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adiation Safety in Industrial Hygiene
Nature has it that all living things depend on a certain type of radiation to survive. This is evident in many ways for instance we can see because our eyes sense and become aware of the radiation in the form of light; then there is infrared radiation that allows is to keep ourselves warm in the cold weather, radiation is used for cooking, whether it is on the stove or in the microwave. adiowaves are used for long distance communication by using sound or picture; and ultraviolet radiation is used for medical treatment or for putting on a good suntan. Even though some forms of radiation can travel long distances, it can be stopped by employing the correct absorbers: starlight can transgress galaxies but then using a piece of paper it can also be stopped; radiowaves are also capable of travelling huge distances but can…
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), available at http://www.asce.org/community/airandspace/nae_ec.cfm , accessed on: November 18, 2003
Colden: Industrial Hygiene Philadelphia: Corporate Overview - Colden provides various Industrial Hygiene services to the Philadelphia area, available at http://www.colden.com/RFrad.htm , accessed on: November 18, 2003
Common Record Hearings on the Health and Safety of 765 kV Transmission Lines, available at http://www.ortho.lsumc.edu/Faculty/Marino/Powerline/Origins/ACB4.html, accessed on: November 18, 2003
Confirmation that Ionizing Radiation Can Induce Genomic Instability: What is Genomic Instability, and Why Is It So Important?, available at: http://www.ratical.org/radiation/CNR/GenomicInst.html , accessed on: November 18, 2003
It is carried out under the auspices of the Ministry of Health, acting through the ussian Federation Department of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance (DSES). DSES is responsible for a wide range of areas of public health, including radiation protection." (Vincent, 1998)
Quality Assurance is statistically determined and tracked within each department when a radiation emitting device is in use. The Performance Improvement Team has overriding authority in this area as the specialty of that department is to ensure that all departments are removing excess waste within their process operations such that operations are statistically consistent with efficiency and effectiveness. The QA team has the acceptable and unacceptable radiation levels and will monitor the hospital to ensure there is not a breach of these levels.
The compliance department will also be in contact with the QA department to facilitate compliance reporting based on national and state standards and the…
Arutyunyan, R.V., shov, L.A.B., & Pavlovskii, O.A. (2009). Setting radiation safety standards from a modern perspective. Atomic Energy, 106(5), 365. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/197232857?accountid=13044
Colpas, P. (2010). HIT must bolster efforts to monitor radiation. Health Management Technology, 31(11), 2. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/807638298?accountid=13044
Klein, R.C., & Weilandics, C. (1996). Potential health hazards from lead shielding. AIHA Journal, 57(12), 1124. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/236323273?accountid=13044
Vincent, J.H. (1998). International occupational exposure standards: A review and commentary. AIHA Journal, 59(10), 729. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/236328343?accountid=13044
Three Types of adiation
adiation is the term given to the emission of various particles, typically from the nuclei of atoms (BCS 2011; Nave 2011). The universe has many different sources of radiation, and there are also different types of radiation depending on the source and, to a much greater degree, the exact particles that are involved in the radiation (Nave 2011). Understanding the different types of radiation is useful for a variety of reasons, including many diverse practical and scientific applications as well as in assisting layperson to make some sense of radiation fears and nuclear news. The following paragraphs will detail the three primary types of radiation, including their sources, their relative energy, and thus the potential dangers and applications they present. Through this understanding, a greater appreciation for the safe and secure harnessing of nuclear and radiation energies will be established.
The first basic type of…
BCS. (2011). Three types of radiation. Accessed 8 June 2011. http://www.blackcatsystems.com/GM/experiments/ex7.html
Nave, C. (2011). Radioactivity. Accessed 8 June 2011. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/radact.html
This technique is not as effective as a primary method of treating cancer
Side Effects of adiotherapy
Fatigue, changes to the skin, and loss of appetite are all common side effects of radiation treatments. For treatments in the head and neck region, saliva production is also often inhibited, exacerbating appetite issues
Loss of appetite also contributes to fatigue, and doctors recommend eating small meals more frequently as well as taking frequent short naps as a way of maintaining adequate energy and strength
Skin problems often resemble deep tans or sunburns, and have similar root causes (i.e. radiation). Special lotions are available to soothe and protect the skin after radiation therapy
The Cost of adiotherapy
The cost of radiation therapy can be quite high, depending on the number and frequency of treatment sessions needed as well as the duration of these treatments
The equipment used in radiotherapy as well as the…
Abramson Cancer Center. (2006). "Radiation Oncology." University of Pennsylvania. Accessed 31 August 2009. http://www.oncolink.com/treatment/article.cfm?c=5&s=27&id=34&p=4
Fayed, L. (2009). "Radiation Therapy Overview." Accessed 31 August 2009. http://cancer.about.com/od/radiationtherapy/a/radiation.htm
Heron, J. (2009). "Historical Data on Radiotherapy." Accessed 31 August 2009. http://www.oncoprof.net/Generale2000/g08_Radiotherapie/Index/g08-gb_idx02.html
If there was an actual nuclear detonation, health effects for those in the immediate vicinity would range from instant death to severe burns and radition poisioning. Further from the blast results in lower doses of radition, but at even a small bomb, exposure within the first few hours would likely result in some sort of cellular damage from nervous system shut down to cancers, some of which might take years to develop. Any exposure to the human system will have some effect, the more the fallout and proximity, the greater the effect (Levy and Sidel, 2003).
From a public health perspective, prompt treatment and long-term monitoring are necessary components of the rik plan. Multi-organ failure, for instance, can be limited based on lowering fevers and inflamatory effects, and those with small amounts of exposure can benefit from transfusions, immune system boosters, and antibiotics. The keys to these issues…
Johnson, S., et.al. (2003). New Challenges, New Tools for Defense Decision-Making.
Levy, B., Sidel, V. (2003). Terrorism and Public Health. New York: Oxford University
Much of the vegetation also carries the characteristic of being monocarpic, which means that the species is unbranched. As the article indicates, this is a feature which has been altered at least four different times since the Aeonium first arrived in the island regions examined. Still, it retains the basic quality of monocarpy, which the article indicates is most likely an attribute indicative of its short lifespan and high reproductive capacity. This helps the species to grow upon the barren landscapes of lava fields and other such geologically unique expanses. Additionally, it helps to reinforce, although still somewhat indirectly, the notion that plant species are prone to this sort of adaptive radiation with greater evidentiary likelihood in tropical island contexts. Other traits that the study assess in order to make these observations include herbivore defences and sexual dimorphism, both of which relate directly to the evolutionary viability and reproductive character…
Jorgensen, T.H. & Olesen, J.M. (2001). Adaptive Radiation of Island Plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulacaea) of the Canary Islands. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 4(1), 29-42.
radiation safety in radiology, particularly for health care workers whose radiation exposure results from the risks of their occupation. This essay argues for improved understanding of occupational health risks and proposes that workplace hazards need to be better acknowledged and reduced as much as possible.
Ionizing radiation is used to obtain highly detailed images of the body. Modern imaging techniques contribute to earlier and more accurate diagnoses, which promote better treatments for patients and better outcomes. Many advances in modern medical science require tests that use ionizing radiation to confirm diagnoses, to manage a treatment plan, or to monitor the response to the treatment. As long as radiation is used with care, the use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging offers many benefits with reasonably low risk.
The risks associated with ionizing radiation, a form of high energy, result from its ability to break up atoms or molecules as the…
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (2011). Quality assurance. Retrieved Aril 19, 2012 from: https://rpop.iaea.org/RPOP/RPoP/Content/AdditionalResources/Training/1_TrainingMaterial/Radiology.htm
Klein, L.W., Miller, D.L., Balter, S., Laskey, W., Haines, D., Norbash, A., Mauro, M.A., & Goldstein, J.A. (2009). Occupational health hazards in the interventional laboratory: Time for a safer environment. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 20: 147-153. Retrieved Aril 19, 2012 from: http://www.sirweb.org/clinical/cpg/Occupational_Health_Hazards.pdf
University of California San Francisco School of Medicine. 2012. Risks of radiation. Retrieved Aril 19, 2012 from: http://www.radiology.ucsf.edu/patient-care/patient-safety/radiation/risks
radiation received by the surgeon during the use of a mini-c-arm device and to compare this amount with documented measurements associated with the large c-arm device" (p. 13). Previous research had determined that the perceived increased risks had been associated with the large c-arm device but there were no current studies available that had developed such findings with the mini c-arm device. The purpose of the present study was also "to quantify the amount of scattered radiation that is present during a typical mini-c-arm examination in order to determine 1) the relative risk of radiation exposure to the surgeon with extended use, 2) whether the surgeon positioning is pertinent, and 3) whether protective shielding should be employed" (p. 14). The researchers looked at the positioning of "anthropomorphic phantoms as a patient might be positioned within the c-arm for a typical forearm or ankle examination" (p. 14). Researchers also looked at…
The skin round the roots of these become red, irritable and cracked, and the nails themselves thin and brittle. Most constant workers suffer in this way" (Guy). This is one reason early committees were formed to study the affects of X-rays. There were already reports of deaths from over-exposure to x-rays, which many researchers pooh-poohed. However, one researcher, Dr. John Hall-Edwards of England, suffered such dramatic results that both of his hands had to be amputated, one all the way to the forearm (Guy). After this, many operators began to use lead shields, aprons, and/or gloves, such are still in use today.
As technology and understanding has improved, so has the safety of radiology. Another writer notes, "Today, a woman receives one-tenth the dose of radiation that was given just 20 years ago in a typical mammogram, with virtually no risk statistically" (Fishman). In fact, studies indicate that a patient…
Assmus, Alexi. Early History of X-rays. Stanford University. 1995. 4 Sept. 2007. 10-24. http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/25/2/25-2-assmus.pdf
Fishman, Elliot. "Radiology: The Second 100 Years." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Jan. 1997: 84+.
Guy, Jean. "The X Factor in X-Rays." History Today Nov. 1995: 9+.
Stack, Martin, Myles Gartland, and Timothy Keane. "The Offshoring of Radiology: Myths and Realities." SAM Advanced Management Journal 72.1 (2007): 44+.
Further, other researchers are coming up with more disturbing reports that indicate possible health implications of cell phone use. There are a number of illnesses and ailments that are associated with cell phone radiation; these include cancer, brain tumors, alzheimer's, parkinson's, fatigue, headaches, sleep disruptions, altered memory function, poor concentration and spatial awareness, and pacemaker disruptions (Mercola, n.d.). Despite the low intensity of cell phone radiation, the similarity between certain electrochemical activities within the human body and this microwave radiation gives enough reason to worry. The human body is essentially an electromagnetic instrument which is very sensitive under the control of highly complex and orderly oscillatory electrical processes. Each one of these electro-biological processes experience vibration at definite frequency with some being close to the frequencies used in modern cell phone technology. It is therefore possible for the low-intensity microwaves from the cell phones to cause considerable non-thermal influence on…
Environmental Working Group, (2010). Frequently asked questions about cell phones. Retrieved on 13 October,
2010 from http://www.ewg.org/cellphoneradiation/faq
Khiat, A., Boulanger, Y. & Breton, G. (2006). Monitoring the effects of mobile phone use on the brain by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. International journal of radiation biology, 82(9):681-685
Kundi, M. (2009). The controversy about a possible relationship between mobile phone use and cancer.
Health Effects of UV adiation Exposure
Current studies show that the world's exposure to ultraviolet radiation has increased over the past few years. In addition, it has been realized that in the longer term, UV radiation induces degenerative changes in cells of the skin, fibrous tissue and blood vessels leading to premature skin aging, Photodermatosis and actinic Kerasotes (World Health Organization, 2012).
Over-exposure to ultraviolet radiation causes tanning of the skin. The radiations get absorbed causing an increase in the number of melanocytes; melanin making cells. Overexposure causes premature skin ageing and precancerous skin changes known as actinic Kerasotes. Besides this, skin cancer may develop in situations whereby the skin damage is severe.
In addition, ultraviolet radiation can cause painful temporary injuries to the eye called photo keratitis and conjunctivitis. Furthermore, exposure to solar UV can prematurely age the lens, causing cataracts, growth of pterygium, macular degeneration, and…
Daynes, R.A. (1990). Immune System and Ultraviolet Light. Elsevier.
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011, January 13). Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion. Retrieved July 15, 2012, from www.epa.gov:
Leaf, A. (1993). Critical Condition: Human Health and Environment. Cambridge: The MIT
Over several years, several types of remarks corroborating the attributes of the cosmic microwave background radiations -- CMB have been made. Most of them have been seen as direct observations, applying the same approach as that of the Penzias and Wilson. There exists in reality several observations advocated even earlier to that of the observations of Penzias and Wilson, however, the prominence of those were not acknowledged. 8. The researchers of several universities like the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Pittsburgh, New York University, and the Cambridge University, University of Portsmouth in UK found out undulation in the galaxy distribution formed by sound waves produced immediately after the Big Bang. Such sound waves have left behind their signs in the Cosmic Microwave Background, considered as the remains of the radiation from the Big Bang witnessed at the time when the universe was the age of 400,000 years. 4.…
Alpher, Ralph a. Herman, Robert. (2001) "Genesis of the Big Bang" Oxford University Press.
Barrow, John D; Coles, Peter. (2001) "Companion to the New Cosmology"
Radiation Exposure, Causes and Effects
With the advent of technology comes high risk. his small truth applies especially well when one speaks about nuclear weapons, which derive form nuclear technology, and which were pioneered in the midst of the Second World War in the previous century. Nuclear energy is not inherently dangerous; in fact, it can help the world quite a lot, but with enriched uranium comes the weapon, which, as seen in the Second World War, can destroy a city completely in a matter of minutes. Yet nuclear energy has also proven highly dangerous, despite all its positives. In order to illustrate this latter fact, the paper will examine three distinct instances when humans were exposed to radiation: the bombing of Hiroshima, the accident at Chernobyl, and the accident at hree Mile Island.
he first instance, at Hiroshima, was an attack on the Japanese by the United…
The next question that this essay will address has to do with some of the issues that were seen above, including faulty design and management procedures. These are imperative questions to pose and answer if one is to successfully utilize nuclear technology for positive advancements. Often times, managers do not understand how an office truly works. It is, for this reason, necessary to apply examples to certain situations to prove to a manager that working people, especially with regards to computer, need a good workspace.
Often, however, one finds that many computer workers have postural problems, and these are due to ill selected furniture, especially chairs. Good quality chairs are expensive, but if one is to truly respect and aid his workers in maintaining and constantly putting out good outputs, one must ensure quality, as well as practicality. Thus, workers could find ways in which to convince the manager to implement solutions in order to aid them. Such a way could be to request the help of HR or of an individual who has sway with the manager. If the manager is in office rather than off-site, the workers could group themselves and request an appointment. It is by working together that they can achieve a final and lasting solution.
"Damage of Radiation." (2011). Retrieved September 25, 2011, from < http://www.hiroshima-spirit.jp/en/museum/morgue_w17.html >.
Biological warfare is the term used to describe an attack involving the use of harmful biological agents such as bacteria, viruses or fungi. These agents are deployed with the intention to kill or incapacitate people or animals or even plants. These agents once deployed replicate in their host victims causing trauma and death.
Difference between Biological Warfare and Traditional Forms of Terrorism
There are inherent differences between biological warfare and the more traditional forms of terrorism. Biological agents used in biological warfare are relatively easy and can be produced at little cost. The cost of operation of biological weapons against civilian population could be as low as 1 dollar per square kilimeter as oppossed to the traditional weapon's 2000 dollars per square kiliometer (Homeland Defense Business Unit, 2004 ). In addition, the procedures of developing weaponizable biological agents require low levels of purity and quality control.
Nonetheless, deployment of biological…
Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) on Zebrafish Development
hile global warming represents a threat to humankind by virtue of a reduction in the ozone layer and an increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the future (Conscience, Cotton, Schlumpf et al. 2001), researchers have shown that moderate exposure to varying levels of ultraviolet radiation may have some beneficial effects for humans. For example, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and, to a lesser degree, rheumatoid arthritis, in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in estern Europe and North America, display a latitudinal gradient in disease frequency, with the prevalence of these disorders increasing at higher latitudes (Lim et al. 2003). Furthermore, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) that occurs in the upper portion of air in a room has been cited as an environmental control measure that could economically reduce exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) droplet nuclei (Burge, First & Ko 2002).
Rationale for Selecting Zebrafish. The zebra…
Babbitt, Kimberly J., Karen L. Reed and Stacia A. Sower. (2000). Limb Malformations and Abnormal Sex Hormone Concentrations in Frogs. Environmental Health Perspectives,
Blechinger, Scott R., Patrick H. Krone, John Y. Kuwada and James T. Warren Jr. (2002).
Developmental Toxicology of Cadmium in Living Embryos of a Stable Transgenic
The researchers concluded that dietary antioxidants help reduce the inflammatory response and cell death due to radiation helping the bone marrow to recover faster. [Chris et.al, (2008)]
Acute radiation syndrome results from a sudden and acute exposure to powerful radiation. From an occupational hazard to a terrorist attack there is always an increased risk of radiation injury and so it is essential to be prepared to treat such emergency cases. From one marrow hypoplasia to gastrointestinal and central nervous system damage, irradiation affects almost all bodily functions. Radiation induced uncontrolled inflammatory response has been cited as responsible for multi-organ damage and the resulting casualties. Quick diagnosis, appropriate interventions with anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematopoiesis stimulating agents and a prophylactic regimen of anti-bacterial, anti-viral and antiemetic agents are the important medical interventions. In severe cases, transfusion of blood components and stem cell transplantation are critical to improve the survival chances. The prognosis…
1) Asha Jacob, Kaving G. Shaw, Rongqian Wu, and Ping Wang (Mar 2010), 'Ghrelin as a Novel Therapy for Radiation Combined Injury' Mol Med. 16(3-4): 137 -- 143. Available Online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2810163/
2) Chris Wambi, Jenine Sanzari, & Steven Wan et.al (Apr 2008), 'Dietary Antioxidants Protect Hematopoietic Cells and Improve Animal Survival after Total-Body Irradiation', Radiat Res. 169(4): 384 -- 396., available Online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2692236/
3) CDC, 'Acute Radiation Syndrome Factsheet for Physicians', retrieved Oct 27th 2010, from, http://www.pdhealth.mil/library/downloads/AcuteRadiationSyndrome.pdf
4) Jamie K. Waselenko M.D, Thomas J. MacVittie PhD & William F. Blakely PhD et.al (June 2004), Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol 140, No 12, 1037-1051 http://www.annals.org/content/140/12/1037.full
However, the increased use of CT scans in more of less careless and ill-advised practices will raise the concern of the effects it has on the health of the general public. It is therefore critical that the public is made aware of the associated risks and necessary education is conducted. The voice of all radiologists, clinicians, and technicians should advocate for the safe use of CT scans for both children and adults.
One issue that is crucial and needs to be addressed is CT radiation dose optimization and this should be addressed by both manufacturers and CT scanners by advocating for the balance between the benefits a patients derives from accurate CT scans against the risks involved. At all times the benefits derived should far much outweigh the risks involved when carrying out a CT scan on a patient. Consistent strategies for limiting patient radiation dose should be adopted by…
European guidelines on quality criteria for computed tomography. Retrieved on May 7, 2010
Hurwitz, L.M. et al. (2009). Radiation dose savings for adult pulmonary embolus 64-MDCT
using bismuth breast shields, lower peak kilovoltage, and automatic tube current modulation. AJR 192.
Conflicting Viewpoints: Cell Phone Radiation
Is cell phone usage safe? The FCC has said that cell phone radiation is not harmful to humans. However, studies have shown that it does have an effect, especially on the brain and even on children and babies developing in the womb (Gandhi, Morgan, de Salles et al., 2012). My position is that cell phone radiation can be dangerous and that more studies should be done to focus on the problems of cell phone radiation. I chose this topic because I have always suspected that cell phone radiation was harmful and I wanted to look more closely at what researchers have said on the topic.
Two opposing views to my position are: 1) cell phone radiation is not harmful, as the FCC has demonstrated in its research on the subject, and 2) there are too many other variables that factor into how a person’s body…
Gandhi, O. P., Morgan, L. L., de Salles, A. A., Han, Y. Y., Herberman, R. B., & Davis,
D. L. (2012). Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 31(1), 34-51.
Kesari, K. K., Siddiqui, M., Meena, R., Verma, H. N., & Kumar, S. (2013). Cell phone
exposure on brain and associated biological systems. IJEB, 51(3).
Nylund, R., & Leszczynski, D. (2006). Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene
and protein expression in human endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome?and proteome?dependent. Proteomics, 6(17), 4769-4780.
In recent years mobile telecommunication has developed to a large extent. It has been able to gain a place of importance in society. Encouraged on the basis of these developments the society on the whole is facing a humongous alteration. Now it is possible to access any individual in any part of the world where telecommunication has spread its roots. The latest technologies actually let us now to transfer huge amounts of data at a high speed, and allow us to have a voice conversation and the messaging service too, and it is not very far away when we would probably also be able to communicate through video and also have larger file data transfers. This makes it easier to make use of mobile videophones and also access the Internet through mobiles. Since mid-1980's the nationwide cellular service has been introduced in the United States and the number…
Frumkin, Howard; Jacobson, Anne; Gansler, Ted; Thun, Michael J. (2001) Environmental Carcinogens - Cellular Phones and Risk of Brain Tumors, CA Cancer J. Clin; 51: 137-141
Rothman, KJ; Loughlin et al., JE (1996) Overall mortality of cellular telephone customers. Epidemiology 7:303-305.
Dreyer, NA; Loughlin, JE; Rothman; KJ (1999) Cause-specific mortality in cellular telephone users. JAMA 282:1814-1816
Hardell, L; N. sman et al., A: (1999) Use of cellular telephones and the risk of brain tumors: a case-control study. Int. J. Oncol. 15:113-116.
bombing of Hiroshima studies have been conducted analyzing the impact that radiation exposure has on unborn children.
One study that was conducted on children who were conceived and born in Hiroshima and Nagasaki after they were bombed concluded that radiation can affect the incidence of genetic birth defects.
Birth defects caused by exposure to radiation have been linked to genetics.
A defect occurs when there are changes in the DNA.
Additional research has shown that infant death rates dropped dramatically when reactors were closed down from when they were in operation.
The research is in and there is no denying the impact radiation has on genetic birth defects.
This paper presents a detailed examination of genetic birth defects that are caused by exposure to radiation. The writer explores the problem with radiation exposure and the development of fetal birth defects because of it. There were seven sources used to…
The Basics of Genetic Effects and Birth Defects http://www.doh.wa.gov/Hanford/publications/overview/genetic.html
Study finds increases in birth defects near CANDU reactor http://www.antenna.nl/wise/361/3568.html
Are birth defects more common among the children of atomic-bomb survivors?
Legislation Issues in elation to Ionizing adiation at a Work Place
Ever since oentgen discovered and introduced X-rays -- a type of ionizing radiation -- in the year 1985, their harmful impacts on humans have been under scrutiny. Ionizing radiation is, essentially, any electromagnetic particle or wave, which is capable of ionizing and removing electron(s) from a molecule or an atom of its medium of propagation (Bull, 2003). The medium in this instance is our body. In the year 1943, the U.S., France, and the UK began large-scale manufacturing of weapons and nuclear power. The venture became a source of income to a huge number of people from these three nations. Owing to the absence of appropriate legislation, several workers were exposed to harmful radiations that impacted their bodies adversely. While some workers' skins were completely burned, others even ended up dying through exposure to radiation. This is why investigations…
Bull, M. (2003). Risks associated with ionizing radiation Environmental pollution and health. British Medical Bulletin. Available from http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/content/68/1/259.full [Accessed: 29th October, 2015]
Holmes, E. (2015). Ionizing Radiation Exposure with Medical Imaging. Medscape. Available from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1464228-overview [Accessed: 29th October, 2015)
HSE. (2015). Working With EUOSHA.Availablefromhttp://www.hse.gov.uk/aboutus/europe/working-with-eu-osha.htm [Accessed: 29th October, 2015.)
IRR, (1999).The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999. A The National Achieves Available from www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1999/3232/regulation/3/made [Accessed: 29th October, 2015]
Occupational Exposure of Police Officers to Microwave Radiation From Traffic RADAR Devices
The exposure of Police officers' radar devices became a frequent usage during the 1970s and has continued to grow extensively over the radar with upgrade of the system. hile it proves beneficial to the police department all over the country, the radiation heat has proven to be a danger to health crisis. hile the radiation exposure for the police officers are on the extreme end, there are factors that elude insecurity from the traffic radar devices; which are used most frequently for the speeding vehicles and public safety.
Occupational Exposure of Police Officers to Microwave Radiation from Traffic Radar Devices
The branch of law enforcement that regulates traffic on highways and other roads, where an adequate speed limit is to be met, uses a radar gun to calculate the speed of vehicles. Radar is an acronym, which stands…
Frequency of a Police Radar Gun; Available at http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/MaxLipkin.shtml
Occupational Exposure for Police Officers to Microwave Radiation from Traffic
Radar Devices, Background, Available at http://infoventures.com/EMF/FEDERAL/NIOSH/POLICE/pl-rdr5.html
Microwave and Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure; A Growing Environmental
ionizing radiation on meiotic spindles, 34 oocytes were divided up and then exposed to 0, 74, or 222 Gy of ionizing radiation. f the six control oocytes that were sham exposed to radiation, one degenerated (Figure, 83.3%). A total of 14 oocytes were exposed to 74 Gy of radiation and only one lacked spindles (Figure, 92.9%). Exposing 14 oocytes to 222 Gy of radiation destroyed spindles in nine oocytes (Figure, 28.6%). These results suggest radiation doses above 74 Gy are capable of degrading meiotic spindles in oocytes.
Sufficient irradiation eliminates oocyte spindles. ocytes were either sham exposed to radiation, or exposed to 74 or 222 Gy of radiation. Percent of oocytes with intact spindles after irradiation were visualized by confocal microscopy and fluorescent staining for tubulin.
ur results indicate that exposure of oocytes to sufficient doses of ionizing radiation can destroy meiotic spindles. The fate of these spindles can't…
Ogilvy-Stuart, A.L. And Shalet, S.M., 1993. Effect of radiation on the human reproductive system. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, 101 (Suppl. 2), p.109-116.
Wang, J.Z., Li, X.A., D'Souza, W.D., and Stewart, R.D., 2003. Impact of prolonged fraction delivery times on tumor control: a note of caution of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biological*Physics, 57 (2), p.543-552.
Zaremba, T.G. And Irwin, R.D., 1981. Effects of ionizing radiation on the polymerization of microtubules in vitro. Biochemistry, 20 (5), p.1323-1332.
My education consists of a Bachelors degree in Radiological Science, I also maintain a high grade point average (gpa), and pride myself on the care given to my study and work history.
Although I already have a bachelors degree in the field of radiology, that is not enough. I wish to obtain a higher understanding of the subject matter, addition hands on experience, and the opportunity to use all the resources that will be afforded to me by continuing education to a higher level. I realize the need to continue in education if I want to work in the medical field working more extensively within the realm of radiology. Thank you in advance for the opportunity to express my desire in the field of radiology and what I hope to do upon being given the opportunity to continue at the graduate level.
Radiation can be described as energy that is in the form of streams or waves of particles. Numerous types of radiation surround us. When most individuals hear the term radiation, the thing that comes to their mind is nuclear power, radioactivity, and atomic energy. Radiation, however, has several other forms. Visible light and sound are some familiar kinds of radiation. Other kinds of radiation include television and radio signals, infrared radiation (some type of heat energy), and ultraviolet radiation (responsible for suntans). The earth together with occupants are always subjected to radiation produced by the sun, stars as well as other galactic sources and from the radioactive substances found on the earth’s crust. Here on earth, being exposed to radiation is unavoidable as a result of the radioactive materials present in the air, water, and also within the body. Radiation cannot be seen, but it occurs in form if…
The larger particles can influence the absorption rates of solar energy by a factor of three over particulates such as phytoplankton and minerals (Stramski and Woz'niak, 2005). This means that a small concentration of these particles can do a lot for the absorption rates of the water they are suspended in. The smaller particles can also have this effect, but their concentrations need to be proportionately higher to exact this same influence. The smaller particles are more influential as far as backscattering is concerned, and represent a massive shift in the way that scientists think about light diffusion and backscattering within the ocean. Previously, scientists thought that only the larger of these particles combined with other particulates were responsible for most of the solar radiation absorption (Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L., 1981). Now scientists understand that in shallow, mineral-rich waters, even a small presence of these tiniest of…
Babin, Marcel, and Dariusz Stramski. (2004). "Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water." Limnology Oceanography. 49(3), pp. 756 -- 767.
Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L. (1981). "Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea
(yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains." Limnology, Oceanography 26 (1). pp.43-53.
Dera, J., S. Sagan, and D. Stramski. (1993). "Focusing of sunlight by sea surface waves: new results from the Black Sea." Oceanologia, 34. pp. 13-25.
This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…
Bischof, Delaloye a. (2003) "The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)" Leuk Lymphoma. Volume: 44 Suppl 4; pp: S29-36
Cancer Treatment and Prevention" Retrieved at http://patient.cancerconsultants.com/treatment.aspx?id=782Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP - complementary considerations. Lymphoma-tion" (2 October, 2004) Retrieved at http://www.lymphomation.org/chemo-CHOP.htm . Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP Patient Information Sheet" Newcastle General Hospital, Northern Center for Cancer treatment. (June, 2005) Retrieved at http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/v2/PDF/patientleaflets/NCCT/Standard/CHOP.PDFAccessed on 26 December, 2004
These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).
Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.
Now, let us see how histone…
Abraham, R.T. (2001). "Cell cycle checkpoint signaling through the ATM and ATR kinases." Genes Dev 15(17): 2177-96.
Alexiadis, V., T. Waldmann, J. Andersen, M. Mann, R. Knippers and C. CGruss (2000). "The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes the topology of chromatin and reduces the efficiency of DNA replication in a chromatin-specific manner." Genes Dev 14(11): 1308-12.
Aten, R. And H. Behrman (1989). Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor from bovine ovaries. Purification and identification of histone H2A. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11065-11071.
Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor/histone H2A in rat luteal and granulosal cells. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11072-11075.
rapid movement of the modern age and the vast usage of technological equipment, it has become a constant question on whether radio frequencies are damaging to human health. Cell phones are known to emit relatively high doses of electromagnetic waves, which in some research, has been pinpointed to the adverse effect that it has on males, namely the issue on fertility. eports have been made indicating that cell phones might be another risk factor regarding the rise of male infertility due to its frequency emissions. While previous research has found no conclusive tie-ins to the phenomena, the latest technology and data have shown the contrary, though even this research is still subject to much scrutiny. Overall, there are too many variables to indicate that cell phones would be a main cause for male fertility, not without discussing the various other factors that help infertility along.
Infertility as defined…
Agarwal, Ashok, Deepinder, Fnu, Makker, Kartikeya. "Cell Phones and Male Infertility: Dissecting the Relationship." Reproductive BioMedicine Online 15.3 (2007): 266-70. RBM Online. Web. 5 Mar. 2011. .
De Iuliis, Geoffry N., Rhiannon J. Newey, Bruce V. King, and R. John Aitken. "Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro." PLoS ONE. 31 July 2009. Web. 05 Mar. 2011. .
Wdowiak, Artur, Leszek Wdowiak, and Henryk Wiktor. "Evaluation of the Effect of Using Mobile Phones on Male Fertility." Ann Agric Environ Med 14 (2007): 169-72. Web. 5 Mar. 2011. .
Assignment 2-1 -- a- Radiation may be considered information from space; different types of information from different sources. These are: 1) Light as a wave and particle, 2) Electromagnetism, 3) Cosmic Rays and 4) Ultraviolet radiation.
Part 2-1-B- Light may be measured by telescopes; other space radiation by radio waves; x-ray machines may absorb cosmic and x-ray energy.
Part 2-1-C- Stars and Planets emit electromagnetic; Sun emits UV, Electromagnetic and light; light intensity, etc. Measuring radiation from objects tells us numerous things; age of object, comparative data between object, distance, intensity, level of danger, potential changes within object over time.
Part 2-1-D- Spectrographs, radio frequency detectors, x-ray machines.
Part 2-2-a -- an atom is the smallest unit of matter; ions are types of atoms in which the protons and electrons (parts of the atomic structure) are not equal. Ions can exist independently in solution, while atoms may or…
There have been rumors relating to the fact that the authorities might have lied concerning the number of curies released and that it had actually been much bigger.
hile the initial communications from the authorities advised people not to panic and that the situation had been under control, the later reports informed people that precautions needed to be taken. Several tens of thousands of people had been evacuated from the area within a few days and the surrounding schools had been closed. According to surveys done consequent to the event, people apparently considered that the job done by the authorities had been deficient.
According to the studies performed in order to determine the level of radiation exposure, people had not been subjected to life-threatening doses of radiation. The average dose of radiation to which people have been subjected to consequent to the TMI incident is believed to be eight millirem.…
1. Walker J. Samuel. (2006). "Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective." University of California Press.
2. Warrick, Joby. (1997). "Study Links Three Mile Island Radiation Releases to Higher Cancer Rates." Retrieved July 28, from the Washington Post Web site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/tmi/stories/study022497.htm
3. (2001). "Three Mile Island: 1979." Retrieved July 28, 2009, from the World Nuclear Association Web site: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf36.html
4. "No Radiological Health Effects at TMI." Retrieved July 28, 2009, from the American Nuclear Society Web site: http://www.ans.org/pi/resources/sptopics/tmi/healtheffects.html
Sinmed Shoulder Support Cushion for Head and Neck Immobilisation
Brown's (2010) article entitled "Evaluation of a Sinmed Shoulder Support Cushion for Head and Neck Immobilisation," published in The adiographer, investigates the efficacy in positioning for head and neck patients, with the Sinmed shoulder support cushion, as opposed to standard protocol in place at the Princess Alexandra Hospital adiation Oncology Department. Understanding that the ability to accurately position a patient is critical to successfully delivering radiation therapy treatment, Brown notes that the hospital has been investigating optimal immobilisation techniques. The author discovered that after trialing the Sinmed shoulder support cushion, manufactured by CIVCO Medical Solutions, no significant differences were found in the positioning accuracy, from the standard protocol.
A small group of patients were trialed for this evaluation of the Sinmed shoulder support. Electronic portal imaging was used to asses the device, as well as a collation of observations that were…
Brown, E. (2010). Evaluation of a Sinmed shoulder support cushion for head and neck immobilisation. The Radiographer. 57 (3), p12-16.
Toxcio's experts, on the other hand, believe that evidence is incomplete and that further, costly studies need to be implemented to show the connection.
It seems to me that (a) if the biophysicist is indeed as credentialed and qualified as said and (b) if her studies are as empirical as stated from peer-reviewed scientific journals, bearing reliable evidence, than the families do, indeed have a case. This is because even thoguh further research may need to be conducted (as per Toxico's scientists) to assess strength of the research, the evidence that exists at the moment seems to show an almost undisputed association between the children's cancer and the toxic emission.
econdly, the biophysicist also reinforces her case with other empirical evidence -- and empirical evidence is that which is required by the courts - of the significant statistical incidence of this rare cancer in the neighborhood. In both cases, her…
WILLIAM DAUBERT, et ux., etc., et al., PETITIONERS v. MERRELL DOW PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. 1993
The People of the State of New York, Respondent, v. George Wesley, Appellant, Court of Appeals of the State of New York., 1994.
Ideas worth Spreading
Nina Jablonski breaks the illusion of skin color (TED2009, 2009)
Nina Joblonski opens by commenting on Darwin's pigmentation and his upbringing. She further speaks of his voyage on the Beagle and his interest in the pigmentation of humans. Darwin did not believe that there was any correlation to skin pigmentation and climate. However, Joblonski points out that if Darwin had access to NASA satellites that he may have come to a different conclusion. One of NASA's satellites has capabilities to monitor the Earth's radiation close to the surface. As a result, researchers today have been able to study skin pigmentation and the exposure to solar radiation and find that there is a perfect gradient and strong correlation between the two.
Therefore, skin color is a product of evolutionary forces as human adapted to their environments and their skin adapt to the levels of radiation that…
The conclusion according to Ludwig, et al. (2001) is that "the flat-panel detector has diagnostic performance superior to that of conventional screen-film storage-phosphor radiography for detecting shall artificial osseous lesions at clinical exposure settings. With the flat-panel detector, exposure may be reduced by a sum of 50% in order to gain satisfactory
In the study entitled: "Performance of a Flat-Panel Detector in Detecting Artificial one Lesions: Comparison with Conventional Screen-Film and Storage-Phosphor Radiography" which was written by Karl Ludwig, M.D. et al. states that the case study was done with the express purpose of comparing a "large-area direct-readout flat-panel detector system with a convention screen-film system and storage-phosphor system" for the detection of "small artificial osseous lesions simulating osteolytic disease" and in the assessment of diagnostic performance as the exposure dose decreases over time. The results stated in the study were that: "ROC analysis showed A) Values of 0.820 (speed…
Cohen MD, Katz BP, Kalasinski LA, White SJ, Smith JA, Long B. Digital Imaging with a photostimulable phosphor in the chest of newborns. Radiology 1991; 181:829-832.
Yamamuro, M (1995) Cardiac Functional Analysis with Multi-Detector Row CT and Segmental Reconstruction Algorithm: Comparison with Echocardiography, SPECT, and MR Imaging. Radiology. 2005 Feb;234(2):381-90.Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
Don Steven M.D., et al. (1999) Computed Radiography vs. Screen-Film Radiography: Detection of Pulmonary Edema in a Rabbit Model That Stimulates Neonatal Pulmonary Infiltrates. Mallinckrodt Institute of Technology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University of Medicine. 1999 Jan 25
Ludwig, Karl et al. (2001) Performance of a Flat-Panel Detector in Detecting Artificial Bone Lesions: Comparison with Conventional Screen-Film and Storage-Phosphor Radiography 2001 Dec 16 Online available at http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/abstract/222/2/453?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1106962551056_13136&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&minscore=5000&journalcode=radiology .
I believe safety to staff and patients is paramount. I believe I exhibit a significant degree of cultural sensitivity to me able to modify my practice to the needs of our diverse population. I easily think of my feet and I am willing to take the extra step to discuss the possibility of different or additional studies with consultants as would be necessary according to the patient's diagnostic needs. I see myself as a resource to the consultants, and hope to develop a collegial relationship with all other staff members.
I have received many positive comments regarding my interaction with patients and I am professional but always do my utmost to make the patient feel comfortable and confident in the service my department provides. I deal well with all age level of patients. I also believe that I am working as a part of a greater team, and do not…
(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.
The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.
A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…
Thomas, WA (2004) Meeting Challenges with Geologic Maps. AGI Environmental Awareness Series. Retrieved from: http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/mappingbook.pdf
Choi, CQ (2012) Jupiter's Moon's Ocean May Be Too Acidic for Life. Space. Retrieved from: http://www.space.com/14757-europa-moon-ocean-acidic.html
Jovian Planets vs. Terrestrial Planets (2012) Buzzle. Retrieved from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/jovian-planets-vs.-terrestrial-planets.html
A light insulation causes a reduction of 14.5% in the efficiency obtained with full insulation. The wind effect is much more limited. The increase of wind velocity from zero to 3.6 mph yielded a slight reduction (2%) in the still performance.
Repeated tests have shown that the higher the operating temperature of the still, assuming insulation is equal, correlates with higher efficiency. For example, with each 6 degrees Celsius increase in ambient temperature, a still's output increases 7-8%. The application of this finding means that a still operating in a hot desert climate will produce typically as much as one-third more water than the same unit would produce in a cooler climate.
Production of distilled water is also associated with the thermal efficiency of the still itself. Efficiency may range from 30 to 60%, depending on the construction of the still, the amount and type of insulation used, ambient temperatures,…
The last major x-ray flare occurred in 2003 ("O'Dell). Most of the energy from an x-ray flare is absorbed by the earth's ionosphere ("O'Dell). Thus, a CME can be far more dangerous for human societies than an x-ray flare.
The first and most subtle observable phenomenon signaling an upcoming solar storm are known as coronal loops, which are "kinks in the magnetic flux form" forced to the surface of the sun due to a buildup of magnetic energy (O'Dell). Dark spots on the sun's surface then appear, usually in the "footprint" of the coronal loops ("O'Dell). The dark spots visibly signal the buildup of magnetism. NASA describes the phenomenon of solar flares as occurring in three stages: a precursor stage, an impulsive stage, and a decay stage. During the precursor stage, the release of magnetic energy is only triggered and leads to "soft x-ray emissions," ("What is a Solar Flare?").…
Hadhazy, Adam. "A Scary 13th: 20 Years Ago, Earth Was Blasted with a Massive Plume of Solar Plasma." Scientific American. Mar 13, 2009. Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=geomagnetic-storm-march-13-1989-extreme-space-weather
O'Neill, Ian. "2012: No Killer Solar Flare." Universe Today. June 21, 2008. Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://www.universetoday.com/2008/06/21/2012-no-killer-solar-flare/
What is a Solar Flare?" Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/sftheory/flare.htm
FAMILY POWER AND AUTHORITY INFLUENCES Introduce topic Introduce speakers DEE What affirmative views topic Brad make opposing views. Declares debate open AFFIRMATIVE VIEW OPPOSING VIEW Give equal time members opposing team Facilitate discussion Dee rebuttal Dan ( affirmative rebuttal) Dan rebuttal Dee ( Negative rebuttal) Dee summary (restate proposition significant argument favor change) Dan summary (restate proposition significant argument favor change) (PLS ADDRESS ONLY THE DEE PORTION AND INTRODUCTION -- the AFFIRMATIVE AND REBUTTAL PORTION OF DEE BASED ON SCENERIO BELOWAND MORE IF YOU COULD ADD SPICE TO IT, THANKS)…THE TOPIC IS ABOUT ISLAMIC OR MUSLIM FAMILY WITH CULTURAL DILEMMA.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
We live in a world that is nowadays prone to injustice, social inequality, and cultural discrepancies. Today's debate deals precisely with this type of reality: the reality of a family that was defined by a particular cultural background and has been shaped by another cultural environment.…
It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety stategies as well as systems to minimize occupational health and safety isks. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Active and pocedual isk management stategies ae impotant elements in any manufactuing unit. Active isk management efes to implementing intelocks, alams and mitigation systems that can detect a hazad and immediately shut down o set the system into a safe position. Pocedual isk management efes to implementing safety checklists, opeato taining, standad opeating pocedues and seveal such people dependent management systems. Ceating "inheently safe design stategies" in a manufactuing unit would involve fou key stategies. These ae minimizing, modeating, substituting and simplifying systems. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Despite all safety guidelines, accidents still occu mainly as a esult of human complacence…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Ellacott, Michael V; Reed, Sue. Review: Development of Robust Indoor Air Quality Models for the Estimation of Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in Buildings. Indoor and Built Environment, vol. 8, no. 6, 1999. pp: 345-360.
Falzon, Pierre. Enabling safety: issues in design and continuous design. Cognition, Technology & Work, vol.10, no. 1, Jan 2008, pp: 7-14.
Fleming, Mary Louise; Parker, Elizabeth. 2007. Health promotion: principles and practice in the Australian context. Ligare Book Printer, Sydney.
International Labour Organization. Occupational safety & health. 2009. Retrieved 12 November, 2009 from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/sectors/mee/safety.htm
As far as the as the level of intricacies in this research is concerned one can surely acknowledge the capacity of work done but being stuck to it completely and researching on it again and again may sound an unreasoning thing to follow. Astronomers being addicted to their work styles, research requirements and updated developments or shooting of newest things in the world of sky have to be in touch with all these researches. Keplar's supernova left astronomers and related researches astonished to understand actually what was the base of this supernova explosion and this exasperated formation in the universe may gave astronomers thought of revolution in the star world and constellations whose time to time developments and formations of newest things was supposed to give a new shape to the universe. Researches stated that Keplar's supernova was far rich in energy and undoubtedly could be compared twice the energetic…
Chandra. "Was Kepler's supernova unusually powerful?" 12-09 2012. Astronomy. 20-09 2012 .
Evolution of the Feather and the Origin of irds
THE EVOLUTION OF THE FEATHER AND THE ORIGIN OF THE IRD
This is a paper that explains about the origin of birds and the actual evolution of the feathers. The paper details about the way the feathers had first evolved and the way these birds had their origin. The common belief that the dinosaurs are the ancestors of these birds has been analyzed and the paper also deals with as to how the feathers of these birds would have developed.
The origin of feathers is unknown. Scientists have researched on this topic but none of the theories have even come close to being proved. In the past five years there have been efforts to answer as to the real evolution of these feathers. The mystery of the evolution of feathers is closely linked with the origin of birds themselves. The origin…
Martin, Larry D. And Czerkas, Stephan A. (September 2000) "The Fossil Record of Feather Evolution in the Mesozoic" American Zoologist, volume 40, issue 4,-page 687
Prum, Richard O. (January 23, 2003) "Paleontology: Dinosaurs take to the air" Nature, volume 421, pp.323-324
Sues, Hans-Dieter. (April 26, 2001) "Paleontology: Ruffling Feathers" Nature, volume 410, pp. 1036-1037
Hou, Lianhai; Martin, Larry D; Zhou, Zhonghe and Feduccia, Alan. (November 15, 1996) "Early Adaptive Radiation of Birds: Evidence from Fossils from Northeastern China" Science, volume 274
Thomas states that she never forgets 'where she came from.' She serves on numerous community boards including the Charlotte Mecklenburg Housing Partnership and the Women's Intercultural Exchange. As a golden life member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated, Thomas says that the need to be a member of something 'greater than herself' has always been an integral part of her character. She strives to better the community and to better herself through her many charitable efforts.
Thomas is testimony to the power of education and the ability to use one's natural talents for the good of others. Through education, Thomas has continually advanced in her vocational life, bolstering her credentials and framework of knowledge. She has a technical grasp of the power industry with 'people smarts' honed through personal experience and the academic study of management. She has made a passionate commitment to diversity part of her work life, through…
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…
Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .
Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.
Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214 .
The above equation can also be utilized to calculate conduction loss from a human body to ambient air. For example, for a 1.5 tall man wearing dry, insulating clothing, the rate of conductive heat loss on a cold day (ambient temperature at 0oC, normal skin temperature at 37oC) can be calculated as 178W. For the same person wearing wet clothing, however, the equivalent rate is 2,565W. This significant difference in heat losses explains the onset of hypothermia when someone is exposed to ice-cold water or rain (Forinash, 2010). Conduction takes place on a microscopic level as particles of kinetic energy are transferred between two different systems (Abbott, et al., 2005). When atoms and/or molecules heat up, vibrate, or move rapidly, some of their energy gets transferred to other atoms and molecules that are in close proximity. In other words, heat is transferred to the surrounding particles and away from the…
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…
Corsini, R., Wedding, D. (2011). Current Psychotherapies, 9th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.
Yalom, I. (1989). Love's Executioner & Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper
Human life could not exist without their basic needs being met. Humans need water, air, food, adequate space, and shelter to survive. However, humans need these things to be clean and safe. Today, emphasis is on protecting the environment. Many times focus is on protecting a certain plant or animal species, but protecting the environment does not stop there. Many things can threaten the human environment and endanger human ability to survive. This essay will explore the need to protect the environment so that it can sustain human life.
Humans face many threats to their environment that can have a significant impact on its ability to sustain life, or to maintain the quality of life for people within it. Waste Management is an essential part of maintaining an environment that is safe for humans. Humans must be protected from biological agents that can harm or kill them. Controlling…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (n.d.). Avian Influenza (Bird Flu). U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian / .
Routt, D. (2008, July 20) The Economic Impact of the Black Death. EH.Net Encyclopedia,
edited by Robert Whaples. Retrieved from http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/Routt.Black.Death
Ga DOA OC Radio Pharmaceutical
Neuroendocrine tumors (NE) are neoplasms characterized by tissue immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine differentiation markers, appearance as a small mass that can be off white to yellow often in submucosa and prevalence throughout the body but typically found in the intestine or lungs (Oberg2011). he tumors can be malignant and are typically detected through hormone markers in a first diagnosis (Arnold 2003). Because of the diffuse nature of this type of tumor, detecting and imaging NEs requires scanning and typically requires a contrast agent to detect the location of tumors in tissue (an 2011). Many NE cells possess an overexpression of somatostatin receptors on their surface (Kwekkeboom 2005, VenEssen 2007). Somatostatin receptors are cell surface proteins that bind to somatostatin, a growth hormone inhibiting hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation (Florio 2002). he overexpressed somatostatin receptors can be used to both…
Tan, E.H.; Tan, C. (2011). Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, World Journal of Clinical Oncology 2 (1) 28.
VanEssen, M. Krenning, EP., DeJong, M., Valkema, R., Kwekkeboom, D.J. (2007) Peptide receptor radionucleotide therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumors, Acta Oncology 46, 723-734
Veliklyan, I. Xu, H. Nair, M. Hall, H. Robust labeling and comparative preclinical characterization of DOTA-TOC and DOTA TATE. Nuclear Medicine Biology 18, 123-128.
Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), is a representation of several medical and psychological complaints, which are affecting several men and women who had participated in the Gulf War which took place in 1991. These ailments are muscular pain, skin rash; sleep disturbances peripheral numbness, memory loss, fatigue, respiratory illness, headaches, fever, spasms, low blood pressure and dizziness. The Depleted uranium could be considered partly as a factor responsible for the Gulf War Syndrome. The depleted uranium produced long-term health problems in people who had contacts with its usage. It was in the Gulf war that the Depleted uranium weapons were used for the first time. There have been studies conducted by scientists regarding whether depleted uranium affects the physical health of individuals. As a result they are of the opinion that many veterans of the Gulf War are affected in terms of health problems by the depleted uranium. Even though several…
Myers, Steven Lee. Test drug may be cause of Gulf War Syndrome, Scientific Survey Finds, New York Times, Oct. 18, 1999
Bruce, Ian. Troops in Gulf to use depleted uranium shells, Fourth Sunday of Advent, December 19, 1999 (Frisk, Robert. The Truth About Depleted Uranium, Independent, UK, January 8, 2001)
The Herald (Scotland) January 22, 2003 http://www.mint.gov.my/policy/nuc_disarm/issue_duweapons.htm
Personal Statement: Radiologic Technology Program
To me, there is nothing more fulfilling and exciting than being part of a team that alleviates the suffering of others. Unknown to many, mostly those serving in other professions, working in the medical field has its own unique challenges. It is the realization that mine is a unique role - a role that involves helping others -- that motivates me to keep working in this noble field. It is this same reason that motivates me to become a radiologic technologist. In addition to matching my skill-set, the radiologic technology field does, to a large extent, match my experience -- spanning over seven years in a healthcare setting. In the final analysis therefore, successful completion of the Radiologic Technology Program at GAMA will be a logical step towards the further development and enhancement of my career in the medical arena. Indeed, professional growth in the…
I stood by my younger sister when she fell from the giant tree in our backyard, her leg twisted behind her. She was crying, but I was doing my best to hold back my tears to help her feel strong. At the hospital, the first sign that I would eventually follow a career path in radiology became clear. I saw my sister's x-ray. It looked exactly like the x-rays I had seen on television but with one big difference: this was the x-ray that belonged to someone I knew, and it was with this magical document that the doctors were able to piece my broken sister back together. My decision to be a radiographer was not an immediately transparent one, though. I did not then and there become determined to be a radiological science professional. Instead, the experience planted a seed. This seed has since been nurtured and is…
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
physical agents that exposes health and safety hazards to workers within the work places. Some of the physical agents are noise, vibrations, explosive atmospheres, electromagnetic fields, ionizing radiations as well as optical radiation. It should be noted that there are huge risks that are associated with these physical agents and unless measures are taken to contain the situation, serious health and safety risks may occur. There are also a number of directives that have laid down the minimum requirements aimed at protecting the workers.
From this report, it has been noted that the various hazards that are associated with the construction work include dust, hard physical labor, vibration, chemical vapors, radon as well as atmospheres lacking oxygen. Similarly, construction work is always done in pressurized environments. Therefore, underground casuals are exposed to serious risks as well as fatal injuries. Other physical hazards are exceptional as far as underground work is…
Health and Safety Executive. (2008). The physical agents (artificial optical radiation) directive
Revised regulatory impact assessment.
Assessed on November 18, 2011
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Water is very important for life. Indeed, the processes of life, both external and internal even, at the cellular and the molecular level, are governed by water. Without water, most living organisms suffer from what is known as water stress.
This water stress can be due to the loss of water or dehydration. Desiccation is a special case of dehydration where drying takes place in air. Alternatively, another form of water stress is due to the excessive accumulation of salts. This is relatedly called osmotic stress. Osmosis seeks to reduce this accumulation by moving fluids across a concentration gradient. While most living beings cannot survive without water, lesser species belonging to the eukarya group -- that includes both bacteria and a more primitive organism archaea show remarkable tolerance to water stress.
Responses to water stress takes place at a supracellular level as well as a cellular…
Bartels, D., & Salamini, F. (2001). Desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. A contribution to the study of drought tolerance at the molecular level. Plant Physiol, 127(4), 1346-1353.
Billi, D., Friedmann, E.I., Hofer, K.G., Caiola, M.G., & Ocampo-Friedmann, R. (2000). Ionizing-radiation resistance in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis. Appl Environ Microbiol, 66(4), 1489-1492.
Breeuwer, P., Lardeau, A., Peterz, M., & Joosten, H.M. (2003). Desiccation and heat tolerance of Enterobacter sakazakii. J Appl Microbiol, 95(5), 967-973.
DiRuggiero, J., Santangelo, N., Nackerdien, Z., Ravel, J., & Robb, F.T. (1997). Repair of extensive ionizing-radiation DNA damage at 95 degrees C. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. J Bacteriol, 179(14), 4643-4645.
adio Frequency Exposure
The world of electricity is wondrous in many ways. While mankind has somewhat grasped the ability to harness the power of electricity, new information and data is being understood to have new developments on how it may be harmful to one's health. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the impacts and qualities of radio-frequency (F) exposure to human health. This essay will first give background information on the subject to help explain the mysterious nature of both electricity and magnetism that is strongly connected to this possible health risk. The essay will then investigate empirical example and produced a review of literature pertinent to the topic. These studies will be used to help build a case suggesting that dangerous and unhealthy aspects of F waves and technology related to F.
adio Frequency Background Information
To better understand the impacts of radio frequency on the human…
Classic, Krese. (2014). Radiofrequency (RF) Radiation. HPS.org, 14, Aug, 2014. Retrieved from http://hps.org/hpspublications/articles/rfradiation.html
Group, Edward (2014). How to Protect Your House from Harmful EMF Radiation. Global Healing Center, 24 April 2014. Retrieved from http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/protect-your-house-emf-pollution/
Hand, J.W., Y. Li, and J.V. Hajnal. "Numerical study of RF exposure and the resulting temperature rise in the foetus during a magnetic resonance procedure." Physics in medicine and biology 55.4 (2010): 913.
Science Mission Directorate. "Radio Waves" Mission:Science. 2010. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 25 Apr. 2015 http://missionscience.nasa.gov
Are Cell Phones Safe?
The topic of this paper is cell phone radiation and whether or not it is harmful to a person’s health. My position on the topic is that cell phone radiation is harmful to people’s health, as has been shown in numerous studies (Nylund & Leszczynski, 2006; Gandhi, Morgan, de Salles et al., 2012). Two opposing viewpoints on the topic are that 1) cell phone radiation is not harmful to a person’s health—which is what the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has argued, and 2) there is just not enough information on the topic to make an informed decision.
Three reasons to support my position are: 1) that cell phones have been shown to affect brain development (Kesari, Siddiqui & Meena, 2013); 2) cell phones have been shown to affect fetal development and children’s development (Gandhi et al., 2012); and 3) cell phones have been shown to alter…
Environmental Protection Agency
The history of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dates back to 1970 under the Nixon Administration and it was created in order to protect people and the planet by enforcing the laws and regulations passed by Congress. The EPA has ten stations and nearly 30 labs with which it assesses the environment, conducts research and takes part in educating the public. The EPA was formed in response to growing public pressure regarding the dangerous and negative impact that human actions were having on the planet. Rachel Carson’s 1962 book Silent Spring in which a world bereft of natural life was envisioned as a result of deadly pesticides and chemicals released into the environment (EPA History, 2018). The book had a big impact on Senators and the EPA was formed in response to serve as an agency that would ensure the protection of the environment in the…
Pharmacotherapy for Hematologic Disorders
The hematologic disorder selected in this case cancer –specifically, breast cancer. It is important to note, from the onset, that breast cancer has been identified as one of the leading causes of death amongst women across the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC (2018), without taking into consideration some skin cancer types, breast cancer is not only “the most common cancer in women” in the United States, but also “the second most common cause of death from cancer among white, black, Asian/Pacific Islander, and the American Indian/Alaska Native women.” The first position, as far as mortality rates amongst women with cancer is concerned, is occupied by lung cancer.
The most prominent symptom of breast cancer is a lump inside the breast. Other symptoms, according to the National Cancer Institute (2018), could be inclusive of an inverted nipple, sore nipple, and…