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Railroad Maps Describe the Economic Opportunities Beckoning
Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54709314
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Railroad Maps

Describe the economic opportunities beckoning newcomers in all regions of the country as a result of industrialization, urbanization, and immigration.

The expansion of the nation's railroads by 1870, helped to fuel a tremendous amount of economic growth westward. as, the nation was rapidly developing regions that were considered to be difficult due to: adverse weather conditions, vast distances and the possibility of violence from Indian attacks. Once the railroad was established in the West, a shift occurred in how the nation was able to deal with these challenges. Where, many of these problems became non-existent and an increasing number of people began to move to these regions of the country. (illington, 2001, pp. 357 -- 375)

At the same time, the nation had developed a vast network of railroads throughout the entire Eastern half of the nation. This meant that many different natural resources in the West could…


Billington, R. (2001). Westward Expansion. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Railroad Land Grants Economically Justified The American
Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60361067
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Railroad Land Grants: Economically Justified?

The American government's land grant policy and provision of subsidies to private railroad companies in the nineteenth century has been the subject of much discussion by historians and economists alike. However, few writers have examined the economic issues involved in the subsidies in detail, leading at times to the wrong conclusions. Lloyd J. Mercer, a rofessor of Economics at the University of California (Santa Barbara) is one of the select few who have attempted to carry out an economic analysis of the land-grants policy in order to determine whether the policy was economically justified and socially beneficial. This paper summarizes the professor's article Land Grants to American Railroads: Social Cost or Social Benefit (1969) by identifying the main thoughts of the author followed by a critical analysis of what he has suggested in the article.


rofessor Mercer disagrees with the commonly held view of…

Perhaps, due to the reason that economics is not an exact science, the economic theories and analysis of economists often suffer from the personal political leanings of the economist. For example, if an economist is a "leftist" he would tend to favor social welfare and economic equality through his work while a proponent of laissez faire economy would tend to justify minimal government interference in the market through his work. Professor Mercer's analysis of the railroad land grants too seems to suffer from such a bias as he justifies the land grants and subsidies as a profitable deal for the public while ignoring the unsavory aspects of the issue such as price fixing, illegal kickbacks, real estate speculation, tax evasion et al. By the big business interests.

The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate at which the Present Value (PV) of the annual stream of earnings minus the investment costs over the life of the project is zero

See Railroads & Clearcuts Campaign Website []

Railroad Expansion the New World
Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95014315
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Urbanization is changing the way people live and work in America. With higher population density, residents are creating economies of scale that allow greater access to goods from around the world at competitive prices. All the cities of the Eastern United States are linked via trade routes to the Old World and beyond, introducing items ranging from spices and food to luxury goods. The American trade industry is booming so much so that this nation's raw materials are in demand all over the world. New immigrants to American cities can participate in the exiting endeavors of world trade, working on docks loading and unloading cargo or helping ship raw materials from mines and factories to the ships that will take them overseas.

The American housing industry needs laborers to build and help move large tracts of lumber across many miles of land. Similarly, giant steel companies are hiring as many…


American Industrialization." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at

Industrialization, Immigration, Urbanization." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at 

Transportation Revolution." Interactive Maps. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at

Railroad Industry the Modern Day
Words: 1567 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67301952
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" The U.S. railroads stated featherbedding bill figures to be approximately $500 million a year. (Time & CNN, 1959; paraphrased)

Summary and Conclusion

One cannot presume to visit any city or town in the United States in today's world without seeing or hearing a train as it chugs down the railroad tracks from one destination to another every busy. While not much attention is given to today's railroad companies, it is certain that the railroad in the United States is still going just as strong as in its' historical heyday. As a matter of fact, the railroad is the oldest form of across land transportation in the history of the United States excepting the horse and wagon originally used by settlers in the establishing of the United States of America.


Samson, William D. And Previts, Gary John (1995) Reporting for Success: The altimore and Ohio Railroad and Management Information…


Samson, William D. And Previts, Gary John (1995) Reporting for Success: The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and Management Information 1827-1856. Culverhouse College of Commerce. Online available at 

Reading Co." A Brief History (nd) Reading Company Technical & Historical Society, Online available at .

Union Railroad (nd) online available at .

Central Railroad of New Jersery (nd) online available at

How the Railroad Industrialized America a Track That Unified a Nation
Words: 2968 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29660536
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railroad industrialized America, a Track That Unified a Nation

How the railroad industrialized America

In the nineteenth century, the railroad system of the United States of America came to life. The systems' sole purpose was to transport people and goods across the country. Railroad system in the country began on the East and moved westwards. The move to the west resulted in development of towns, which further made the system branch to meet other regions in the state. These resulted in a web like rail system over the country. These had an impact on the life, culture and the way of life for the people of America. The railroad system in America in the nineteenth century interconnected various societies. The railroad systems at that time decreased work time since people were able to travel easier. People were able to travel great distances with the invention of the railroad system.



William Thomas, 2011 . "Railroads and the Making of Modern America."

John F. Stover, 1997. "American railroads.," Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press

Albro Martin., 1992. "Railroads triumphant: the growth, rejection, and rebirth of a vital American force." New York: Oxford University Press.

H. Roger Grant and Charles W. Bohi., 1978. "The Country Railroad Station in America."

Union Pacific Railroad
Words: 1983 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51315587
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Union Pacific ailroad Logistics

The Union Pacific ailroad is the largest railroad in the nation, and it serves 23 western states, with agreements with other railroads to link it to the East Coast. It was one of the first railroads to operate in the West, it participated in the building of the transcontinental railroad, and it continues to make history today. It has participated in a variety of new technologies, and it is one of the largest logistic and intermodal companies in the country. It operates several different logistical operations, including Union Pacific Intermodal, and it operates many different terminals around the country with state-of-the-art technologies.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the topic of transportation. Specifically it will discuss the different types of transportation modes the Union Pacific railroad is involved in throughout the country. Union Pacific is one of the country's most historic…


Arbona, J. (2005). Union Pacific railroad opens new $100 million international container facility to handle future growth. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Union Pacific Web site: .

Berman, J. (2009). Norfolk Southern, Union Pacific launch intermodal reefer service. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Logistics Management Web site: .

Transportation History of the Railroad
Words: 2332 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46931726
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All of the streets in elmar begin at the Ocean and ends at Shark River. The open trolley cars in summer ran the streets with people hanging from the cars clustered like grapes.

VI. The Train Station in elmar

The train station in elmar was the hub of the entire world one believes after having fully researched the history of elmar's square mile and the surrounding area on the Jersey Coast. Although the railways of New Jersey may not have survived for long in the humanity packed area that comprises New Jersey and the adjacent New York area the "complex social foci" Roper (1978) contained in the element of the railway station is one worth giving consideration to. During the 1920's the average individuals abandoned use of the railway for intercity transportation and this was after dependency on the railways for service for more than 75 years. Pictured below is…


Roper, Grace Trott (1978) "Belmar in Retrospect" [Online} available at,html

Wall Township History [Online] available at

Project Diana Site 1946 - Marconi Road, Wall, New Jersey [Online] available at 

Monmouth County and 40 Towns Embark on Smart Growth Regional Planning: Commissioner Levin Announces Smart Future Initiative Support for the Monmouth County Shore Regional Strategic Plan [Online] available at

Palsgraf v Long Island Railroad
Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19944284
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The appellant could not have reasonably foreseen the danger that the dropped package posed to the respondent, therefore the claim of negligence is unsupported by the facts.

HOLDING: Judgment reversed.

Lucy v. Zehmer, 196 Va. 493, 84 S.E.2d 516 (1954)


While both parties had been drinking, Lucy offered $50,000 to Zehmer for a farm.

In an effort to force Lucy to reveal that he did not have $50,000, Zehmer wrote up a contract for sale of the property and had his wife sign it.

When Lucy attempted to pay Zehmer the asking price, Zehmer refused despite admitting the price was more than fair.

Lucy sued Zehmer for specific performance and the lower court found in favor of Zehmer.

Lucy appealed to the Virginia Supreme Court.

ISSUE: Intentions hidden from other parties to a contract are irrelevant to whether a contract is valid (17 C.J.S., Contracts, § 133 b., p.…


Lucy v. Zehmer, 196 Va. 493; 84 S.E.2d 516; 1954 Va. LEXIS 244.

Palsgraf v. Long Island RR, 248 N.Y. 339; 162 N.E. 99; 1928 N.Y. LEXIS 1269; 59 a.L.R. 1253.

Beta of Csx Railroad Find the Beta
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38936056
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eta of CSX Railroad

Find the eta of CSX

What is the estimated beta coefficient of CSX? What does this beta mean in terms of CSX to include them in my overall portfolio?

The estimated beta coefficient on CSX is 1.24. It is used to determine the underlying volatility in the stock. In general, when you see a beta factor greater than 1.0 this is an indication that the security is more volatile than the stock market average. In the case of CSX, the reading of 1.24 indicates that the stock is 24% more volatile than the major stock market averages. This will increase the overall amounts of volatility in the portfolio. While providing, a way to see above average returns, because of the increased volatility. ("eta," 2010)

Given the beta of CSX, the present yield to maturity on U.S. government bonds maturing in one year (currently about 4.5% annually)…


Beta. (2010). Investopedia. Retrieved from: 

Capital Asset Pricing Model. (2010). Investopedia. Retrieved from: 

Cost of Equity. (2010). Investopedia. Retrieved from: 

CSX Corp. (2010). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from:

Capital Projects Csx Capital Projects Csx Railroad
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37462323
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Capital Projects CSX

Capital Projects: CSX Railroad

CSX Railroad, the nation's third largest rail carrier by revenue (nine billion in 2009) according to Fortune 500 (CNN Money 2010), spends a considerable amount of its revenue (15%) on capital projects to update existing infrastructure, purchase new rail cars, expand intermodal and line access, and meet regulatory standards imposed by the Surface ransportation Board and the Federal Railroad Administration. (Mancini, L.N.D.). In 2009 the company spent 1.4 billion dollars on capital projects designed to "create competitive advantages for customers, grow the business, create jobs and deliver shareholder value" (Progressive Railroading. October 13, 2010). Of particular importance to CSX is the recent announcement of the National Gateway, "a multi-million dollar public-private infrastructure initiative, which will significantly improve the efficiency of the freight network between the Mid-Atlantic ports and the Midwest" (CSX Annual Report 2009).

he development of National Gateway is estimated to cost…

The development of National Gateway is estimated to cost 842 million dollars over a nine-year period (2007-2015), with costs trifurcated between federal monies of 258 million, state funds of 191 million, and CSX contribution of 393 million (CSX National Gateway. June 2010.). The initiative involves CSX along with six states and the District of Columbia, and is designed to "provide higher clearances under bridges and through tunnels for trains to move double-stack containers" (CSX Annual Report 2009). In addition CSX would build or expand several high-capacity, job-producing intermodal terminals where product shipments are exchanged between trucks and trains" (CSX. May 1, 2008). The anticipated gains from expanding rail lines to haul double stack containers include "reduced truck traffic and increase intermodal capacity on key corridors without increasing the number of trains" (CSX Annual Report 2009).

With any capital expenditure an analysis of its return on investment and impact on free cash flow must be addressed. CSX considerable investment must account for not only its cost of capital but potential risks associated with funding, cost overruns, and government regulation. Annual incremental cash flow associated with National Gateway will come from significant decreases in operating costs including: fuel, utilization of economies of scale, and increased capacity per freight line haul. In 2009 CSX achieved a record performance of 74.7% on their operating margin; succinctly the company makes 74.7 cents before interest and taxes on each dollar of sales. With operating income of 2.285 billion in 2009, CSX with its National Gateway initiative expects to see substantial increases in operating income and subsequently free cash flow (CSX Annual Report 2009). National Gateway "enables each train to carry about twice as many cargo boxes; and trains can move a ton of freight 423 miles on a single gallon of fuel, and can carry the load of more than 280 trucks," (CSX. May 1, 2008). Because of the efficiency and cost effectiveness of this initiative "the Company expects to deliver double-digit earnings per share growth for 2010" (CSX Annual Report 2009).

Potential problems though could derail the company's rosy forecasts for National Gateway. The first of these is funding concerns specifically from federal and state sources. The project was injected with "$98 million in funding through the American Recovery Reinvestment Act of 2009" (CSX Annual Report 2009) however, that leaves 160 million in yet unfunded commitments from the federal government. Given the emerging consensus that U.S. debt and deficits are spiraling out of control; significant cutbacks on infrastructure spending are more likely in the coming years, which will leave CSX open to carrying more of the funding requirements. State funding though is also a

Csx Railroad Investments Trailing Only Union Pacific
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20469004
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CSX Railroad Investments

railing only Union pacific and Burlington Northern Santa FE, CSX Railroad is the nation's third largest rail carrier by revenue (nine billion in 2009) according to Fortune 500 (CNN Money 2010). In fiscal year 2009 the company spent 1.4 billion dollars on capital projects designed to "create competitive advantages for customers, grow the business, create jobs and deliver shareholder value" (Progressive Railroading. October 13, 2010). In 2010-2011 "as part of their long-term focus, CSX will invest $1.7 billion annually to maintain their network, comply with new government requirements, install new technology, purchase railcars and build or expand intermodal terminals" (CSX Annual Report 2009). With the resurgence of railroad as a cost effective and efficient method of cargo transportation, CSX understands the strategic importance of capital spending in its efforts to gain competitive advantage in the industry. With that in mind CSX has initiated two projects which require…

The cost of National Gateway is quite expansive and is estimated to cost 842 million dollars over a nine-year period (2007-2015). These costs will with be spilt between federal monies of 258 million (a portion, 98 million coming from stimulus spending, state funds of 191 million, and a CSX contribution of 393 million (CSX National Gateway. June 2010.). Because of its strategic importance CSX has determined that the project meets or exceeds their defined hurdle rate and will deliver shareholder returns over the coming quarters and fiscal years.

Funding sources for CSX are readily available and consist of: common and preferred stock issuance, bond issuance, utilization of credit facilities, and use of existing cash on hand.

In 2009, the company increased overall long-term debt obligations by 177 million with new debt issuance of $500 million. Additionally the Company generated $2.1 billion of cash from operating activities, of which over $1 billion of cash was available and held in cash equivalents and short-term investments. Further, CSX has access to numerous financing sources including a $1.25 billion five-year unsecured revolving credit facility that expires in May 2012. This facility can be increased by an additional $500 million to $1.75 billion with the approval of the

American West United States Became One of
Words: 3016 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96829384
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American est

United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.

Railroads in America est

Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…

Work Cited

Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.

Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.

Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.

Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.

Labor and Union Studies the
Words: 2077 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78255908
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The Great ailroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic. The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in 1892, and the Pullman Strike in 1894 (1877: The Great ailroad Strike, 2006).

There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests. The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great…


1877: The Great Railroad Strike. (2006). Retrieved from -rail-strikes-1877

Hogarty, R.A. (2001). Leon Abbett's New Jersey: the emergence of the modern governor.

Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society.

Mullen, S. (2011). The Strikes of 1877 & 1886: Historic Precedents For Occupy Wall Street.

Levi Coffin's Artical About the
Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87648878
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d.). Therefore, the strength of his convictions and the acceptance of sacrifice create indeed a vivid impression of the character. Moreover, he openly admits the challenges facing his business and his ability to support his family, yet "yet my faith was not shaken, nor my efforts for the slaves lessened"(Coffin, n.d.). The power the belief in a higher authority that offered the blessing on the affairs he conducted represented the main argument which drove him forward and enabled him to make the efforts to set in place and conduct the Underground Railway.

The financial support he was able to have at his disposal was an essential element in the entire success of the initiative. This can be seen from the perspective of the system his partners and he managed to set in place. In this sense, they had at every moment a wagon stationed in the places slaves were considered…


Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.

Coffin, Levi. The underground railway.

Transportation Importance of Transportation Motor
Words: 1822 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82940006
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The significance of exact transport actions and infrastructure can therefore be assessed for each division of the economy (odrigue, 2011).

Transportation connects together the aspects of production in a multifaceted web of associations between producers and consumers. The result is usually a more competent division of production by a utilization of geographical relative advantages, as well as the means to develop financial systems of degree and range. The output of space, capital and labor is consequently improved with the competence of distribution and personal mobility. It is accepted that economic growth is more and more connected with transport expansions, namely infrastructures but in addition managerial knowledge is crucial for logistics (odrigue, 2011).

Transportation growths that have taken place since the beginning of the industrial revolution have been associated with mounting economic opportunities. At each phase of human societal development, a meticulous transport mode has been developed or modified. On the…


Aboard Transportation. (2006).Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:

Chavis, Jason. (2011). Different Types of Air Transportation. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:

Importance of Transportation to Society. (2009). Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:

Benefits of Implementing Google Apps for Business
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: White Paper Paper #: 60800204
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Google pps for Business

Edward F. Palm, Ph.D.

The recipient of the justification report is the Department of Transportation Federal Railroad dministration (FR) located in Washington, DC. This is a really small agency that currently utilizes Microsoft products throughout its enterprise. The purpose of this report is to justify implementing Google pps for Businesses within FR specifically due to increased cost savings and seamless and real-time collaboration. This report will highlight key components of why and how the aforementioned benefits can be successfully realized.

s the Federal Government continues to see an increasing influx in budget cuts, cost savings continues to become a top priority. Google's web-based messaging and collaboration apps require no hardware or software and need minimal administration, creating tremendous time and cost savings for businesses.

In addition to cost savings benefits, Google pps provides seamless and real time collaboration through the use of cloud services. This suite…

Also at this level, it is important to note the limitations of Google Apps, namely the lack of control over the system, the limitations of the storage capacity or the latency, which is still present, regardless of the improvements made to Google Apps and their integration among devices (Crowder, 2011).

5. Analysis

The current section is dedicated to assessing the costs and benefits of implementing Google Apps in the detriment of the Windows

Brigham Young and the Expanding American Frontier
Words: 1113 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40148786
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Brigham Young

At first, Young was ambivalent towards the Methodist -- or any other -- Church. He "held back from joining the Methodists" like his brothers had because of an "independent, deliberate personality" that rejected belief under pressure (8). Methodist revival meetings also turned Young off because of their "loud, crowded, and hyperactive" qualities," (8). Yet while living in the Auburn-Port Byron area, during an economic depression, he was "swept up by religious enthusiasm" and joined the Methodist Church in 1824 (13). The conversion turned out to be integral to Young's "program of self-improvement," (14). The Church prompted Young to give up swearing, one of his self-admitted habits. He experimented with vegetarianism, too, in an attempt to live an overall cleaner and healthier lifestyle. The religion also helped him to overcome his shyness and fear of public speaking (14). In addition to helping him on his personal path, the Methodist…

5. The Gold Rush altered the course of westward expansion, driving increasing numbers of non-Mormons to western lands and especially to California. The Gold Rush was therefore instrumental in preventing Young from entertaining the idea of moving the Mormon camp to California. Young feared a "renewed Mormon/non-Mormon conflict," (94). Mormon Samuel Brannan struck gold and was later excommunicated because he refused to tithe on his huge fortune (94-95). A large number of fortune-seeking trailblazers had made the path to the Great Salt Lake basin easier, which solidified the decision to settle in what is now Salt Lake City (95). Therefore, the Gold Rush had a huge impact on the geography of Mormon settlement. The Gold Rush also directly benefitted the Mormons economically, as gold seekers would stop in Salt Lake City en route to California.

6. By the 1850s, Salt Lake City's Mormon businesses were prospering due to trade with gold seekers. Young encouraged economic self-sufficiency and diversification from what could have easily been an agriculture-dependent economy. Young and the Mormons had brought "to the Great Basin 75 to 100 black slaves," a fact that Young "tried to conceal from federal officials" due to the brewing controversy over slavery in the new territories (104). In spite of this, Young was ambivalent about the Civil War because it represented for him the spiritual end times. When it became apparent that the North was headed for victory, Young took an opportunistic stance of supporting the Union but for strategic reasons only. Young remained staunchly pro-slavery. In 1850 also, Young encouraged the development of an "Iron Mission" that would take advantage of the wealth of raw materials like iron in the region (108). By the end of the 1850s, Young was involved in three "broad categories" of business: first, deals involving partnership with the Mormon Church; second, those involving partnerships with other businessmen; and third, those in which Young was the sole investor (149).

7. Although the Transcontinental Railroad did not pass directly through Salt Lake City, it benefitted the Mormon economy. At the same time, Young feared the large numbers of non-Mormons it would bring to the territory (179). Young agreed with the prevailing patriarchal view that men have dominion over women; that women were inherently inferior to men; and were also less intelligent (192). Moreover, women represented sin, temptation, and spiritual corruption. The United Order was "a system of economic cooperation that called upon selected Mormon communities to pool their equipment, their property, and their energy and work together," (199). It was therefore a system of socialist cooperatives. Variations depended on different levels of economic commitment to the cooperative.

Control of Rr During Civil
Words: 5091 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3751971
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(Steamboats, incidentally, did even better.)

Due to the heavy emphasis on steam transportation, especially by rail the government was better equipped to man and supply vast areas of the nation in combat. The train also traveled at a far greater speed than other more traditional forms of transport, as much as 5 times faster than the mule-drawn wagons of the day. Therefore fewer vehicles were needed and supplies and people arrived in far better condition than they had in the past.

Troops traveling by train rather than on foot experienced less fatigue and fewer instances of straggling and desertion, even though the freight cars used for most troop movements were anything but comfortable. Supplies hauled by rail were more likely to reach the troops in useable condition, owing both to the speed of delivery and to the shelter afforded by enclosed railroad cars.

There are countless examples of the alterations…

Works Cited

Basler, Roy P., ed. Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1946.

Black, Robert C. The Railroads of the Confederacy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Fite, Emerson David. Social and Industrial Conditions in the North during the Civil War. Williamstown, MA: Corner House, 1976.

Gable, Dr. Christopher R. "Railroad Generalship: Foundations of Civil War Strategy " at

Csx Financial Evaluation Evaluating Financial
Words: 2390 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44539721
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PP. 1). The railroad story is one of low cost, fuel efficient, and environmentally friendly shipping. CSX is well positioned to benefit from the growing surge of railroad traffic and intermodal capacity. The company's financial position is excellent, and shareholders will receive continued payoffs in dividend growth and stock appreciation. Over the coming decade the expectation will be that CSX expands into the western U.S. with mergers or acquisitions of smaller regional railroads. In so doing the company will continue its delivery of shareholder value by capitalizing on the tremendous growth in coal exports, domestic consumer demand, and intermodal connectivity.

References (March 19, 2012). CSX Corporation Quote. PP. 1. Retrieved

March 19, 2012 from (November 3, 2009). CNBC Transcript: Warren Buffett Explains His

Railroad 'All-in Bet' on America. PP. 1. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from (2011). Fortune 500. CSX. PP. 1. Retrieved…


(a) Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss primarily includes changes in pension and other postretirement benefit adjustments. These year-end balances shown above are net of tax. The associated taxes were $426 million, $413 million and $466 million for 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively.

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

Economics of Public Policy
Words: 4599 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40440193
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Monopolies and Trusts:

Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?

Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…

Nation Develops by the End
Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78331406
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Family businesses and small artisan shops provided the main means of employment before the Industrial evolution, after which urban-area factories became a dominant economic and social force. Because factories attracted large numbers of domestic and immigrant laborers, they were able to grow rapidly in size and scope. Immigration became a major social revolution precipitated by the Industrial evolution, dramatically altering the ethnic, social, economic, and political landscape of the United States.

The owners of America's new industries, from textiles to steel, became known as robber-barons due to their ruthless business practices. A laissez-faire government permitted big business to flourish, and the big business barons retained significant political clout because of their economic power. Men like Carnegie, Gould, ockefeller, and Vanderbilt built massive fortunes, creating a new type of American aristocracy and an unprecedented level of wealth. The laissez-faire politics in vogue around the turn of the century increased the production…


DeLong, J.B. (1998). Robber Barons. Retrieved Sept 23, 2006 at

Industrial Revolution: Information Page." (nd). ThinkQuest. Retrieved Sept 23, 2006 at

The Roots of American Economic Growth." (nd). Digital History. Retrieved Sept 23, 2006 at

Intercity Train System History of the Train
Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44392092
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Intercity Train System

History of the train System

The modern intercity train system is dominated by the latest revolutionary rapid transit which is an electric passenger railway with high capacity, frequency and a characteristic separation from the other transport systems of the city. These rapid transit systems are normally located either in underground tunnels or are elevated above the city streets, though once they snail their way out of the city they can run on the ground like any other traffic but way separated from the road.

The first transit system to be developed was the London underground that was opened in 1863; this was quickly replicated in many cities across Europe and the U.S.A. The revolution went on so fast with the largest growth of these systems experienced in Asia with the driverless systems. Currently, there are more than 160 cities with the rapid transit system and 25 cities…


Eurail, (2011). Train Travel in Germany with Eurail. Retrieved March, 4, 2011 from 

InterKnowledge Corp. (2006). Russia's. Trans-Siberian Railway. Retrieved March, 4, 2011 from

Motor Carrier's Role in Cities Economic Development
Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1678543
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Motor carriers have populated America's highways for the past several decades and have driven a transportation model that has fueled the growth of just-on-time shipping and a value-added marketing approach that emphasizes the 'extras' that land-transportation shipping provides to its customers. Most experts agree that within the logistics industry, the modes of transportation can be categorized as; air, motor carriers, pipelines, railroads, and water. When discussing motor transport vs. other forms of shipping, experts also agree that "each has advantages, which is why more and more companies are using intermodal methods of transport…they may use railroads for long-haul transport and motor carriers to deliver goods and materials to their final destination" (Lang, 2011, p. 13).

Motor carriers have come a long way since the early heyday of cross-country carrier shipping that saw cutthroat discounting and the challenges that come with deregulations. However, the "adeptly managed carriers learned to operate…


Archetti, C. & Savelsbergh, M.; (2009) The trip scheduling problem, Transportation Science, Vol. 43, Issue 4, pp. 417-431

Dobie, K.; (2005) The core shipper concept: A proactive strategy for motor freight carriers, Transportation Journal, Vol. 44, Issue 2, pp. 37 -- 53

Lang, A.B.; (2011) Transportation technology: Rail transport and logistics, Technology and Engineering Teacher, Vol. 70, Issue 8, pp. 12 -- 17

Murphy, P. & Wood, D.; (2008) Contemporary logistics, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Evolution of Transportation
Words: 1884 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24711355
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Evolution of Transportation

Transportation is one of the tools obligatory by civilized man to get order out of disorder. It arrives into each segment and facet of our continuation. Considered as of every point-of-view, economic, political and military, it is indisputably the most significant industry in the world.

You can no more function a grocery store or a brewery than you can win a war devoid of transportation. The more multifaceted life turns out to be, the more essential are the effects that make up our transportation systems (Moulton, 1949).

History Of Transportations

In the sixty years as of the 1790s to the 1840s, the United States acknowledged what has been appropriately phrased a 'transportation revolution'. Revolutionary it in fact was, for the social, economic, as well as political consequences of the alterations in transportation were extensive and transformative.

More often than not historians recognize actions such as the enlargement…


H.G. Moulton, Controlling Factors in Economic Development. The Brookings Institution, 1949, esp. Chapter VIII.

Stanley I. Fischler, Moving Millions. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.

William D. Middleton. The Time of the Trolley. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Press, 1967.

Solomon et al. History of Transit and Innovative Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1971.

Ghost Towns
Words: 3226 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30234978
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colorful period in America's remarkable early history is the gold rush era. In the late 1800's the discovery of gold triggered a flood of immigrants into the country, all intent on making their fortune. These miners shaped the early history of America, and created a great deal of the legend that surrounds the era of the "ild est." hile some of the legends of lawlessness and debauchery are clearly exaggerated, life in the mining towns of the gold rush era was clearly rough and ready.

This paper will examine life in the mining camps of the gold rush era. This will include a look at the people who made up the camps, the general atmosphere, as well as prostitution, gambling, general lawlessness, and the role of religion within the mining camps. The demise of the mining camps will be examined in the context of the development of the railroad and…

Works Cited

Arizona's Ghost Towns. 02 December 2003.

Baumgart, Don. Some Mining Camps Faded Others Grew To Be Cities. Nevada County Gold Online Magazine. 02 December 2003.

CmdrMark. Travels in the American Southwest. 02 December 2003. 

Koeppel, Elliot H. The California Gold Country: Highway 49 Revisited. Malakoff & Co.

1500 History of World Societies
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40673914
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The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers

The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:


a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.

b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.

c. white settlers who administered British rule.

d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.

Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:

a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.

Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:

a. Japanese modernization.

b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.

c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.

d. British Fabian socialism.


Horsecars -- Predecessor of Modern
Words: 352 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 49647615
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The principle advantage of the horsecar was that it permitted faster travel over the rough street surfaces that limited the maximum operational speed of ordinary (untracked) horse-drawn wagons.

Throughout much of the 19th century, horsecars operated throughout many American cities in various states across the nation; they continued to operate in many areas even after the wider spread of more advanced steam, coal, and electrically powered vehicles in the later decades of the century. Their main drawbacks included the susceptibility of horses to illness, the massive amounts of waste they produce, and the costs of maintaining and feeding horses (Evans, 2004). Eventually, the last horsecars were replaced in the first decades of the 20th century when the availability and costs of those newer technologies made them more economical than the costs associated with maintaining horsecars.


Evans, H. (2004). They Made America: From the Steam Engine to the Search Engine…


Evans, H. (2004). They Made America: From the Steam Engine to the Search Engine

Two Centuries of Innovators. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Nevins, J., and Commager, H. (1992). A Pocket History of the United States. New York:

Pocket Books

Emergence of the Corporation in
Words: 321 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 84856979
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In addition to transforming the nature of business orientation from strict private orientation to engagement in public trading, this would increase the capital available for projects of an ever-greater scale. The infrastructural demands of the railroad systems, for instance, would require a legal context in which finances could be drawn from a wider array of sources. This would bear a reciprocal relationship with the evolution of industrial practices and technological capabilities, which would feed into the growing ambition of American corporations to engage in and profit from the building of the nation. By the turn of the following century, America would enter into one of its most prolific periods of economic growth, incited by the sometimes ruthless expansion of corporate rule.

orks Cited:

Carey, C.. (?). Corporations and Big Business. An Essay From 19th Century U.S. Newspapers Database.

Works Cited:

Carey, C.W. (?). Corporations and Big Business. An Essay From 19th Century U.S. Newspapers Database.

Physical Privacy on February 9th
Words: 1089 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46158602
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Burlington Nortern and Santa Fe Railway Company spokesman stated, "Te settlement is consistent wit te practice we've been following," said Ricard Russack. He also states tat te companies apologized to it's employees for running te tests and tey stopped all testing wen to suit was filed as tey were ordered.

Many in te political and medical filed and te Equal Employment Opportunity Commission temselves feel tis is a landmark settlement wic will alt any future discriminations. "Tis was te rigt result. It gives people reassurance tat te potential arms of genetic testing are going to be taken very seriously in our society," said Wylie Burke, ead of te Department of Medical History and Etics at te University of Wasington in Seattle. (Wasington Post) "Tis landmark settlement provides important new protection against te emerging treat of genetic discrimination," Senator Edward Kennedy (Wasington Post) "Te Commission will continue to respond aggressively to…  News

Kristen Philipkoski,2149,42971,00.html

Man Who Shot Liberty Valance
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Man ho Shot Liberty Valance and the Brilliance of John Ford

John Ford's The Man ho Shot Liberty Valance (1962), a classic western with a few film noir elements included, is elegiac in the sense that its narrative strategy is that of eulogistic remembrance by now-Senator Ransom Stoddard, of horse rancher Tom Doniphan, who once saved Stoddard's life and changed it much for the better, and who was the real man who shot Liberty Valance. According to Robert Horton, "This may be the saddest estern ever made, closer to an elegy than an action movie, and as cleanly beautiful as its central symbol, the cactus rose" ("Editorial Reviews"). Upon Tom Doniphan's death in the small fictional town of Shinbone (state unknown) Ransom and Hallie Stoddard arrive back in town to pay their final respects to Doniphan who sacrificed so much of himself, and so much of his own future happiness,…

Works Cited.

Berardinelli, James. "Dances with Wolves: A Film Review." Top 10 of the 90's.

Retrieved May 28, 2005, from: .

Ford, John. (Dir.). The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance. With John Wayne and Vera Miles.

Paramount, 1962.

Does the United States Government Have Environmental Ethics
Words: 2987 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27254600
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Environmental Ethics

US Government and Environmental Ethics

The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…

Work Cited

American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, .

The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from,,_Franklin_D ..

The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, .

BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, .

Ethics as With Darwin's Theory
Words: 1281 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 5380015
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The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.

On the harm side, many…

Works Cited:

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from 

Cline, a. (2011). Deontology and ethics: What is deontology, deontological ethics? Retrieved February 20, 2011 from 

Miller, P. (2007). Genetic testing and the future of disability insurance: Thinking about discrimination in the genetic age. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Vol. 35 (2) 47-52.

Schafer, S. (2001). Railroad agrees to stop gene-testing workers. Washington Post. In possession of the author.

Supply Chain the Rapid Growth
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7214405
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he value inherent to freight forwarding in the modern global supply chain can be stated both in terms of finances and efficiency, which ultimately has its own effect on finances and revenues, as well. hese two value elements are largely intertwined in the supply chain itself as well -- freight forwarders are better equipped to locate available shipping space at the best possible price than are individual manufacturers or even distributors (Baluch 2005). Freight forwarders essentially offer a service to both shippers and manufacturers/those in need of shipping, creating greater value for both asset-based entities in the arrangement by creating greater efficiency in the system as a whole (Baluch 2005).


he seven economic drivers of transportation costs can be easily illustrated with the example of a standard laptop computer. Distance for many of these units is considerable, often requiring transport from parts of Asia to Europe and North…

The freight bill, or bill of lading, is given by a shipping provider to the manufacturer or shipping originator to acknowledge the receipt of specified goods for transport, usually with certain key details of the shipping agreement including payment terms, pickup and delivery locations and often dates, and a detail of the goods to be transported (MarketTrans 2010). Though not itself a full contract, it is evidence of a contract (whether verbal or written) between the shipper and the carrier, and as it lists certain terms of the carrier's part in the venture and requires the shipper's signature it is legally binding in several regards (MarketTrans 2010).


The essential goal of multi-vendor consolidation is to increase the efficiency of shipping for both

Landscape Neoclassical Painting One Unifying
Words: 372 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71913508
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Discussion 2

Until the 19th century, nature in art was usually, if present at all, merely the in background of portraits. History and human beings were considered the true, fitting subjects of art. However, as nature began to retreat from everyday life with the rise of technology, artists began to look on nature as a source of inspiration. As nature became rarer, artists gave nature more significance and importance -- nature became more symbolically significant, even as 'real' nature was being overrun by factories, cities, and railroads. Rather than something to be tamed, nature was now something precious. But although human beings may not be present in all Romantic depictions of nature, human thoughts about nature clearly are -- an artist always paints his or her own point-of-view, not a literal representation of nature. Even in the most realistic depictions of nature, the artist is always selective in what…

Differences Between the Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today
Words: 2234 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25941352
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Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today

Technology during 1910 and its rapid evolution to the present era:

The 19th century witnessed major upheavals in science and technology ushering a gamut of changes and widespread ripple effect on the society. The dawning of science in industry brought about by the Industrial evolution was a watershed in global technology that continued to shape the future of mankind. It was in that era when development of large scale metal working techniques popularised steam power. ailroads appeared and facilitated in mass migration of populations. Urbanizations started, commerce flourished, fortunes were made and a new class of affluent appeared. Major scientific inventions like electromagnetism by Clerk Maxwell and greater sophistication of electricity brought about technological changes and improved quality of life with telegraph, electric light and radio transforming the world for the better. (Jeff, 2002)

Development in natural science spearheaded…


Chandrinos, K.V; Trahanias, P.E. (n. d.) "Beyond HTML: Web-based Information Systems"

Institute of Computer Science, Retrieved 15 March 2012 from 

Davenport, Thomas H; Short, James E. (1990) "The new industrial engineering information technology and business process redesign" Center for Information Systems Research. CISR WP No. 213, Sloan WP No. 3190-90.

EEA. (2010) "SOER 2010 -- Assessment of global megatrends"

Export Companies in Mexico by
Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22661711
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Latin America is as such seeking to decrease its interregional dependence and develop more relationships with the better developed economies of the globe. It nevertheless remains sensitive to the international economic crisis and the debt crisis in the Euro-zone (Inter-American Development Bank, 2011).

As it has been previously mentioned, the Latin American countries are characterized by specific traits, which make it difficult to conduct integrated analyses. The same can be said about Mexico, where different traits are also observed. Based on these traits, Tecnologico de Menterrey has developed four specific models for regional development. The models, created based on strong theoretical background and adapted to the Mexican realities, refer to the following:

Model 1: Technology Parks for the high value employment to employ high numbers of non-research and non-scientific staffs, but specialized staffs for high-value activities

Model 2: Technology Parks for the attraction and development of business. These entities will…


(2011). Latin American registers strong export growth in 2011. Inter-American Development Bank.,9787.html  accessed on October 1, 2012

(2011). Models of technology parks. Tecnologico de Monterrey.  / accessed on October 1, 2012

(2012). The world factbook -- Mexico. Central Intelligence Agency.  accessed on October 1, 2012

Financial Funding System for Amtrak Doesn't Work
Words: 1269 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28376979
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financial funding system for Amtrak doesn't work and what can be done about it.

Review current materials on the issue.

Amtrak is doomed to failure, even with government subsidies if it does not improve service, become more efficient and find ways to increase revenue not just rider-ship.


Congress initially created Amtrak in 1970 as a for-profit organization, offering national rail service. It was signed into existence in 1971 and to date has never produced a profit. In 1997, Congress's Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act stipulated that the rail system had to achieve operational sufficiency by the end of 2002 and prohibits Amtrak from using any federal funds for operating expenses after fiscal 2002.

Rail travel has a lot of benefits to offer passengers who do not want to endure the hassles of flying or some of the negative effects of long flights. Rail travel is more comfortable and provides…


Amtrak Funding Brighter. www.UTENEWS/webpaper.com1999

The Amtrak Funding Scandal. 28, 2002.

Joseph Vranich. Edward L. Hudgins. "Help Passenger Rail by Privatizing Amtrak." Policy Analysis. Nov. 2001.

200 Million in Supplemental Funding for Amtrak. 2002.

Conservative Congress Takes America Down Ragged Path to Ruin
Words: 7502 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84712398
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U.S. Infrastructure Is in Jeopardy and Consequently So Are We

The federal highway trust fund is the fiscal foundation of the highway system in the United States. Without adequate funding, highway construction stalls and road construction workers are out of work. Congress has dallied with the economic future of America for years as it refused to pass a multiyear transportation bill. The reason for this is likely to be readily apparent to most people: the conservative Congress does not want to increase taxes, even to fund repairs and new roads to meet the infrastructure needs of the country.

A recent study from the White House reports that more than two-thirds of the nation's roadways need to be repaired and that the continued dilapidation results in higher eventual costs that run into the billions of dollars (unningen, 2014). The 27-page report released mid-July 2014 by the Council of Economic Advisers and…


Bennen, S. (2015, May 14). Boehner rejects Amtrak question as 'stupid.' The Rachel Maddow Show. MSNBC. Retreived from 

Buettner, R. And Fitzsimmons, E.G. (2015, February 12). In New York area, points where train and tragedy are likely to intersect. The New York Times. Retrieved from 

Caygle, J. (2015, May 13). House panel votes to cut Amtrak budget hours after deadly crash. Politico. Retreived from 

de Blaseo, B. And Cornett, M. (2015, May 13). Let our cities move. The Opinion Pages. The New York Times. Retrieved from

House of Morgan An American Banking Dynasty
Words: 1803 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19179703
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House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the ise of Modern Finance, by Edwin P. Hoyt, Jr. Specifically, it will discuss the three most significant things and/or people in this book. The significance could be judged at the time of the events/persons in question or perhaps better, be seen through hindsight, i.e. its/their effect on modern finance. While there are many significant and important people and events depicted in "The House of Morgan," three stand out as the most influential and significant as the book progresses. These three things are Miles Morgan and his immigration to America, Junius Spencer Morgan and his rise in financial banking, leaving his legacy to his son, J. Pierpont Morgan, and finally, the railroad in America, which neatly cemented the family's success and rise to domination of American and worldwide finance and investment.


The House of Morgan" tells the story…


Author not Available. "Milestones in J.P. Morgan History." AP Online, 13 Sept. 2000.

Hoyt, Edwin P. Jr. The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1966.

Abolitionist Movement in American and
Words: 2158 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 65951108
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Bloss, a Christian evangelist and labor activist who published a newspaper titled "Rights of Man" (Kaye, p. 147).

ere there others whose names are not well-known but who played an important role in the abolitionist movement? According to author Harvey J. Kaye, the co-editor of "Freedom's Journal" was an African-American named Samuel Cornish. Kaye writes (p. 147) that Cornish also launched his own abolitionist newspaper, "The Rights of All." Another free black man, David alker, from North Carolina, was "apparently moved by the Bible, the egalitarian spirit of the Declaration of Independence, and the revolutionary example of Paine's "Common Sense," started his own pamphlet that called on black slaves to "rise up against their white oppressors" (Kaye, p. 148). The pamphlet launched by alker was called: "An Appeal, in Four Articles, Together with a Preamble, to the Colored Citizens of the orld, but in Particular and Very Expressly to Those…

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave.

Charleston, SC: Forgotten Books, 1845.

Kaye, Harvey J. Thomas Paine and the Promise of America. New York: Macmillan, 2006.

Lamme, Ary J. "Commemorative Language in Abolitionist Landscape Texts: New York's 'Burned-Over District'." Southeastern Geographer 48.3 (2008): 356-373.

Battle of Bristoe Station
Words: 3170 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58161180
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attle of ristoe Station led many to question the Confederacy's grasp of tactics as it was a strategic blunder. In many respects, it confirmed assumptions made after the battle of Gettysburg that the leadership of the Army of Northern Virginia's officer corps was not infallible. It is the principle battle of the ristoe campaign, one in which General Lee attempted to separate the Army of the Potomac from its supply lines and prevent the North from sending more troops to Georgia to make inroads into the Confederate interior. On October 14, A.P. Hill's corps stumbled on two Corps of the retreating Union army at ristoe Station and attacked without proper reconnaissance. In fact, his opponents were Union soldiers of the II Corps, that lay to his right. elieving re-enforcement troops to be close at hand, Hill ordered Henry Heth's division to attempt to breach General Warren's well-fortified line behind the…


Downey, Fairfax. The Guns at Gettysburg. New York: D. McKay, 1958. 

Draper, John William. History of the American Civil War. Vol. 2. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1867. 

Robin Higham, and Steven E. Woodworth, eds. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. 

Hosmer, James Kendall. Outcome of the Civil War, 1863-1865. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1907.

Underground Railway Effects on Slavery
Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15647999
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Underground Railroad Functioned and Assess Its Significance

During the 1850s, slaves had few alternatives in life --a slave could remain on the plantation of his/her master, come to terms with the idea of a life filled with frequent cruel physical punishments and grueling labor, and the possibility of one's family getting separated, (accompanied by the pain of watching family members being sold away). hile this wasn't necessarily the fate all slaves met, they could expect it, if they remained enslaved. The idea of escape was fraught with uncertainty. The slaves would be hunted either by the master himself or by cruel, professional slave hunters. If a runaway slave was caught, he was nearly always put to death; further, the other slaves (i.e., his coworkers in the plantation) were also punished and were, normally, made to witness the defiant slave's execution. Moreover, a run-away life wasn't at all easy. Even in…

Works Cited

Connors, Tiffany. "How the Underground Railroad Worked." HowStuffWorks. 28 Feb. 2008. Web. 16 Oct. 2015.

Tubman, Harriet. "Underground Railroad."Underground Railroad. Web. 16 Oct. 2015.

U S Transportation Revolution 1815-1830
Words: 2760 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76709594
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This paper argues that, even prior to the advent of the railroads, a transportation revolution had taken place in the United States in the early nineteenth century. It argues that two developments were most important: steamboat navigation and the construction of the great canals. In particular, the building of the Erie Canal constituted a revolution in its own right. It was on account of the transportation revolution of the 1815-30 period that the American economy was decisively transformed in a capitalist direction.

In 1800, the United States did not lack a transport infrastructure, but it was a very poor one. With the exception of cities and towns located on the Atlantic coastline or along navigable waterways, there was literally no means of transporting agricultural produce and manufactured items to or from market centers other than country roads. These roads were…


Boyer, Paul S. et al. The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin, [YEAR?]

Cornog, Evan. The Birth of Empire: De Witt Clinton and the American Experience 1769-1828. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Frost, James Arthur. Life on the Upper Susquehanna 1783-1860. New York: King's Crown Press, 1951.

Majewski, John. A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia Before the Civil War. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Project Management Plan Xyz Curb Gutter &
Words: 1960 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26396674
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Project Management Plan



The proposed contract for this project management plan is repaving of all the city streets in the city of Huntsville, Alaama. The project will include rehailitation and preservation of the historic district in the area of the old Railroad Depot in Decatur, Alaama to include rick streets, and round-aouts in the area of downtown Huntsville, Alaama. This will e a large-scale cur, gutter, and road paving project with high costs in laor and materials. Included in this project are the following cur, gutter, and road paving as well as rehailitative street construction initiatives:

miles of cur, gutter and street paving in the City of Huntsville, Alaama

round-aouts near the Railroad Depot

miles of rehailitaiton of rick streets leaving streetcar rails in the rick paving…


Low Impact Development At the Local Level: Developers' Experiences and City County Support. (2009) Econwest. Retrieved from:

Bid/No-Bid Decision Process Flow (2015) The One Business Proposal. Retrieved from: 

Roadway/Transportation -- Capital Improvement Projects (CIP) (nd) Retrieved from:

U S History Ordeal by Fire
Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52368042
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The government also became a large consumer of manufactured goods, which added even more profits to industries' coffers.

There were some problems during this time of growth and development, however. The powerful railroads often wielded their power indiscriminately, and many Americans can to criticize the power and exploitation of the railroads and their wealthy owners. Owners often created schemes to make money both from railroads and their construction, which led to "conflict of interest" scandals that had not been known before. The public came to distrust the railroads, and workers began to protest their low wages, dangerous jobs, and long hours. Industrialization also created less of a need for many craftsmen and tradesmen, and remaining jobs were often menial for low pay and long hours of work. This helped create labor unrest and discontent in many people, and combined with railroad problems, led to unemployment and an eventual slowing down…


McPhearson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw Hill.

Sherman's March to the Sea Services and
Words: 3262 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7081743
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Sherman's March To The Sea

Services and trainings at military

Marriage and Career

Services in Civil Wars

Brilliant strategic

Sherman's March

Year 1864 (Atlanta Event): Preparation of War 4

March to the Sea Event

Move to South Carolina Event

Move to North Carolina Event

Consequences of the Sherman's March

esearch Paper Sherman's March to the Sea

William Tecumseh Sherman who was also known as General Sherman (born on 8 February, 1820 in Lancaster-Ohio) that is nearby Hocking iver shore. By profession, his father was a lawyer and worked at Ohio Supreme Court. At the age of nine, his father died. A family friend raised him.

When he was 16 years old, Ewing appointed him as a cadet in U.S. military academy at the West Point. After his graduation, he entered into the army as second lieutenant in 1840. Sherman was promoted to Captain due to his services. He was not…


Clarke & Dwight, L. (1969). William Tecumseh Sherman: Gold Rush Banker. California Historical Society.

Eicher, J.H. & Eicher, D.J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press.

Inscoe, J. (2011). The Civil War in Georgia: A New Georgia Encyclopaedia Companion. University of Georgia Press.

Rhodes, J.F. (1901). Sherman's March to the Sea. The American Historical Review, 6(3), 466-474.

Millenarian Vision Capitalist Reality Journal Millenarian
Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53123440
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'Squatter' families on public lands were also often ignored, giving peasants another means of survival.

However, when railways began to be rapidly snake across the nation, the potential for making profits off of the land seismically increased. From 1907-1914 the entrepreneurial capitalist Percival Farquhar began to engage in a massive construction campaign. Huge waves of immigrants to work for the railroad made an influx into formerly homogeneous regions, profoundly destabilizing the lives of residents as well as of these new arrivals. Violent clashes were common between railroad workers and peasants -- although peasants were forced off of their land to work on the railroads as well.

Diacon calls the forces that brought change to Brazil a "deadly triumvirate" of the state government, the Brazil Railway Company, and the landowners looking for a quick profit (Diacon 59). Even many smaller landowners lost tracts to the powerful railroad companies. Regardless, the patron-client…

Works Cited

Diacon, Todd A. Millenarian Vision, Capitalist Reality. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991.

Women in the Civil War
Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74241989
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Real Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman -- Journal Article Review

The stories, myths, and facts surrounding Harriet Tubman's Underground Railroad may seem to be a settled matter to the public, but this is far from true (Larson 9). Over the past several decades, historians have been sifting through primary source material for additional information about Tubman's contributions to the Underground Railroad during the Pre-Civil ar period. The routes that Tubman used ran through Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New York to St. Catharines in Canada. This journal article will examine this new evidence and the arguments presented by Kate Larson to justify her findings and conclusions.

A New Perspective

Larson lists various types of primary source material documenting the Underground Railroad and sounds surprised that historians had, until recently, largely ignored this wealth of information (9-10). These sources revealed that there were scores of men and women who took great risks to…

Works Cited

Larson, Kate Clifford. "Racing for Freedom: Harriet Tubman's Underground Railroad Network through New York." Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 36.1 (2012): 7-33.

History 1865-1960
Words: 2544 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13218699
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American history as a radical and revolutionary society. Specifically, it will discuss the works of "The Jungle," by Upton Sinclair, and "Coming of Age in Mississippi," by Anne Moody. Radical reform and revolutionary ideas are at the very foundation of our freedom in America, and this tradition of freedom of speech and rebellion has continued from 1865 onward in our society. There has always been dissention and disagreement in our history, however, our freedom gives us the right to disagree, rebel, revolt, and share our radical ideas - which often lead to reform, understanding, and a better life for all Americans.


In 1865, the nation had just lived through a Civil ar that divided the nation, families, and races. Now, America was ready to move on, but there were still issues dividing the nation - issues that would continue to foster revolution and radicalism, and bring out the…

Works Cited

Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1968.

Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1906.

America Moves West Reconstruction Is the Name
Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70627495
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America Moves West

econstruction is the name for the period in United States history that covers the post-Civil War era, roughly 1865-1877. Technically, it refers to the policies that focused on the aftermath of the war; abolishing slavery, defeating the Confederacy, and putting legislation in effect to restore the nation -- per the Constitution. Most contemporary historians view econstruction as a failure with ramifications that lasted at least 100 years later: issues surrounding the Civil ights were still being debated in the 1970s, corrupt northern businessmen "carpetbaggers" brought scandal and economic corruption, monetary and tariff policies were retributive and had legal results in the north as well. Despite the failure of this period as an equalizer or integrator of races in the Old South, there was an equally robust push westward that not only encouraged individuals of all ethnicities to move, but changed the political and economic texture of the…


Immigration and Labor. (2009). Encarta.MSN. Retrieved from:

Railroads Following the Panic. (2001). U.S. 2001. Retrieved from: .

Teaching With Documents: The Homestead Act of 1862. (2007). National Archives.

Key Growth Techniques
Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86504614
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Growth Techniques: The Entrepreneurs

Many entrepreneurs were born during this period of time and often used specific growth strategies that were key to their empires and their fortunes. None of them went about it in exactly the same way but it all came about to the same end. One of the largest entrepreneurs of the time was Gould. Most of his fortune was made in the western railroads and he also became involved with the Western Union Co., which is still around today. Although many of the enterprises he involved himself in eventually came to ruin he amassed a fortune that was over $100 million at the time of his death. The basic key growth strategy that Gould used had to do with creating great wealth for himself and not being concerned about those that he left in his wake.

Another individual that made his fortune in railroads during that…

Indian-American Technology Stasis It Is
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53132194
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he introduction of various kinds of technology for the railroad, cattle ranching and mining of gold and silver, and ecological disturbance resulting from agrarianism were among the major factors in the near-extinction of the buffalo. Permanent railroad tracks, the depletion of trees for railroad ties and bridges and the decrease in wild animal population marked the lasting foreign presence in the Native West. Recent estimates revealed that there were 15-60 million buffaloes before the Europeans settled in 1500s. he animal population was severely depleted by the construction of the transcontinental railroad to the Western homeland of Plain Indian tribes. he buffalo was said to have reach near-extinction by the end of the 1870s when it numbered less than 1,000. Rapid American expansion in less than 50 years was behind it and other dismal results to the Continent (Fixico).

IV. Cost: But more and more evidence has been coming up, which…

The Aztecs had a well-structured and highly codified government, led by a very powerful emperor (Birklid 2010). He strictly required taxes from those he conquered. Then distributed land to his people, especially the warriors. The Aztecs became the largest empire in Mexico by 1473 through conquest of neighboring tribes. The capital, Tehnochtitlan, was described as a beautiful city, consisting of pyramids, long floating roads, aqueducts, brisk marketplaces and about a hundred thousand residents (Birklid).

The Aztecs used a 365-day calendar, similar to the one used by the Mayans (Birklid 2010). They used symbols to write and create sentences. Their most important god was white-faced Quetzacuatl, the god of intelligence and creation (Birklid).

They engaged in regional politics and entered into alliances with neighboring tribes, who were also expanding (Birklid 2010). These allies were the Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco, northwest of Tenochtitlan. They had skilled warriors and skilled diplomats. In 1428, they

Industrialization on the United States
Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74550474
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Petroleum, the source of gasoline, became especially important after the automobile came into widespread use in the early 1900's.

Improved communications also contributed to economic expansion. The railroad improved mail delivery, replacing the stagecoach. The invention of the telephone and the telegraph afforded the rapid communication essential to business operations. This business boom triggered a sharp increase in investments in the stocks and bonds market. As businesses prospered, persons eager to share in the profits invested heavily, providing capital needed to for expansion. Banks also contributed to the nation's economic growth by making loans to businesses.

The expansion of industry had a profound effect on American life. As new businesses sprouted in cities metropolitan populations reached unprecedented numbers. During this period many Americans amassed huge fortunes from the business boom, while others lived in extreme poverty. The sharp contrast between the rich and the poor and other features of American…

Peasant Life During the Meiji
Words: 5967 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 19657359
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..Of course, her earnings were also meager, but it was better than relying on farming alone" (Nagatsuka, 1). Oshina, the wives' character in the novel, could be the impersonation of any hardworking farmer's wife during the Meiji Restoration in Japan. The hardship of the life in a village struggling to adjust to the wave of modernity swiping the country, but still very deeply rooted in the previous period was plausible in the case of those who did not own much land or the means to improve their living standards from other not farm-related activities. "At all hours of the day, as long as there was light, Oshina kept busy at one task or another; soaking straw from rope making, sweeping up leaves, her hands were never idle" (Nagatsuka, 1). The lives of the farmers like those described by Nagatsuka were subject to rapid change since the early stages of the…

Works Cited

1. Bernier, Bernard. "The Japanese Peasantry and Economic Growth Since the Land Reform of 1946-47." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 12.1 (1980)

2. Birrell, Robert. "Obstacles to Development in Peasant Societies: An Analysis of India, England, & Japan." Peasants in the Modern World. Ed. Philip K. Bock. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1969.

3. Eisenstadt, Shmuel Noah. Japanese Civilization: A Comparative View. University of Chicago Press, 1996

4. Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003

Infrastructure Is the Foundation of a Healthy
Words: 1513 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 60389951
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Infrastructure is the foundation of a healthy economy and an equitable society. The World Bank's Policy Research Report on Reforming Infrastructure: Privatization, Regulation, and Competition evaluates infrastructure issues in several major sectors: telecommunications, electricity, transportation, and water. Within these infrastructural areas, the report addresses topics related to privatization, state ownership, competition, and regulation. Finally, the report incorporates social and economic concerns into proposed policy reforms. Both privatization and state control of infrastructures present problems that can be addressed with wise and research-based reform.

Chapter One of the World Bank Policy Research Report on Reforming Infrastructure focuses on network utilities. Not limited to telecommunications alone, a networking infrastructure entails all that is necessary for businesses to compete in the global marketplace. Economic development depends on the creation and maintenance of an effective, reliable, and accessible network infrastructure.

Network infrastructure is a "natural target for government intervention" and yet is "difficult to…

Cowboy Myth the Female Cowboy in Johnny
Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86909375
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Cowboy Myth

The Female Cowboy in Johnny Guitar

The myth of the cowboy continues to thrive in cinema and on television. It is difficult to maintain the mythological characteristics of the cowboy when the qualities inherent of a fictional cowboy are applied to a nonfictional person or situation. In Johnny Guitar Vienna exemplifies mythological characteristics of the cowboy while redefining the myth at the same time.

In "The Man in the lack Hat," Ruud Kaulingfreks, Geoff Lightfoot, and Hugo Letiche[footnoteRef:1] seek to explore how the mythological cowboy draws upon concepts of individualism, sociality, and morality. In the article, Kaulingfreks et al. argue that the cowboy "flees from the domination of man over man and finds freedom through living beyond society."[footnoteRef:2] This characteristic can be found in Johnny Guitar's Vienna, a woman who refuses to live by society's rules and runs a saloon on the outskirts of town.[footnoteRef:3] In Johnny Guitar,…


Kaulingfreks, Ruud, Lightfoot, Geoff, and Letiche, Hugo. "The Man in the Black Hat." Culture

and Organization Vol. 15, Issue 2, June 2009, 151-165.

Johnny Guitar. YouTube. Directed by Nicholas Ray. 1954; United States: Republic Pictures,