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So what is a business? A business is an organization that operates to generate profits, usually for its owners. Those owners may be a private individual or individuals, a group of individuals who form a partnership, or a wider group of people with a financial interest in the business and its profits because they are shareholders or members. The things a business does to generate those profits are varied. It may manufacture goods for sale or trade, import or sell goods and products, or provide services to people or other businesses (Davidson, 2011). Public relations have several important roles in a business. It can make people aware of what the business is able to provide (goods and services), help the business communicate with the people who have an interest in it (owners, customers, employees and the community), and help the business develop an image and reputation within its…
Adams, B. (2012). E Pluribus Barnum: The great showman and the making of U.S. popular culture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Brown, R.E. (2009). The propagation of awe: Public relations, art and belief in reformation Europe. Public Relations Review, 30, 381-89.
Basu, K. & Palazzo, G. (2008). Corporate social responsibility: A process model of sensemaking. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 122-136.
Cameron, G.T., Wilcox, D.L., Reber, B.H., & Shin, J.H. (2008). Public relations today: Managing competition and conflict. Boston: Pearson.
Public elations Policies of a Private Company in Kuwait
Public elations Policies
Mais Alghanim estaurant Kuwait
Mais Alghanim estaurant is a Kuwait-based private business corporation owned and controlled by Barakat family. The company offers all kinds of food, restaurant, and catering services to every kind of customers. Mais Alghanim estaurant is recognized for its highest quality of food and excellence in customer services. Emile Barakat (Abu Edmond) carried forward the vision of his Late father Edmond Barakat (Abu Emile) and took the business to the heights of success and prosperity within the Kuwait region in a very short span of time. Mais Alghanim estaurant, through its high quality food and excellent customer services, not only wants to make financial growth, but also wants to establish a strong brand image in the eyes of its customers (Mais Alghanim estaurant, 2011).
In order to make itself a competitive organization and make brand…
Jethwaney, J.N. & Sarkar, N.N., (2009). Public Relations Management. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Ltd.
Lordan, E.J. (2003). Essentials of Public Relations Management. Chicago: Burnham Publishers
Mais Alghanim Restaurant, (2011). Our Story. Retrieved on January 11th, 2012 from
Mais Alghanim Restaurant, (2011). Press Releases. Retrieved on January 11th, 2012 from
Public relations is an integral part of today's business world, being one of the catch-phrases associated with professional success. Having good "PR" is essential to the growth of a company, and a good PR representative is worth his or her weight in gold. Yet most professionals of many trades whose job stability is largely dependent on the public relations aspects of the company honestly have no idea what a public relations representative actually does, or what public relations actually means. The average consumer or member of the public is even more clueless as to what PR actually is. To quote one public relations representative from a large California firm, "I have been at the Bureau for nearly 18 months and my friends and family still aren't sure exactly what I do." (Sandoval 2001) Viewed by some to be a useful tool for businesses large and small to reach their dreams…
Maurreen et al. (2004) Public relations. Wikipedia. Retrieved on September 29, 2004 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_relations .
PRSA. (2004) The public relations profession: about public relations. Public Relations Society of America. Retrieved on September 29, 2004 from http://www.prsa.org/_Resources/Profession/index.asp?ident=prof1.
Sandoval, J. (2001). My friends and family still aren't sure exactly what I do. Public relations tactics. Public Relations Society of America. Retrieved on September 29, 2004 from http://www.prsa.org/_Resources/Profession/6c030121.asp?ident=prof.
The concept of 'public relations' with which we are familiar in the modern world is less than hundred years old. Even though it has a considerably short period of history, the concept has been defined in several varying ways. (About Public elations) Public elations are a means of communication which is basically focused toward achieving public understanding and acceptance. Public relations usually focus on issues in contrast to goods or services, and are used to promote better relations with the public or with the employees. Examples of public relations are providing training to employees, providing help in charitable matters, or a news release about certain community involvement which is positive in nature. (Free Definitions: Define Public elations. What is Public elations?) Public relations enable our society which is complex and pluralistic to arrive at informed decisions and perform in an efficient manner by contributing towards mutual co-operation among…
"About Public Relations" Retrieved from http://www.prsa.org/_Resources/Profession/index.asp?ident=prof1 Accessed on 18 December, 2004
'Free Definitions: Define Public Relations. What is Public Relations?" Retrieved from http://www.learnthat.com/define/view.asp?id=52 Accessed on 18 December, 2004
'Public Relations Firms in Japan: towards the Globalised World" Retrieved from http://www.jmk.su.se/global00/atsuki/coursework/pr.html Accessed on 18 December, 2004
From this point-of-view the P campaign's objectives in this case are:
Increasing the company's market share up to 6%
Increasing the company sales up to11%
Identifying the target customer segments
Identifying different categories of public relies on identifying values, behaviors, ideals, expectations, involvement degree or possibilities of acceptance of the ideas promoted by the campaign. Basically, for the new line of products for summer use, L'Oreal is targeting the same customer segments that the company has always addressed. There are two main target customer segments for L'Oreal's products:
The first targeted segment of customers is consisted of women between 25 and 35 years of age, with high education, with medium to high incomes, and with a high social situation
The second targeted customer segment is consisted of women between 35 and 45 years of age, educated, with medium to high incomes, and a high social situation
In both cases, the…
L'Oreal (2007). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved June 5, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L 'or%C3%A9al.
Company Overview (2007). The L'Oreal Group. Retrieved June 6, 2007 at http://www.loreal.com/_en/_ww/index.aspx .
They did this by stressing the engineering expertise that the company is well-known for, coupling it with their well-respected Toyota Production System (TPS) which unifies suppliers to their internal supplier quality management standards. It is common knowledge that the TPS is a complex set of processes for coordinating with suppliers, and often requires up to a year of coordination between Toyota and a given supplier before a single product is shipped. The rigorous nature of supplier qualification and the very visible processes in the Japanese auto industry trade media and press presented many potential challenges to the public relations strategies surrounding the launch of hybrid autos globally. To have taken a more controlled approach to public relations on the development of their hybrid assemblies and components supply chain would have been a major strategic error. Instead, Toyota concentrated on being open on all information not confidential and critical to their…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1458948591).
Shannon a. Bowen (2006). Autonomy in communication:Inclusion in strategic management and ethical decision-making, a comparative case analysis. Journal of Communication Management, 10(4), 330-352. Retrieved August 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1201986181).
Files, James a. (1982, July). RACE: A Public Relations Process Model for Orderly Planning and Efficient Implementation. The Public Relations Journal, 38(7), 22. Retrieved August 22, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1282283).
Mohannad Khanfar (2007). Visionary Approaches to Management of Corporate Communication Strategy and Its Implications. The Business Review, Cambridge, 8(2), 198-207. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1416810601).
" (Kent & Taylor, 2002) Dialogue cannot be considered a guarantee of public relations outcomes that are ethical but does provide an orientation that is likely to increase a better understanding and "...grounded rules for communication." (Kent and Taylor, 2002)
The work of Chong (nd) states that the importance of crisis communication has emerged and specifically as related to public relations. Chong states that the study reported was conducted in order to disseminate the assigned importance and prevalence of crisis communication and was through the method of a review of literature relating to 'crisis communication'. In a study conducted by Chong, findings state that in a usiness Source Premiere database with more than 1000 scholarly publications with 'crisis communication' used as the search phrase and data collected in five periods during the time between February and March 2006 that the following number of articles were located for each of the…
Chong, M. (nd) Crisis communication through the years: A preliminary analysis of articles in the Business Source Premier database (1981-2005)
Coombs, T.W. (2004) Impact of Past Crises on Current Crisis Communication: Insights from Situational Crisis Communication Theory. Journal of Business Communication 2004, July.
Health, R.L. (2002) Handbook of Public Relations.
Hillsdale, NJ, 1989b, pp. 111-131.
(Straubhaar, 2009, pg. 121)
Critique the relationship between public communication and organizational truth.
Organizational truth is when the activities, communication and culture within the organization will determine what people believe to be the reality. Public relations plays, an important role in the organizational truth, as the strategies and ideas that they are implementing will have a dramatic impact upon organization itself. This is because the various strategies and tools that they use are designed to change the perception of the organization. In order for this to take place; the organizational truth will evolve with the PR strategies, to reflect the reality of what is occurring. In the case of KUSD, the PR department would play a major role in changing the organizational truth of the school district (Ihlen, 2009, pg. 349)
Analyze the most effective ways to use public speeches, journalism, press releases, presentations, and electronic media, including radio, television,…
Ihlen, O. (2009). Commentary. Public Relations and Social Theory. (pg. 349). New York, NY: Routledge.
Mogel, L. (1998). Public Relations. Creating Your Career In Public Relations and Communications. (pg. 239). Sewicley, PA: GATF Press.
Regester, M. (2008). Issues Management Defined. Risk and Crisis Management in Public Relations. (pg. 43). Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Paige.
Sriramesh, K. (2003). The Legal System. Global Public Relations. (pg. 538). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
This second definition sees the purpose of PR activities as aimed at raising an organization's profile with the key people at the media (Cartledge 2003). PR professionals should keep their messages and proposals brief and succinct. The message should relate and connect to a current local economic activity to call attention. They should follow up on these proposals or news stories. It is their responsibility to acquire feedback on how the public views the organization through print and online sources. ased on the feedback, PR professionals should attune their campaign to what the public needs or wants to know and understand. They should consult the organization's management on the need to establish international contacts or arrange with a high-profile celebrity to endorse the organization's product or message to change or improve company image (Cartledge).
A third definition of publications links it with communications. Public relations lead an organization to become…
Cartledge, E. (2003). Public Relations - Communications Outlook. 2 pages. Information Outlook: Special Libraries Association
Fey, L. (2003). Front-Page PR. 2 pages. Art Business News: Advanstar Communications, Inc.
Wylie, F.W. (1992). A Real Look in the Mirror - Evaluating the Field of Public Relations. Communications World: International Association of Business Communicators
Public Relations -- hat is it? How is the public affected? How are you affected?
ho won the last presidential debate? ait -- before you answer this question, carefully analyze your response. Is your presently stated what you truly thought, while you were watching the debate? Or has your current opinion about the candidate, about who won or lost the last debate, changed since you heard what the pundits and media spin analysts said, before, during, or immediately afterwards?
Probably your opinion has been affected by the overwhelming media coverage devoted to this event, whether you like it or not. Even if what you think has only been subtly rather than dramatically colored by what the spokespeople for the major candidates have said regarding the two men's performances, it is difficult to ignore such attention. (Stevenson & Sanger, 2004)
Thus, you have found yourself affected by the ubiquitous nature public…
Duenwald, Mary. (October 5, 2004) "One Lesson From Vioxx: Approach New Drugs With Caution." The New York Times. Retrieved on October 7, 2004 at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/05/health/05cons.html
McNamara, Carter. (1999) "Public Relations." Retrieved on October 7, 2004 at http://www.mapnp.org/library/pblc_rel/pblc_rel.htm
Stevenson, Richard W. And David E. Sanger. (October 7, 2004) "Stump Speech Retooled, Bush Goes on Attack." The New York Times. Retrieved on October 7, 2004 at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/07/politics/campaign/07bush.html?oref=login
HPR also secured placements on more than 40 local TV stations and created a video package for distribution to TV stations. To generate further interest, HPR conducted a radio media tour and distributed a pre-recorded news release to radio stations across the country.
To highlight the design features of the Scotch Contour Dispenser, HPR entered the dispenser into six prestigious design award competitions, and sent the dispenser to influencers in the design world, including museum curators, design storeowners and managers, and university professors of product design.
The Scotch Contour Dispenser, in conjunction with the 75th anniversary of Scotch transparent tape, resulted in more than 3,200 placements and 152 million impressions. Media highlights include: Better Homes & Gardens, Dwell, New York Magazine "Best Bets," Parents, ashington Post (syndicated), Redbook, orking Mother, Dallas Morning News, St. Petersburg Times, Family Life Radio, USA Radio, Metro Radio Networks and local TV placements in New…
Ayto, John Dictionary of word Origins, Arcade Publishing, New York: 1990.
Bitpipe.com, "Definition of Public Relations" bitpipe.com
Hunter Public Relations, "Case Studies http://www.hunterpr.com/CaseStudies/CSContour.htm
Public Communications and Public Relations: Why my experiences, interests, studies, and academic background translates into a perfect translation for the needs of the Westminster University program
The art and craft of translation is my passion, and how the multitudes of the languages I speak and seek to perfect can be merged into the communications field shall become the passion of my future. I have longed love the translation process involved in translating one foreign language into another. My native language is Italian, but I am also well versed in English and Spanish. My degree thesis was entitled "The Casebook of Forensic Detection," under the supervision of Professor Adriana Bisirri. It was a work of scientific translation, but I tried to make it one of literary merit as well as clinical accuracy, under the watchful eye of Professor Bisirri.
The title and subject of my thesis highlights my second passion --…
Why is it important to have a PR campaign? Give an example of a situation that illustrates the importance of a PR campaign and how is the effectiveness of public relations best measured? Explain your answer.
A good PR campaign is important for many reasons (Elements of a PR plan). It can increase a company's credibility because of a consumer's respect for the media. Media coverage can establish a company as a major player in an industry and because it can bolster public image it can sometimes allow a company to charge more for its products. A PR campaign can also stretch a company's marketing budget because the media does not charge for news coverage. Nothing illustrates the importance of a PR campaign more than the launch of a brand or a new product through a media outreach campaign. The media likes to write about something new because…
Duncan, A. 10 differences between advertising and public relations. Your Guide to Advertising. Retrieved November 10, 2005 from Web site: http://advertising.about.com/od/careersource/a/10advpr_2.htm
Elements of a PR plan. Retrieved November 10, 2005 from Web site: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:rPmfCrkpCCsJ:pr.e-agency.com/pdf/elementsofaPRplan.pdf+%22why+public+relations+is+important%22& hl=en
Lubber, C.A. Assessing corporate public relations campaigns: attempting to demonstrate fiscal responsibility. Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications. Retrieved November 10, 2005 from Web site: http://jimc.medill.northwestern.edu/1995-1996/lubbers.htm
In P, the public is the consumer of the product and the media is the one that is charged with selling it out to the public.
There are therefore tools that the P department will employ every now and again to reach the public which is the consumer. These are (Dry Pen, 2010);
Press release; is one of the most effective means of communicating to the stakeholders and is the most common mode. These documents provide a comprehensive description of upcoming events or activities in a brief and thorough manner.
Internal newsletters and publications; these are publications that come out on a regular basis like monthly or quarterly and can have significant information about the program of the organization and any other pertinent information like the dividends, profits and strategic decisions.
Email; this is another easy and fact means of communicating to the stakeholders since it can be done fast…
Dry Pen, (2010). Public Relations Tools - PR. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://drypen.in/public-relations/public-relations-tools-pr.html
Investopedia, (2012). Definition: Public Relations -- PR. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/public-relations-pr.asp#axzz1ksm73geI
Inherent in any relationship is the opportunity for conflict to develop. Conflict most often develops when a miscommunication occurs between one party and another. Public relations can help mitigate conflict in a variety of ways. One of the most effective ways public relations managers work toward building effective relationships is via building strong communication networks. The role of a public relations team is to help foster effective, efficient and well intentioned communication between two or more parties (Bruning, 2000). A public relations representative or team may not necessarily ensure that one's communication message is accepted by all, however it is their job to ensure that a message is presented clearly and in a manner that is non-threatening to all the recipients of the intended message (Wilson, 1994).
The effects of public relations on the public are many. When public relations serves the public in an efficient and productive environment, positive…
Bruning, S.D. (2000). "Public relations as relationship management: A relational approach to the study and practice of public relations." Mawhah, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Broom G.M. (1986, August). Public relations roles and systems theory: Functional and historicist causal models. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Chicago, IL; in Bruning, 2000.
Wilson L.J. (1994). "The return to Gemeinschaft: A theory of public relations and corporate community relations as relationship-building." In a.F. Alkhafaji (Ed.), Business research yearbook: Global business perspectives (Vol. 1, pp. 135-141). Lanham, MD: International Academy of Business Disciplines and University Press of America, Inc.
The origin of the concept of public relations is seen in the actions of publicists engaged in the campaign for circuses, theatrical performances, and other public shows. The public relations have seen its growth as a profession during the time of the First World War. During World War I the Committee for Public Information known as Creel Committee engaged in organizing publicity of U.S. objectives fostered many of the pioneers of the P professionals like Ivy Lee, Edward Bernays and Carl Byoir. The contemporary public relations applies a variety of techniques inclusive of opinion polling and concentrate on focus groups to assess the public opinion in combination with high-tech techniques for disseminating information for their clients inclusive of satellite feeds, the Internet, broadcast faxes and database-driven phone banks to hire followers for a client's purpose. The skills and techniques applied for dealing with the public have also extended…
"Effective Public Relations Essential for Personal Branding" (11 February, 2005)
Retrieved from http://www.prweb.com/releases/2005/2/inktomi207519.php Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Hogan, Mike. (October 1994) "Effective Public Relations in Extension" Journal of Extension. Volume 32 Number 3. Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/joe/1994october/a1.html Accessed on 16 February, 2005
"Looking for Effective Uses of PR?" Retrieved from http://www.rmr.com/Effective-uses-of-pr.asp Accessed on 16 February, 2005
It is also important for the organization to create its trademark to enable the targeted population to easily identify it and in cases where another organization's trademark has to be used for communication then it is important for permission to be obtained. The tools that also involve a lot of legal requirements are community events and open house events since the organization must take full liability during such events with regard to security and necessary permits to use facilities such as public streets.
The public relations tools that are highly affected by advancement in technology are the press conference and the internet. These tools have become easier to use due to the advancement in technology, for instance, press conferences can be done via teleconferencing services thus it is not mandatory for the two groups to meet as was the case before. Passing information through the internet has also been so…
Applegate, E. (2006). What Advertising Agency Personnel Need to Know about Public
Relations. Public Relations Quarterly, 51(3), 23-26. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Clark, C. (2000). What every public company must know about disclosing information. The Strategist, pp. 35 -- 38.
Howard, C.M. (2000). Technology and tabloids: How the new media world is changing our jobs." Public Relations Quarterly, pp. 8 -- 12.
Public elations: Principles and Practice
Public relations can be considered as one of the important mediums for any organization in order to communicate with the people outside of the organization. There are many modes of communication by the help of which organizations can tailor the particular type of message and then communicate to the concerned people efficiently and effectively. In order to develop the efficient and effective message marketers of the organization need to understand different type of communication methods by the help of which an organization can communicate their message in a better way (Grunig, 1993). Audience of the message should always be analyzed with the great precision whenever you are going to communicate about the organization. Understanding the internal audience that is employees of the organization are often easier to understand however the challenge for most of the organization comes when they have to communicate with the external…
Grunig, J.E., 1993. Public Relations and International Affairs: Effects, Ethics and Responsibility. Journal of International Affairs, 47(1), 137-162. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000218638
Lamme, M.O., & Russell, K.M., 2010. Removing the Spin: toward a New Theory of Public Relations History. Journalism and Communication Monographs, 11(4), 07+. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5046702611
Gilded and Gelded. Hard- Won lessons from PR Wars company's image is something all PR Officers are concerned with. Image makes everything, from the stock market reaction to your own workers to the general public on the street. How is image made and how it affects the company's well being is dealt with in this excellent article by one of the veterans of PR, Dick artin, former executive vice president pf public relations at AT&T.
The first and most important concern: the CEO. Indeed, CEOs can sometimes make the image of a company. A charismatic CEO will tend to have a more positive reaction from the general public and will influence the way the company is regarded. This was the example with ike Armstrong: young and charismatic, he became CEO of AT&T and impressed the media with several public appearances. However, this was not enough to cover up…
Martin's long career as a PR officer made him witness several PR blunders that certainly did no good. The small cartoon published in 1993 is the best example. The drawing appeared in Focus and depicted several stereotypical characters from around the world, including a monkey for Africa. It is obvious that the impression created by this was terrible in the African- American community. Funnily enough, AT&T had greatly contributed to several funds for the black community with the intent of creating a long-term relationship with the respective community. All this work and spending went down the drain with one single drawing. Again, imagery and symbolism is most important to a company: something does not necessarily represent a company's credo, but the impact on the public can be disastrous.
Finally, the media and the relationship with the media. What a company has to remember and keep in mind is that media sells stories and stories are what make its profit. The best stories are those of "conflicts, drama and setbacks" as Dennis Kneale from Forbes put it. Obviously, because this sells the article, the paper or the TV show and it is all about the money made in the end (long-term relationships eventually lead to that too). A company should try its best either to not leak information or to ensure that it is presented in the best possible way. The public opinion is mainly informed through the media, to the degree that almost everything published can be believed to be true, with the consequences deriving from this. If that puts the company in a positive light, then it has done its job.
Finally, intelligent people learn from their mistakes. Nobody is born with knowledge of PR and, even more than this, the public opinion has a very volatile set of reactions- you never entirely know what it is going to be the first time, but you can take the proper measures to ensure that it does not happen the second time.
Choosing the wrong order for the communications hierarchy would also present issues.
If the company had gone to the media without first consulting with regulatory and government agencies, it could have given out incorrect or incomplete information which would make it appear out of touch with the situation and perhaps dishonest even if it was attempting to be truthful.
d. When do you need a proactive crisis management plan?
A company should always have a proactive crisis management plan because it is impossible to tell when a crisis may occur. A proactive management plan helps the company manage the unforeseen event more effectively because the company has identified how to provide complete and accurate information and disseminate it as quickly as it can. When an incident occurs, the company will know who will speak for it, who they will speak to and how they will communicate to each audience.
Her salary should logically be more than what Public Relations Department pays normally to an Administrative Assistant. Such changes would increase the morale of the staff members and they would be more inclined to working harder and more efficiently. This in turn would only benefit this organization as the output of work would be at its peak. Hence new titles with revised job descriptions and increased salary for those who deserve it should only be advantageous to the company and should be considered and given the utmost priority.
Through a study of the qualifications and the workload that staff members are coping with after the added responsibilities, I have formulated new titles and salary packages for those who deserve the most. The allocated budget was $33,000 and this budget has been used efficiently and in the most appropriate way. Jonathan Moore is a Copy Writer II with a salary…
The film's promotions played upon a common element of human psychology, namely concern about public health and body image. Much like films like "Bridget Jones Diary" and "Raging Bull," it made use of a highly publicized, real-life weight gain upon the part of its protagonist and director, using verisimilitude and relevant shock value to publicize the film. The director used his own alleged physical deterioration to draw in viewers, and made his subsequent post-film weight loss a kind of stunt PR that drew even more viewers into the cinema, to see what would otherwise be a little-seen film about weight loss. The "Bridget Jones" film, now the "Bridget Jones" franchise, given the imminent release of the sequel, also deployed the weight gain, loss, and gain again of Renee Zwelleger as a way of publicizing an otherwise rather standard romantic comedy -- few would be interested in this fairly ordinary film,…
Bridget Jones' Diary." (2000) Starring Renee Zwelleger.
McDonald's adult Happy Meal arrives: The Go Active! Package for grown-ups includes salad, water and even exercise tips." (May 11, 2004) CNN.com. Retrieved on October 14, 2004 at http://www.whenusearch.com/ws_close.html?src=adcm0001&result=nocontrol
Spurlock, Morgan. (2004) "Supersize me." Documentary
Subway (2004) Official company website. Retrieved on October 14, 2004 at http://22.214.171.124/fresh/pledge.html
Public elations (Corporate social responsibility)
The term 'Corporate Social esponsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an…
CEO's Message" HP Standards of Business Conduct. Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/sbcbrochure.pdf . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" 2004. Retrieved at http://www.takingitglobal.org/themes/csr/ . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/. Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Danng, Lyng. 2004. "Who is monitoring the multinational?" 17th May. Retrieved at http://www.vibewire.net/articles.php?id=2671Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Public relation is an important element that can lead a business or a career to success. Public relation is a form of communication that harmoniously allows the connection and involvement to other business elements, can be another business organization or another business partner. An effective public relation is in fact being used as a mode of enhancing an individual's, or an organization's, business relationship to others.
One example of an effective use of public relation is in the area of marketing. To be able to gain recognition to many customers or business partners, a good business relationship must be established between parties to build trust and confidence. This establishment of good business relationship can be achieved through an effective public relation that is exercised and demonstrated by an organization. For instance, in marketing, one way to establish this is by focusing on the elements that will provide benefits to customers.…
Facebook is operating on the communication and social segment of the it industry. In this sense, it is offering a multitude of services to its clients, which include, besides the actual chat or forum-like services, photo and video sharing and, increasingly, the capacity to generate an entirely customized and personalized page for the user. From this point-of-view, we can identify primary competitors, competing in the social segment of the industry, but also secondary competitors, who focus on partial components, such as photo or video sharing.
In terms of the primary segment, the most important competitor that Facebook has is Myspace. Myspace has successfully benefited from being launched earlier so as to attract an additional 30 million users, ranking at 100 million users before Facebook's 70 million. Bebo and Blackplanet also provide important competition on the primary market, however, the ain competition is between Facebook and Myspace. Both sites try…
Public relations is how an organization interacts with staff, clients and the general public. P defines how you are perceived. P campaigns put you in direct contact with your target audience through public appearances, publicity and community outreach. Publicity, an important element of P, is the art of building favorable interest in your product or service through the media (Cohen, 2003).
The IP Definition of Public elations:
The IP's definition of public relations is quite simplistic. It begins and ends with one of the most important facets of how well an organization interacts with others, its reputation. They state, "Public relations is about reputation - the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you" ("What is public relations," n.d.). Public relations involves actions that influence the opinion of others regarding the organization, and the actions that are necessary to form a favorable opinion. These…
Cohen, S. (28 Jul 2003). Public relations: It's all that and more. Westchester County Business Journal, 42(30). Retrieved February 17, 2005, from MasterFILE Premier database.
Official PRSA definition. (No date). Retrieved February 17, 2005, at http://www.prsa.org/_Resources/Profession/index.asp?ident=prof1.
What is public relations? (No date). Retrieved February 17, 2005, at http://www.ipr.org.uk/direct/looking.asp?v1=what .
Public Relations in Lebanon
his study described and analyzed the perceptions and practices of public relations in Lebanon. It focused specifically on media relations and was based on Grunig's (1984) theoretical framework of four models of public relations: press agentry, public information, two-way asymmetrical, and two-way symmetrical.
A review of the literature was conducted that revealed a debate about whether public relations can be practiced the same way all over the world (Gruban, 1995) or if certain localized practices should be considered for each nation (Sharpe, 1992).
he research design was a triangulated method. Data were collected using a written survey questionnaire and telephone interviews with Lebanese public relations practitioners. he results showed that all four of the Grunig models were practiced in Lebanon, with the two-way symmetrical model the most popular. Evidence collected from this research supported the hypothesis of this study that public relations can be globalized despite…
The Republic of Lebanon is located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, surrounded by Israel from the south, Syria from the east and the north, and the Mediterranean Sea from the west. Lebanon is one of the smallest sovereign countries in the world. The length of the whole country is 220 kilometers (135 miles) from South to North and varies between 20-55 miles from East to West. The area is 10,425 square kilometers (3,950 square miles) (Embassy of Lebanon, 2002). Lebanon is a democracy based on a parliamentary democratic political regime. Similar to Western democracies, the government consists of three branches: an executive, a legislative, and an independent judiciary.
The economy is a liberal capitalist one.
Lebanon's population of four million
In creating a brand it is impossible for Pr campaigns to lie. People however tend to divide PR in good and bad. A PR campaign trying to convince people to wear the seatbelt fastened while driving is considered good, a PR campaign trying to discredit a political candidate's opponents is considered bad. If the former case is pretty clear, the latter one makes s wonder where the border between ethics and efficiency is. We must always keep in mind the fact PR has become and ethical profession therefore regardless of its final purpose it must respect a code of ethics which is universally valid (doing otherwise would compromise it, its very success depends on this).
One example of an extremely efficient PR campaign is the one initiated by the candidate to be president arack Obama. The campaign included all the possible media, press, TV, radio, advertising and the internet. Through…
Bernays, E 1998, 'Counselling not communications', International Public Relations Review, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 28-32.
Gower, K 2008, 'U.S. corporate public relations in the progressive era', Journal of Communication Management, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1-19, .
Heath, RL 2001, 'Shifting foundations: public relations as relationship building', in RL Heath & GM Vasquez (eds.), Handbook of public relations, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, pp. 1-9.
Ledingham, JA 2003, 'Explicating relationship management as a general theory of public relations', Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 181-198, EBSCOhost, Communication & Mass Media Complete
Public relation is one marketing strategy that helps in the growth of product branding. An effective public relation activity can increase the popularity of one brand if done in a method that would provide benefits to the public. Among the many companies that race to being number one in the eyes of the public and within the industry where they belong is McDonald's. Since the company's birth decades ago, there have been a large number of public relation activities that they have pursued to gain the trust of the public in the fast food industry. Today, the company is among the famous fast food chains that are strategically located in many towns and cities, and most especially around the world.
In this paper, we will try to evaluate how public relation contributes to the brand of McDonald's. McDonald's is a well-known global fast food chain company and it is apparent,…
PRBLOG 2004, Strategic Public Relations, Available at:
BBC NEWS 2004, Burger Giant Plans Clothing Range, Available at:
Public relations came about as a result of the need to reach out to customers with the aim of informing me them about products and services being offered, especially after the Industrial revolution. In order to meet this need, professionals had to be involved thus giving birth to public relations. When public relations started, there were several developments that took place such as the identification of the two-way symmetric model as a form of public relations practice. This model emphasized on the evaluation of feedback from publics and then resolving the conflicts through two-way communication and eventually arriving at mutual understandings. This new approach to public relations was the most significant since it complements the earlier three approaches of publicity, public information, and two-way asymmetric (Stuart et al., 2007). This latest model is built on principles of communication as listening and on conflict resolution and the search for mutual benefits…
Geoffrey, P., (2009). Event Reports, ANA Multicultural, JCPenney builds on
180 years of history to reach the modern customer. Retrieved from: http://www.warc.com
Stuart, B.E., Sarow, M.S., and L. Stuart. (2007). Integrated business communication in a global marketplace. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Richard, E., (2002). The Art of Cause Marketing: How to Use Advertising to Change
Public elations Campaign Plan for Huntington County
The mission of the Emergency Management Agency for Huntington County is to provide an integrated and comprehensive emergency management system that would coordinate community resources in order to protect lives, the environment, property, preparedness, recovery and response from all natural and man-made hazards that impact the county (Yates & Paquette, 2011). The county has implemented a CodeED emergency Notification System that it uses to communicate any emergencies to the registered members of the county. The system enables the county to telephone all targeted areas of the county, and it can dial over 50,000 number in an hour (Wentz et al., 2014). The main weaknesses of the system is that it only dials three times, and if a response is not received, it will not dial again. However, the system is smart enough to leave a voice message. The main threats to the system…
Shimp, T., & Andrews, J.C. (2013). Advertising promotion and other aspects of integrated marketing communications: Cengage Learning.
Watson, T. (2012). The evolution of public relations measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Review, 38(3), 390-398.
Wentz, B., Lazar, J., Stein, M., Gbenro, O., Holandez, E., & Ramsey, A. (2014). Danger, danger! Evaluating the accessibility of Web-based emergency alert sign-ups in the northeastern United States. Government Information Quarterly, 31(3), 488-497.
Yates, D., & Paquette, S. (2011). Emergency knowledge management and social media technologies: A case study of the 2010 Haitian earthquake. International Journal of Information Management, 31(1), 6-13.
Doctors Without Borders
The organization that I am writing about is Doctors without Borders. This organization is comprised of physicians and other health care practitioners who donate their time to serve the victims of conflict, people in refugee camps, and others who would otherwise not have access to medical care. This organization has a few campaigns ongoing at the present time. They are seeking to raise funds over the Christmas season, and they are also seeking people to sign petitions, for example signing petitions directed at pharmaceutical companies to reduce the price of drugs that are in frequent use in developing countries, but which cost too much for the people in those countries (DoctorsWithoutBorders.org, 2015).
The organization's website is professional in terms of its layout, with ample visuals and efficient copy. The site makes it easy for people to understand the key issues and geographic regions in which Doctors without…
Doctors Without Borders, website, entire site. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/
At Google, areas of interest include their intensive sustainability commitment to promote eco-friendly buildings and energy efficiency, the company's approach to managing the Chinese government relationship and messaging, and the torrent of new applications they produce. In conclusion, the organizations I'd seek out to work for after graduation would have brands that were global and could use my skill set of globally-based coordination and intercultural collaboration while also being highly creative with a pace that made programs challenging yet attainable.
Upload a 300-500-word persuasive essay that describes what you understand to be the fundamental role of public relations in society. Illustrate your commentary by citing a recent example (good or bad) of strategic public relations at work from an area of the field that is of particular interest to you.
At its most strategic, public relations seeks to unify the messaging and communications across a company while ensuring accuracy, authenticity…
Hamilton, J., Knouse, S., & Hill, V. (2009). Google in China: A Manager-Friendly Heuristic Model for Resolving Cross-Cultural Ethical Conflicts. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 143-157.
James S. O'Rourke IV, Brynn Harris, & Allison Ogilvy. (2007). Google in China: government censorship and corporate reputation. The Journal of Business Strategy, 28(3), 12-22.
When you really think about the P blunders over the past 25 years, it strikes me that more accurately we should be calling them failures in management, not failures of P," says Professor Broom, co-author of the books, "Effective Public elations" and "Using esearch in Public elations." Surely, the failures have the effect of damaging an organization's relationships with its publics but the P function often is not part of management," says Broom (Garcia, 1990)."
It will be important to measure the constant success or failure of this new strategy. Using all of the above methods to reach new members and reassure current members will provide the church with a solid growth foundation. This will allow the church to move forward and work toward expanding its building program in the next five years.
The Differences Between Marketing, Advertising, and Public elations.(Industry Trend or Event)
OfficeSolutions; 12/1/2000; Hart, ebecca
The Differences Between Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations.(Industry Trend or Event)
OfficeSolutions; 12/1/2000; Hart, Rebecca
Search for more information on HighBeam Research for "public relations" and strategy.
PR bloopers. (failed public relations programs) (International Association of Business Communicators: 1970-1990: Section 3: A Era Ended)
Functions of Public Relations
The line between organizational and societal functions of public relations is increasingly becoming blurred. For the purposes of this assignment, marketing communications and employee relations have been grouped into the organizational function while social responsibility and community relations have been grouped into the societal function. These segmentations have been derived primarily be examining direct links to profits and how much a company has focused on either inward or outward activities. However, companies that seek better profits are now realizing that they are tied to what they can do for the welfare of the members of society. Along with this realization comes a tighter linkage between organizational and society functions of public relations to achieve a new business vision called corporate social responsibility (CSR).
Marketing communications is more aligned with organizational functions because it helps meet the internal needs of promotion to advance sales of products and…
Global Alliance For Public Relations And Communications Management. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site: http://www.globalpr.org/news/features/csr_statement_280604.asp
Pantelleva, M. Public relations and public responsibility. Retrieved August, 13, 2005 from Web site: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:fwlnzBXEQdAJ:www.eprn.org/EuropeanPRNews2/Milena_Panteleeva.pdf+%22public+relations%22+%22social+responsibility%22& hl=en
Public relations FAQ. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site: http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/a/m/amm17/pr.html
Riesterer, T. Accountability marketing. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site: http://www.marcommwise.com/articlecat.phtml?c=Marcomm%20Measurement
In the wake of numerous public complaints as well as allegations within the last two years that point towards excessive use of force by police officers in the apprehension of suspects within the city, there is need to develop a brief that explores the various measures that could be adopted in seeking to enhance our officers’ relations with the community while at the same time attempting to minimize instances of unnecessary aggression and use of force. In essence, in seeking to effect arrests, officers should utilize force that is not only commensurate with the risk posed, but also objectively reasonable. The relevance of formulating blueprints and implementing strategies meant to address the use of force as well as promote or advance the de-escalation of scenarios that turn violent cannot be overstated. In seeking to comprehensively address the issue raised by members of the public regarding the use of force…
he function of marketing communications is also the integral part of any new product introduction process in a company as well. In fact, oshiba America, known for their laptop computers, has the product launch and introduction managed as a project inside marketing communications to provide for greater coordination and synchronizing with other departments. Marketing communications acts in many companies as the activity hub for all strategies, as this department is often serving the sales force, product management, product marketing, service, finance, and very often the executive managers who are the spokespeople for strategies and products.
Societal functions of Public Relations
In a sense government agencies and their constituents, the citizens of a given region or nation, are "customers" of the services of the societal institutions and governments. he only difference is of course that to shop between governments is to have to move, while consumers can choose between organizations by…
Two functions that define the societal role of public relations are consumer relations and community relations.
Perhaps no other set of nations in the world has a more thorough set of laws to protect its citizens from shoddy and unsafe merchandise, services schemes that defraud them or foods that don't pass certain health criteria than the United States and several other westernized nations. The reason is that the laws surrounding products, services, foods, drugs and even transportation have been created to protect the consumer. In the context of public relations, the societal function that influences the most amounts of people is consumer relations.
From a societal context, consumer relations fulfills the role of both coordinator of information flow between manufacturers, the government, and the consumer, ultimately looking out for what's best for the consumer and their well-being. This is a critical step in many countries as the function can expose risks to consumers of unsafe products. During the 19th century for example, Upton Sinclair (2002) and his classic book, the Jungle, showed the many practices in the meat processing and packing industry that needed overhauling to
Naturally, we encouraged Mr. Newly to pursue the opportunity, notwithstanding our disappointment at having to postpone his appearances.
Luckily, we have managed to secure the services of Mr. Drew Sterling, the immensely talented young baritone soloist who will be replacing Mr. Newly in both performances this weekend. As many of you already know, Mr. Sterling is a graduate of Berklee College of Music and the Boston Conservatory and a breathtaking performer in his own right. His debut CD received critical acclaim last year. Please join us this Friday morning for an interview with Mr. Sterling Friday morning at 10:00.
E-mail to Russell Witherspoon:
Attached File to RS
File: SterlingDraftExcerpt (1)11-18-07.doc
What we're going with as of now:
It is with very mixed feelings with which the City Symphony must announce an unavoidable change in it's schedule for this week's anticipated performances by the City Symphony's own Josh…
Public relations is recognized for the publicity and awareness support it brings to businesses and corporations in their marketing efforts. It can be just as effective for nonprofit organizations. This is what the Center for Child Protection and Family Support in Washington, D.C., has found through its PR activities. The center is a nonprofit 501(c)3, community-based organization that addresses the harmful long-term effects of child abuse by providing innovative school-based and parent education programming in the Washington D.C. urban area in addition to training and consulting for local professionals. The center's three main themes are: Child abuse and neglect are serious, complex health and social problems with long-term consequences; the center is a trusted resource on child abuse issues; and every child deserves a childhood that is free from abuse and neglect.
The center has to have an ongoing PR plan to continually confirm its credibility as the…
global trends in public relations?
ecent years have seen a dramatic transformation in the nature and scope of public relations all over the world. This transformation has been affected by several key changes in the environment such as the growth of global trade, free markets and the Information Age. But perhaps the most significant change is the increasing concern over the impact of organizations on the social fabric of which they are a part. Thus, the changes in the functioning of societies and economies has led to public relations becoming one of senior management's dominant concerns, calling for practitioners to acquire new knowledge and skills. Indeed, this is evident in the shift of perspective in the field from information dissemination and organizational stakeholder relations to mediating relations between organizations and constituent groups over major social issues (Brody, 1987, p. 1-2).
The globalization of business has also led to widening the…
Brody, E.W. (1987). The Business of Public Relations. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Gumbel, P. (2004, January 26). Total Clean Up. Time Online Edition. Retrieved Nov. 7,
Kruckeberg, D. (2000). Public Relations: Towards a Global Professionalism. Public Relations as Relationship Management: A Relational Approach to the Study and Practice of Public Relations. Contributors: Stephen D. Bruning - editor, & John A. Ledingham -- editor. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Advertising and public relations serve to communicate ideas and convince the audience of something. Politicians are among the most prolific advertising spenders during election campaigns and can have enormous public relations machines. This is especially true of Presidential candidates, who must first run for their party's nomination and then must run for President. We know that Hillary Clinton went from frontrunner to loser in the race for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 2008. There are lessons to be learned about the different factors that contribute to selling an idea, in this case Clinton as President, to different audiences. This case study will evaluate Clinton's campaign leading up to the Democratic primary using the OSTE model. The OSTE model focuses on research, objectives, strategies, tactics and evaluation.
The Hillary Clinton campaign at the time of the case was a large organization. It featured both extensive advertising and public relations, backed…
Cree, C. (2008). Hillary Clinton's approach to social media killed her campaign. Success Creations. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://successcreeations.com/339/hillary-clintons-approach-to-social-media-killed-her-campaign/
Gawiser, S. & Witt, G. (2012). 20 questions a journalist should ask about poll results. National Council on Public Polls. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.ncpp.org/?q=node/4
Murray, M. (2008). The primary vs. general election fallacy. NBC News. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/23591347/
OpenSecrets.org. (2008). Hillary Clinton. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/summary.php?cid=N
promotional strategy may be defined as a way to optimize sales advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion. Promotion is one critical component of the overall marketing mix of price, place, promotion, and product. Promotional mixes today include social media as well as traditional advertising. Promotional strategies must effectively communicate the competitive advantage that can be secured by using the product, including quality, speed of delivery, low prices, or other unique features.
Although promotion can seem like a mysterious, complicated process, it is essentially about communicating effectively. Promotional messages can be communicated individually, as in the case of a personalized sales pitch, or on a mass level. The communications process in all instances is defined as sending; encoding the message; sending the message through a message channel; decoding the message; and receiving the message. The receiver and sender are on a continual feedback channel although 'noise' can obfuscate the…
Coombs and Holladay (2007)
Coombs and Holladay use the support of the professional literature to find an explanation to the importance stakeholders came to play in their role with the management. Their next movement is back to history, this time deeper to the times where there was no such field as public relations. They start in their investigation with the Anti-Slavery Society, formed by Arthur and Lewis Tappan in 1831. They were among the first to discover the role of using various ways of disseminating information to the public they targeted by using the printed word or by assembling in "meetings, sermons and public lectures." Coombs and Holladay (2007, p. 62). Further examples show how tools specific to the PR industry nowadays were discovered and put to use by simple people who succeeded to start major changes in society: Carry a. Nation, the first woman who made an "event" in…
Coombs, W.T and Holladay S.J. it's Not Just PR: Public Relations in Society. Blackwell Publishing. 2007
asses two cases related to public relations. First our focus will be on a case regarding a Persian restaurant, we will assess the factors regarding the demise of business activities of this restaurant and consult ways on how to improve this since it is very crucial for the survival of this business. Secondly, we will emphasize on how to give an image boost to the American Bull Terriers who is commonly known to be a very violent animal species.
Case I (Tehran estaurant)
In this case, it is very important to realize the background factors which are responsible for the demise of business activities of this restaurant. The main root cause of the problem is the negative public perception the general public has regarding Iran or any other thing associated with it. This is created due to the extreme negative perception the media portrays about Iran and its government's ambitions.…
Jacquie L'Etang, Public Relations in Britain (New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates, 2004)
Clara Zawawi, Public Relations: Theory and Practice (New South Wales: Allen & Unwin, 2009)
Barbara Desanto, Public Relations Cases (London: Routledge, 2002)
According to Pugh (1990), the organizational structure is an instrument that appears from the need to fulfill the organizational aims and objectives with the tools and activities that are available. Following the way that this process is managed, several types of organizational structures can be identified, including pre-bureaucratic structures, bureaucratic and post-bureaucratic structures, functional structures, divisional structures and matrix structures.
Westinghouse organizational structure falls into several different categories. On one hand, it is a bureaucratic structure. Among the characteristics of such an organization, Weber (1948) identifies several: "precision, speed, unambiguity, & #8230; strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs- these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration."
The bureaucratic nature of the organizational structure at Westinghouse is motivated by at least two aspects: (1) the nature of the industry in which Westinghouse operates: the nuclear industry, highly regulated, which implies…
1. Handy, Charles, (2007). Understanding Organizations. Penguin Books.
2. Deal T.E. And Kennedy, A.A. (1982) Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1982
3. Weber, M. (1948). Essays in Sociology. London: Routledge
4. Pugh, D.S., ed. (1990).Organization Theory: Selected Readings. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Therefore the pubic relations specialist has to be conscious and fully aware of his or her role as intermediary between the organization and the public. This is particularly true of P specialists who work for government and organizations affecting health and the environment.
An example of social responsible P marketing is marketing that;
Identifies areas where the firm can make a positive difference.
Makes sure local media are aware.
Informs and involve employees.
Invests in advertising and public relations to highlight the firm's efforts.
Public elations, egulations and Sponsorship Programs)
In terms of the external responsibilities and functions of the P officer in an organization, media relations often take priority. The P specialist is trained to communicate and to enable the media to write and present the organization in a light that is conducive to the good image of the company.
In order to achieve these functions the public relations…
Public Relations Specialists. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos086.htm
Public Relations, Regulations and Sponsorship Programs. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:eLqM0aWlAxgJ:www.cob.sjsu.edu/vitale_r/clowch13Selected.ppt+social+function+of+Public+relations&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=35&gl=za
Virtual Communities - Social Implications of Public Relations. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at http://wiki.media-culture.org.au/index.php/Virtual_Communities_in_Public_Relations_-_Social_Implications
A new area that a public relations specialist in investor relations must deal with in the current environment is that of the new phenomenon of grass-roots Internet reviews. "Companies have always had to deal with complaints and criticisms -- both deserved and not. But the Internet has drastically increased the potential damage to a brand or a company's reputation. Frustrations with a company's practices, products and service that once were confined to relatively small circles now reach complete strangers around the world" (Martin & Bennett 2008: 6). Many companies have taken a disastrous 'do nothing' approach or have simply underestimated the influence of the speedy new media to transmit negative and positive buzz about good and bad investment prospects: "The majority of companies we contacted were either unaware their company was the subject of attacks or were taking a 'wait-and-see' approach in deciding what to do about it (Martin &…
Dowling, Graham & Warren Weeks. (2008, Spring). What the media is really telling you about your brand. MIT Sloan Review. 49. 3.
Christopher L. Martin and Nathan Bennett (2008, March 10). What to do about online attacks.
Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. R.6. Retrieved June 8, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1442818571).
UC Irvine extension presents first and only online program in investor relations." (15 Jun
Mass marketing is differentiated from target marketing, in that the target customer is pretty much everybody. A firm that has a target market will either have all of its sales, or a significant portion of them, in an specific identifiable group. Thus, the product should span across race, gender, age and geography. Such a product's target market would be better understood in terms of who doesn't buy it than who does. Wal-Mart would be a good example of a mass market retailer, based on their size, their geographic spread, the wide variety of products that they sell and the ubiquitous nature of many of those products -- many mass market retailers target very broad groups (Investopedia, 2015).
A mass market product, therefore, would be a product that broadly appeals. I will go with Charmin. The target market for Charmin is almost everybody. There are only a few groups that…
Coca Cola Company (2015). The Coca-Cola system. Coca Cola. Retrieved June 13, 2015 from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/our-company/the-coca-cola-system
Investopedia (2015). Definition of derived demand. Investopedia. Retrieved June 13, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/derived_demand.asp
Investopedia (2015). Mass market retailer. Investopedia. Retrieved June 13, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/mass-market-retailer.asp
New Zealand Transportation Association (2013) Blazed -- drug driving in Aotearoa. YouTube Retrieved June 13, 2015 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8KAaf45g5U
The critics of the drug testing policies argue, however, that the policies work to unfairly single out specific athletes for close scrutiny, tempts many of these same athletes to find ways to cheat the test, and that testing also violates the Constitutional right of privacy (McCabe & icciardelli, 2001).
Both arguments are significant, but the main point is that these testing policies and the steroid use that they are involved with have to be dealt with by those that handle public relations, both involving the players and the media/public. Without these public relations individuals, the players could have serious problems with the way that they were viewed by the public, and those that want or do not want the testing could also be viewed rather harshly, so it is important that they have good public relations. This is not always easy, as there are many issues that must be…
Diacin, M.J., Parks, J.B., & Allison, P.C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1): 1-16
McCabe, M.P., & Ricciardelli, L.A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.
Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.
A good example of some of the different texts that were utilized to insight anger and violence can be seen with one that was sent to number Anglo Saxons in the commonwealth. Where, it would encourage all youth in Western Australia to show up at Cronuella each, in an effort to protect the beach and women. This is significant, because it shows how the use of heated SMS messages could help to enrage both groups. As this form of written communication would increase the overall amounts of rage that the two side were feeling towards each other.
Visual languages were used to help increase the overall negative opinions that many Australians would feel towards the Arabs. Where, the women and men would dress differently in public (with many women covering themselves). This is problematic, because it would cause a number of groups in society to view Arabs as untrustworthy, based…
Racial Tensions at Cronuella Beach. Everything 2. 2005. Web. 29 Oct. 2010.
"Responsible Gambling and Reconcilation Australia Campaigns and Link to Celebrity Gambling Story." N.d.
Gouggin, Gerald. "SMS Riot." Journal of Media Culture. 2006. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Perera, Suvendrini. "Aussie Luck."ACRAWSA 3.1 (2007). Print.
Many small and medium sized town are experiencing problems that were typically focused on larger urban areas. An issue that has a broad range of effects; from environmental to fiscal, from social population dynamics to the cultural environment of the city, transportation is one of the key factors that makes the modern urban area function.
Fairfield City is located SW of Sydney and has an approximate population of 181,000. Demographically, more than 50 per cent of the population is foreign born, speaks little or no English, and is at medical risk from lifestyle behaviors that contribute to potentially serious health problems.
Fairfield City also lacks adequate public transport, and most of its residents remain tied to their cars for work, school, and recreation. This creates a serious environmental problem, parking issues, crowding issues and perpetuates the separate nature of the community.
To mitigate this issue, the Fairfield City…
In surveying the player's responses to Vick's situation, the journalists were bringing about public reaction to be evaluated to determine what direction to take their stories in. It demonstrated that,.".. survey respondents who experience difficulty answering questions respond differently to related subsequent questions than do those who do not experience such difficulty (JA, Effects of urvey)."
The story of animal abuse in dog fighting was one that caused polls to be taken to measure public opinion. That public opinion was in strong support of the animals that Vick had abused and used in an abusive manner. The journalistic tactic was one wherein the journalists used the opportunity for the public to speak out, to be heard, to participate in the outcome of Vick's legal proceedings as an incentive to be surveyed publicly. "In an effort to counter mounting problems of non-cooperation, survey organizations are increasingly offering incentives to respondents, sometimes…
Some animal lovers have attempted to deal with the problem of young people being indoctrinated into the sport of dog fighting by creating more social and legal ways to be entertained, and to compete. "Concerned by the increasing number of youths involved in dog fighting, former animal control officer Sue Sternberg decided to do something about it. In 2002, Sternberg started Lug-Nuts, a program that encourages inner-city teens to enter their dogs in weight-pulling competitions instead of fights (NG JA a Humane)."
Sternberg's efforts are interesting, and there should be research devoted to the outcomes she is experiencing in the program. "Within this context, this analysis is predominantly definitional, seeking to isolate the unique features of qualitative research (JA QRRC)."
As the Michael Vick legal processes unfold, we can expect to see and hear much more about the life and fate of the American Bull Terrier.
Public elations Plan
Marketing experts always claim that a well planned public relations campaign is often more effective as compared to advertising. Public relations is in most cases confused with merchandising, advertising, promotion or other buzz words that are used in marketing communication. Public relations involve doing something newsworthy which one wants to communicate and telling the audience what you have done. Most common public relation vehicles include briefs, news release and so on. This paper will look at developing public relations plan. It will highlight on mix of media that can be used in the implementation of a public relations campaign and a detailed explanation of the objectives for each of these media forms.it will also look at how an organization can take advantage of community relations in order to generate positive publicity. Government relation tactics as part of the organization's public relations campaign and how these tactics will…
Examples of Public Relations Campaigns. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-public-relations-campaigns-10110.html
Rinrattanakorn, P.(2009).Public Relations Campaigns. Retrieved February 28,2014 from http://espuc.east.spu.ac.th/eoffice/Journal/filepdf%5CA4739.pdf
Tldo.org.(2010).Guide to managing media and public relations in Linux community. Retrieved February 28,2014 from http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Media-Guide/Linux-Media-Guide.pdf
Maryland Charter Schools
Proponents of charter schools insist that they are the solution to America's educational woes and many state legislatures have begun to agree with that assessment. In Maryland, charter schools have become a viable alternative to the public school system which is seen as a lumbering anachronism, no longer able to educate or motivate. This is especially true in Baltimore where the schools are in dire need of reform. But the implementation of a charter school system did not come easily and there is still substantial opposition to the charter schools, mostly from public school educators. The Public Policy Lifecycle of Maryland's charter schools has been a very interesting one.
hile Maryland has continued to make great strides in its educational system, like many states the performance of its graduating students has been subpar. Even among those who attend college there are notable problems. At Baltimore…
Mossburg, M.H. (2011, May 10). Maryland's uneducated high school graduates. The Maryland
Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from:
Maryland Charter School Network. (2011). History of Maryland legislation. Retrieved from:
The executives at Morningstar had deliberated that their decision with a lot of people, inclusive of critical investment bankers prior to the actual offering. The minimum experience of an auction IPO companies are normally encouraging. One recent occurrence has been the recent exclusion wherein CyroCor Inc. offered shares through the auction route at $11 per share in a July auction and has lost 50% of its value since then. It follows from this that the auction route for raising capital through issue of shares does not favor every company. However, there are some positive aspects and companies must fancy the odds of auction route as the real option. All companies encounter a non-stop auction for their stock from the point they start trading in public. (Syre 2005)
Wall Street was extremely cynical as regards the Google's Dutch-auction IPO, that restricted banker's impact by opening biding to the public and fixing…
Carter, Adrienne. "Morningstar Follows Google's Lead" Business Week, 10 January, 2005. http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jan2005/nf20050110_8372_db035.htm
Carney, Beth. "IPOs: Going, Going.. Not so fast" Business Week, 16 August, 2005. http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/aug2005/nf20050816_5134_db016.htm
Hensel, Nayantara. "An empirical analysis of Online Auction IPO Processes and Traditional IPO
Processes" Graduate School of Business and Public Policy U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, http://www.efmaefm.org/0EFMAMEETINGS/EFMA%20ANNUAL%20MEETINGS/2007-Vienna/Papers/0177.pdf
The state response to Ebola should be a coordinated communications effort. This will serve a number of purposes. First, it will maintain fiscal discipline. Second, communication is key to maintaining public order should there be an outbreak of Ebola. Third, communication helps to reduce the risk of an outbreak, because all members of our community will know how to avoid spreading Ebola.
The recent revelations that the World Health Organization and others botched their response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has done little to calm the public here at home regarding this disease. A government that deals in evidence and has a realistic world view does not need to address irrational panic, but the fact that global and national-level bodies seem challenged to come up with a plan to deal with Ebola places the onus on the state to devise such solutions. Already, some states, such as…
AP. (2014). Canadian nurses: Updated ebola guidelines don't protect healthcare staff. Global News. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://globalnews.ca/news/1623732/canada-releases-updated-ebola-guidelines-amid-calls-for-international-aid/
CBS. (2014). Christie announce MJ ebola team. CBS New York. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2014/10/22/christie-to-hold-nj-response-readiness-briefing-on-ebola/
Dixon, R. (2014). Eight reported dead in attack on Ebola workers in Guinea. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://www.latimes.com/world/africa/la-fg-attack-ebola-guinea-outreach-20140918-story.html#
Public policy in America can be neatly visualized with the Iron Triangle, in which government, special interest groups, and the bureaucratic systems interact. Congressional committees, special interest groups, and bureaucracies are the three points on the triangle, and the designator "iron" signifies the strength and immutability of the institutions and relationships between them. Iron also symbolizes the rigidity of policy making, which does not allow stakeholders or parties outside of the triangle to have a meaningful influence on decisions.
Special interest groups, as monolithic as they seem, are really composed of constituents that ultimately cast votes for politicians and who promote and shape party lines. For this reason, the needs of special interest groups are of major concern to the government -- mainly members of the legislative bodies. The bureaucrats refer to the members of government agencies, groups that are comprised of non-elected officials who nevertheless act as…
Video One: Can Volunteers Protect Communities?
Is this a "Police-Public Relations" or "Police-Community Relations" program? Explain why.
In a sense, it is. While the people in question are volunteers and are thus not members of the police force. Even so, the volunteer force is a manifestation of a group that has at least somewhat good intentions when it comes to the crime rates involved.
Is this the answer in these tough fiscal times?
It can be given that having more and more police on hand costs money and this is not the easiest thing to do when budgets are stretched thin due to recession, over-use of resources and so forth.
Is this a good idea? Yes? or No? Explain why.
Only if it is properly limited and controlled. It can be good in that the volunteers can be extra sets of eyes and ears and this can in many…
Public Needs to Know
Is it possible to balance the public need to know and the need for secrecy on issues relating to national security? This is a question that has been floated in quite a number of forums. While there are those who push for absolute or partial secrecy when it comes to issues touching on national security, others are convinced that the public need to know should be upheld by backing a free press. I support the latter view.
In a society considered truly self-governing, authority is delegated to political leaders, judges and legislators and the public largely depends on free information flow so as to engage in meaningful debate and make relevant contributions on public issues. According to Killenberg (2007), majority of "Americans lack the means and time to stay fully informed." This in the author's opinion has meant that members of the fourth estate have to…
FRONTLINE (2007, February 7th). Interviews: Dean Banquet. Retrieved January 28th, 2012, from PBS website: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/newswar/interviews/baquet.html
Killenberg, G.M. (2007). Public Affairs Reporting Now: News of, by and for the People. Oxford: Elsevier.
By bringing into the equation of transitional services the special needs personnel at local colleges and vocational institutions, the interagency agreement described here will ensure that upon the student's eventual arrival at one such institution, there will be people familiar with his case and prepared to accommodate his needs. These respective agency types can then help a disabled student to train a focus on the specific career goals which have been identified either with the assistance of counselors.
Using the Strategic Planning Meeting as a method to identifying willing and helpful stakeholders in the process, the public partnership in question relies heavily on such networking to both orient the community toward our collective goals and to foster natural communication between such agencies at a personal level. By inviting and bringing into contact such groups as decision-makers from local law organizations, leaders from public recreation leagues and university personnel, as well…
Graddy, E. & Chen, B. (2006). Influences on the size and scope of networks for social service delivery. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Advance Access.
Milward, H.B. & Provan, K.G. (2006). A Manager's Guide to Choosing and Using Collaborative Networks. Network and Partnership Series.
Office of Career Assessment, Planning and Placement (OCAPP). Setting a Course for Students with Disabilities & their Parents. Charlottesville City Schools. Online at www.ccs.k12.va.us/departments/items/career/docs/TransitionWebPage.pdf