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This notion usually applies to the idea that none of the three branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial) assumes too much power in the democratic system. In this example, the idea of checks and balances was used to imply that the citizen has the capacity and ability to keep a close check over the public services he receives through his political capacity of changing the components of the representative body, who decide how the public services are delivered and how they reach the citizens.
The conclusions of this paper will emphasize some of the arguments presented here. Democracy and a democratic system offers the citizens the option of choice. Further more, the existing of a representative body means that the choice of the citizens is respected and that they can control, with their vote, the way this representative body is formed. Ideally, the fact that they will chose a certain…
1. Daniel Chavez (ed), Beyond the Market: The Future of Public Services, TNI Public Services Yearbook 2005/6, Trans National Institute (TNI) / Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), February 2006
2. Mosher, Frederick. Democracy and the Public Service. M.E. Sharpe. 2003.
3. Ross, Ashley. "Democracy and Equality: The Distribution of Public Services in Democracies and Nondemocracies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, 2009.
4. Perry, James. Democracy and the New Public Service. The American Review of Public Administration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 3-16 (2007)
3. Changes in structure.
In order to facilitate the above needs and requirements that are envisaged for the police services, the government has introduced a policy with regards to the structure of the police services. This is related to the view that there should be less of a "top-down" structure to the police services than was the case in the past. In other words, there is more of an emphasis on outcomes and value-added services.
To facilitate this ideal a number of important agencies have been established. These include the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA); Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA); the Chief Police Officers (ACPO)' Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA). Communication is facilitated by regular meeting with the Home Secretary. (From the neighbourhood to the national: policing our communities together)
New structure also necessitates the creation of new legislation to ensure that the police service works in a…
Excellence and fairness: Achieving world class public services, viewed May 8, 2009
" (issessar, nd) the evidence showed, however "that the choice of 'new' methods of management had become a regional fad. Indeed the universality of NPM could not be disputed." (issessar, nd) New Public Management had been introduced in many countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia and "was accordingly considered a more than appropriate model for the Caribbean and Latin American states as well." (issessar, nd)
There were various differences in the models of NPM being introduced in each of these countries. issessar states that "variations in the extent to which NPM had been adopted in many countries was not a new phenomenon." (issessar, nd) Hood (1996) notes that "...some countries have placed more emphasis on ideas than other countries, and NPM styles have even varied within the same family groups' of countries." (issessar, nd) it is noted that in Australia, the UK and New…
Barzelay, Michael (2001) the New Public Management: Improving Research and Policy Dialogue. Regents of the University of California. Online available at:
Bissessar, Ann Marie (nd) the Introduction of New Public Management in Small States - taken from "Governance in the Caribbean" ed. Selwyn Ryan and Ann Marie Bissessar. Online available at http://gtuwi.tripod.com/Bissessar.htm
Boin, a. (2001), Crafting Public Institutions: Leadership in Two Prison Systems, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. In Boin, Arjen; James, Oliver; and Lodge, Martin (2005) New Public Management and Political Control: Comparing Three European Correctional Systems: Paper prepared for the SCANCOR Workshop 'Autonomization of the State: From integrated administrative models to single purpose organizations, Stanford University 1-2 April, 2005. Online available at http://www.sog-rc27.org/Paper/Scancor/boin_stanford_paper.doc
Boin, a. And Otten, M.H.P. (1996), 'Beyond the Crisis Window for Reform: Some Ramifications for Implementation', Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Volume 4, Number 3, pp. 149-161. In Boin, Arjen; James, Oliver; and Lodge, Martin (2005) New Public Management and Political Control: Comparing Three European Correctional Systems: Paper prepared for the SCANCOR Workshop 'Autonomization of the State: From integrated administrative models to single purpose organizations, Stanford University 1-2 April, 2005. Online available at
We played basketball and we played a lot of soccer. We did art projects together and we sometimes just watched cartoons. Basically we enjoyed a lot of laughter and social bonding. They learned as much about me as I did about them, and we created our own little community right there. I acted as a civic-minded professional with the children, because I understood my role and responsibility as their mentor. Before I started volunteering I acted as a concerned citizen, but this work transformed my self-image. I had never realized what social service was until I started working with the refugees. The work seemed so natural that I knew I could translate anything I did professionally into social service.
In an individualistic society, community service is an anomaly. We have a hard time understanding why someone would want to work for free to help others, when they could spend that…
ather than viewing the overview of ethics as a "classical" versus "modern" approach, what seems apparent is that there has been a powerful, but gradual, evolution in theory that began in Ancient Greece, and has simply been reinterpreted based on more contemporary cultural and societal ideologies. Within the modern construct, the battle for ethical understanding breaches the philosophical and often moves into public entertainment -- motion pictures and television for example. One such example is the 1974 book and subsequent 1976 film entitled All the President's Men, the story of the events surrounding the Watergate burglary and subsequent resignation of President ichard Nixon.
The so-called "Watergate Affair" encompassed a number of secret, and illegal, activities sanctioned by President Nixon or his aids. In brief, Nixon hired some underlings to break into the Democratic Party Headquarters (The Watergate Hotel) on June 17, 1972. They were tasked to gather secret information to…
Rather than viewing the overview of ethics as a "classical" versus "modern" approach, what seems apparent is that there has been a powerful, but gradual, evolution in theory that began in Ancient Greece, and has simply been reinterpreted based on more contemporary cultural and societal ideologies. Within the modern construct, the battle for ethical understanding breaches the philosophical and often moves into public entertainment -- motion pictures and television for example. One such example is the 1974 book and subsequent 1976 film entitled All the President's Men, the story of the events surrounding the Watergate burglary and subsequent resignation of President Richard Nixon.
The so-called "Watergate Affair" encompassed a number of secret, and illegal, activities sanctioned by President Nixon or his aids. In brief, Nixon hired some underlings to break into the Democratic Party Headquarters (The Watergate Hotel) on June 17, 1972. They were tasked to gather secret information to be used against the Democrats in the upcoming election. Watergate, however, simply became a symbol of the numerous scandals that were uncovered by reporters from the Washington Post and elsewhere. Nixon, of course, downplayed the scandal, but when tapes of conversations were found, it became clear that Nixon himself had accepted illegal campaign contributions, and had harassed opponents with Presidential powers, and abused his position in office as well as his duty toward the Constitution. (Stans, 1978, inclusive). Nixon continued to deny his involvement, stating to the nation in November, 1973: "People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got" (Kilpatrick, 1973).
Nevertheless, in May 1974, the Congressional House Judiciary Committee opened public impeachment hearing against President Nixon. Practical to the end, Nixon realized he had lost political and public support, and that it was certain he would be impeached and likely convicted and imprisoned. Instead, he resigned the Presidency on August 9, 2974, after making an impassionate television address to the public. Nixon never admitted to any wrongdoing, but later said he might have had "errors in judgment." (Kutler, 1992, 167-72). As a result of Watergate, Nixon was disbarred by the State of New York, and because he would admit no wrongdoing, he resigned all his law licenses. On September 8, 1974, however, he was pardoned unconditionally by his successor, President Gerald
The central aim is to curb the divorce problem by showing couples techniques to reestablish effective communication and love one another without giving up their own right to self-esteem.
The target audience is married couples who feel that they might be in trouble, or possibly also those having severe problems in their marriage. I am not sure of couples experiencing only mild problems should be grouped with those on the brink of divorce. Nevertheless, I believe the techniques will be of use to both. Two different workshops could be arranged for those with mild and those with severe problems. The couples can be from any ethnic background and age group, since the issue is a globally human one rather than one related to a specific group in terms of age or ethnicity. It is projected that most of the couples will be married for some time - probably…
Narindra, Bob. Three keys to a successful marriage. Lovingyou.com, Inc., 2007. http://www.lovingyou.com/content/advice/self-help/content.php?ART=3keystomarriage
Spalding, Sandra T. Relationships begin with loving yourself. Spalding Educational Products, Inc., 2008. http://www.spaldingeducprod.com/pages/text/relation.html
Public Service Announcement: Limiting Factors Florida
Factors affecting Florida Ecosystems
Public service announcement: 120 seconds (PSA)
The term "limiting factor" is defined as any environmental factor capable of preventing a given population from attaining its maximum potential size. Populations cease growing when their surrounding environment cannot support more of their ilk. A population's size may be restricted by nonliving as well as living environmental elements. Food, nutrients, water, shelter, space, light, diseases, predators, and parasites are some limiting factors. At any given point of time, there is only one limiting factor associated with a specific population. Often, a limiting factor is the lowest score of available resources and dangers. For instance, if food is 1,000 and water available is 500 for a population at one time, its limiting factor will be water at that point in time (Carptow, 2016).
Predators and human development form the limiting factors for beaches.…
Carptow. (2016). Florida's Ecosystem. Retrieved from https://quizlet.com/49877386/floridas ecosystem-l4-flash-cards/
Gray, N. (2013, May 6). Florida's Ecosystems. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/olorpngwlr4g/floridas-ecosystems/
Reliz, E. (2014, November 7). Florida's Wetlands. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/clobeueg4fui/floridas-wetlands/
I might have chosen to stay in a state of being a victim but instead triumphed. Second, I earned the opportunity to study abroad in England during my junior year of college. I was also the first person in my family to go abroad and will never forget the look of pride on my parents' faces when they saw me off. Moreover, the decision reflected my mature decision to embark on a career in international law: the first time I experienced that level of mental clarity and confidence. Finally, I believe that my decision to pursue a career in law led to the third most significant achievement of my life thus far. Taking the steps to enter law school required a major commitment. The commitment is one I take seriously and I especially intend to push myself to the limits of my potential.
5. University is a Christian university committed…
emedies to Poor Public Service
For a long time, improvement of public service quality and access for the most marginalized and poorest people has been a top priority for many governments. The issue refers to the content of the debate in most policy agendas. There is increased recognition of the various poor-quality provisions as well as unequal coverage for essential services that hamper poverty-reduction efforts through the reinforcement of inequality. Contextual factors continue shaping service-delivery outcomes. The issues stated include deeply rooted political structures, systemic legacies, and power relations that go a long way in combining forms and motivations as well as behaviors of various actors. The factors also reflect on the bargaining and contestation processes that are central to the determination of the content of development outcomes and occurrence of the volumes.
This paper draws on recent theoretical work regarding new political theory and economy for public organizations together…
Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J.A. (2012). Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Profile Books.
Coenen, C., & Riehm, U. (2013). Development through Electronic Networks: Information and Communication Technologies in Africa. New York: BOD GmbH DE.
Denhardt, J.V., & Denhardt, R.B. (2015). The New Public Service: Serving, Not Steering. New York: Routledge.
Green, D. (2008). From Poverty to Power: How Active Citizens and Effective States Can Change the World. New York: Oxfam.
Integrated Public Service
PPPs, as they have come to be popularly referred, are methods of procurement by governments where there is a larger number of stakeholders involving the government, the private sector, and the general public is securing services and, or goods. The model focuses on the delivery of services, products, and infrastructure to the public. The areas under focus transcend a broad span, including water treatment, transportation, health, education, energy, environment, among others. It is a common belief that PPP is a great approach to handle the provision of services and products to the public. The procurement strategy is known as the Public-Private Partnership. As the name suggests, the program is meant to encourage the government to involve the private sector and the general public in the provision of public services. There are conflicting views regarding the process of negotiation, participation by the public and private financiers, and…
The current state of the British welfare state is in flux, and according to Field (1999), only time will tell whether the reformation schemes and ideals are actually effective. Whether they are or not, they are nonetheless somewhat more realistic than the views held in the past.
When tephen Berry wrote his article in 2004, little seems to have improved, particularly for the NH. The author focuses on the health crises that have occurred in the health care field throughout the last decade. Indeed, such problems as bed shortages in hospitals, even for very serious accident victims, and low morale among hospital personnel exacerbate the financial problems experienced by the ervice.
Like Field, Berry also addresses the high expectations and ideals held for the Welfare state during its inception in the 1940s. Mainly, the system was projected to provide not only cheap housing for the poor - based upon the…
Berry, Stephen. 2004. The Rise and Fall of the British Welfare State. Libertarian Alliance. http://www.la-articles.org.uk/ws.htm
Erickson, Lynda & Matthews, J. Scott. 2003. The Mass Politics of Social Citizenship. Canadian Political Science Association, June 1. http://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/paper-2003/erickson.pdf
Field, Frank. 1999. The Welfare State - Never Ending Reform. The Making of Modern Britain, BBC History. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/field_03.shtml
Introduction to Social Policy. Social Policy in the UK. http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm
Public Program vluation: Quality Performance Measurement
Caiden, G and Caiden, NJ (nd) Measuring Performance in Public Sector Programs. Public Administration and Public Policy. Vol. II. Retrieved from: http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c14/1-34-05-06.pdf
Caiden and Caiden (nd) report that the link between reforms and public measurement and evaluation were not merely chance since as the reforms developed devolution was emphasized or the moving of functions and services to the government levels that were lower, along with an emphasis on privatization, decentralization of management, transparency and satisfaction of customers. It is reported that all of these were dependent on accountability maintenance and credibility.
Poister, T. (2001) Measuring Performance in Public and Non-Profit Organizations. Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from: http://glennschool.osu.edu/faculty/brown/home/810/Class%20Materials/Poister%20Performance%20Chapters%201,%202,%203.pdf
Poister (2001) writes that performance measures are "objective, quantitative indicators" of a range of performance in public programs or for public agencies. (p.3) This work reviews the early development and background of performance measurement and ensues on…
Ewoh (2011) examines the applications and types of performance measurement as well as the limitations of performance management. A comparative analysis is conducted in this study.
10. Lawrence L. Martin and Peter M. Kettner, (1996). Measuring the Performance of Human Service Programs. Sage Publications.
The work of Martin and Kettner (1996) examine performance measures in the public service organization and the specific outputs of performance measurement along with logic models. Quality performance measures and outcome performance measures are also reviewed including numeric counts and standardized measures of performance.
In order to obtain as much information as possible regarding this site, I registered as a user and began to explore its features. Almost immediately, I received multiple welcoming messages and friend requests. I believe this is especially helpful to a person who is logging on in search of some fast answers and much needed relief.
After I completed my membership, ITR requested some additional information from me that would allow the fellow users on this revolutionary recovery site, to know if I was currently in recovery, or if I was looking for immediate help. It also asked if I was involved in any 12 step programs or recovery fellowships. With the above information, the site can generate my profile and others will immediately know where I am in the recovery process. There is an additional area that I can add in my "Recovery Date" which then gets included in…
Accessing Government Services in Africa: House hold services (piped water, electricity telephone), public education public health.
Hospitals with nurses; classes with teachers; functioning toilets and running taps: these things are all distant delusions for a huge population of individuals living in the developing nations across the world. These essential public services (water, good hygiene, health, and education) are the solutions to changing the lives of those individuals dwelling in poverty. The development of robust public services accessible for everyone is not a new thought: it is actually the basis upon which the current societies of the rich nations are constructed on. ecently, remarkable outcomes have been noted on the developing nations that follow suit. The development of robust public services is not a foreign thought; it has actually been proven to work. The goal of every nation should be to make poverty a thing of the past. Today, living without…
Afrobarometer. (2010). What Can the Afrobarometer Tell Us About Service Delivery in Africa? Afrobarometer.
Afrobarometer. (2014). Ghanaians' evaluations of public service delivery. Afrobarometer.
Banerjee, S., Diallo, A., Foster, V., & Wodon, Q. (2009). Trends in Household Coverage of Modern Infrastructure Services in Africa. Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics in the Human Development Network and of the Sustainable Development Department in the Africa Region Vice Presidency.
Emmett, B., Duncan Green, M.L., Aikman, e., Kamal-Yanni, m., & Smyth, I. (2006). In the Public Interest: Health, Education, and Water and Sanitation for All. Oxford: Oxfam International.
Affirmative Action Challenged
Currently, there is an increasing move away from government-centered to multi-sectored public service entities. This has created a challenge for the maintenance of equality-based programs like AA in an environment that seems to have made this move increasingly outdated. Some have even mentioned that it is addressing a problem that no longer exists (Selden). As such, Affirmative Action (AA) has been and remains a widely divisive and contested issue since its implementation in the workplace.
The initial purpose of AA was to address issues of inequality in workplaces and learning institutions after the success of the equal right movements that started during the 1960s. Particularly, non-white races and women gained greater benefits from being included in these institutions. Since the 1960s, AA has been used more or less consistently to ensure an equally representative workforce across the country. When investigating what AA has in fact accomplished, however,…
By bringing into the equation of transitional services the special needs personnel at local colleges and vocational institutions, the interagency agreement described here will ensure that upon the student's eventual arrival at one such institution, there will be people familiar with his case and prepared to accommodate his needs. These respective agency types can then help a disabled student to train a focus on the specific career goals which have been identified either with the assistance of counselors.
Using the Strategic Planning Meeting as a method to identifying willing and helpful stakeholders in the process, the public partnership in question relies heavily on such networking to both orient the community toward our collective goals and to foster natural communication between such agencies at a personal level. By inviting and bringing into contact such groups as decision-makers from local law organizations, leaders from public recreation leagues and university personnel, as well…
Graddy, E. & Chen, B. (2006). Influences on the size and scope of networks for social service delivery. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Advance Access.
Milward, H.B. & Provan, K.G. (2006). A Manager's Guide to Choosing and Using Collaborative Networks. Network and Partnership Series.
Office of Career Assessment, Planning and Placement (OCAPP). Setting a Course for Students with Disabilities & their Parents. Charlottesville City Schools. Online at www.ccs.k12.va.us/departments/items/career/docs/TransitionWebPage.pdf
The ole of Management Information System in Decision Making in Public Administration (Case Study on Hungarian Central Statistical Office)
Organizations require appropriate information in the form of proper databases and reports which plays a pivotal role in decision making. The quality of data holds significant importance as the top management of large organizations derives its high level decisions mostly from the available data rather than inspecting the in depth core activity components. This fact is depicted by the analysis of a case study pertaining to the implementation of a Management Information System (MIS) in the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, which has ultimately improved the quality of information flow within the organization. This paper examines how the implementation of an MIS within HCSO lead to the standardization of report formats and operational data collection procedures. Not only this, the paper will also highlight the role played by an MIS…
HCSO Strategy 2005-2008 "Hungarian Central Statistical Office." Budapest (2005), Accessed
January 9, 2013 Download at:
Public Goods and Thei Impact on Society
Public institutions ae set up and entusted with ensuing that the sevice which they ae chaged with is effectively implemented and the citizens live within the acceptable standads. In the context of this pape theefoe, thee public goods will be of inteest; national secuity/safety, public health and oads and bidges.
National secuity o safety of the nation is the pivotal public good that each individual in the US needs not only to get but also feel that they get. Each citizen needs to feel safe within the US in ode to be able to engage in economically beneficial activities. It is the single sevice that govenments all ove the wold stive to invest maximum amounts and even ceate liaisons with othe nations to stengthen since it is upon the foundation of the safety of a nation that all othe factos like investments, social…
references. This indicates that there is no majority voting or any other rule that can help in objectively establishing social preference, hence the 'Impossibility Theorem'(Stanford Encyclopedia, 2014). Even in political systems where the lure of democratic voting seems attractive as a means of objectively determining the will of the people on how they want to be governed, still the availability of more than one candidate makes it impossible to be fair preference of the people.
Stanford Encyclopedia, (2014). Arrow's Theorem. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/arrows-theorem/
Public Policy and Service
Currently, I work on homeland security issues, with a focus on enforcing Federal egulations. My overall plan is to remain with the government with the likelihood of retiring from a governmental agency. My professional philosophy revolves around the nature of service, and I believe that my skills, enthusiasm and patriotism all combine in a better way by using my skills to help the United States.
Before this recent job change, I was a bank regulator. I transferred to Homeland Security because of its importance in the contemporary environment and its mission to protect America at home and abroad. When one stops to reflect a moment, we see that the world is a far different place than it was prior to the events of 9/11. In fact, as a direct response to the terrorist attacks on the United States in September, 2011, the Office of Homeland Security…
National Strategy for Homeland Security. (2002, November). Retrieved from ncs.gov: http://www.ncs.gov/library/policy_docs/nat_strat_hls.pdf
Connor, M., Pokora, J. (2012). Coaching and Mentoring at Work: Developing Effective Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill Education/Open University Press.
Department of Homeland Security. (2012, March). Get A Homeland Security Job. Retrieved from dhs.gov: http://www.dhs.gov/how-do-i/get-homeland-security-job
Dunleavy, P., & Carrera, L. (2013). Growing the Productivity of Government Services. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
The science of public administration is not a direct or concrete examination. ather, the human tendencies of emotion and subtle manipulation are also included in this discipline. The purpose of this essay is to explore the ideas and major theories of the science of public administration. This essay will examine 5 patriarchal figures to highlight the evolution and transformation of the use of public power for administration purposes.
The presidency of Woodrow Wilson is mostly known in the annals of history as being a disastrous president who legislated away many of the powers and freedoms that were earned by Americans after th 19th century. Wilson's lust for war and violence misled America into World War I and summarily weakened the nation in every way possible. Wilson also failed his people by relinquishing the people's power to print their own money to the Federal eserve in 1914.…
Box, R.C. (1999). Running Government Like a Business Implications for Public Administration Theory and Practice. The American Review of Public Administration, 29(1), 19-43.
Drucker Institute (nd). Peter Drucker's Life and Legacy. Retrieved on 10 Oct from http://www.druckerinstitute.com/peter-druckers-life-and-legacy/
Frederickson, H.G. (1999). The repositioning of American public administration. PS: Political Science & Politics, 32(04), 701-712.
Hood, C. (1995). Emerging issues in public administration. Public administration, 73(1), 165-183.
One time or the other, these elected legislatures will find themselves in difficult situations that call for difficult ethical decisions in the processes of performing their duties just as public administrators and as some can mange such trying moments, others will fail to perform. These public administrators should ensure that they have proper interaction with the government/authorities so as to understand well how they function in the quest to establishing reliable solutions that are potential managers of public pressure to finally ensure that public action is not compromised (Stillman, 2009). For example, in the last twenty years, the pressure exerted on public administrators has been "more entrepreneurial, to find ways to do more things and new things with fewer resources, to be nimble in response to fluctuating problems and demands, has been acute" (Cook, 2007, p. 243). In addition, considering the pressure on public administration coupled by increasing global changes…
Business training schools. (n.d.). What does a public administrator do? Business-training-
schools.com. Retrieved from http://www.business-training-schools.com/a/what-does-a-public-administrator-do.html
Cook, B.J. (2007). Democracy and administration: Woodrow Wilson's ideas and challenges of public management. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press.
Dubai School of Government. (2010, April 4). Faculty positions in public administration, the Dubai school of government. International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration. Retrieved from http://www.iias-
Finance in Public Administration
One of the important components towards the successful delivery of services to the public is management of financial resources. Financial management in public administration basically entails budgeting as well as budget execution, monitoring, and accounting with respect to planning and programming of public administration. In essence, public finance administration basically entails raising revenue from the public, allocation of public funds and other financial resources, and managing public assets. These processes are usually carried out to help ensure that the government has adequate money to finance all its activities. In this regard, proper financial management in public administration is crucial towards preventing misuse of public money or resources as well as ensuring compliance with the relevant financial regulations. This paper examines finance in public administration in relation to the budgeting process and budget decision-making based on the fundamental principles of public finance.
Fundamental Principles of Public Finance…
Digital Disease Detection, commonly referred to as digital epidemiology provided strategies and methods for allowing digital-technology users to monitor infectious disease and conduct surveillance. These strategies help in the understanding of concerns and attitudes regarding infectious diseases. The process begins with the basics, such as the availability of internet access, online sharing platforms and other digital devices. These sources offer huge amounts of data. It is important to note that while these sources collect data, they do not, do so, with public health objectives in focus (Denecke, 2017).
The past few decades have seen tremendous changes in the world. There have been many and varied threats; from bioterrorism, influenza pandemics and the emergence of infectious diseases. There is also the issue of unforeseen population mobility which is among the reasons that triggered the development of public health surveillance systems. Such systems are invaluable tools in the detection and response…
public corruption and its effect, including the claim that public corruption in an unavoidable side effect of development. Corruption in public service can be an ongoing concern in many areas. Corruption can lead to disorder, lack of trust in police or other public entities, and to ongoing problems with morale and citizen support. There is an argument that in countries with high levels of corruption, it has some benefit, but that is difficult to accept, as corruption only benefits those who participate in it, and it definitely does not benefit the general population.
The Transparency International Web site defines corruption as "Corruption is operationally defined as the misuse of entrusted power for private gain" (Editors, 2009). They go on to state that public servants (including criminal justice professionals), have a duty to remain above corruption. They note, "It is the duty of civil servants, managers and trustees to act visibly,…
Editors. (2009). Corruption FAQs. Retrieved 10 August 2009 from the Transparency International Web site: http://www.transparency.org/news_room/faq/corruption_faq .
Myint, U. (2000). Corruption: causes, consequences, and cures. Asia-Pacific Development Journal. 7 (2). 33-58.
Spector, B.I. (Ed.). (2005). Fighting corruption in developing countries: Strategies and analysis. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
The role of the non-profit organization has transformed in many ways as society and the values inherent within that society also change and transform. The ability to create an organization with purpose and a sense of a greater duty is what makes the non-profit sector of exchange such a unique and important facet within the constructs of our society. The purpose of this essay is to address a situation where a recommendation is needed to determine the best route of approach for raising funds for a hypothetical nonprofit agency.
The background of this case deals with selecting between two options of fundraising method to improve and increase community services. This general situation is encountered by most nonprofit organizations and provides a solid background for discussing the ideas and principles inherent within the public sector. The first option imposes a user fee for individuals who currently request assistance. The second…
Association of Fundraising Professionals (nd). Donor Bill of Rights. Viewed 29 Sep 2014. Retrieved from http://www.afpnet.org/Ethics/EnforcementDetail.cfm?ItemNumber=3359
Bennet, J. (2012). The New Price of American Politics. The Atlantic, Oct 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/10/the/309086/
Frumkin, P., & Kim, M.T. (2001). Strategic positioning and the financing of nonprofit organizations: Is efficiency rewarded in the contributions marketplace?. Public Administration Review, 61(3), 266-275.
Funkhouser, M. (2014). The Failure and the Promise of Public Participation. Governing, 6 Jan 2014. Retrieved from http://www.governing.com/gov-institute/funkhouser/col-failure-promise-public-participation-government.html
Promoting the Use of Public Transportation
Public transportation serves numerous purposes: first, it helps to ease congestion in urban areas by decreasing the number of cars on the road at any given time but especially during busy traffic hours; second, it helps people who may not otherwise have means of getting to work obtain these means; third, it can reduce pollution and fuel emissions that can harm the environment. All of these are good reasons for using and promoting public transportation. The problem of how to promote public transportation, however, is one that needs to be solved. In order to solve it, a variety of factors have to be considered: a) who is most likely to use public transportation—i.e., who is the audience to whom the message needs to be communicated; b) where are these individuals most likely to need to go; c) how can the benefits of public…
In the final purpose of accountability, where the goal is to enhance the learning capacity and effectiveness of the executive branch, we should realize that what needs to happen in this situation is that public authorities act on feedback about their own performance (Deutsch, 1963; Luhmann, 1966; Behn, 2001 as cited in Bovens et al., 2008). Thus, a good accountability mechanism, from this angle, is one that illustrates how the actor in question is learning and becoming more efficient as a result of the mechanism itself.
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, . (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management eform." International eview of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
Arnull, a. And D. Wincott. (2001). Accountability and Legitimacy in the European Union.
Oxford: Oxford University…
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, R. (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management Reform." International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
The state response to Ebola should be a coordinated communications effort. This will serve a number of purposes. First, it will maintain fiscal discipline. Second, communication is key to maintaining public order should there be an outbreak of Ebola. Third, communication helps to reduce the risk of an outbreak, because all members of our community will know how to avoid spreading Ebola.
The recent revelations that the World Health Organization and others botched their response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has done little to calm the public here at home regarding this disease. A government that deals in evidence and has a realistic world view does not need to address irrational panic, but the fact that global and national-level bodies seem challenged to come up with a plan to deal with Ebola places the onus on the state to devise such solutions. Already, some states, such as…
AP. (2014). Canadian nurses: Updated ebola guidelines don't protect healthcare staff. Global News. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://globalnews.ca/news/1623732/canada-releases-updated-ebola-guidelines-amid-calls-for-international-aid/
CBS. (2014). Christie announce MJ ebola team. CBS New York. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2014/10/22/christie-to-hold-nj-response-readiness-briefing-on-ebola/
Dixon, R. (2014). Eight reported dead in attack on Ebola workers in Guinea. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://www.latimes.com/world/africa/la-fg-attack-ebola-guinea-outreach-20140918-story.html#
Public administration is one of the constructs upon which every government functions. It incorporates the concepts of administrative responsibility and public interest upon which the idea of ethical obligation and the dilemma brought about by the privatization of government functions ride. Anytime the electorate cast their votes and express their preference for one candidate over another, they do so in the expectation that the candidate will work towards satisfying the public's interests, rather than their own, and that they will use their positions to help people, rather than dominate them. This expectation is, however, not often given the significance it deserves, despite the fact that it advances from the party that stands to either benefit or lose directly from a public administrator's actions.
The Concept of Public Interest
Although it is difficult to give an explicit definition of the constituents of public interest, experts have repeatedly referred to it as…
CAPAM Featured Report. (2010). Ethical Dilemmas in the Public Service. CAPAM. Retrieved from http://win2vin.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/ethical-dilemma-good-one.pdf
Holland, D., Nonini, D.M., Lutz, C., Bartlett, L. & Frederick-McGlathery, M., Guldbrandsen, T. & Murillo, E. (2007). Local Democracy under Siege: Activism, Public Interests, and Private Politics. New York: New York Press.
Starling, G. (2007). Managing the Public Sector (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Stillman, R. (2009). Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Public Administrators in Work First Family Assistance Program
The ole of Public Administrators in Work First Family Assistance Program
Competency 1: Summarize the Findings of the Analytical Framework
Designing an analytical framework is possible and is seen because the Act was passed into law in 1975 by the federal government. The aim of implementing the child support policy in all states was to reduce the expenditure of the public on social welfare. The North Carolina welfare is an example of child support programs where the Division of Social Service disburses funds, and 100 counties use the program. emember, TANF program is a block grant. The assistance provided by the state is for five years only to ensure that the family stays together, and a reduction of teenage pregnancies is adhered to especially because teenagers need their parents guidance and counsel.
TANF program was created after the passing of legislation in…
Ammons, D.N. (2008). Leading Performance Management. Washington, DC: ICMA Press
Ammons, D.N. & Riverbark, W.C. (2008). Factors Influencing the Use of Performance Data to Improve Municipal Services: Evidence from the North Carolina Benchmarking Project. Public Administration Review, 68(2): 304-318.
APHSA. (2010). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families: Recommendations for Reauthorization. Washington, DC: NASTA
The European Union. (2012). Excellence in Public Administration for Competitiveness in the EU Member States. Enterprise and Industry
Public Administration involves the implementation of policies of the government, and it is a term used to refer to the study of the implementation these policies and the training given to civil servants to prepare them towards that role (Dubois & Fattore, 2009). Public Administration has three different methods stemming out of distinct perspective of its function. These strategies include the managerial approach, the political approach, and the legal approach. Each of the mentioned approach emphasizes on different values, procedures and structures of how public administration functions. These approaches were theorized by Professor David osenbloom, who was a Public Administration scholar (Dubois & Fattore, 2009).
According to this approach, public administration is used in managing the performance of organizations to increase efficiency, effectiveness, and the economy of resources. This approach aims at making organizations successful. The key areas of consideration in this approach are leaders, managerial techniques, decision…
Dubois, H., & Fattore, G. (2009). Definitions and typologies in public administration research: the case of decentralization. International Journal of Public Administration, 32 (8), 704 -- 727.
Kettl, D., & Fessler, J. (2009). The Politics of the Administrative Process. Washington D.C.: CQ Press.
Menzel, D., & White, H. (2011). The State of Public Administration: Issues, Challenges and Opportunity. New York M.E. Sharpe.
In fact, the developed world is moving very rapidly towards a greater service economy -- how can this engender a perception that these organizations are intangible and produce nothing? In fact, their model, "service," becomes even more necessary because certain process technologies remain aloof from adapting to stakeholder inputs. However, like the goal to find a unified field theory of physics to explain the universe, the unified services theory can provide an umbrella in which other theoretical implications can be flushed out (Sampson and Froehle, 2006). This may also not only require a new theoretical understanding of marketing, but new, and innovative ways of measuring customer satisfaction (Parasuraman, et.al.).
Finally, the new SDL theory implies that relationships between consumers (the customer) and the manufacturer of a good or service must continue to evolve as the nature of the economic relationship dictates. There are so many choices in products and services…
What is the Marketing Mix? (2010, January). Retrieved from 12 Manage- The Executive Fast Track: http://www.12manage.com/methods_marketing_mix.html
Arnold, E.K. (2008). Service-Dominant Logic and Resource Theory. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences. 36 (1): 21-24.
Erichsen, G. (2010, January). The Chey Nova That Didn't Go. Retrieved from About.com: http://spanish.about.com/cs/culture/a/chevy_nova.htm
Parasurman, A., Zeithaml, V., Berry, L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality. Journal of Retailing. 64 (1): 12-40.
Service Quality of Singapore Airline
The focus of this work in writing is the examination of the SERVQUAL model as it applies to a case study of Singapore Airlines in regards to service quality and the application of a conceptual model of service quality. This study will additionally explain the gap in service quality between firm and customer.
The work of Prayag and Dookhony-Ramphul (2010) report that the SERVQUAL model "is still the most widely used scale for measuring service quality. The SERVQUAL scale has been applied to airlines, hotels, financial services, health care, and the public sector." (p.3) uttle (1995) reports that SERVQUAL makes provision of a technology "for measuring and managing service quality (SQ). Since 1985, when the technology was first published, its innovators Parasuraman, Zeithaml and erry, have further developed, promulgated and promoted the technology through a series of publications." (p.8) It is reported that the AI/Inform…
Buttle, F. (1995) SERVQUAL: Review, Critique, Research Agenda. European Journal of Marketing 30,1. Oct 1994.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. And Berry, L.L. (1985), "A conceptual model of service quality and its implication," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 49, Fall, pp. 41-50.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. And Berry, L.L. (1986), "SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality," Report No. 86-108, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. And Berry, L.L. (1988), "SERVQUAL: a multi-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of the service quality," Journal of Retailing, Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 12-40.
(iii) Among the ones who are dependent on transit, merely 37% stated that they would drive to work by availing the services of an automobile if available. Almost 50%of those driving to work could be taken as potential transit riders depending on flexibility and convenience of availability of transit services. (iv) the other factors which would fuel more use of transit were services of non-transfer nature, express avenues and higher fees for parking. (v) Congestion in traffic was regarded as a very grave situation in 36% among the respondents and fairly serious by 28%. (Byrd, 621) d) Steps to improve transit image and attract choice riders:
Among the modes of transit, introduction of a Bus apid Transit -- BT is a novel innovation which can be promoted as a measure for improvement of the failing image of transit among the population. A good implementation normally entails several of the features…
Bailey, Lee Worth. The enhancements of technology.
University of Illinois Press. 2005.
Byrd, Joseph. P. "Perceptions of Public Transportation." In Public Transportation: Planning,
Operations and Management, G.E. Gray and L.A. Hoel, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979, pp: 617-633.
This means that the government should fund abortions despite of where they are performed whether in hospitals or clinics. This can be achieved through passing legislation to support pro-choice care for all pregnant women. Allowing abortions only in particular situations is a form of discrimination and in order to ensure that Americans have the necessary system that supports the choice of women to get an abortion, the government needs to pass legislation that funds abortion clinics. This will ensure that all women despite their social class have the right to make decisions about their childbearing and their reproductive health and not leaving this to only those who are able to afford to pay for abortion.
Shortage of abortion providers
There has been a shortage of abortion providers over the years as a result of the lack of experience in conducting abortions for doctors since despite their medical education, they are…
Jane Roe, Et Al. V. Henry Wade, District Attorney of Dallas County Roe v. Wade. U.S. Supreme Court 1973.
Haney, J. The Abortion Debate: Understanding the Issues. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Pub Incorporated, 2008. Print.
Henshaw, S.K., and L.B. Finer. "The Accessibility of Abortion Services in the United States, 2001." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 35.1 (2003): 16-24. Print.
Weisberg, D.K. Family Law. New York: Aspen Pub, 2008. Print.
This is a contractual obligation, as money has been received for a certain service.
This is closely related to the third obligation in the model, which is "duty to the organization." The press has an obligation to provide the public with a wide variety of viewpoints in order to ensure public debate and accurate information. If a certain piece of information is withheld from the public as a result of its controversial content, this constitutes unfair censorship. The general principle of the press is to promote knowledge rather than censorship. Hence, information that could cause disagreement should not be withheld on those grounds alone.
On the other hand, the press in general also has a duty to society in terms of providing accurate information. The advertisement is in direct opposition to generally accepted facts regarding slavery. Hence publishing it on the strength merely of publishing whatever opinion is paid for…
Services Marketing Strategy eport
The airline business is among the most competitive sectors in the economy. The business requires the investors to invest huge amounts of capital to sustain the operations of the business. The difference in the capital available has resulted into emergence of superior airline companies that have dominated the global market. The airline companies are mainly a service delivery oriented offering transport for passengers and language.
The airline company under evaluation is Singapore Airlines. The company was incorporated in 1947 originally as Malayan Airways Limited. With the help from British Commonwealth airlines, the company increased its fleet size to become among the major players in the airline industry. The company has a strong presence in Asia, which is the major market. The company operates trans-Pacific flights, which increase revenue. The company also diversifies its operations to provide services like as aircraft managing and engineering services (Lee &…
Beiske, B. (2007). Loyalty management in the airline industry. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Capon, N., & Hulbert, J.M. (2007). Managing marketing in the 21st century: Developing and implementing the market strategy. Bronxville, N.Y: Wessex Inc.
Chary, S.N. (2009). Production and operations management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
De, L.C. (2003). The Rough guide to Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei. New York: Rough Guides.
Banks have thus the role of distributing these products to their customers. Added to that in the international arena banks are dealing more with derivatives and foreign exchange, making the role of the bank far more important in the overall well being of the economy. Banks are diversifying and redefining themselves as trading, banking and service institutions. The banks are multifunctional and are known by various terms like the 'clearing bank' in UK, 'Commercial banks' and 'Investment banks' or 'Merchant banks'. Banks are thus redefining themselves to suit the wider rage of operation sand services offered. (Cranston, 1997, p. 3)
2. Globalization of banking sector
Globalization is a phenomenon that has invaded all industries and human life. The changes that have come about after the break down of the cold war and the new social interaction between nations have affected the financial sector as well. Globalization has removed restrictions for…
Ashdown, Neil H. (2002) the Impact of Banking Policy on Trade and Global Stability.
Quorum Books. Westport, CT.
Chambliss, William J; Block, Alan a; Weaver, Constance a. (2004) All Is Clouded by Desire: Global Banking, Money Laundering, and International Organized Crime. Praeger. Westport, CT.
Cranston, Ross. (1997) Principles of Banking Law. Clarendon Press. Oxford.
Public Traditional Negotiated Cash Offer:
Explain the method, and how it will raise the firm's capital and how it will benefit both company and investors
Explain each of the three types in the table below and give examples on each type
Explain how each type of them is used in raising capital and how it benefits the firm and investors and underwriters ( If it will not benefit them please state it clearly)
With this method, the company works through an investment bank using the bank as an intermediary for selling its shares. This method may raise the firm's capital since the investment bank work towards making the shares more enticing, as well as sometimes serving as underwriter and using its reputation and skills to sell the stock. The investors may benefit since the bank's intervention grants a greater reliability and guarantee to the substance of the stock, and since…
Public elations (Corporate social responsibility)
The term 'Corporate Social esponsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an…
CEO's Message" HP Standards of Business Conduct. Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/sbcbrochure.pdf . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" 2004. Retrieved at http://www.takingitglobal.org/themes/csr/ . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/. Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Danng, Lyng. 2004. "Who is monitoring the multinational?" 17th May. Retrieved at http://www.vibewire.net/articles.php?id=2671Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Public University System
It has a total of 234 thousand students on 10 different campuses. They were first organized 144 years ago and have been concentrating on delivering ground breaking educational services to stakeholders. ("Annual Financial eport," 2011) To determine if the university is fiscally sound requires carefully examining their financial statement and audit reports. This will be accomplished by studying the employee pension plan, analyzing how economic conditions will impact future growth, reviewing the treatment of federal grants and comparing how endowments are calculated. Together, these different elements will highlight the financial strength of the university and the way this is impacting the quality of services that are provided.
Identify and analyze the employee pension plan disclosures in the financial statements. Evaluate the impact of the GAASB proposed changes to the pension liabilities on the financial statements of the institution.
In the case of the employee pension plan, these…
Annual Financial Report. (2011). University of California Regents. Retrieved from: http://regents.universityofcalifornia.edu/regmeet/nov11/a5attach3.pdf
Post Secondary Education. (2010). GAO. Retrieved from: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10393.pdf
Munnell, A. (2012). How Would GASB Proposal. CRR. Retrieved from: http://crr.bc.edu/briefs/how-would-gasb-proposals-affect-state-and-local-pension-reporting/
(Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1) Limitations of the program were acknowledged after a study reported findings which state: "...there an awareness of hidden areas of trauma that exist in this population, such as, for instance, an awareness that most humanitarian entrant women (between 80% and 100%) have been the victims of rape and the shame associated with this mitigates against disclosure and dealing with the effects of it." (Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1)
Allan, David and afoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html
Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good eginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EF9E6-975-438-2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf
Allan, David and Bafoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html
Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good Beginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EFB9E6-9B75-438B-B2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf
Gallegos, Danielle, et al. (2007) Service Provision in the Upper Northern Suburbs for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities: A Scoping Study. March 2007. On behalf of the CaLD Interagency Reference Group for the Northern Metropolitan Corridor. Online available at http://www.cscr.murdoch.edu.au/CaLDNorthScopingReport.pdf
Spinks, Harriet (2008) Adult Migrant English Program Budget 2009-09 Social Issues. Parliament of Australia. Parliamentary Library. Online available at http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/RP/BudgetReview/Social_Issues.htm
While this paper focuses on process-centric improvements to McCarran, the research completed for this paper highlights the critical need for an all-encompassing IT architecture that allows for data to support both processes as thoroughly as possible.
Figure 3: Combining the Check-in and retailing processes for greater efficiency
Luggage and Baggage Process Improvements
Another major area of process improvement McCarran needed to focus on was luggage and baggage handling. The airport had been losing between 10% to 30% of all bags, leading to high levels of customer dissatisfaction and many manual processes attempting to compensate for the confusion around this broken process. Relying on Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) McCarran piloted several programs for baggage tagging, management and retrieval using the RFID standard. In the retail industry, Wal-Mart has been a pioneer in establishing higher levels of performance in logistics and supply chain performance using RFID, and McCarran's many efforts have…
Joustra & Dijik (2001) - Paul E. Joustra and Nico M. Van Dijk. SIMULATION OF CHECK-IN AT AIRPORTS. Presented Proceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation Conference B.A. Peters, J.S. Smith, D.J. Medeiros, and M.W. Rohrer, eds. http://delivery.acm.org.l/10.1145/570000/564271/p1023joustra.pdf?key1=564271&key2=2390578611&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=11352431&CFTOKEN=77150947
Liu and Wang (2006) - Integrated RFID Data Modeling: An Approach for Querying Physical Objects in Pervasive Computing IBM Silicon Valley Lab and Siemens Corporate Research Princeton, NJ, USA CIKM'06, November 5-11, 2006, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Study in Contrasts (2006) - A Study in Contrasts: The Evolving SOA Strategies of IBM And Microsoft Thursday, October 05, 2006: Dennis Gaughan. AMR Research. Article.
Public Expectations of the Presidency
Public expectations of presidency
The president office in most of the developing as well as developed countries is looked as an institution for bringing improvements in the society. People often look at the office with very high hopes as they are of the opinion that the representative of the masses will have a better understanding about the problems and preferences of the people of the society. Throughout the history of USA we can observe that majority of the president came into the power because they picked up the major problem faced by the people of their times and used it as a weapon for their election campaigns (Boxer, 2009, p. 51). For example when Obama was running the election campaign he highlighted the expenses which the country has to bear to fight the war in Afghanistan and Iraq. Opinion polls and surveys at…
Boxer, A. (2009). Politics, Presidency and Society in the U.S.A. 1968-2001. History Review, (65), 51. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5040989061
Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The Paradoxes of the American Presidency. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14658955
A significant amount of effort is dedicated towards the process of developing new public programs since such programs are not similar to business enterprises. Therefore, the process of public budgeting requires consideration and inclusion of public policies. In essence, public policies should be translated into discussions regarding the annual budget through evaluation of the monetary demands of such policies on public revenue. During this process, policy makers should be bound by the financial requirements of the various alternatives. As part of translating public policies into discussions on annual budget, policy makers should eliminate certain policy alternatives from consideration if the alternatives create huge fiscal demands on public revenue. The need for policy makers to eliminate such alternatives is fueled by the fact that the government is permitted to collect revenue only as long as the benefits of the generated revenue exceeds the loss realized by contributors of the…
"Budget Preparation." (n.d.). International Monetary Fund. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/expend/guide3.htm
"Chapter 4 -- Budgetary Control." (n.d.). FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/w4343e/w4343e05.htm
The government of Canada has outstanding debt of approximately $550 billion. To service the debt, it issues bonds. The government has also announced previously that it is committed to fighting inflation. Please explain clearly how government debt management policy can lend credibility to the government's fight against inflation. In doing so, provide a clear explanation of the key differences between indexed and nominal debt.
hen a government wishes to curb inflation, one of the most effective ways to use the monetary supply to do so is to sell securities, in short through the sale of government bonds. By selling government securities, the government takes money or liquid capital out of the economy, and makes it more attractive to save rather than to spend money. Also, selling government bonds can reduce government debt. Reducing government debt is an important goal for any administration because the higher the debt, the less that…
Alfaro, Laura & Fabio Kanczuk. "Nominal vs. Indexed Debt: A Quantitative Horse
Race." Harvard Business School. January 2006. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.people.hbs.edu/lalfaro/Nominal%20versus%20Indexed%20Debt.pdf
U.S. Government Spending as a Percentage of GDP." Carried Away. Oct 2003. 20 Oct 2007. http://carriedaway.blogs.com/carried_away/2003/10/us_government_s.html
They are not considered state or local. Also, they are not legislative or judicial actions (Hall 2006).
According to their organizational chart, the Department of Veterans Affairs has many layers between the overseeing authority of Executive Power and the administration of policy demonstrated at the local level (Department of Veterans Affairs 2006). Many areas of Veterans Affairs apply to the health of veterans. However, health care for veterans is most directly authorized and managed by the Under Secretary for Health under the Secretary and Deputy Secretary for the Department of Veterans Affairs (Department of Veterans Affairs 2006). Since the Department of Veterans Affairs is managed under the executive branch of government, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs is appointed by the President of the United States (Hall 2006).
Department of Veterans Affairs. (2006). VA Organization Chart. etrieved January 12, 2007 at http://www.va.gov/about_va/
Hall, D.E. (2006). Administrative law: Bureaucracy in a…
Department of Veterans Affairs. (2006). VA Organization Chart. Retrieved January 12, 2007 at http://www.va.gov/about_va/
Hall, D.E. (2006). Administrative law: Bureaucracy in a democracy (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
tatistics regarding bed availability are indeed provided, but perhaps the public could benefit from more information about how the collaboration actually takes place.
Another area that could be addressed is the county's educational facilities. Currently it seems that many of the health indicators are focused on cure rather than prevention. Although immunization pracitces are mentioned, education regarding healthy living is a pertinent part of disease prevention. I would therefore like to see this added to the health indicators.
In conclusion, I find the indicators that are present comprehensive and sufficient, but it is important to educate the public regarding strategies implemented on their behalf, as well as regarding individual practices for optimal disease prevention and cure.
Georgia Division of Public Health. (2005). Health Data & Information. http://health.state.ga.us/healthdata/index.asp
Gwinnet County Health Department. (2001). Gwinnet Community Health tatus Report: Working Together for a Healthier Community. http://health.state.ga.us/pdfs/regional/gwinnethealthstatus.01.pdf
Georgia Division of Public Health. (2005). Health Data & Information. http://health.state.ga.us/healthdata/index.asp
Gwinnet County Health Department. (2001). Gwinnet Community Health Status Report: Working Together for a Healthier Community. http://health.state.ga.us/pdfs/regional/gwinnethealthstatus.01.pdf
... Only one in 100 high school seniors could write a coherent response of more than one paragraph to an essay question; and only 7% of high school seniors could read at advanced level." (Hanushek)
In the light of this vast body of very forceful evidence, we cannot but agree that our public education system has deteriorated to the extent that we can no longer expect our public schools to produce quality students. Most of our public school students lack even basic knowledge of scientific facts and mathematical concepts and their communication skills leave a lot to be desired. With such students we cannot hope to compete on a global level, not at least in the long run. This explains why more professionally qualified people from other parts of the world are so rapidly taking over American job market.
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at…
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (1983)
Eric a. Hanushek, "When School Finance Reform May Not Be Good Policy. Symposium, Investing in Our Children's Future: School Finance Reform in the 1990s," Harvard Journal on Legislation 28 (Summer 1991), 423.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics (1993).
Cited in Susan Chira, "The Big Test: How to Translate the Talk About School Reform into Action," New York Times (March 24, 1991), Sec. 4, at 1.
In terms of similarities, each of these budgets contains roughly the same basic format. hile the specific charts may differ, each budget separates revenue sources and attempts to break those down. The budgets also explain the expenditures, and typically break these down to each individual program within the department.
A similarity between three of the budgets (Federal, Florida and Newark) is that they rely heavily on tables and written explanations. hile these tables are necessary in any budget, it is interesting to note that the Newark budget is significantly more visually-oriented than any of the other budgets. The graphic representation of some of the figures makes for a more user-friendly presentation. The other budgets are less likely to be understood by those without some financial training.
Each of the budgets is produced to unique specifications. There appears to be no standard with respect to the production of public budgets, so…
United States 2010 Federal Budget Summary Tables. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy10/pdf/budget/summary.pdf
State of Florida 2009-10 "People's" Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://peoplesbudget.state.fl.us/bdagencies.aspx?full=1
City of Newark 2009 Proposed Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.ci.newark.nj.us/government/city_departments/department_of_administration/2009_proposed_budget.php
Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.epa.gov/budget/2010/2010bib.pdf
Public health core function that is principally addressed by the author is law. As pointed out by the author, public health law infrastructure that is sound is imperative for the reason that it institutes the powers and duties of government to safeguard injury and disease and promote the health of the population (Gostin, 2008). There are examples of how law is used in public health. To begin with, at a personal and individual level, this core function can educate, generate inducements, deter as well as punish. A good illustration is in the sense that health communication promotions provide education and encourage people to make much healthier choices and decision (Gostin, 2000). Secondly, in public health, law as a core function mandates agents of change behavior to have product designs that are much safer and also the use of property. A good example is in the sense that the government undertakes…
Shi Jianqiao became a media sensation in Nationalist China during the 1930s for shooting the ex-warlord Sun Chuanfang, a leading member of the Tianjin Qingxiu lay-Buddhist society (jushilin). She shot Sun three times on November 13, 1935 in prayer hall (congregation site) on Nanma Road. Although she was prosecuted for murder, the courts returned a controversial final verdict of judicial leniency, and the Nationalist (Guomindang) regime overturned this final verdict by issuing a state pardon. These events led to a public debate on the merits and demerits of filial revenge, although contemporary accounts do not examine the larger sociopolitical implications the case may have had. Shi Jianqiao represented the female assassin's singular and violent expression of filial sentiment (xiao), as well as the female warrior code of "chivalrous virtue" (xia), and helped give rise to a new communal form of ethical sentiment - "public sympathy" (tongqing). For liberal…
Lean, Eugenia. Public Passions: The Trial of Shi Jianqiao and the Rise of Popular Sympathy in Republican China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…
Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468
CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/
Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf
Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up vs. Top-down Budget Plans, 2010).
The budget rules that are prepared by top management are passed down through successive levels within the company. Managers at each level may make additions and offer greater detail for their subordinates. The managers at each level prepare the plans for items under their control. The budgeting process will caution management of possible problems that may occur. By knowing the problems, solutions may be formulated. For example, at the valleys in cash flow, a shortage of cash may occur. Knowing this ahead of time allows management to arrange for a short-term loan for the financing need rather than face an unexpected financing crisis. In a similar element, planning allows for a smooth manufacturing program to result in both lower production costs and lower inventory levels. It steers clear of a crisis circumstances requiring overtime or high transportation charges…
Fuller, Julia. (2010). How to Make a Budget for an Organization. Retrieved August 7, 2010,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/how_4464789_make-budget-organization.html
How to Prepare A Sound Budget Process. Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up versus
Top-down Budget Plans. (2010). Retrieved August 7, 2010, from Online Success Center
Unfortunately, the influence of the healthcare industry lobbyists is tremendous. One need only look up the publicly available information of how much large healthcare interests contribute to members of the U.S. Congress in any given year to understand why healthcare legislation continues to favor corporations over the members of the American public, almost half of whom cannot afford health insurance (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009).
Challenges, Problems and Next Steps
The principal problem responsible for the perpetuation of this issue is that political lobbying is currently an accepted process in the U.S. That poses tremendous challenges, largely because the very individuals whose attention, resolve, and action would be required to rectify the situation are those who currently benefit the most from it: elected members of the U.S. Congress. Unfortunately, only a small minority of those stakeholders -- most notably epresentative Anthony Weiner of New York and Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
Public relation is an important element that can lead a business or a career to success. Public relation is a form of communication that harmoniously allows the connection and involvement to other business elements, can be another business organization or another business partner. An effective public relation is in fact being used as a mode of enhancing an individual's, or an organization's, business relationship to others.
One example of an effective use of public relation is in the area of marketing. To be able to gain recognition to many customers or business partners, a good business relationship must be established between parties to build trust and confidence. This establishment of good business relationship can be achieved through an effective public relation that is exercised and demonstrated by an organization. For instance, in marketing, one way to establish this is by focusing on the elements that will provide benefits to customers.…
The problem is however that results appear less promising in the long-term. The most effective period for weight loss occurs during the first six months, whereas weight gain once again appears after this time.
hile it is a good idea to implement school and work-based programs, commercial giants such as KFC and Macdonald's make it very difficult to sustain healthy nutrition and weight loss. Advertising that tends to focus on the pleasure of eating unhealthy foods is one of the great culprits promoting obesity in the United States. Perhaps food addictions could be fought more effectively by similar means. The media could be used to promote healthy habits and curb unhealthy ones in terms of fast foods. This technique has shown promising results in smoking and could also prove useful in the food industry.
Guide to Community Preventive Services (2003, January 3). Overweight/Obesity. www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity
While it is a good idea to implement school and work-based programs, commercial giants such as KFC and Macdonald's make it very difficult to sustain healthy nutrition and weight loss. Advertising that tends to focus on the pleasure of eating unhealthy foods is one of the great culprits promoting obesity in the United States. Perhaps food addictions could be fought more effectively by similar means. The media could be used to promote healthy habits and curb unhealthy ones in terms of fast foods. This technique has shown promising results in smoking and could also prove useful in the food industry.
Guide to Community Preventive Services (2003, January 3). Overweight/Obesity. www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity
Having a clientele also allows the agency to gain a sense of internal direction as well. Employees of the agency have a more clear sense of mandate when there is a definable clientele as well. This helps with direction, with effectiveness and with efficiency.
Question 2. Issues assessments are conducted so that government or its agencies can learn about the variety of issues surrounding a specific subject. The issues assessment can be conducted with respect to a program or proposed program, with respect to a parcel of land or proposed development, or with respect to a subject matter such as transportation, housing, homelessness or other key issue. ithin each of these issues will be a number of other issues of import to the individual stakeholders. It is the purpose of the issues assessment to uncover each of these sub-issues pertaining to the subject, so that the best course of action…
Rabin, Jack. (1992). Handbook of Public Budgeting. Retrieved July 2, 2009 from http://books.google.de/books?id=jyX0oF66J3oC&pg=PA217&lpg=PA217&dq=revenue+forecasting+time+series&source=bl&ots=mSw7SNpEku&sig=GlF6iTgjQ5_0u8RpN6AhFPVWAUE&hl=en&ei=wCJNSv2fKInBsAak1uC1BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2
They may not be reassigned to perform work that is substantially different from their normal occupational responsibilities (OSHA, 2003).
Employers may not submit information about the employee that is intended to have damaging consequences on the employee's financial credit history, and employers may not engage in conduct or communications designed to "blackball" the employee from other employment, either within government or in connection with any private sector employment opportunities. Finally, employers may not engage in conduct intended (or reasonably perceived) as "intimidation." Intimidation is one of the most difficult types of non-compliance with activities protected under the Act, because it is subject to interpretation and because it is capable of being perpetrated without any written record. Likewise, many forms of conduct that are generally benign under ordinary (i.e. non-adversarial) circumstances at work only rise to the level of intimidation" in specific context (USLC, 2007).
efusal to Work:
Under certain (limited)…
OSHA (2003) Whistleblower Fact Sheet. Accessed October 9, 2007, at http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_WhistleblowerFacts/whistleblower_protections-general.pdf
U.S. Library of Congress (2007) Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989. Accessed October 8, 2007, at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/F-c101:1:./temp/~c101Ylqmha:e37677 :
WhistleblowerLaws.com; (2007) the Law: An Overview. Accessed October 9, 2007 at http://whistleblowerlaws.com/protection.htm
S. recession -- the ability to make up for such downturns with growth elsewhere is highly valuable. The internal systems allow for two things critical to McDonalds -- efficiency and consistency. The McDonalds experience is the same in every restaurant in every country, something that is essential to brand development.
There are few weaknesses at McDonalds. The company does not have a good reputation among certain segments of the market because its food is perceived as being unhealthy. The company has had a few product missteps in trying to explore opportunities in other business -- pizza being one such failure. These weaknesses have not proven to harm the company in the long run but there are times when such instances will have an adverse effect on the company's revenue streams or cost structure.
There remain opportunities for McDonalds. The company sees coffee as an opportunity and is pursuing market share…