislation introduced over the last few decades. People hold various political opinions of immigrants, especially those in the U.S. illegally, which tends to be divided along racial lines. It is interesting that in a country built by immigrants that many people have negative attitudes toward immigrants that are perpetuated by stereotypes and prejudice against racial groups. Stereotypes are widely used to generalize about the characteristics of groups of people through the assignment of simple labels alleged to represent group traits which are frequently based upon perceived wrongs of one group by another (Burns and Gimpal, 2000). Some of the most prominent stereotypes that have been the subject of psychological investigation involve ethnic identity (Burns and…… [Read More]


Burns, P. And Gimpel, J. (2000). "Economic Insecurity, Prejudicial Stereotypes, and Public Opinion on Immigration Policy." Political Science Quarterly, 115, 201-225.

Ferguson, M. And Hassin, R. (2007). On the Automatic Association Between American and Aggression for New Watchers."

Lodge, M. And Tabor, C. (2005). "The Automaticity of Affect for Political Leaders,

Groups, and Issues: An Experimental Test of the Hot Cognition Hypothesis." Political Psychology, 26, 455-482.
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Somalia Intervention and the Public

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 34755946

They also felt like they could assist in the war efforts. This is what the American public had issues with because in our effort to create a more peaceful Somalia, we were losing some of our troops in the process.

Providing relief to eliminate starvation should not mean the loss of life for anyone. On the one hand, we want to help those who are severely in danger. On the other hand, does this mean that those we send to aid and assist can expect to lose their lives by doing what is considered humanitarian? The right thing for most of us is to do what is humanitarian by providing food for those that are starving. When met with opposition, it is natural for this country to feel the need to help those in need. It must be understood that in any war, lives will be lost. While we do…… [Read More]

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British Public Policy Over the

Words: 1502 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63845262

These actions, along with the ones taken to address the various economic issues that are facing the government and the country, will help to sway favorable opinions towards Labor. Where, the party will be seen as one that was able to transform itself in the aftermath of the expenses scandal. This is significant because in the world of politics perceptions are the reality. If rown can change the focus and perceptions towards Labor favorably by addressing these issues, he will have been able to successfully transform his party. Over the course of time, this will help to make the political and economic system more responsive to the will of the people.


irch, Anthony. The ritish System of Government. London: Routledge, 1998. Print.

Cowell, Alan. "ritain Wonders if More Elections Equal More Democracy." NY Times. 18 Mar.2007. Web. 5 May 2010.

Morris, Nigel. "Voters turn against War in Afghanistan." Independent.…… [Read More]


Birch, Anthony. The British System of Government. London: Routledge, 1998. Print.

Cowell, Alan. "Britain Wonders if More Elections Equal More Democracy." NY Times. 18 Mar.2007. Web. 5 May 2010.

Morris, Nigel. "Voters turn against War in Afghanistan." Independent. 28 July. 2009. Web. 5 May 2010.

Young, Toby. "Conservative Party Rise Confirmed." Daily Telegraph. 29 Apr. 2010. Web. 5 May 2010.
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How the Internet Has Changed the Practice of Public Relationships PR

Words: 2360 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56044124

Internet Has Changed the Practice of Public Relationships

The objective of this study is to examine how the Internet has changed the practice of public relationships.

The Internet is reported to have made it "easier to find media contacts and form relationships with journalists, but more importantly the rise of social media and online PR has meant by passing the media and going directly to your audience." (Thaeler, 2012) Online PR is reported by Thaeler to have "changed the PR industry" and according to Thaeler "it's not going back." (2012)

Ways that Online PR Has Changed the Role of the PR Person

The work of Thaeler (2012) reports that there are several ways that online PR has changed the PR person's role including those as follows:

(1) The Line etween PR and SEO Continues to lur -- and the question presented is who should handle PR, the online marketing company,…… [Read More]


Malikpr, Abby (2012) In a Nutshell: How the Internet Has Influenced PR. Retrieved from: 

Mulvihill, Kathy (2007) Changes in Public Relations Work (nd) Universal Accreditation Board. The Practice Analysis of the Public Relations Profession. 27 Aug, 2007. Retrieved from:

Red Bull Website (2012) Retrieved from: 

Swallow, Erica (2010) The Future of Public Relations and Social Media. Mashable Social Media. Retrieved from:
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Global Trends in Public Relations Recent Years

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48361208

global trends in public relations?

ecent years have seen a dramatic transformation in the nature and scope of public relations all over the world. This transformation has been affected by several key changes in the environment such as the growth of global trade, free markets and the Information Age. But perhaps the most significant change is the increasing concern over the impact of organizations on the social fabric of which they are a part. Thus, the changes in the functioning of societies and economies has led to public relations becoming one of senior management's dominant concerns, calling for practitioners to acquire new knowledge and skills. Indeed, this is evident in the shift of perspective in the field from information dissemination and organizational stakeholder relations to mediating relations between organizations and constituent groups over major social issues (Brody, 1987, p. 1-2).

The globalization of business has also led to widening the…… [Read More]


Brody, E.W. (1987). The Business of Public Relations. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Gumbel, P. (2004, January 26). Total Clean Up. Time Online Edition. Retrieved Nov. 7,


Kruckeberg, D. (2000). Public Relations: Towards a Global Professionalism. Public Relations as Relationship Management: A Relational Approach to the Study and Practice of Public Relations. Contributors: Stephen D. Bruning - editor, & John A. Ledingham -- editor. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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PR Public Relations in Society

Words: 2114 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29205910

Coombs and Holladay (2007)

Coombs and Holladay use the support of the professional literature to find an explanation to the importance stakeholders came to play in their role with the management. Their next movement is back to history, this time deeper to the times where there was no such field as public relations. They start in their investigation with the Anti-Slavery Society, formed by Arthur and Lewis Tappan in 1831. They were among the first to discover the role of using various ways of disseminating information to the public they targeted by using the printed word or by assembling in "meetings, sermons and public lectures." Coombs and Holladay (2007, p. 62). Further examples show how tools specific to the PR industry nowadays were discovered and put to use by simple people who succeeded to start major changes in society: Carry a. Nation, the first woman who made an "event" in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coombs, W.T and Holladay S.J. it's Not Just PR: Public Relations in Society. Blackwell Publishing. 2007
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Reflection Public Preferences and Health Care

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76564057

Pesonal Values Spiitual Beliefs and Health Cae Policy

I have taken up the majoity of values beliefs fom my paents. I value peace as a citical facto in people's lives. People should show goodwill to othes while tying to limit the conflict unless with absolute necessity. Individuals should have some fom of love within thei life. I believe that loving oneself allows people to adoe to fellow humans. Futhe, showing cae to natue involves engaging in sustainable activities that potect all ceatues. The love fo someone o something and eceiving love in etun indicates a level of espect. Ease aises when people feel that thee is a need to be modeate and balance life's offeings (Sooka & Wlezien, 2010). I believe that the equality between female and male aspects and evil and good ae integal phenomena. I value espect fo life and embace divesity that the wold offes. Inceased divesity…… [Read More]

references and Health Care Spending in the U.S. And UK. British Journal of Politics and International Relations 5 (4): 576-93.
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Canadian Public Policy Creation Influences

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72944218

public policy cycle. Public policy is defined as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem," (Pal, 2013, p. 3). The first step of making a given problem known is through public opinion, public interest, and related issues like values and norms. However, as Pal (2013) points out, a more idealistic motivation for bringing policy issues to the attention of policymakers is actually public interest itself in terms of core needs like public safety. There are multiple avenues by which an issue may be made known to the Canadian government. One is via the research route, including university and "think tank" methods of analyzing problems empirically and presenting reports to stakeholder organizations or policymakers. A second is from ministers themselves, through close attention being paid to their constituents and the prevailing interests of the people. Legal restrictions might constrain the ways a potential…… [Read More]


Atkinson, M. M. (1993). Public policy and the new institutionalism. Governing Canada: Institutions and public policy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Canada Inc.

Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.
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Poor Public Image

Words: 1600 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46600274

Poor Public Image

Conceptual framework

Perceived quality, brand loyalty, brand awareness and brand associations are all widely used concepts and therefore they are applied in this study. Apart from the analysis of the way brand equity influences consumer behaviour, the connections between these four dimensions are also studied (Buil, Martinez & de Chernatony, 2013). Previous researchers have identified connections among perceived quality, brand loyalty, brand awareness and brand associations (Vukasovic, 2016; Buil et al., 2013). Laying emphasis on the immediate impact which the sizes of brand equity could have on it would reveal that the biggest effects are expected to be from brand associations, brand loyalty and perceived quality. Brand awareness has been identified as an important but insufficient factor for value creation. This paper talks about the concept of corporate rebranding strategy as well as the concept of a coordinated group of proposition proposals focused on its conceptualization as…… [Read More]


Berk, C.C. (2017). McDonald's earnings top Wall Street views as global same-store sales strengthen. CNBC. Retrieved from  on 29 Jun. 17

Botterill, J., & Kline, S. (2007). From McLibel to McLettuce: childhood, spin and re-branding. Society and Business Review, 2(1), 74-97.

Buil, I., Martinez, E., & de Chernatony, L. (2013). The influence of brand equity on consumer responses. Journal of consumer marketing, 30(1), 62-74.

Vukasovic, T. (2016). A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Consumer -- Based Brand Equity. Managing Innovation and Diversity in Turbulent Time, 991-997.
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Functions of Public Relations PR

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79467869

Therefore the pubic relations specialist has to be conscious and fully aware of his or her role as intermediary between the organization and the public. This is particularly true of P specialists who work for government and organizations affecting health and the environment.

An example of social responsible P marketing is marketing that;

Identifies areas where the firm can make a positive difference.

Makes sure local media are aware.

Informs and involve employees.

Invests in advertising and public relations to highlight the firm's efforts.

Public elations, egulations and Sponsorship Programs)

In terms of the external responsibilities and functions of the P officer in an organization, media relations often take priority. The P specialist is trained to communicate and to enable the media to write and present the organization in a light that is conducive to the good image of the company.

In order to achieve these functions the public relations…… [Read More]


Public Relations Specialists. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at 

Public Relations, Regulations and Sponsorship Programs. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at 

Virtual Communities - Social Implications of Public Relations. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at
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War and Public Administration War

Words: 3482 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84932314

So, even in such situations as when the countryside has also been hit by war, the local administrators are much more likely to be able to function productively as they are fundamentally closer to the need and have strong community ties and possible a strong desire for social order but more importantly for the meeting of the local publics' needs.

The importance of establishing a public administration theoretical framework that prioritizes citizenship over consumerism, in a society where so much of the citizenry relies on public services is foundational to social order and to mitigating the change that has occurred as a result of war. There is no one right answer to all the functional changes to public administration, with regard to war as the many facets of war also create many facets of change in public administration. The level of degradation to physical and psychological networks must be analyzed…… [Read More]


Boleman, L., & Deal, T. (2003). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. Third Ed. . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bruck, T. (1997). Macroeconomic Effects of the War in Mozambique. QEH Working Paper Series QEHWPS11, 1-63.

Chopra, J., & Hohe, T. (2004). Participatory Intervention. Global Governance, 10-27.

Denhart, J., & Denhardt, R.B. (2007). The New Public Service. Revised Edition. Armonk, NY:: M.E. Sharpe.
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Letter Advising President on Public

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67358600

As President, one of your chief responsibilities for the next four years is to effectively communicate America's ideals to an increasingly skeptical audience, both at home and abroad, and unless you are prepared for the fluid nature of modern media dissemination, these efforts will be stunted from the onset.

Another aspect of governing effectively in ashington concerns the role of special-interest groups, and their armies of paid lobbyists, which have effectively consolidated much of the power existing within the Congressional chamber. Rather than openly distance your Administration from these potentially valuable resources, as President Obama did repeatedly during his idealistic campaigns, and risk the appearance of impropriety when you inevitably deal with lobbyists and special interests, it is advisable to be transparent with the voting public. hen one objectively considers the overlap between elected public officials and paid lobbyists, "the reality is that many former officials of both parties have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jacobs, Lawrence R. "The presidency and the press: The paradox of the white house communications war." The Presidency and the Political System. Michael Nelson, Ed. 9th. Washington, DC: CQ Press/Sage, 2010. Print.

Tichenor, Daniel J. "The presidency and interest groups: allies, adversaries and policy leadership." The Presidency and the Political System. Michael Nelson, Ed. 9th. Washington, DC: CQ Press/Sage, 2010. Print.
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History of the American Public

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 52676518

Johnson also used deceptive public relations tactics in publicizing a supposed attack on the U.S. naval fleet in the Gulf of Tonkin off the Vietnamese coast. Eventually, it would be acknowledged by former members of the Johnson administration that the incident was essentially fabricated as a means to justify the entrance of the U.S. military into the Vietnamese conflict in an operational (i.e. war-fighting) capacity instead of the advisory capacity in which U.S. forces had been involved to that point (McNamara, 1995; oberts, 2000; Vance, 1983).

The public relations industry and mechanisms have also been used effectively by foreign governments in a manner designed to instigate public opposition to the policies of the American administration. One of the best examples is the "No Nukes" political movement during the 1980s in opposition to President onald eagan's increased funding of U.S. defense capabilities against the threat believed to have been represented by…… [Read More]


Craig, R.T. (2007). "Pragmatism in the Field of Communication Theory" Communication

Theory, Vol. 17, No. 2: 125-145.

Commager, H.S. (1999). The American Mind: An Interpretation of American Thought

and Character Since the 1880s. New Haven: Yale University Press.
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Abortion and Public Perspectives Domestic and Global Perspectives

Words: 2052 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70615404

Abortion and the Media: Domestic and Global Perspectives
If anything can be agreed upon, it’s that abortion is a complex issue, one that triggers a wealth of opinions, feelings and beliefs. The way in which abortion is presented in the media is something that is also exceedingly complex, and which can both impact society and be a reflection of the beliefs of a particular society. Even in this modern era, abortion is still an issue that has the power to divide people and to cause tense debates. This paper will examine abortion in the media from a more global perspective, and will attempt to pinpoint the factors that trigger and influence both women and men alike.
The research article, “Women’s opinions on the legalisation of abortion in Chile 2009 –2013” by Palermo and colleagues (2015) shows an unsurprising finding about people’s viewpoints on abortion—and with those viewpoints, their beliefs on…… [Read More]

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health public policy analysis

Words: 3527 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36245673


Since 1986, the World Health Organization has promoted a Healthy Communities/Healthy Cities initiative, also known as the Alliance for Healthy Cities, with hundreds of participating municipalities across the world (Hancock, 1993; World Health Organization, 2018). The purpose of the Alliance for Healthy Cities is to encourage local governments to incorporate health promotion into all areas of public practice, economic policy, and urban development (World Health Organization, 2018). Goals of the Healthy Communities/ Healthy Cities approach include reducing public health risks including obesity, and promoting healthy lifestyles, public safety, and health equity. The success of Healthy Cities programs and policies directly depends on the empowerment of nurses at all levels of practice, including community-based nurses. Because each community presents different needs, goals, and challenges, nurses in each community can collaborate with partners and stakeholders to promote and reach realistic public health goals.

Healthy Communities: Relevance to the Nursing Profession

The…… [Read More]

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Police vs Public

Words: 3513 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28298945

Police Interviews

The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…… [Read More]


Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New

York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from 

Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:

Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
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How Does Public Policy Work

Words: 3481 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79200455

This paper looks at the public policy of R2P and humanitarian intervention abroad, which serves as a major drain on American resources and benefits a foreign country more than it does the U.S. The money spent on these wars waged under the banner of R2P could be better spent on projects at home. The solution to this flawed policy is to address the elephant in the room, which is the Israeli lobby, to end the wars in the Middle East and put that money into healthcare, education or infrastructure back home, and to deny the persons in the State Department who serve under one administration from serving under the next so that they cannot force their continuity of government onto the incoming administration.
Much has been made of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine that has become the de facto, go-to reason for intervening in other parts of…… [Read More]

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Public Policy Perspective

Words: 4862 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96259121

intended for a quantitative public policy perspective analysis of strategic and financial changes in small, private as well as not for profit advanced schooling organizations and institutions in Jamaica. The primary intent behind this paper would be to assess the framework by which strategic and financial innovational changes in small, private, not for profit advanced schooling institutions in Jamaica operate. They concentrate on the conditions which will make financial investments much better than be adopted and even implemented in a variety of contexts. In this way hopefully to lay smooth the road for just about any future studies conducted in the region or on the main topic of financial investments with the associated implications. This could, hence inadvertently, provide all potential studies and researches an excellent service. It might provide them with a foundation base on which to consult in most regions of conflict and trouble that may arise due…… [Read More]


Allen, K.M. (1999). The response of small private colleges to financial distress in the nineties. Dissertations Abstracts International, 60 (04), 1034A.

Bauer, J.E. (1987). An analysis of the relationship between the use of adaptive and interpretative survival strategies and financial resilience in Lutheran colleges. Dissertations Abstracts International, 48 (09), 2250A.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principals. Policy & Practice, 5(1), 7 -- 74.

Bower, J.L. (1970). Managing the resource allocation process: A study of corporate planning and investment. Boston, MA:Harvard Business School Press.
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Public Administration With Considerations on

Words: 3453 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97193481

One time or the other, these elected legislatures will find themselves in difficult situations that call for difficult ethical decisions in the processes of performing their duties just as public administrators and as some can mange such trying moments, others will fail to perform. These public administrators should ensure that they have proper interaction with the government/authorities so as to understand well how they function in the quest to establishing reliable solutions that are potential managers of public pressure to finally ensure that public action is not compromised (Stillman, 2009). For example, in the last twenty years, the pressure exerted on public administrators has been "more entrepreneurial, to find ways to do more things and new things with fewer resources, to be nimble in response to fluctuating problems and demands, has been acute" (Cook, 2007, p. 243). In addition, considering the pressure on public administration coupled by increasing global changes…… [Read More]


Business training schools. (n.d.). What does a public administrator do? Business-training- Retrieved from

Cook, B.J. (2007). Democracy and administration: Woodrow Wilson's ideas and challenges of public management. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press.

Dubai School of Government. (2010, April 4). Faculty positions in public administration, the Dubai school of government. International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration. Retrieved from http://www.iias-
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Public Administration and Considers the Effect of

Words: 2154 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13271500

public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.

An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.

The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…… [Read More]

4)Harting, Tracey L. The Science of "Muddling Through" by Charles E. Lindblom 1998, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at 

5) Book review. Understanding Public Policy. Prentice Hall. Accessed on 31-3-2003 at,4096,0130260088,00.html?type=FEA 

6) Thomas Wadsworth, Book Review. Political Science. Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector, Sixth Edition, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at
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Public Policy Formulation Measures

Words: 830 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32701336

To be considered a concerned public agent, policy formulators are constantly scouting for possible conflict in the social setting. This is their key objective; to show course in the formulation of policy and pushing a social agenda. The public policy makers are often seen coming up with public advocacy program to sensitize the people one the existence of the conflict. Once the matter is seen as a social concern, they take it upon themselves to formulate a policy sufficient only to tackle the highlighted conflict. The culmination of the advocacy project leads to half-baked policy tackling a social concern based on previous policy.

Policy makers are seen to directly formulate policies based on previous experiences, as opposed to considerations for the real issues. The result of the policy formulated stretch from disjointed incremental measure that hardly tackle current issue. This is clearly "muddling through" and evading tackling of pertinent matters…… [Read More]

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Public Health Policy Identify a

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 57997796

As a result, some kind action must be taken to deal with these challenges. Once this occurs, it will provide specific insights about: how the current plan is not working and what tactics must be used to mitigate the negative effects on various regions. (Schwartz, 1998)

Propose a research study (inclusive of study design, hypothesis, methodology and bivariate / multivariate statistical analysis) that would yield results which can be implemented to better address the current needs of the affected / target population

The hypothesis that we are proposing is: that some kind of classification system should be used to determine who is safe to live in the community. This will maintain the lowest cost structure possible, while preventing the most dangerous mental patients from being released.

The study design will survey various mental health professionals about: if a classification system would be effective. At the same time, you would want…… [Read More]


Multivariate Social Statistics. (2006). Social Research Methods. Retrieved from: 

Glaze, L. (2006). Mental Health Problems. USDOJ. Retrieved from:

Schwartz, M. (1998). Violence and Severe Mental Illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 226 -- 231.
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Public Relations Is Often Plagued

Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55541179

Public relations is how an organization interacts with staff, clients and the general public. P defines how you are perceived. P campaigns put you in direct contact with your target audience through public appearances, publicity and community outreach. Publicity, an important element of P, is the art of building favorable interest in your product or service through the media (Cohen, 2003).

The IP Definition of Public elations:

The IP's definition of public relations is quite simplistic. It begins and ends with one of the most important facets of how well an organization interacts with others, its reputation. They state, "Public relations is about reputation - the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you" ("What is public relations," n.d.). Public relations involves actions that influence the opinion of others regarding the organization, and the actions that are necessary to form a favorable opinion. These…… [Read More]


Cohen, S. (28 Jul 2003). Public relations: It's all that and more. Westchester County Business Journal, 42(30). Retrieved February 17, 2005, from MasterFILE Premier database.

Official PRSA definition. (No date). Retrieved February 17, 2005, at

What is public relations? (No date). Retrieved February 17, 2005, at .

Public Relations
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Public Health Then and Now I Consider

Words: 873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97553988

Public Health Then and Now

I consider Fitzhugh Mullan's article "Public Health Then and Now: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: Public Health Practice, Past and Present" a very provocative yet utmost informative and challenging article for the health practitioner and interested layman alike that provides its reader with precious information about the qualities a health worker will have to have and the relationships he will have to entertain at the various stages of his work if he wants to meet his manifold professional responsibilities. Both the title of the article and its abstract (Mullan, 2000, 702) clearly describe the research problem the scope of which the author has appropriately delimited.

I think that the whole article is of eminent importance for the entire public health profession because it covers two areas that do not seem to have caught much attention in the scholarly literature: Dynamic political involvement of public…… [Read More]

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Public Health information

Words: 2455 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71584020

What are Bacteria and Viruses?

The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.

Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…… [Read More]