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They proceeded to rape her as she was passed out. To make matters worse, they photographed the sexual assault and posted it on Facebook. Eight days after this incident occurred, she committed suicide saying, "The whole school knows. My life is ruined." (alsh)
hat made the situation so troubling; is these videos went viral and everyone around her high school wanted to see them. hile the movie was not released at the time, this is illustrating how a rape culture exists in society. This is occurring through showing how women or girls want to be sexual objects based upon the way they look. At the same time, they cannot make smart decisions for themselves and need males to help them. To make matters worse, the male has to show off his conquests by letting everyone know about what happened. The rape of Audrie Potts is a classic example of how…
Buchwald, Emilie. Transforming a Rape Culture. Minneapolis: Milkweed, 2005. Print.
Dargis, Manhola. "Spring Breakers." New York Times, 2013. Web. 30 Apr. 2013
No man has a right to sexually assault a woman based on her behavior and mode of dressing. Rapists select their victims based on vulnerability and accessibility of the victim. Studies show that rapists do not select victims based on their appearance, and attractiveness of the victim is never an issue to the rapist. Opportunity is the factor that determines when rapist will sexually assault the victim. Even when a woman's behavior may show clearly that she is interested in sex she, does not mean she needs to be raped. No person regardless of age, behavior or dressing deserves such a cruel act.
The myth that women enjoy forced sex is totally untrue. Rape is not and enjoyable activity nor is the act relaxing. During normal sex, women love to be in control but in rape, victim is never in control. All women like to be shown some love and…
How ssumptions can lead to False Belief, and the Importance of Truth
Rape is a serious issue in today's overtly sexualized society. Bare skin seems to be everywhere, no matter what the season: music, art, television shows, advertisements, etc. nd this sexualization happens in all areas of society, and contains all ethnicities and both genders. Nobody is spared, and though we are all exposed to the same images, we often assume certain things that are not true. s human being, we tend to do that a lot. It is, for this reason, very probable that this is how the rape myth came about. This paper will discuss what a rape myth is and describe the various kinds that exist, while at the same time pondering how knowing about this issue can change one's perceptions.
Rape myths are beliefs that diminish the violent nature of the rape act and…
A last myth in the long list is the men cannot be raped. Again, this is untrue, as many men are demeaned an humiliated through sexual abuse. Rape happens no matter the gender. [footnoteRef:1] [1: Paraphrasing of bullet points from the following two sources:"List of Rape Myths" (2011). University of Minnesota Duluth. Retrieved from, http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/jhamlin/3925/myths.html and "Sexual Assault" (2011). Roger Williams University. Retrieved from, http://www.rwu.edu/studentlife/studentservices/counselingcenter/sexualassault/rapemyths.htm ]
Knowing these myths is quite illuminating. I do not believe anyone could be really that ignorant to believe all these falsehoods. However, it is probable that many people believe some, such as the last one "men cannot be raped." Unfortunately, society is ignorant. Personally, this does not change my understanding of what rape is, for I knew all of these myths from previous studies, but I do hope that some who read this will think differently about rape. If I were to know nothing about rape, I would certainly believe that it is important to examine truth vs. opinion.
In any society, it is important to be aware of certain things that are harmful, and sexuality, so widespread in ours, can take a turn for the worse and be expressed through violence with the goal of manipulation and humiliation. It is important to be aware of how such beliefs interact in our society, and how we can change wrongful perceptions.
Counselors should consider a woman's reaction to rape within a socio-cultural context and remain sensitive to cultural differences in a survivor's access to services, as well as her feelings of safety in reporting crimes and how disclosures following rape may be received in her community (Hensley pp). Counselors should also be aware of a client's history of victimization, for there is a considerable body of research demonstrating that early sexual abuse and maltreatment are significant risk factors for rape as an adult, for example a rape in childhood or adolescence can lead to the experience of low self-worth and powerlessness, thus resulting in a greater risk of multiple victimization (Hensley pp).
Rapes are generally classified as stranger, acquaintance, date, partner, or marital rapes (Hensley pp). However, most women perceive their risk of being raped by a stranger as higher than by an acquaintance, date, or partner, yet there is much…
Burke, Sloane. (1999 December 01). An Assessment of College Students'
Attitudes and Empathy Toward Rape. College Student Journal. Retrieved October 17, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Date rape - A hidden crime. (2000 July 5). M2 Presswire. Retrieved October 17
2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
She argues that women must accept responsibility for what happens on a date and men must not always be blamed for the situation. She felt that vague definition of date rape was making more women feel like victims:
If we assume that women are not all helpless and naive, then they should be held responsible for their choice to drink or take drugs. If a woman's "judgment is impaired" and she has sex, it isn't necessarily always the man's fault; it isn't necessarily always rape" (28).
In this debate of who is to blame for such incidents, there appears to be little consensus. Some researchers feel that men must proceed cautiously on such occasions.
When I assume that because [a woman] doesn't say "no," she means "yes," I'm taking a tremendous risk. I would rather hear "no" than hear later that she thinks I raped her... Do we want to…
Gibbs, Nancy. When is it rape? (Cover Story) Time; 6/3/1991;
Joseph Weinberg, quoted in Read, Katy. "Rape Counseling with a Difference." Times-Picayune. February 11, 1992.
Kanin, E.J. (1957). Male aggression in dating-courtship relations. American Journal of Sociology, 63, 197-204.
Korman S., & Leslie G. (1982). "The Relationship of Feminist Ideology and Expense Sharing to Perceptions of Sexual Aggression in Dating." Journal of Sex Research, 18:114-29.
. . cognitions," further research is needed to find out how an individual may utilize various parts of cognitive therapy in order to reach the goal of openness and flexibility (Sobel, 2009, 1). The paper will conclude with a suggestion that a valuable follow-up research project might be done, comparing repressed feelings which may lead to possible massive anger problems preceding self-destructive and negative behaviors.
Foa, Edna B. And Rothbaum, Olasov (2001) Treating the Trauma of Rape: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for PTSC. Guilford Press. 2001.
Frazier, Patricia A., Heather Mortensen, & Jason Steward. (2005). Coping strategies as mediators of the relations among perceived control and distress in sexual assault survivors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 267-278. Retrieved July 3, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global.
Jaycox, Lisa H., Lori Zoellner, & Edna B. Foa. (2002). Cognitive-behavior therapy for PTSD in rape survivors. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(8), 891-906.
oss, Mary P.…
Koss, Mary P. Aurelio Jose Figueredo, & Ronald J. Prince. (2002). Cognitive mediation of rape's mental, physical, and social health impact: Tests of four models in cross-sectional data. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(4), 926-941.
Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov & Ann C. Schwartz. (2002). Exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 56(1), 59-75.
Sobel, Ana A., Resick, Patricia A. And Rabalais, Aline E. (2009) The Effect of Cognitive Processing Therapy on Cognitions: Impact of Statement Coding. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Vol.22 Iss.3-28 May 2009.
The movie Spring Breakers starts off with images of bare breasts and butts jiggling on the beach with more focus being on the private parts of women. Even though the scene is of both males and females, the main focus is on females. According to Heather Long, this message being presented in this is that only females are letting loose and they are ultimately inviting men to take advantage of them. The author feels that this movie is depicting the desperation and loose character of females that give rise to rape culture. (Long) On the other hand, there are some who feel that this movie shows women in an entirely different perspective and thus condones Rape culture. (Peck) It is my personal opinion that Spring Breakers does not enforce Rape culture rather it goes on to show women in an extreme way.
There have always been arguments between…
Herman, Diane F. "The Rape Culture." Culture Contemporary, (1984): Print.
Klemmack, Susan H. And David L. Klemmack. "The Social Definition of Rape." Sexual Assault. By Walker, Marcia J. And Stanley L. Brodsky. 1st ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1976. 136. Print.
Long, Heather. "Spring Breakers isn't just a terrible movie, it reinforces rape culture." theguardian. 28th March. 2013. Web. 13th May 2013. [ http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/mar/28/spring-breakers-movie-wild-girls-rape-culture ].
Peck, Jamie. "Spring Breakers Doesn't Reinforce Rape Culture." 2013. Web. 13 May 2013. .
Handmaid's Tale' creatively and chillingly hypothesizes about the rational result of a world in which draconian laws and convictions/beliefs about women and their bodies prevail. The women in the movie, have become completely subservient to men and to the needs of men. Even their bodies, have turned into playthings for men to use and abuse as they deem fit. In the 'The Handmaid's Tale', a handmaid cannot reject the advances of her "master." And in the sanctified act of sex the man did not need to consider the women's consent, pleasure, or comfort. No foreplay is needed, either… just orgasm or ejaculation (Muir). The Commander is hitched to a cold and bitter woman, who is ironically named as Serena Joy (Faye Dunaway).
Serena Joy longs to have children, not for the purposes of self-interest or personal satisfaction, but rather to "keep up with the Joneses." She states in the movie…
Brownmiller, Susan. 1975. Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape. New York: Ballantine Books
Dietle, David. Alien: A Film Franchise-Based Entirely on Rape. 02 January 2011. 15 July 2015.
Gironda, Caterina. "Rethinking Rape: Moving Beyond the Social vs. Biological ." Zeteo Journal (n.d.): 1-12.
Grosz, Elizabeth. 2004. The Nick of Time: Politics, Evolution, and the Untimely. Durham, NC: Duke University Press
ape Myths in Print Journalism
The introduction of the article written by Franiuk, et al. (2008) is designed to show that the media feeds a culture of rape myths, making those myths more acceptable. The authors hypothesize that these myths are more prevalent in the male population as opposed to the female population, and that the myths would be less prevalent overall if they were not popularized by the media (Franiuk, et al., 2008).
Literature that was reviewed for this article addresses two issue -- the Kobe Bryant case specifically, and the idea of rape myths in media culture overall (Franiuk, et al., 2008). Both of these are important for the study, because the information the authors are seeking to collect is not just about the Kobe Bryant case. It is also about the way the media treats rape victims and how there is often a perpetuation of stories that…
Franiuk, R., Seefelt, J.L., Cepress, S.L., & Vandello, J.A. (2008). Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism. The Kobe Bryant case. Violence Against Women, 14(3): 287-309.
The author of this article calls for mutual understanding rather than mutual distrust.
A tend to agree more with the second article, because it shows a more open-minded, modern view of the world as it should be. The first article is very negative towards the male gender, and very protective of the female. The author requires females to be strong, and yet seems to argue that women are weak and need to protect themselves by any means necessary. The second article is more realistic. It acknowledges the danger of being raped, but does not require that women "cloister themselves up." Instead, it is recommended that women and men find a common ground where both can be happy and meet each other's and their own emotional needs with honesty and true intimacy. This is a view that is much more in tune with the century in which we live, and therefore…
More difficult to conceal were the mass shootings occurring throughout occupied ussia. The Nazis attempted to quiet the increasing reports of violence against the Jews by inviting the International ed Cross to visit Theresienstadt, a ghetto in Czechoslovakia. The delegation toured Theresienstadt observing stores, banks, cafes, and classrooms which had been hastily spruced-up for their benefit. They also witnessed a musical program put on by Jewish children. After the ed Cross departed, most of the ghetto inhabitants, including all of the children, were sent to be gassed and the model village was left to deteriorate.
A further contrast between the ape of Nanking and the Holocaust was the West's response to both events. In the United States, reports published in the New York Times, eader's Digest and Time Magazine were met with skepticism. The stories out of Nanking seemed almost too fantastic to be believed. For the most part Americans…
Genocide Watch. "Case Study: The Jewish Holocaust" 1933-1945." Web. 16 May 2010. From: http://www.gendercide.org/case_nanking.html
Genocide Watch. "Case Study: the Nanking Massacre 1937-1938." Web. 16 May 2010. From: http://www.gendercide.org/case_nanking.html
The History Place: Genocide in the Twentieth Century. "The Nazi Holocaust 1938-1945, 6,000,000 Deaths." Web. 16 May 2010. From: http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/nanking.html
The History Place: Genocide in the Twentieth Century. "The Rape of Nanking 1937-1938-300,000 Deaths" Web. 16 May 2010. From: http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/nanking.html
ape as a Social Issue
The social problem is identified as rape, which is defined as forced sexual intercourse on a person without their consent or permission. ape might involve threat of force, physical force, or may occur against a person who cannot give consent. A person is considered incapable of giving valid consent if they are incapacitated, unconscious, or below the legally accepted age of consent. Sexual intercourse covered by rape is vaginal, anal, or oral. It might also involve the usage of an object or a body part. Many cases of rape are not reported because the victims fear social stigmatization. Before the 19th century, rape was a crime that would go unpunished. Men had the right to own other people's bodies, which allowed them to do as they pleased. Women and black people were discriminated upon, and they were used for the satisfaction of men's sexual…
Baron, L., & Straus, M.A. (1989). Four theories of rape in American society: A state-level analysis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Dartnall, E., & Jewkes, R. (2013). Sexual violence against women: the scope of the problem. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 27(1), 3-13.
Schewe, P., & O'Donohue, W. (1993). Rape prevention: Methodological problems and new directions. Clinical psychology review, 13(7), 667-682.
Rape is one of the most violent cimes pepetuated on women in society. The ape of a woman causes potective instincts to flae in even the most stoic men. Society deals with apist in the coutoom but many laymen find themselves asking, what type of man becomes a apist? Rape is foced sex, and it has long since been undestood that ape is a cime of powe and violence and has vey little to do with actual sex o gatification. One autho of moden liteatue addessed the apist himself and wote a book about thei methods, chaacte and pofile. Nicholas Goth who wote, Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offende povides the eade with an inside view of who among society's membes might become a apist and why. It is an insightful book that takes the eade on an exploatoy jouney though many facets of the apist and what…
references and background. While it is weak in allowing there may be causes other than dominance the rest of the book is strong and complete. The book is an excellent resource for students and clinicians alike as it studies not only the why but the when of the sex offenders acts. The book will never become outdated because it discusses the human nature and the violent nature of the rapist. It does not depend on technology for its success. The make up of a rapist has been the same since the beginning of time. This book lays it out in readable fashion and puts the subject in a light that is easy to understand. The years of extensive research the author bring so the book provide the reader with a comfort level that he knows what he is discussing. It is a book that should grace the shelf of every clinician, advocate or worker.
Rape of the Lock
ay, why are Beauties prais'd and honour'd most, / The wise Man's Passion, and the vain Man's Toast?" Clarissa's speech in Canto Five of Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock" touches on one of the main themes of the poem: vanity. For instance, she states, "How vain are all these Glories, all our Pains, / Unless good Sense preserve what Beauty gains." Clarissa notes that looks mean nothing without a keen mind, and that "Locks will turn to gray," but "good Humour," on the other hand, "can prevail." Because of Pope's clever use of poetic devises, Clarissa's speech also points to Pope's critique of high society's overall vanity and shallowness. Clarissa's moralizing therefore addresses universal human issues that Pope deftly examines throughout "The Rape of the Lock." Pope's compellingly rhythmic heroic couplets underscore the satirical bent of Clarissa's speech, through such elements as repetition, parallelism,…
Rape Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust II Iris Chang.
The Rape of Nanking
The Rape of Nanking, according to Chinese-American author Iris Chang, is one of the forgotten atrocities committed during orld ar II. Chang was the child of parents who had survived the Cultural Revolution in China before immigrating to America and the siege of the Japanese Army during the 1930s was an important part of their cultural history (Chang 7-8). Chang was determined that the event would not be erased in the historical memory, and wrote her book as a response to what she saw as a lack of interest and ignorance regarding the events.
Chang divides the book into three parts. The first part describes the massacre from Japanese, Chinese, and estern perspectives. The second part chronicles the immediate aftermath and the third explains the long-term consequences of the massacre, including why it was forgotten for so long.…
Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking. New York: Basic Books, 2012.
Specifically, in the decades following the conclusion of World War II, the new German nation that eventually emerged from the physical devastation of the country and, more importantly, from the moral bankruptcy of having embraced, supported, and made possible the implementation of Hitler's racial hatred and the murderous atrocities it inspired. Naturally, certain Germans never accepted responsibility for the Jewish Holocaust, even denying that it ever occurred.
However, the official German government did acknowledge the troubling history of that nation before and during the Second World War and eventually made at least some reparations long after the fact to many of the survivors of the Jewish Holocaust. The era of Nazism and of the Holocaust is taught to German schoolchildren as part of the history of the nation, complete with government-sponsored visits from the relatively few remaining survivors so that today's German youth can still hear the truth about that…
Spring Breakers and Rape Culture
In the film Spring Breakers, four young girls who look to be in their late teens or early twenties go on Spring Break. However, they do not have the money for a vacation and three members of the group, Brit, Candy, and Cotty, rob a fast food restaurant to fund the trip. The so-called innocent one of the group, Faith, is shocked by their actions but not so much that she turns down the opportunity to go with them on vacation. By the film's end, two of the girls have become hard core criminals. They engage in a three-way sexual relationship with a drug dealer named Alien, get involved in drug dealing, murders, and grand theft auto. The film portrays these actions as dangerous but also exciting, as though these girls have never had so much fun or felt so alive. ithin our culture, everyday…
Ketterling, Jean. "Rape Culture is Real." Canadian University Press. Toronto, ON: Canadian
UP, 2011. Print.
Templeton, Graham. "There is No Culture of Rape." The Peak. Vancouver, CA: Simon Fraser
Gang ape on Facebook
Gang rape is considered a particularly horrific crime, not because of how society views rape, which is not always in a negative light, but because it deglamorizes rape and strips away any pretense that the behavior was consensual, romantic, or simply the result of someone who let himself get out of control. That the rape in this scenario involved an 11-year-old girl seems almost impossible to explain. While some of the offenders have histories of sexual violence against minors, others of them do not. In fact, while this act was committed against a child, and the circulation of the videos of the rape speaks to child pornography and initially brings to mind the issue of pedophilia, there really is not sufficient reason to believe that any of the assailants were actually pedophiles. While the girl's age may have made her an easier target for victimization, there…
Falkenberg, L. (2011, March 17). All that matters about victim: She is a child;; Attorney: A
revolting strategy at work. Houston Chronicle, p. A1.
Horswell, C. (2011, March 11). Cleveland on edge after rape charges;; Racial tensions that simmered before alleged assault now at a boil;; Case: Quannell X claims race a factor in some arrests. Houston Chronicle, p. A1.
Horswell, C. (2011, March 27). A look at 19 accused in rape of girl:: Group charged in Cleveland has some with clean records, other known by the law;; Case: Their stories seep out through Facebook Pages. Houston Chronicle, p. A1.
Rape Culture & Frat Culture
The undergraduate experience is an important one for many young people in America and in the world. When young people go off to college, they have opportunities to have many experiences as well as experience the great array of college/university traditions. Unfortunately, there are a number of unsavory undergraduate traditions that many American youth experience. The subject of this paper will be upon one of the more pejorative and horrific traditions of rape and the sustainment of rape culture on undergraduate campuses, with specific focus of rape culture in the Greek (fraternity) systems. Joining a fraternity, known by a shorter moniker among young people, "frats," is a high point of many young men. Fraternities throw parties, participate in community service, and are one of the most likely places for an undergraduate woman to be raped and otherwise humiliated, assaulted, or disrespected. The paper will…
But, Chang writes: "I would have to conclude that Japan's behavior during orld ar II was less a product of dangerous people than of a dangerous government, in a vulnerable culture, in dangerous times, able to sell dangerous rationalizations to those whose human instincts told them otherwise. The Rape of Nanking should be perceived as a cautionary tale -- an illustration of how easily human beings can be encouraged to allow their teenagers to be molded into efficient killing machines able to suppress their better natures" (Chang 244). Chang does not believe that the Japanese are uniquely prone to racism, but she does believe that the Japanese government has not been held accountable for its actions.
In an interview about her book, Chang stated that because of the Cold ar, even the American government had been complicit in the mass forgetting of the Rape of Nanking: "During the war, Japanese…
"An interview with Iris Chang." Penguin Reading Guide. 2011. [19 Nov 2011]
Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II.
New York: Penguin, 1997.
Consequences of Rape
In recent decades, rape has come out of the closet and is now openly discussed and recognized as a serious social problem. However, there is still a stigma of shame and blame attached to a victim of rape causing many children and women to remain silent and suffer the consequences of emotional trauma alone. A generation ago there were no such things as rape hot lines, rape awareness groups, or rape survivor therapy. There has been much progress made towards educating the public concerning the effects of rape, as well as recognition that rape is not a sexual act but a criminal act of violence.
By law, rape is "the crime of sexual intercourse without the consent of the victim, often through force or threat of violence"(Rape pg). Statutory rape is the rape of a victim who is "deemed legally incapable of consenting if she or he…
Addressing Rape -- the Urgency for Action." Contemporary Women's Issues Database.
Volume 4. September 01, 1998; pp 1-2. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Contemporary_Women~Q~s_Issues_Database&puburl=0&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=&title=Addressing+Rape%2DThe+Urgency+for+Action++&date=09%2D01%2D1998&query=psychological+effects+of+rape&maxdoc=30&idx=23.(accessed 11-05-2002).
Armstrong-Hough, Mari. "UN acknowledges war rape." University Wire. February 26
Rape Culture: Men and MythsAll too often, rape reduction strategies are phrased in terms of women altering their behaviorsnot to walk home alone at night, or not to dress provocatively. This highlights the uniqueness of rape as a crime where largely the behavior of the population of victims (women) is the focus, rather than upon the population (men) which is statistically most responsible for perpetrating the crime. However, by encouraging boys and men to be more self-policing both of their own thoughts, and the words and behaviors of other men, a more meaningful and equitable approach to rape reduction can be achieved.The focus on reducing the rate of rape normally focuses on how girls and women should alter their behavior. Discuss how boys and men could alter their behavior to reduce rape from occurring. Include a discussion on the contributions of cultural values and myths. Programs, both informal and formal,…
Ferguson, C. (2014). 5 things we must teach young boys about rape right now. Time. Retrieved from: https://time.com/2913313/5-things-we-must-teach-young-boys-about-rape-right-now/
Research Proposal on RapeBackground and RationaleTo keep children of our society safe and prevent them from suffering from the negative psychological effects of sexual assault in childhood, it is mandatory to teach todays children about healthy relationships and with whom they can feel protected. Also, it is now felt even more important to tell anything suspicious about someone close who wants to harm them and not to keep it a secret even if the person insists or threatens. Various reports worldwide have cited that sexual violence towards children is mostly from their acquaintances or people they know well, in which men abuse females more. In contrast, males have been mistreated by both genders equally. Hence, children of both genders and adolescents are the primary subject of child rape and sexual violence that needs crucial attention for the social and health welfare of the entire community.Sexual assault could be defined in…
Bishop, Phillip, and Herron, Robert. “Use and Misuse of the Likert Item Responses and Other Ordinal Measures.” International Journal of Exercise Science, vol. 3, no. 3, Jul. 2015, pp. 297-302, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4833473/
Hall, Melissa, and Hall, Joshua. “The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Counseling Implications.” American Counseling Association, 2011, https://www.counseling.org/docs/disaster-and-trauma_sexual-abuse/long-term-effects-of-childhood-sexual-abuse.pdf?sfvrsn=2
Murray, Laura, Nguyen, Amanda and Cohen, Judith. “Child Sexual Abuse.” Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 23, no. 2, Apr. 2014, pp. 321-337, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2014.01.003 .
Evolution of ape
One of the most controversial theories in evolutionary psychology is the idea that men have evolved a rape adaptation. This is considered a controversial notion because when this theory was introduced many people felt as if it was an attempt to provide excuse or justification for rape. For many years, sexual assault advocates focused on the idea that rape was about violence, not about sex, and it seemed as if the evolutionary idea might challenge that notion. However, that rape might be an evolutionary adaptation does not make it a moral or justifiable act, after all, there are undeniably evolutionary adaptations for situationally-dependent murder, but murder is universally considered immoral. Instead of viewing it as a reason to excuse rape, approaching rape as if there is a possibility that men have evolved a rape adaptation may actually help social scientist develop ways to decrease the frequency of…
Buss, D. (2007). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind, 4th Edition. City:
Gettleman, J. (2010, October 3). Mass rapes in Congo reveals U.N. weakness. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/04/world/africa/04congo.html?pagewanted=all
Kristof, N. (2012). In Sudan, seeing echoes of Darfur. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from New
If ape were legal
This is a story about a cancer patient who objectifies women and his life changes drastically for the better after his therapist takes an aggressive stance in one of the personal therapy sessions after a disturbing incident in his group therapy session. This paper reviews the relationship between the patient and the therapist by analyzing their dynamic through the following psychotherapies: Dynamic, Person-Centered, EBT and Alderian.
Psychodynamic psychologists research human habits by trying to find the unseen meanings in things that individuals think, do or state. This needs them to collect huge quantities of qualitative information about individuals, which is typically done with using the specific case-study technique. The topic of the case history is typically an individual who is dealing with a mental ailment and who is being treated with psychoanalysis. The professional gathers details from things the individual states or finishes treatment…
Gergen, K.J. (1999). An invitation to social construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Korobov, N. (2000). Social constructionist 'theory hope': The impasse from theory to practice. Culture and Psychology, 6, 365-373.
Martin, J., & Sugarman, J. (1997). The social-cognitive construction of psychotherapeutic change: Bridging social constructionism and cognitive constructivism. Review of General Psychology, 1, 375-378.
Sammons, A. (2007). Psychodynamic approach: the basics. Psychodynamic Psychology.
They accuse Coyne of giving modern intellectuals "permission to remain biologically illiterate, through assuring them there is nothing useful or important that they could learn that would help them address the intellectual problems they face." (Tooby and Cosmides).
ithout undertaking an independent investigation of the evidence used to support each author's work, it is impossible to determine who makes the most valid arguments. However, if the facts listed argued by Tooby and Cosmides are true, then they do much to bolster the arguments made by Thornhill and Palmer. In fact, the arguments made by Thornhill and Palmer are very sound from a logical point-of-view, even if it is ultimately impossible to prove or disprove their hypothesis. That at least one species of animal has evolved a special organ specifically to accomplish rape clearly establishes that rape can be an evolutionary function and can be related to genetic evolutionary success. Furthermore,…
Coyne, Jerry. "Of Vice and Men: A Case Study in Evolutionary Psychology." The University of Denver Portfolio Community. 2007. The University of Denver. 12 Feb. 2008 https://portfolio.du.edu/portfolio/getportfoliofile?uid=98279.
Thornhill, Randy and Craig T. Palmer. "Why Men Rape." Iranscope.com. 2000. Iran Scope.
12 Feb. 2008 http://iranscope.ghandchi.com/Anthology/Women/rape.htm .
Tooby, John and Leda Cosmides. "Letter to the Editor of the New Republic." The University of Denver Portfolio Community. 2007. The University of Denver. 12 Feb. 2008 https://portfolio.du.edu/portfolio/getportfoliofile?uid=98280.
A third of those who responded said they believed she was to blame if she had been flirtatious. One fourth believed that wearing provocative clothing made women at least partially responsible if she was sexually assaulted. and, one fifth of respondents felt that having numerous sexual partners also led to the woman being partly to blame if she was raped. In all of these survey questions, men were more critical of women's behavior than women, except where alcohol was involved.
A rape case in Illinois demonstrates how so-called victims may not be just that. The girl in question was intoxicated, and the encounter, with multiple young men, was captured on video tape. However, jurors, having reviewed the evidence and watching the tape, said they saw hints that the girl may have been agreeing to sex (Yednak). It demonstrates that although when recovering from a drunken a person may regret their…
Do women sometimes rape men? 2007. Planned Parenthood. December 12, 2007 http://www.teenwire.com/ask/2003/as-20030624p592-rape.php .
Knight, I. "Women who really do ask for it." Sunday Times. 19 Nov 2006: p. 15. ProQuest Newsstand. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 12, 2007 http://proquest.umi.com .
Newsom, M. "The dark side of 'hooking up'." Sun Journal. 8 Apr 2007: p. B8. ProQuest Newstand. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 12, 2007
eforming ape Laws
It was till late 1970s that in many of the states spouse rape was not considered a crime. The law has implanted 'marital rape exemption' in the sexual assault law. This means that a husband cannot rape his wife legally. The philosophy behind this exemption was that when husband and wife accept the marital contract, a woman has consented to sexual intercourse any time her husbands demanded for it. This law of exemption has been taken from the 18th century law proposed by English jurist Matthew Hale which says "the husband cannot be guilty of rape…for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract, the wife has given up herself in this kind unto her husband, which she cannot retract" (ussel, Diana E.H. 1990).
The advocate of women rights have protested the law on marital rape exemption and in the year 1976 Nebraska was the first state that…
Johnson. M. (1995). Patriarchal Terrorism and Common Couple Violence: Two Forms of Violence against Women. Journal of Marriage and Family (National Council on Family Relations)
Russel, Diana E.H. (1990). Rape in Marriage: Expanded and Revised Edition With a New
Introduction. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Estelle pokes fun at the magazine's obsession, noting that the carefulness urged by the magazine on the part of women makes it seem like avoiding sexual assault is a step-by-step process "like it was ten new hairdos or something," not a serious criminal and personal issue. The story evolves from Estelle's point-of-view. Estelle initially finds the conversation of her female colleagues uncomfortable, as is evidenced by her focus on the beginning pursuit of the women, a bridge game and by concentrating on her bidding. However, even the reserved Estelle becomes involved in the debate when she ironically describes a rape fantasy where the attacker is held back by a squirt of juice from a plastic lemon filled with Easy Off Cleaner.
Estelle's fantasy is funny and empowering all at once. (104) But Estelle always reminds the other women, including the disgusted Darlene that what they're describing are sexual fantasies: "Listen...…
Atwood, Margaret. "Rape Fantasies." From Dancing Girls. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1977.
Cognitive Restructuring on Rape Victims
Recently, the growing numbers of research have been focused on psychological trauma which can be caused by physical, sexual and life threatening events. he survivors of traumatic events would exhibit great variation of symptoms, especially, self-blaming, guilt, negative beliefs about self and others, cognitive distortions, and inaccurate thoughts related to their traumatic experiences. Sobel, Resick and Rabalais (2009) proposed a cognitive processing therapy (CP) to reduce the posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and increase the positive thought and accurate cognition of the survivors. In this seminal paper, they reviewed the literature, classified the syndromes before and after the CP, reported the statistical results and suggested a cognitive restructuring method. Cognitions are assessed using coding and analyzing the participants' statements before and after the therapy and the scaling systems used are the Clinician-Administered PSD Scale and PSD Symptom Scale. hey scaled two cognitive processes, accommodation, and assimilation…
The writers suggested that it was possible to observe, record, and reliably code the number and percentage of assimilated, overaccommodated, and accommodated statements that rape survivors produced in their impact statements at the beginning and end of a course of CPT. As hypothesized, there were significant decreases in the overaccommodated and assimilated processes from start to the end of therapy whereas there was an increase in the accommodated processes. Although there was a clear relationship between decreased PTSD and accommodation, this study was not able to make a clear statement about the relationship between assimilation and PTSD. Another limitation of this study is the ethnicity classification because of the limited number of participants.
This study is parallel to the studies of Foa and Rothbaum (2001), and Koss, Jose Figueredo, & Prince (2002) and the results are compatible. However, these two studies employed self-report inventories of cognitive distortions, which limited the response options available to participants and focus on content rather than process. Sobel et al. (2009) developed a more flexible strategy to evaluate the effects of CPT.
Overall, the study by Sobel et al. (2009) is chosen because it is up-to-date, rich in the literature review and very clear to provide results and limitations of the study.
The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…
Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.
Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.
Gulliver wants more than anything to be accepted as a Houyhnhnm, a species he believes is perfect. Swift reveals irony through the fragility of the human condition. Gulliver is heavily influenced by the Houyhnhnms and he begins to admire them far too much. In fact, it is safe to say that he idolized them. Their opinions "opened my eyes and enlarged my understanding, that I began to view the actions and passions of man in a very different light" (250). He worships them and slowly begins to despise anything that is not of the Houyhnhnms, including his very own kind. Gulliver wants to fit into the Houyhnhnm circle and simply forget everything else. The Yahoos are the "most unteachable of all brutes" (227). To say such a thing not only insults others but also insults oneself but Gulliver is so drunk with adoration, he cannot think straight. He believes he…
Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.
Swift, Jonathon. Gulliver's Travels. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1948.
Having grown up in an era where sex-based discrimination was legal, they understand how easy it would be to return to that era. This has led to a characterization of second-wave feminists as somehow militant, a label that even third-wave feminists might apply to them.
Looking at the 2008 Democrat presidential primaries, the conflict between second and third wave feminists became apparent. Many second-wave feminists felt that it was a woman's duty to vote for the female candidate because having a woman run as a serious contender in a presidential primary could be an isolated event. In contrast, many third-wave feminists, though thrilled that Clinton was taken seriously as a candidate, simply did not think that her candidacy would be an isolated event; instead, they believed that women would continue to make credible candidates in presidential elections. Moreover, many third-wave feminists, like the author, seemed to find racial barriers more…
Le Viol (rape) by surrealist painter Rene Magritte. The painting was done in 1934 and it was clearly meant to shock the viewer as it is a repulsive representation of a woman's face. However, instead of eyes she has breasts, instead of a mouth she has pubic hair that one assumes is covering a vagina, and instead of a nose Magritte has placed a human belly button in that spot.
There are many possible suggestions that an alert observer could present in terms of what the artist had in mind when he created this piece (it was first a drawing and later Magritte produced an oil on canvas painting from the drawing). One idea that has value is that Magritte was not-so-subtly protesting against rape. He presented a woman's face as her anatomy, as though perhaps it would be her destiny to have her breasts and her vagina be a…
Breton, Andre (1896-1966) From the First Manifesto of Surrealism.
Breton, Andre (1896-1966). From the Second Manifesto of Surrealism.
Gale Biography In Context. (1998). Rene Magritte. Encyclopedia of World Biography.
Retrieved November 29, 2012, from http://0-ic.galegroup.com.
Rape Case Law and Jurisprudence
Panichas[footnoteRef:2] discriminated between aggravated rape and lesser offenses in a review of Stephen Schulhofer's book Unwanted Sex: The Culture of Intimidation and the Failure of Law. When the use of violence or its threat is used to overcome a victim's lack of consent, immediately before the assault, and this is clearly demonstrated by the evidence presented in court, then aggravated rape has occurred. If, however, victim nonconsent is questionable and the immediate use or threat of force is absent or ambiguous, then a rape conviction will not survive appeal in most states. As Panichas notes, rape jurisprudence has historically relied on common law and appellate decisions when judging whether allegations of rape have any merit and three criteria are prominent: (1) actual/credible use or threat of force, (2) force must be physical, and (3) nonconsent in the absence of force is insufficient to support a…
The overall literature available on this theory is more or less mixed as some studies claim that there is nor relation between the two concepts (Pelletier & Herold, 1988), whereas others state that rape fantasies are high where women are sexually suppressed (Hariton & Singer, 1974), yet another study concluded that the women who had higher ratio of rape fantasy were mentally more healthy towards the concept of sex (Gold et al., 1991; Shulman & Horne, 2006) and experienced lower levels of shame (Shulman & Horne, 2006; Strassberg & Lockerd, 1998). Hence, it is important to analyze whether there is actual link between rape fantasies and the sexual guilt phenomenon.
Openness to Sexual Experience
The philosophy of the openness to sexual experience is in direct opposition to the sexual blame avoidance phenomenon. Here the idea is that having rape fantasies is part of the sexual identity and need of a…
Allgeier, E.R. & Allgeier, a.R. (2000). Sexual interactions (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Barlow, DH, Sakheim, D.K., & Beck, J.G. (1983). Anxiety increases sexual arousal. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 49-54.
Baumeister, R.F. & Twenge, J.M. (2002). Cultural suppression of female sexuality. Review of General Psychology, 6, 166-203.
Bond, S.B. & Mosher, D.L. (1986). Guided images of rape: Fantasy, reality, and the willing victim myth. Journal of Sex Research, 22, 162-183.
Marital rape is defined as sex without mutual agreement, which can occur through the vagina, anus or even the mouth. The definition is not consistent; it changes from one country to another (ergen, 1996; Russell, 1990). Marital rape is marked as one of the most widespread ways of violation against women with most studies indicating that victims are legally married couples, those separated, divorced or living together. The basic concept is that the different forms of sexual violence between couples who have lived together for long and those that are married remains the same (Mahoney & Williams, 1998). In as much as no publications of marital rape between gay and lesbian couples have been found, am emergence of such literature is slowly coming up (ergen & arnhill, 2006).
The extent of marital rape was brought to light by Diana Russell's research that was done in 1990 in San Francisco. The…
Adams, C.J. (1993). I just raped my wife! What are you going to do about it, pastor? In E. Buchwald, P.R. Fletcher, & M. Roth (Eds.), Transforming a rape culture (pp. 57-86). Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed Editions
Barshis, V. (1983).The question of marital rape. Women's Studies International Forum, 6, 383-93
Basile, K.C. (2002). Prevalence of wife rape and other intimate partner sexual coercion in a nationally representative sample of women. Violence and Victims, 17(5), 511-524
Bergen, R.K. (2005). Studying wife rape: Reflections on the past, present and future. Violence against Women, 10, 1407-1416
easons to hear victim experiences.
The victims of rape have a right to be heard, and it is not only healthy for their psychological composure, but also for the community to know what menace this is and face it. There are several reasons why the rape victims should be heard, here are some:
A. May inspire others to speak out; this way more of the victims will get the confidence to speak out make the society to embrace the cruelties of the crime and act upon it.
B. Educational purposes- the experiences that the society has had can be used to educate the entire community on the ills of the heinous act and it is an education that cannot be given better than the victims themselves, for a safer future society.
C. Public awareness- the victims should be allowed to speak so as to help heighten the public awareness on…
AFROL (2011). Sierra Leone: Gender Profile. Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/sierraleone_women.htm
Asencio, M., (1999). Machos and Sluts: Gender, Sexuality, and Violence among a Cohort of Puerto Rican Adolescents. Blackwell Publishing.
Dothaneagle.com, (2011). Apologies issued for unprosecuted rape of black woman in 1944.
Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www2.dothaneagle.com/news/2011/mar/21/apologies-issued-unprosecuted-rape-black-woman-194-ar-1607570/
As a result, the invited audience was essentially being asked to play the role of the person who is shocked by such a discovery -- and insofar as they knew they were being invited by Mendieta, and probably had basic knowledge of the crime that occurred, they were also being invited to imagine that the victim of such a crime might well have been Mendieta or any other female student on campus. This is interesting insofar as it relates to an observation made by Kwon about Mendieta's early work from this period: Kwon notes that "Mendieta's use of her/the body almost always approached erasure or negation: her 'body' consistently disappeared. This is striking given that most feminist artists during the 1970s vied for visibility and self-affirming expression through figurative, literal, sometimes 'in-your-face' presence. It is curious that Mendieta traced her absence instead."[footnoteRef:5] In "Rape Scene" this is paradoxically true: the…
Bowers, Nancy. "Spring Break Killer: Murder of Sarah Ann Ottens, 1973." IowaUnsolvedMurders.com, March 2010. Web. Retrieved 24 April 2014 at: http://www.iowaunsolvedmurders.com/beyond-1965-selected-unsolved-iowa-murders/spring-break-killer-murder-of-sarah-ann-ottens-1973/
Butler, Cornelia and Mark, Lisa Gabrielle. WACK!: Art and the Feminist Revolution. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art and MIT Press, 2007. Print.
Chau, Monica, Feldman, Hannah J.L., Kabat, Jennifer, and Kruse, Hannah. The Subject of Rape: June 23-August 29, 1993. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1993. Print.
Deutsche, Rosalyn. "Breaking Ground: Barbara Kruger's Spatial Practice." In Kruger, Barbara. Thinking of You. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000. 77-84. Print.
Attitudes toward Marital ape among College Students
Close to 62% of female rape victims are between the ages of 12 and 24 (osenthal 407), an age group which encompasses the college years. This would explain why an estimated one in four college women have been raped while attending college (osenthal 412). The men responsible for this statistic, between 7 and 25% of all male college students, admit to forcing a woman to have sex and most see nothing wrong with doing so. Feminist theory would have us believe that these acts are the product of males attempting to preserve a male dominated society through an act of violence, while evolutionary theory would posit that these men have low social status and therefore little chance of mating success (osenthal 207). Neither theory seems to capture the fact that fraternity members are responsible for at least 50% of all rapes…
Auster, Carol J. & Leone, Janel M. "Late Adolescent's Perspectives on Marital Rape: The Impact of Gender and Fraternity/Sorority Membership." Adolescence 36.141 (2001): 141-52. Print.
Rosenthal, Martha S. Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2013. Print.
138). The same study showed that "between 3 and 4% of college men also report surviving a rape or attempted rape experience on anonymous surveys" (Foubert, Cremedy, pg. 138). It would seem that according to the above studies, those individuals most at risk are the ones who are minorities, lower income, or young college students. Another area of society that might be at risk are military members, prisoners, and of course, members of the gay society who are a low percentage of the overall picture but are probably most likely to be affected especially in regards to sexual diseases etc.
One recent study found, "enduring and pervasive patterns of male sexual behaviour involving coercion, violence and gang rape are highly conducive to the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections" (Lepani, 2008, pg. 151). The threat of an HIV infection by the perpetrator to the victim is like an…
Anderson, C.B.; (2004) Women, ideology, and violence: Critical theory and the construction of gender in the Book of the Covenant and the Deuteronomic Law, London: Clark Publishing
Foubert, J.D.; Cremedy, B.J.; (2007) Reactions of men of color to a commonly used rape prevention program: Attitude and predicted behavior changes, Sex Roles, Vol. 57, No. 1-2, pp. 137-144
Hickson, F.C.I.; Davies, P.M.; Hunt, a.J.; Weatherburn, P.; McManus, T.J.; Coxon, a.P.M.; (1994) Gay men as victims of non-consensual sex, Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 23, pp. 281-294.
Lepani, K.; (2008) Mobility, violence and gendering of HIV in Papua New Guinea, Australian Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 150-164
Crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States
The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased by 1.1% when it is compared with those reported in 2015. The rates of crimes against people vary across regions. For example, the FBI reports that in 2016, there was a positive change in the rate of 2.0% in murder cases in Northeast region and 1.2% in Midwest (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Therefore, this research paper examines the different types of crimes committed against persons in the US, their characteristics,…
In “Crimes Which Startle and Horrify: Gender, Age, and the Racialization of Sexual Violence in White American Newspapers, 1870-1900,” Estelle Fredman situates rape as a series of interconnected power relations, focusing on the intersection between race and gender in particular. Fredman analyzes the historical context of rape, showing how rape is socially constructed in ways that reinforce patriarchal and racist norms. Besides the cogent thesis driving Fredman’s work, the author also relies on a tight methodology, focusing on media accounts in nineteenth century American newspapers geared to primarily white male readers. Fredman claims that the media proliferated the two central archetypes that defined American social and political hierarchies for the coming generations: the black male sexual predator and the innocent, vulnerable child victim.
Fredman begins the article with a brief introduction to the historiography of rape. The rise of the popular media during the late nineteenth century was especially critical…
The case of Rita is a sad one. She works as an employee of a resort. She's never really been in a serious relationship. She has dated but nothing got past that point. Anyhow, she encounters a male acquaintance of a coworker. The man was to take Rita home but he instead takes her to a remote area and assaults her. She did not want her family to know what happened but she did notify an agency about what did occur. They collected forensic evidence and treated her for any potential sexually transmitted diseases she might have been exposed to. They also gave her emergency contraception. While she eventually gets the courage to report the rape to her family and the proper authorities, it is too late to make use of the forensic evidence that was collected.
The one obvious thing that should be changed is the 90-day window…
The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…
Corsini, R., Wedding, D. (2011). Current Psychotherapies, 9th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.
Yalom, I. (1989). Love's Executioner & Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper
The author of this report has been asked to respond to a number of scenarios. In each case, there is a question of who is responsible for a negative event happening given a certain set of circumstances. The blame will be assigned based on a percentage basis with the grand total fo the percentage adding up to a hundred percent collectively. There are five scenarios in total and they grow in complexity from one to the next. It was clear straight away the point that was being made and the "gray" areas that exist with some incidents. However, no gray areas exist when it comes to domestic violence. While there is a variety of ways in which situations can escalate and grow in severity, domestic violence is domestic violence and it takes on many forms.
The first scenario speaks of a man who bought a pair of…
Kane, G. (1996). 'Stealing' from dealers is a murky legal area. tribunedigital-baltimoresun. Retrieved 11 October 2015, from http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2006-06-21/news/0606210210_1_drugs-and-money-taking-drugs-stealing
Norris, S. (2015). Stop blaming drunk rape victims and start teaching people about consent. The Independent. Retrieved 11 October 2015, from http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/stop-blaming-drunk-rape-victims-and-start-teaching-people-about-consent-10301185.html
ape is an anti-social phenomenon that needs to be dealt with extreme care since it not only has drastic effects on the victim but also on the colleagues, peers, family members and community people in their proximity. This is a book reaction paper on "Lucky" written by Alice Sebold, in which she recounts her experiences of the rape and her journey to recovery after that. The further sections of the paper would discuss her tragic encounter and her dilemmas in the efforts to counter the debilitating effects, and eventually overcome them, which is a lesson for all.
Issues to be Addressed
eaction to Ms. Sebold's Journey After ape
The short-term after-effects of Sebold's rape include shock, physical problems, soreness, and difficulty in walking. The long-term effects are disbelief, shame, guilt, depression, fear, anger, and sexual problem such as diseases or infections caused by forced sexual harassment, relationship problems, and flashbacks…
Chivers-Wilson, K.A. (2006). Sexual assault and post-traumatic stress disorder: A review of the biological, psychological and sociological factors and treatment. McGrill Journal of Medicine, 9. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2323517/
Gagnon, C.M. (2015, February 17). Life after rape: 5 keys to growth and healing for women. Good Therapy.org. Retrieved from http://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/life-after-rape-5 - keys-to-growth-and-healing-for-women-0217155
Joyful Heart Foundation. (n.d.). Effects of sexual assault and rape. Retrieved from http://www.joyfulheartfoundation.org/learn/sexual-assault-rape/effects-sexual-assault- and-rape
Pennsylvania Center of the Book. (n.d.). Alice Sebold. Retrieved from http://pabook2.libraries.psu.edu/palitmap/bios/Sebold__Alice.html
Catholic Priests and Sexual Abuse Issues
The ongoing sexual abuse scandal involving Roman Catholic priests and other church officials continues to shock the Christian world and has led to prosecutions, prison sentences, international embarrassment for a major world religion, and to the paying out of millions of dollars in reparations by the Church. This paper reviews the sexual abuses perpetrated by the Church, the number of cases involved, the impact of this abuse and the response to the abuse by the Church, the media, and the public.
Overview of the Abuse of Young Boys by Priests
The first public reports of sexual abuse by Catholic priests in the United States were published in 2002, according to a peer-reviewed article by Karen J. Terry. At first it seemed that the perpetrators were American priests, but in a few years the scandal took on international implications, but the investigative journalism in the…
Barrett, D., and Squires, N. (2014). Pope Francis says about 8,000 pedophiles are members of Catholic clergy, including bishops and cardinals. The Telegraph. Retrieved April 14, 2015, from http://www.news.nationalpost.com.
Dale, K.A., and Alpert, J.L. (2007). Hiding Behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 16(3), 59-72.
Terry, K.J. (2015). Child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church: a review of global perspectives. International Jou8rnal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice.
For instance, according to Begley, "Men who were promiscuous back then were more evolutionarily fit since men who spread their seed widely left more descendants. By similar logic, evolutionary psychologists argued, women who were monogamous were fitter; by being choosy about their mates and picking only those with good genes, they could have healthier children" (2009, p. 52). Although modern men and women may not look like Cro-Magnums, they all want to act like them deep down inside because of these primordial drives. In sum, Begley concludes that, "We all carry genes that led to reproductive success in the Stone Age, and that as a result men are genetically driven to be promiscuous and women to be coy, that men have a biological disposition to rape and to kill mates who cheat on them, and that every human behavior is 'adaptive' -- that is, helpful to reproduction" (emphasis added) (p.…
Begley, S. (2009, June 29). Why do we rape, kill and sleep around? Newsweek, 153(26), 52.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Druzin, B.H. & Li, J.C. (2011, Spring). The criminalization of lying: Under what circumstances, if any, should lies be made criminal? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 101(2), 529-540.
Duke, S. (2009, April 27). Kinsey: Deviancy is the new normal. The New American, 25(9), 33-35.
During her reorganization phase, her personality and the emotional support from other social units played a vital role. As a person, she was a survivor. She appeared to posses a character which made her endure the pain yet live through the moment. It was her resilience that made her go to public authorities even after she lost her case the first time. Alice always wanted to be somebody whose presence could be felt. This is the reason why she wanted to be Ethel Merman (2009, p.87). She was an actress and a singer whom according to her mother, had no talent but she managed draw the attention of audience solely on herself. Her personality made an exceptional role in letting her cope up with the trauma and also with getting her culprit punished in the later phase.
Another important factor which played a key role in her retaliation was her…
Boeschen, L.E., Sales, B.D.,&Koss, M.P. (1998). Rape trauma experts in the courtroom. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4, pp. 414-432.
Burgess, a.W. & Holmstrom, L.L. (1974), Rape trauma syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, pp.981-986.
Sebold, a. (2009), Lucky, Pan Macmillion Inc.
Raitt, F.E. & Zeedyk, S.Z. (1997), Rape trauma syndrome: Its corroborative and educational roles. Journal of Law and Society, 24(4), pp.552-568.
Further, while the rapists themselves have been identified as anger rapists, rapists with inferiority complexes, rapists with the Madonna-Prostitute Complex, sadistic rapists, and abusive rapists, there are certainly perpetrators whose personalities and crimes indicate either a combination of these traits, or entirely different traits.
In all cases, however, rapists appear to be motivated by anger, a need for control, and a complete disregard for the life of the female. It is through understanding some basic tendencies that researchers can eventually determine a course of action to combat these horrific crimes, and women can find ways to protect themselves against these acts. It is only by attempting to understand the motives and minds of rapists that society will prevail.
Bancroft, Lundy. Why Does He Do That? Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men. New York: Berkley/Penguin, 2002.
Catalano, Shannan M. "Criminal Victimization, 2003." National Crime Victimization Survey. NCJ 205455.…
Bancroft, Lundy. Why Does He Do That? Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men. New York: Berkley/Penguin, 2002.
Catalano, Shannan M. "Criminal Victimization, 2003." National Crime Victimization Survey. NCJ 205455. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept of Justice, 2004.
Groth, A. Nicholas. Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.
Langevin, Ron. Sexual Strands: Understanding and Treating Sexual Anomalies in Men. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1983.
The precedence set by this attorney, though it was not answered by a maelstrom of other counties resurrecting rarely if ever used common laws, does prove interesting, on the issue of rape as well as many other laws that are hardly if ever used but not stricken from the books, as of yet.
Though Idaho is no longer considered a "common-law" state with regard to domestic situations, i.e. regarding the determination of marital status and on other issues it is legitimately still very demonstrative of common law history, a fact that can be attested to by the ability of a single do-gooder to choose to enforce a law that was previously ignored. Other issues, such as common property, among domestic partners, are a later adoption of a common law practice, in Idaho. For the most part it makes sense that legal situations in low population areas could and possibly still…
Aho, J.A. (1990). The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
American Prosecutors Research Institute State Rape Statutes p. 8 Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.arte-sana.com/articles/rape_statutes.pdf
Bonner, J.R. (2002). Reconceptualizing VAWA's "Animus" for Rape in States' Emerging Post-VAWA Civil Rights Legislation. Yale Law Journal, 111(6), 1417.
Bryden, D.P., & Lengnick, S. (1997). Rape in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(4), 1194-1384.
With the advent of technology, there are other tests apart from Blood Type present to rule out a crime. If today, the assailant's blood type does not match the blood on the crime scene, it does not necessarily prove him guilty. Forensics studies have indicated that there are two types of people on this planet regarding secretion of ABO proteins in body fluids. There are the secretors, and then there are nonsecretors. In cases of rape, the fluid usually tested is semen. The thing to note is that if that person is a secretor, only then his blood antigens will be present in the semen. If the semen is negative for any antigen that can either mean that the person is type O or is a non-secretor (Lyle, 2011) Furthermore, there are thousands and millions of people who have the same blood type. Due to this reason, DNA testing…
Flaherty, C. (2013). Cops: black mob kidnaps, rapes teen girls. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.wnd.com/2013/11/cops-black-mob-kidnaps-rapes-teen-girls / [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].
Gross, S.R., Jacoby, K., Matheson, D.J., Montgomery, N. & Patil, S. (2005). Exonerations in the United States 1989 through 2003. The journal of criminal law and criminology (1973-), 95 (2), pp. 523 -- 560.
Innocenceproject.org. (2014). The innocence project - know the cases: browse profiles:bennett barbour. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Bennett_Barbour.php [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].
Johnson, S. (1984). Cross-Racial Identification Errors in Criminal Cases. CORNELL L. REV., 69 (934), 935-36.
role that bail is playing in the criminal justice system and how these amounts are determined. This is accomplished by looking at the Robert lake murder trial, the Roman Polanski rape case and the Carlos Lehder drug trial. Once this occurs, is when we can understand how and why this applied differently in a host of court cases.
One of the core elements of the criminal justice system is bail. This is when someone who stands accused of a crime can be released from police custody, under the promise that they will return to court on the specified date of their trial. In all cases, this involves the person providing some kind of monetary or physical assets in exchange for being released from jail. The basic idea behind granting bail is three fold to include:
It assures that the accused will make their court date.
It maintains the presumption of…
Crock, J. (2010). Mixed Record on High Profile U.S. Extradition Requests. The American Journal of International Law, 104, (4), 673 -- 678.
Harr, S. (2008). Constitutional Law. Belmont, CA: Thomson.
Houck, R. (2006). Forensics. Scientific American, 295, 84 -- 89.
James, M. (2005). Celebrities and Juries. Journal of Criminal Law, 69, 365-372
Thus, this rapist is partially interested in the sexual act itself, but for the feelings of power and control they have over their victim. For the most part, the most important part of the act is not the sex, but the domination and control over a "weaker" individual. This type of rapist may use physical aggression against their victim, but not as an act of rage, rather as an act of domination and control. Often, these rapists fantasize about sexual conquests and rapes, and they may force the victim into repeated sexual acts during the rape. They also may fantasize about their sexual prowess with the victim overpowering her fear of her attacker. Birnbaum and Groth write, "The characteristic scenario is one in which the victim initially resists the sexual advances of her assailant; he overpowers her and achieves sexual penetration; in spite of herself, the victim cannot resist her…
Groth, A. Nicholas & Birnbaum, H, Jean. Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.
Hollin, Clive R. Psychology and Crime: An Introduction to Criminological Psychology. London: Routledge, 1989.
Round-Up of Rapists." Psychology Today Nov.-Dec. 1992: 12+.
lurred Line" is a song by Robin Thicke that caused a tremendous controversy because of the video that accompanied it. Some allegations included the fact that the video condoned a rape culture and a culture that sexually objectifies women. This paper will aim to analyze some of these claims, looking at the theoretical and sociological perspective of what a rape culture is and matching some of these characteristics over the elements that are seen in the video.
According to Nicoletti, Spencer-Thomas and ollinger (2009), a rape culture in society reflects a society that tolerates or even encourages rape and, in general, sexual violence against women. There are several characteristics of rape cultures, including sexual objectification and a trivialized approach to rape.
To a wider degree, however, there are connections that can be argued between a sexist society and the possibility of it becoming a rape culture. Sexist and misogynistic approaches…
1. Nicoletti, J., Spencer-Thomas, S., Bollinger, C. Violence goes to College. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. 2009
2. Sommers, C. Researching the "Rape Culture" in America. Simon & Schuster Inc., New York, 1994
3. Parenti, Michael. The Cultural Struggle.New York: Seven Stories Press.(2005)
4. Vogleman, L. Sexual Face of Violence: Rapists on Rape. Raven Press Ltd. 1990
" For example, of the materialism and penchant for "conspicuous consumption" among Romans of the time, Juvenal observes:
in Rome we must toe the line of fashion, spending beyond our means, and often non-borrowed credit.
It's a universal failing: here we all live in pretentious poverty. To cut a long story short, there's a price-tag on everything in Rome. hat does it cost to greet Cossus, or extract one tight-lipped nod from Veiento the honors-broker? (180-5).
Criticizing the inflated costs of everything in Rome, Juvenal also states:
inflation swells the rent of your miserable flat, inflation hits the keep of your hungry slaves, your own humble dinner. (166-7)
Moreover, within the declining Roman society described by Juvenal's Third Satire, wealth is so revered for its own sake that, when, for instance, a rich man's house burns to the ground, his house and all his belongings will soon be replaced by…
Damrosch. David et al., Eds. The Longman Anthology World Literature. Vol.
A. New York: Pearson, 2004. 1309; 1353.
Dryden, John. "Discourse concerning the Original and Progress of Satire (Abridged)."
Dryden's "Discourse on Satire" (Abridged). Ed. Jack Lynch.
DNA Exonerations: John Kogut
The Path To Exoneration: John Kogut
The Path to Conviction
When 16-year-old Teresa Fusco left work at 9:45 PM on November 10, 1984 she became one among several young girls reported missing over the past several years [Centurion Ministries, 2013; Innocence Project, n.d.(a)]. In contrast to her predecessors, however, her body was discovered a month later in a wooded area several blocks from the roller rink where she worked. According to the autopsy, Teresa had been raped and murdered. Semen and sperm were collected from her body and the marks on her neck revealed that she had been strangled with a rope or cord. Also found at the scene were her jewelry and the murder weapon. The coroner's office, however, failed to conduct a blood type analysis on the semen.
The Nassau County police were under tremendous pressure to solve these disappearances, especially Teresa's rape and…
Centurion Ministries (2013). Dennis Halstead, John Kogut, & John Restivo, Long Island, NY. CenturionMinistries.org. Retrieved 6 Oct. 2013 from http://www.centurionministries.org/cases/dennis-halstead-john-kogut-and-john-restivo/.
Drumm, David. (2013, May 11). Why the FBI doesn't record interrogations. JonathanTurley.org [blog]. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://jonathanturley.org/2013/05/11/why-the-fbi-doesnt-record-interrogations/ .
Editors. (2013, Jan. 1). America's retreat from the death penalty. New York Times, A18. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/03/15/maryland-death-penalty/1989977/ .
Gootman, Elissa. (2003, Jun. 12). DNA evidence frees 3 men in 1984 murder of L.I. girl. New York Times, B1, B5. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/12/nyregion/dna-evidence-frees-3-men-in-1984-murder-of-li-girl.html .
Psychosocial background of these rapists is inclusive of physical as well as verbal abuse which can be from both or one of the parents. Abuse-based background is seen in more than 56% of the rapists in this category. More than 80% of the rapists belong to divorced households; most of these are adopted or have spent their childhood in foster care. elationships of these rapists with women in the past have failed or did not work based on which hostile feelings have developed against the opposite sex.
Background profiling on rapists has shown that these normally are raised in single parent households with increased issues. Additionally they grow up being physically as well as verbally abused facing sexual deviances. The children facing these conditions are the ones that clearly show tendencies towards sexual promiscuity. In the case of adults, it has been seen that they are married later in…
Girod, J.R. (2004). Profiling the Criminal Mind: Behavioral Science and Criminal Investigative Analysis. Iuniverse Inc.
Holmes, M.R., and Holmes, S. (2002). Profiling violent crimes: an investigative tool. Edition 3. Sage.
Innes, B. (2003). Profile of a criminal mind: how psychological profiling helps solve true crimes. Reader's Digest.
Jacobs, D. (2011). Analyzing Criminal Minds: Forensic Investigative Science for the 21st Century: Brain, behavior, and evolution. ABC-CLIO.
Gender and Sex: Blurred Lines or Clear Boundaries?
One of the hottest songs of summer 2013 was a song by Robin Thicke called "Blurred Lines." The song gained popularity because of its catchy tune, and many people who found themselves dancing along to the song found themselves surprised by the lyrics when they actually listened to the song. In fact, the lyrics to the song were sufficiently suggestive that discussions about whether they were a symbol of rape culture became almost as popular as the song itself. The lyrics were not helped by the video for the song, which featured Thicke, two guest artists, and three scantily clad models in situations that could only be described as bizarre, leading to allegations that the video marginalized its female performers. Adding fuel to this fire was a performance by Thicke featuring Miley Cyrus, in which they seemingly referenced the video and Miley…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York:
Lynskey, Dorian. "Blurred Lines: The most controversial song of the decade." The Guardian.
The Guardian, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.