Rational Choice Theory Essays (Examples)

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War Rational Choice Realism

Words: 1507 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66607944

ar is a necessary and inevitable. The question of whether it is justified is dependent on the conditions of each war individually, but the necessity and inevitability of armed conflict among human societies has been demonstrated consistently throughout history. Davidson and Lytle (1992) provide a strong argument in favor of this position with their description of the conditions surrounding the detonation of the atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki to bring an end to the Second orld ar.

Davidson and Lytle argue that the reason for these bombings was not as much to end the war with the Japanese but rather to send a message to the Soviet Union. At the time, the U.S.S.R. was also pursuing nuclear weapons technology. In the wake of the end of the war in Europe, that continent had been effectively been divided between the United States and its allies in the est and Stalin's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crossman, Ashley (2014). Rational choice theory. About.com. Retrieved May 25, 2014 from http://sociology.about.com/od/Sociological-Theory/a/Rational-Choice-Theory.htm

Davidson, James & Mark Lytle. The decision to drop the bomb. After the fact: The Art of Historical Detection. McGraw-Hill.

Korab-Karpowicz, Julie. (2013). Political realism in international relations. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 25, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/realism-international-relations/
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Rational Theory and Charlotte NC

Words: 1403 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20088648



It is methodological individualism which makes up the group, creating problems for the ational Theories which tout individualism as the driving force in motivation. Some say that the actions of individuals results in an unintended consequence when done in a group (Scott, p. 30).

If you look long enough for the secret of society you will find it in plain sight: the secret of society is that it was made by men, and there is nothing in society but what men put there'" (Homans, p. 385).

Captain David Poston, head of the CMPD Property Crimes Unit, who spoke to the problem of this rash of burglaries within the metropolitan area in November, 2007, said that "while citywide, burglaries were down nearly 5% last year compared to 2006, we have seen an increase in the past couple of weeks" (Charlotte, p. 1).

He admits that over the month preceding, detectives saw…… [Read More]

References

Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Dept. (2008). Recent spike in home break-ins: suspects & Methods. Crime in Charlotte, NC. Retrieved January 26, 2008 at  http://www.crimeincharlotte.com/ .

Homans, G. (1961). Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Scott, John. (2000). Rational Choice Theory. Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Boston: Sage Publications.
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Theory and Its Evaluation

Words: 1208 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75926065

Theoretical Evaluation

Theory Evaluation

The initial modern clarification of crime is known as "classical hypothesis" (Cullen and Agnew 2011). This hypothesis was produced in response to the malefic, irrational, and barbaric frameworks of criminal equity that existed in Europe in the 1700s. The laws were frequently arbitrary; judges were corrupt; penal awards for the same wrongdoing varied broadly; and disciplines were at times very cruel, causative of extreme physical abuse and often resulting in death. Classical Theorists needed to supplant the framework with one that was more viable and just. They contended that individuals are balanced creatures who seek after their own particular pursuits, endeavoring to amplify their pleasure and minimize their unhappiness. Individuals decide to indulge in wrongdoing when they accept that it will bring more joy than agony, As such, the most ideal approach to control wrongdoing is to guarantee that the torment of penal awards exceeds the…… [Read More]

References

Cullen, F.T., and Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. Los Angeles: Roxbury. [An overview of the leading theories of crime, with selections from the original works.]
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Principal of Rational Choice Takes Into Account

Words: 1362 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49006673

principal of rational choice takes into account the concept of choice and opportunity cost, brought about by the scarcity of economic resources. It assumes that individuals would always prefer that alternative that yields the highest utility. The theory of rationality has three basic underlying properties: completeness, transitivity, and continuity.

The completeness principal holds that, an individual would always strictly prefer one alternative to another, unless the two alternatives yield equal benefits. In the words of Nicholson and Synder (2012), "faced with two alternatives A and B, an individual can always specify one of three alternatives: either 'A is preferred to B', 'B is preferred to A' or 'A and B. are equally attractive'" (p.89). Transitivity seeks to ensure consistency in decision making, such that, if a given alternative (say alternative X) is preferred to some other alternative (perhaps alternative Y), and Y is of greater significance than yet another alternative…… [Read More]

References

Baumol, J.W., & Blinder, S.A. (2012). Microeconomics: Principle and Policy (12th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Nicholson, W., & Snyder, C.M. (2012). Microeconomic Theory: Basic Principles and Extensions (11th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Sexton, L.R. (2010). Exploring Microeconomics. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]

References

Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.

Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.

Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
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Economic Models of Choice in Political Science

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31549157

economics? A simple materialistic description simply does not do the subject justice. The economic approach is much more that an approach whose calculations are restricted to material goods and markets. Rather, it also should factor in other information that will explain human behavior. This can include actions based upon incomplete information, as well as the existence of costs (monetary and mental) that affect personal choices.

Certainly, this type of economic approach is much more comprehensive. It includes all of the human dialectic. This is the approach that Becker has embraced. Truly, human behavior in its totality has to be used to explain economic behavior. E-commerce aficionados make a total study of their potential customers in much the same way. They consider all of the data and spy on their quarry with "cookies" to scientifically study them. Becker is essentially remarking upon what Adam Smith and Karl Marx already knew (despite…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Becker, G. 1976. The economic approach to human behavior. Chicago:

Green, D., & Shapiro, I. 1994. Pathologies of rational choice theory: a critique of applications in political science. New Haven: Yale University.

Riker, W. 1990. "Political science and rational choice." In J. Alt and K. Shepsle, Perspectives on positive political economy (pp 163-81). New York:

Shepsle, K. & Bonchek, M.. 1997. Analyzing politics: rationality behavior, and institutions. NY: Norton.
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Seeking the Ramifications in Cognitive Theory

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93811635

Criminology

Application of Schools of Criminal Thought

Within the classical school of thought (rational choice framework from economics), the charges against the perpetrator would be considered both logical and effective. Under classical thought, criminology holds that punishment is an effective deterrent to crime, and that punishment should be rationally aligned with the severity of the crime. The positivist school of thought (functionalist or biological, psychological, and sociological framework) would consider the crime and the punishment against a background of social and genetic influence. Within positivist criminology, the offender is viewed as having a flawed personality and character, brought about by significant deprivations during impressionable years, and that may at least be ameliorated through integrated therapies and treatment. The neo-classical school of thought (empiricism framework) considers crime -- and makes and implements policy -- through a rationalist, scientific, and evidence-based lens.

Theoretical Criminology Frameworks

Social bonding theory. Social bonding theory stems…… [Read More]

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Rationalist Theories of International Relations Despite the

Words: 3525 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 568783

Rationalist Theories of International Relations

Despite the name, rationalist theories of international relations are anything but, limited as they are by both an almost childlike understanding of human behavior and a catastrophic lack of imagination. Rationalist theories of international relations, like the Objectivism which developed in the same post-orld ar II period, rely on a number of assumptions which have since been shown to be empirically false. Rationalism assumes that the most important, and in fact, the only entities dictating international relations are nation states, and that these nation states are engaged in a zero-sum game of diplomacy and war, in which the goals of every nation state is eventual dominance above all others, so that international relations are dictated almost exclusively through violence or coercion, with diplomacy essentially reduced to the well-spoken threat of force. Thus, rationalist theories of international relations are not only incorrect, but altogether dangerous, as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Art, Robert, and Kenneth Waltz. The use of force: military power and international politics.

Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, 2009.

Baylis, John, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens. The globalization of world politics: an introduction to international relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Blatter, Joachim. "Performing Symbolic Politics and International Environmental Regulation:
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Criminal Theory

Words: 2293 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96623247

Criminology

The case of former colonel ussell Williams offers insight into the psychology of criminal behavior. Williams's confession interview was released to the public and aired on The Fifth Estate, offering criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, and law enforcement officials unique access to the mind of a criminal. Analysts interviewed for The Fifth Estate documentary note that Williams presents a conundrum for psychologists and criminologists, as his reactions to the police interview did not fit any previously known profile, such as that of a psychopath. Williams exhibits traits that resemble psychopathic behavior, in accordance with individual trait theory. For instance, he meticulously recorded his crimes and kept the photographic and video imagery as souvenir mementos.

Yet Williams also denies his right to an attorney, permits a foot imprint of his incriminating boots, and also states in the interview that he "was hoping" that he would not have raped or killed again had…… [Read More]

References

"Dr. John Bradford won't work Magnotta case because of PTSD," (2014). CBC. Mar 13, 2014. Retrieved online:  http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/dr-john-bradford-won-t-work-magnotta-case-because-of-ptsd-1.2571463 

Fifth Estate (2010). The Confession. [Video documentary].

Friscolanti, M. (2014). Russell Williams's wife knew he was a predator: victim. Maclean's. Retrieved online:  http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/russell-williamss-wife-knew-he-was-a-predator-victim/ 

La Salle, L. (2013). Colonel Russell Williams where have you been? I've been to London to fly the queen and back to collect artifacts. All Things Crime. Dec 11, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.allthingscrimeblog.com/2013/12/11/colonel-russell-williams-where-have-you-been-ive-been-to-london-to-fly-the-queen-and-back-to-collect-artifacts/
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Law Enforcement and Theories of Crime and Criminals

Words: 1165 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27529104

Schools of Criminology

Schools of Thought

Classical School introduction: This approach to criminology holds that basically, people will do things based on whether it is helpful to them and they will look after their own self-interest first. In other words, if a person is penniless and hungry, he will steal food because it is in his own self-interest to eat and stay alive, notwithstanding his crime

Classical School summary: In the 18th century philosophers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that existing theories of crime (God or the devil determine what humans will do) were not relevant. They put forth the alternative idea that because humans have free will, they choose which behavior they will follow. Most humans respond to pleasure and pain, and if crime brings a person pleasure, that's what he will do; but being hungry can bring pain so a person will commit a crime to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gul, S.K. (2009). An Evaluation of the Rational Choice Theory in Criminology. Sociology & Applied Science, 4(8), 36-44.

Tibbetts, S.G., and Hemmens, C. (2009). Criminology Theory: A Text/Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Vito, G., and Maahs, J. (2011). Criminology: Theory, Research, and Policy. Burlington, MA:

Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
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Application of Criminology Theories Sociology

Words: 1885 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23733167

theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife efuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.

Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife efuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…… [Read More]

References

Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/

Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
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Social Theories of Crime Social

Words: 429 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75019591

ational choice theory can in fact encompass the other two previously mentioned theories of criminal behavior due to the fact that acting rational may include conflicting with common culture or joining the neighborhood gang to eventually escape the ghetto.

Conclusions

Of all the theories of criminal behavior studied so far, rational choice theory is the most applicable to the current state of society in my opinion. Much too often criminals are often dismissed for their faults, when in actuality they are truly acting rational and within their known boundaries of experience. Blanket laws do little good when examining them under this theory. Followers of rational choice theory would agree that changes within the criminal justice system should be made to expose the relative circumstances surrounding each case and not assuming that common punishments meet the required solution for the problem. Warner tended to agree: "building stronger communities will require not…… [Read More]

References

Kurbin (nd). "Sociological Theories of Criminal Behavior II."

Warner, B. (2003). The role of attenuated culture in social disorganization theory. Criminology, 41(1), 73 -- 98.
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Analyzing Criminology Classical Theory

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20824315

Criminology

Classical theory elucidates crime as a creation and outcome of beliefs that advantages of committing crimes are extremely greater than normative, socially acceptable behavior. The foundation of this school of thought on criminology is that crime is a rational choice and that many individuals have the capacity to resort to crime. In addition, individuals will commit crime subsequent to the comparison of prospective advantages and disadvantages of such actions. The positivist school of criminology tries to ascribe crime causation to understood, contemplative assertion of advantages that criminal activities carry. Next, sociological school of criminology asserts that crime comes about due to manifold factors that can be split into mental, biological, and social factors. Therefore, it implies that crime is a result of social factors and elements that influence the behavior of human beings.

eek 2 Discussion

Siegel delineates the three different ways crime is recorded in our country. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boston University Metropolitan College. Reintegrative Shaming & Restorative Justice, 2016. Web. Retrieved:  https://learn.bu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1942479-dt-content-rid-6162758_1/courses/14sprgmetcj602_ol/week06/metcj602_W06L01T04_Reintegrative.html 

Criminal Justice. Similarities and Differences Between Social Control Theories and Other Major Theories of Crime. Social Control Theory, 2016. Web. Retrieved  http://criminal-justice.iresearchnet.com/criminology/theories/social-control-theory/7/ 

Mongold, Jennifer L., and Bradley D. Edwards. "Reintegrative Shaming: Theory into Practice." Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology 6.3 (2014): 205.

Podgor, Ellen S. "The challenge of white collar sentencing." The Journal of criminal law and criminology (2007): 731-759.
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Analyzing Low Self Control Theory

Words: 2356 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29114176

Low Self -Control Theory

This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity,…… [Read More]

References

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Burfeind, J. W. & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Demuth, S. & Brown, S.L. (2004). Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.

Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
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Theories of Criminal Justice

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73487615

CIME

Criminal Justice System

Crime and the law

Crime, from the perspective of the criminal justice system, may be defined as violations of the law. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order. Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order (Schmalleger 2015: 9). The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order (Schmalleger 2015: 10). For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person…… [Read More]

References

Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century. (13th

ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA:

Curriculum Technology.
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Theories of Behavior Applied

Words: 1009 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37297642

Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory

Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…… [Read More]

References

Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682

Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm

Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
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Theory According to Your View

Words: 2190 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70258648

S. involvement in World War II.

Is it possible to have a general theory of war?

Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, eid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of…… [Read More]

References

Clausewitz, C.V. (1976) on War. Princeton, NJ.

Gray, C.S. (1999) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

-. The 21st Century Security Environment and the Future of War. Parameters, 38(4): 14-9.

Lichbach, M.I. (1989) "An evaluation of 'does economic inequality breed political conflict?'
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Rational Xde Modeling Tool

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73816690

ational XDE modeling tool

We recently received the ational XDE modeling tool for use in class and luckily I had some previous practice using it. "XDE Professional, originally released in February, is a tool that allows software developers to "model" -- or create graphical representations of -- their software, so they need to write less code to build applications." (Wong, 2002) This report aims to describe my understanding of XDE and gives some back ground to its potential for both modeling and drawing. In theory and in most cases ational XDE makes design and development faster by allowing the designer to work on two different aspects of software creation in one environment. ational as an organization also created the Unified Modeling Language or UML tool ational ose which is still a pretty well used modeling tool for Internet and object oriented design projects. "The original version of XDE for .Net…… [Read More]

References

Wong, Wylie (2002). Rational rethinks modeling tool for .Net. CNET News.com. Retrieved on February 1, 2005, from http://news.com.com/Rational+rethinks+modeling+tool+for+.Net/2100-1001_3-954425.html
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Rational Business Decision

Words: 488 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77345501

Rational Business Decision

Poor Decision Making

One of the most difficult things to admit is when one has made a mistake. In retrospect, the decision not to promote Ms. X, given her sterling performance for our competitors, is one such a poor decision on my part.

However, I have learned from my mistake. I realize that I should not have rejected her request for a promotion, and the added responsibilities that such a position entailed out of hand.

At first, deploying what is known as Recognition Primed Decision Making, under the stressful situation of her immediate prompting, I bridled at the idea of paying her more, because I knew that the department was financially strapped.

However, she requested an audience with me. Still, I rejected her request again, deploying the Explanation-Based Model of decision making, when a decision maker such as myself "will attempt to create a full story from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Khan, Larry. (2004) Decision Making Models. MIT Website. Retrieved on June 15, 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/1285/decision.html

Scholl, Richard. (1999) Decision Making Models Summary. Retrieved on June 15, 2004 at http://www.cba.uri.edu/Scholl/Notes/Decision_Making_Models.htm
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IR Theory in International Relations Theory Realists

Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74298761

IR Theory

In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Goldstein, Joshua and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations, 10th Editon. Longman, 2002.

Heinrichs, Waldo, "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.

McDermott, Rose. Presidential Leadership, Illness, and Decision Making. Cambridge, 2008.

Waite, Robert G.L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. De Capo Press, 1993.
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Tension Between Theory and Practice

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79413681



International Social Science eview, 85(1-2), 62-63.

Halachmi, a. & Bouckaert, G. (1996). Organizational performance and measurement in the public sector. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

3.

How has congressional agenda setting changed over time?

The agenda of the U.S. Congress has been closely aligned with its role as the legislative branch of the U.S. government. According to Black's Law Dictionary (1991), "The first Congress under the Constitution met on March 4, 1789 in the Federal Hall in New York City" (p. 301). Indeed, the creation of the U.S. Congress coincided with the adoption of the U.S. Constitution. In this regard, Black's (1991) adds that, the U.S. Congress was created pursuant to Article I, Section 1, of the Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Convention on September 17, 1787 providing that "all legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and…… [Read More]

References

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Colker, R. (2007). The mythic 43 million Americans with disabilities. William and Mary Law

Review, 49(1), 1-3.

Vile, J.R. (1994). Constitutional change in the United States: A comparative study of the role of constitutional amendments, judicial interpretations, and legislative and executive actions. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
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Structure Constrains Growth Bounded Rational

Words: 2848 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59638757

404). They found that complexity especially in hierarchical organizations strongly determines success of design choice outcomes, especially when endogenous adaptation in different modules delivers "local performance improvement" (Ethiraj and Levinthal, 2004, p. 404). This is based on H.A. Simon's 1962 model of organizations, products and technology as complex, evolving systems where some choices constrain decision-making in the lowest levels, and also "near-decomposability" (Ethiraj & Levinthal, 2004, p. 404), the argument that intermodular interaction becomes clustered over time between "isolated subsets of interactions" (Ethiraj & Levinthal, 2004, p. 404). Specific units interact more than others, i.e. partnering is not uniform across all departments.

Thus arise multiple, unique interactions within the complex firm that allows for complex evolution (Simon, 1962, ctd. In Ethiraj & Levinthal, 2004, p. 404). This becomes problematic to predict, as an empirical phenomenon that develops organically. Numerous researchers had described possible designs of various complexity, but choosing which…… [Read More]

Predictions from transaction cost, resource-based, and real options theories. Journal of Management 29(6), 937 -- 961. doi:10.1016/S0149-2063(03)00085-0

Nickerson, J.A. And Zenger, T.R. (2002). Being efficiently fickle: A dynamic theory of organizational choice. Saint Louis: John M. Olin School of Business, Washington University, 1-40. Retrieved from https://news.wustl.edu/Documents/vacillation.pdf

Rajan, R.G. And Zingales, L. (2001). The firm as a dedicated hierarchy: A theory of the origins and growth of firms. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Aug. 2001. Retrieved from faculty.chicagobooth.edu/luigi.zingales/papers/research/hierarchy.pdf
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Chaos Management the Chaos Theory of Management

Words: 2353 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85180428

Chaos Management

The Chaos Theory of Management is a relatively new theory that has enjoyed considerable study but also endured significant criticism. By examining the Rational Model, Ordinary Management, Extraordinary Management and Chaos Management, the researcher is able to see differing views of the universe and the business world within it. Chaos Management, which is newer than the Rational Model and combines Ordinary and Extraordinary Management, is dynamic and creative. However, Chaos Management is still a relatively young system that has yet to be proven by empirical data.

Rational Model

The rational model is based on the assumptions that the universe is as predictable as "clockwork machinery," that business organizations are also predictable and that good business management can obtain reliable outcomes from the organization (Rosenhead, 1998). According to this model, "good business management" consists of a Chief Executive Officer (COO) heading a united team of management personnel, all of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chatfield, C.A. (1997). The trust factor: The art of doing business in the 21st Century. Santa Fe, NM: Sunstone.

Parker, D., & Stacey, R. (2007). Chaos, management and economics: The implications of non-linear thinking. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Poincare, H. (1946). The Foundations of Science. Lancaster, PA: The Science Press.

Rosenhead, J. (1998). Complexity theory and management practice. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from human-nature.com Web site: http://human-nature.com/science-as-culture/rosenhead.html
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Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of Risk

Words: 4457 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67940104

Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk

Definition of isk

The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.

This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…… [Read More]

References

Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s

Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.

Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.

Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.
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Psychological Trait Theory

Words: 2333 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91327853

Psychological Trait Theory in Criminology:

The field of criminology can basically be described as the scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior since professionals in this field try to develop theories that explain the reason for the occurrence of crimes and test the theories through observation of criminal behavior. The criminological theories in turn help in shaping the response of the society to crime in relation to preventing criminal behavior and reacting to such behaviors after they occur. Generally, the field of criminology has evolved in three different phases since the inception of this discipline in the 18th Century. While crime and criminals have existed for as long as societies have existed, the systematic study of these incidents began in the late 1700s. Prior to this period, crime and criminal behavior were mainly equated to sin i.e. The infringement of a sacred obligation.

Evolution of the Discipline of Criminology:

As…… [Read More]

References:

Lynch, J.P. (n.d.). Criminology. Retrieved from University of Colorado Boulder website:

 http://autocww2.colorado.edu/~toldy3/E64ContentFiles/LawAndCourts/Criminology.html 

See, E. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Applications. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf

"Trait Theories." (2011). Chapter 5. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://ebooks.narotama.ac.id/files/Criminology%20(11th%20Edition)/CHAPTER%205%20Trait%20Theories.pdf
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Integrated Theory

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89798470

Integrated Theory

Sexual assault is an assault which is of a sexual nature done on another person either of the same of different sex. It also includes any form of sexual act that is committed without the consent of the person. Although in most cases, sexual assault is done by a man on a woman but in some cases, it has been documented to also be done by several men, women or children on men and children also Openshaw et al., 1993()

Prevalence

In the U.S. alone, about 300,000 cases of rape of women are reported every year. Additionally, 3.7 million women are usually subjected to other forms of unwilling sexual activity. There are also another 80,000 children in America who are abused sexually every year. Estimates by help agencies say that about one in every six American women has experienced sexual assault or will experience sexual assault at least…… [Read More]

Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2), 222-226.
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Biological Biosocial Classical Theories Biological

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1567850



Biological explanations, in contrast to fair and severe punishment as advocated by classical theorists, stress the need for institutionalization and psychological and medical treatment for the 'ill,' but they also offers what seems like a defeatist attitude towards the improvement of the criminal, as the criminal has no rational choice in his or her behavior. The presumption is that irrationally generated behavior cannot be conditioned out of the individual through incarceration, and criminality must be treated like an illness, although opinions differ as to the best way to go about treating the individual so the criminal is 'cured' of the crime, or if a cure is even possible.

However, biosocial theories suggest that society plays an important role in causing crime, such as social learning theory: "Some children are raised in families in which violence is used as a means to achieve desires. Abusive parents model to their children that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Greek, Cecil. (2005). "Criminological Theory." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/lectures.htm

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/biotheor.html 

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/devtheor.html
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Aristotle's Theory to a Decsion

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56925868

"(Eliot, 850) She cannot help but comply because she had been humiliated and wounded, and she feels morally guilty. Had Rosamond acted in abidance of Aristotle's Ethics, she would have received Dorothea but she would have done so as a result of her own determination. A person is good if he or she is able to deliberate virtuously, according to the context and the circumstances of a certain situation. Rosamond on the contrary feels compelled to act the way she does, simply because she is in a state of psychological bafflement but she does not actually see the truth of the situation and neither is she able to act virtuously. She merely receives the good Dorothea tensely, endeavoring to guess the reason of her visit.

Catharine's conversion to her own traditional religion is determined by a very different motivation. She determines to become faithful to her own culture because she…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics. Trans. David Ross. Rev. By J.L. Ackrill and J.O. Urmson: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Eliot, George. Middlemarch. New York: Penguin, 1984.

McNickle, D'Arcy. The Surrounded. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1965.
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Sociology - Crime Theories Making

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24217799

In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).

Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.

However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.

Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.…… [Read More]

References

John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:

McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA

Adler J, Mueller J, and Laufer J. (2008). Criminology (6th Edition). City, State: McGraw-Hill. APA
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William Glasser Developed His Theory of Reality

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14924673

William Glasser developed his theory of eality Therapy in the early 1960s. He is best known for his book eality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry (1965), and for founding the Institute for eality Therapy, which is now called The William Glasser Institute. He has also developed supplements to reality therapy in the form of choice theory and control theory, which are all now aligned under the heading "new reality therapy" (Corey, 2009, p. 315).

eality Therapy has its roots in Adlerian Therapy. Both of these models place a strong focus on the interactions of people with others, and the development of relationships. While these theories overlap in terms of the interaction/relationship focus, they also complement each other in the sense that Alderian therapy centers mostly on how the client interprets events, whereas eality Therapy is more concerned with how the client attempts to control events (Corey, 2009).

At its…… [Read More]

References

Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks / Cole.

Glasser W. (1965). Reality therapy: A new approach to psychiatry. New York: Perennial / Harper & Row.

Murdock, N.L. (2004) Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A case approach, University of Missouri-Kansas City
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International Relations Idealism vs Realism the Theories

Words: 1156 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42702682

international relations: idealism vs. realism

The theories of international relations have been seen as a mechanism thru which practitioners in the area of international politics as well as scholars tried to explain the way in which international politics function and how the behavior of states and actors on the international scene can be anticipated.

The beginning of the 20th century was a period of deep consideration for international politics, given the First World War and its aftermath. The idealistic approach on international politics tried to explain the behavior states had after the end of the war and also define the period between the two conflagrations. The realist theory on the other hand appeared as a result of the Second World War and its aftermath and, although it took into account similar elements, the points made in reference to these elements were somewhat in contrast. There are several key issues that…… [Read More]

References

Griffiths. M. 1999. Fifty key thinkers in international relations. Routledge, London.

Guzzini, S. 1998. Realism in international relations and international political economy: the continuing story of a death foretold. Routledge, London.

Kissinger, H. 1994. Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster, London.
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Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

Words: 4260 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80307899

Ethical Theory & Moral Practice

Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.

This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3 

Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
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Gutek's Theory of Education Is

Words: 857 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64751838



For the concept that no child left behind, from my understanding reflects the concern of teachers for every individual student that they have. It shows that as everyone starts the race, everyone should cross the finish line. The approach shows that every student is given utmost importance and despite the seemingly low performance of the student, he or she should be given the necessary assistance to cope with the demands of learning. This is seen in certain examinations; some students prefer essay questions while some prefer the objective type, a good type of examination would then be to balance the items to reflect both essay and objective types in the examination. Another form of leaving no child behind is manifested during tutorial sessions wherein students are given added time to study their lessons on a one on one setting.

Educating the whole child refers to the way in which one…… [Read More]

References

Gutek, G.L. (2004) Philosophical and Ideological Voices in Education (3rd edition). Boston: Pearson Education.

Gutek, G.L. (1991) a Historical Evaluation to American Revolution. Illinois: Waveland Press.

Ornstein, a. (2006) Foundations of Education (9th edition). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Criminology - Theory Understanding Crime

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25210065

Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).

In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
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Equity Theory in the Public

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59532277



From the standpoint of the labor market, the lack of equity in the public system would continue to exist until the market force becomes united and demands a better protection of its rights. For now however, when the people fear the loss of their jobs and when the market place is saturated, the public employers are not pressured to implement equity. At the level of personal evaluation and job contributions, these are only able to reveal the cases of lack of equity through a comparative analysis of contributions, evaluations and compensations of several public sector employees. Individually however, a person who is inequitably rewarded will not be able to make a difference in the system.

In the hypothetical context of a perfect compensation system, several elements would sit at the basis of its evaluation. All these elements would be constructed on complex analyses of past trends, future estimations, equity theory…… [Read More]

References:

Adams, J.S., Berkowitz, L., 1976, Equity theory: toward a general theory of social interaction, Academic Press

Berman, E.M., Bowman, J.S., West, P., Van Mart, M., Human resources management in public service -- paradoxes, processes and problems, 2nd edition

Mann, G.A., 2006, a motive to serve: public service motivation in human resource management and the role of PSM in the non-profit sector, Entrepreneur, http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/160542365_2.html last accessed on November 9, 2010

2009, the end of pay equity for women in the federal public service, Public Service Alliance of Canada, http://psac.com/news/2009/issues/200902pseact-e.shtml last accessed on November 9, 2010
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Analyzing the Self Control Theory

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84409415

Self-Control Theory and ADHD

Self-Control Theory

Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Crime Theory, now referred to as the theory of self-control, remains one of the most well-known theories (Tibbetts & Gibson, 2002). Low self-control remains the main component of their theory. The time-stable individual difference that regulates behavior is low self-control. From what I learnt, individuals who have low self-control are mainly due to poor or ineffective parenting techniques during the early years-before they reached the age of eight. Particularly, parents that lack the consistency or effectiveness to form an emotional attachment with their children will find it hard to monitor the behavior of their children. The difficulty experienced in monitoring the child's behavior minimizes the possibility that the children's deviant behavior will be noticed by the parents. This will minimize the chance for the parents to administer non-corporal punishment for deviant behavior. Therefore, such persons would prefer easy and…… [Read More]

References

Higgins, G. E. (2007). Digital piracy, self-control theory, and rational choice: An examination of the role of value. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 1(1), 33-55.

Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Tibbetts, S. G., & Gibson, C. L. (2002). Individual propensities and rational decision-making: Recent findings and promising approaches.

In: A. R. Piquero and S. G. Tibbetts (Eds.), Rational Choice and Criminal Behavior: Recent Research and Future Challenges. (pp. 3-24): New York, NY: Routledge Press.
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Theory Artifact of Communication

Words: 1085 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14739772

Communication

The McDonald's Menu and Charles erger's Uncertainty Reduction Theory

In the field of communication, extant theories and models aim to provide explanations about the nature and dynamics of relating and interacting with other people. These theoretical frameworks also delve into various kinds of communication, such as verbal or non-verbal and intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and organizational. One of the most important aspects among these kinds of communication concern theories about interpersonal relationships, which serve as the common ground wherein further studies on communication among people from one-on-one, group, and/or organizational.

Among these interpersonal theories, Charles erger's uncertainty reduction theory figures as one of the most descriptive and analytical theory in studying communication at the most basic level. The uncertainty reduction theory describes the 'self-monitoring' behavior of communicators when initially establishing a relationship or interacting with another communicator or an agent of communication. The theory involves two important concepts: the objective…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Littlejohn, S. (1999). Theories of Human Communication. CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.

Official web site of McDonald's-India: http://www.mcdonaldsindia.com/ourfood/veg/.

Official web site of McDonald's-Canada: http://www.mcdonalds.ca/en/food/lighter.aspx

Official web site of McDonald's-Philippines: http://www.8mcdo.com/whatsnew.asp.
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Public Policy Analysis There Is a Sense

Words: 2694 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93362737

Public Policy Analysis

There is a sense that politics operates on a continuum scale whose extremes are rationality and irrationality. Politicians make laws that can be seen from both perspectives depending on the particular position of the person judging whether the particular statute is good or bad. Public policy can be judged by either rational choice theory or the converse of that. The difference in the two can be seen in how crimes are litigated. A rational person can make the choice whether an act is right or wrong and has specific knowledge of how society will view that act. An irrational person is one who, for some reason, is not deemed competent to understand that what they have done is criminal in nature. Irrationality is the reason that individuals below a certain age cutoff are generally not treated with the same deterrent stance as adults, why people with metal…… [Read More]

References

Dye, T.R. (2012). Understanding public policy. Upper Saddle river, NJ: Pearson Education, Ltd.

Keel, R. (2005). Rational choice and deterrence theory. Retrieved from  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/ratchoc.html 

Kelling, G.L. & Bratton, W.J. (1998). Declining crime rates: Insiders' views if the New York City story. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 88(4), 1217-1229.

Nordin, M., Pauleen, D.J., & Gorman, G.E. (2009). Investigating KM antecedents: KM in the criminal justice system. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(2): 4-20. Retrieved from  http://lpis.csd.auth.gr/mtpx/km/material/JKM-13-2a.pdf
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Criminology One of the Most

Words: 2099 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84688714

In this particular case, it appears that at least two elements of Ms. Stewart's arrest and her subsequent sentencing can be related to consensus theory.

Berle's theory of public consensus focuses on conditions within a civil society, where the consensus of the public forms a continuous although informal check on the powers of decision making held by managers (Moore and eberioux, 2010, p. 1113). In other words, managers and other powerful entities within corporations are subject to the public eye, which should serve as a deterrent for corporate crime. In a more formal way, this public consensus is legalized within guidelines and rules implemented by entities such as the SEC and other government agencies governing business ethics.

In the light of the above, one might therefore state that Martha Stewart's arrest for insider trading is the result of legal and public consensus regarding her guilt. She was found guilty according…… [Read More]

References

Leone, M. (2004, Jun. 4). Martha Stewart Arrested. Retrieved from: http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3009528

Moore, M.T. And Reberioux, a. (2010). Corporate Power in the Public Eye: Reassessing the Implications of Berle's Public Consensus Theory. Seattle University Law Review, Vol. 33. No. 4. Retrieved from:  http://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu 

PBS NewsHour. (2004, Jul 16). Martha Stewart Sentenced. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec04/stewart_7-16.html
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Street Level Hispanic Drug Gangs

Words: 2051 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6980434

There are many factors that are not dealt with within the ambit of the theory; for example the extent to which the Hispanic culture has become a part of the mainstream culture. Therefore there are many critics of this theory who believe that it is an oversimplification of the reality on the ground. "Many scholars of criminology, however, believe the alien conspiracy theory is an oversimplification of the very complex and multi-ethnic nature of crime..." (Historical interpretations on Prohibition and organized crime)

3. Conclusion

In the final analysis Hispanic street gangs are a phenomenon that is strongly related to ethnic and social factors and to the way that the individual perceives of him or herself in relation to the larger society. While both ational Choice Theory and Alien Conspiracy Theory can explain aspects of the Hispanic gang phenomenon, they often do not account for all the factors affecting Hispanic street…… [Read More]

References

Arfaniarromo, A. (2001). Toward a Psychosocial and Sociocultural Understanding of Achievement Motivation among Latino Gang Members in U.S. Schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28(3), 123. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000891430

Boose, D.W. (2003). Rethinking the Korean War. Parameters, 33(4), 175+. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002573236

Coughlin, B.C., & Venkatesh, S.A. (2003). The Urban Street Gang after 1970. 41+.

Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S.E. (Eds.). (2004). Teen Gangs: A Global View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107029652
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Free Will vs Determinism Making

Words: 313 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86587208

However, a determinist theorist could argue that given the wage inequity between the genders, women who turn to prostitution may do so due to the lack of professions that pay good wages for female employees.

Drug use is another issue that generates much debate. Rational choice theorists often follow the "Just say no" route, and that drug addicts should be penalized for violating the law. Determinists, on the other hand, point out that laws vary by society, and that the laws prohibiting marijuana use only reflect the values of a select elite.

Rational choice theorists may also condemn people who commit euthanasia, whether or not the act was committed with a patient's consent. However, determinists would look more into the situation. Was the patient terminally ill and in pain? Was there consent? These questions will help a determinist in evaluating whether or not a crime has occurred.… [Read More]

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Emotional Intelligence Humans Are Living

Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97628165

62).

Being dismissed coldly by a partner can be a bit like having a partner die, haram writes on page 62. And when you go through the grief of losing a sweetheart who has been with you for years, "being present in the emotion is the best way forward" even though it "just doesn't feel" right at the time.

Conclusion

Emotional intelligence can be implemented into any situation, especially a situation where death is involved. and, as this paper pointed out through the literature, emotional intelligence helps the sufferer understand why it is necessary to "cry…scream or get angry" when the shock of sudden loss hits. In the end, the emotionally intelligent person will be thankful that he or she did not ignore the emotions. hether or not omens appear in dreams, when the loved one is near death, the steps that are taken to deal effectively with the situation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berta, Peter. (2007). Omens. Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. Retrieved March 1, 2011, from http://www.deathreference.com/nu-pu/omens.html.

Goleman, Daniel. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Random House

Digital, Inc.

McBride, Patricia, and Maitland, Susan. (2001). The EI Advantage: Putting Emotional
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Compliance Gaining of Employees the

Words: 4564 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16737291

" (1997) According to McAdams, rational choice theorists in the 1980s "in various disciplines began to study norms." (1997) Specifically the work of Land and Cooter attempt to explain what it is that in areas of Asia, "ethnic minorities tended to dominate the middleman position in many industries." (McAdams, 1997) the conclusions of Landa and Cooter were that the "ethnically homogenous middlemen groups" are successful in nations that have no stable and reliable enforcement of legal contracts "because the groups' social connectedness gives their members a unique means of sanctioning contract breaches by other groups members" although be it means that are informal in nature. During this same time, Ellickson investigated how Stansta County, California ranchers go about settle disputes concerning property and concluded that "these ranchers enforce informal norm-based rules for disputes involving cattle trespass and boundary fences and thus resolve certain conflicts without the legal regime." (McAdams, 1997)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Game Theory (2008) Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Online available at http://www.iep.utm.edu/g/game-th.htm

Li, Xiangyang (nd) Comments on << Principles of Group Solidarity>> by Michael Hechter. Online available at http://www.som.yale.edu/faculty/Sunder/Phdaccountingcontrol/HechterReviewLi.doc

McAdams, Richard H. (1997)the Origin, Development and Regulation of Norms. Michigan Law Review 1 Nov 1997.

McAdams, Richard H. (1996) Group Norms, Gossip and Blackmail. 1 May 1996. University of Pennsylvania Law Review.
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Crime the Importance and Significance

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3336847

The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.

These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruce C.W. Crime Analysis. 16 October 2007. http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:Rv5FYusFZ4gJ:www.iaca.net/ExploringCA/exploringca_chapter1.pdf+importance+of+analysis+of+crime&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ukFundamentalsof

Keel, R. (2004) Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory.

Retrieved October 17, 2007. from the University of Missouri. Web site. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html

Overview of Labelling Theories. October 16, 2007. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/labeling.htm
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Gun Trafficking and Straw Purchasing

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64736394

Gun Trafficking and Straw Purchasing

Traffic Jam: Straw Runners' Complicity

Rational choice theory is the theory of criminal behavior that posits that when people commit illicit acts, they generally tend to do so while considering their own self-interest. This theorem posits that criminals are well aware of the illegality of that which they are contemplating, and that they take into account a number of factors before first pursuing these actions. Such factors generally include what sort of benefits they will incur (as well as to what degree they will profit) from criminal behavior, which is typically weighed against the likelihood of their getting caught. Furthermore, this theory contends that people who commit crime also are cognizant of the nature and the degree of the punishment they may induce if they are apprehended for committing a crime. In view of all of these factors, when people decide to still commit a…… [Read More]

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Does the Fisher Ury Model Work

Words: 29882 Length: 120 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38724917

Negotiation Skills

A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations

This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…… [Read More]

References

Allred, K., Mallozzi, J., Matsui, F., Raia, C. (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70(3): 175-187.

Andonova, E., Taylor, H. (2012). Nodding in dis/agreement: a tale of two cultures.

Cognitive Process, 13(Suppl 1): S79-S82.

Aristotle. (1889). The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle. (Trans R.W. Browne).
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Criminal Pathology Extreme Pathologically Antisocial

Words: 783 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35973881



The Argument for Environmental Influence

The modern fields of criminology and sociology have also established significant direct connections between the external environment and the behavior that develops in the individual (Schmalleger, 2008). egardless of the effects of physiology and biological processes, there is undoubtedly a tremendous influence in the experiences, formative relationships, and role models to which the individual is exposed (Schmalleger, 2008). Many forms of modern crime are largely products of the influence of social circumstances and the norms that prevail in local communities (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). With respect to criminally deviant individuals such as serial killers, there are specific types and patterns of formative experiences and psychological trauma that are known to be associated with those types of criminal deviance (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; Innes, 2007),

The Argument for the ational Choice Theory

The modern approach to understanding criminal deviance also recognizes the importance of elements…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Innes, B. (2007). Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London:

Quercus

Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., and Miller, C. (2007). "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
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Fist Stick Knife Gun a Personal History of Violence in America

Words: 905 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83959244

Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun

Fist Stick Knife Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America.

The book, Fist Stick Knife Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America, is a memoir told by the American activist Geoffrey Canada who gives his own personal account of what is was like to grow up on the streets of Harlem in the 1950s or 1960s. His account details his perspective of what it was like growing up in this environment where parents, peers, and sometimes even teachers preached the value of being tough. These kids were taught that the ideal response to violence is with more violence. Kids in this neighborhood were taught that they had to be strong and "take it like a man" if they were even confronted on any occasion. This culture of violence can be studied from many different perspectives.

However, the two I found to be the most…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Canada, G. (2010). Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America. Beacon Press.

Card, D., & Dahl, G. (2011). Family Violence and Football: The Effect of Unexpected Emotional Cues on Violent Behavior. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 103-143.

Hayward, K., & Young, J. (2011). Cultural Criminology: Some Notes on the Script. International Journal Theoretical Criminology, 259-285.
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Economics Why Do Consumers Make Irrational Decisions

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64561960

Economics

Why Do Consumers Make Irrational, Decisions?

In economics there is usually the underlying assumption that people who make choices will act in a rational manner, weighing up the costs and the benefits and determining a course of action dependent which choice provides them with the greatest benefit. The assumption may appeal to logic, and is seen in rational choice theory, but the reality is many consumers will not act in a rational manner, making choices that result disadvantages or costs rather than benefits. There are a number of influences which may explain how and why consumers do not always make the rational or optimal choices in economic terms.

One of the key aspects of rational choice theory, which dictates individuals will make rational choices are the underlying assumption that individuals making the choices will be in possession of perfect information regarding the choices and the potential outcomes, and that…… [Read More]

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Herding in Bank Panics

Words: 3113 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33463129

Herding in Bank Panics

The work of Devenow and Welch (1996) states that the most basic of human instincts is likely to be that of "…imitation and mimicry" which are the primary characteristics in what is known as 'herding' which often specifically occurs related to such as "fashion and fads…" (Devenow and Welch, 1996, p.603) Devenow and Welch go on to state that among financial economists there is a belief that "investors are influenced by the decisions of other investors and that this influence is a first-order effect." (p.603)

It is reported in the work of Donaldson (1992) entitled "Sources of Panics: Evidence from the Weekly Data" that panic is defined by Jevons (1884) as "a rapid rise in the rate of discount, a sudden flood of bankruptcy and a fall in consols, followed by a rise" (p.8). It is additionally reported that Calomiris and Gorton (1991) "define a panic…… [Read More]

References

Avgouleas, E. (20008) Reforming Investor Protection Regulation: The Impact of Cognitive Biases. Retrieved from: http://www.law.man.ac.uk/aboutus/staff/emilios_avgouleas/documents/AvgouleasCognitiveBiasesOgusfinal.pdf .

Bulow, Jeremy and Paul Klemperer, 1994, Rational frenzies and crashes, Journal of Political Economy 102, no. 1, 1-23. Chari, V.V. And Ravi Jagannathan, 1988, Banking panics, information, and rational expectations equilibrium, Journal of Finance 43, no. 3, 749-761.

Chen, Yehning, 1995a, Bank runs: Panic of efficient monitoring, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA).

Chen, Yehning, 1995b, Banking panics: The role of the first-come, first-served rule and informational externalities, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA). Donaldson, R. Glen, 1992, Sources of panics: Evidence from the weekly data, Journal of Monetary Economics 30, 277-305.
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Terrorist Mind Terrorism Is an Issue That

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58756261

Terrorist Mind:

Terrorism is an issue that has existed throughout the history of mankind, but experienced significant changes in the nature and degree of threats in the past few decades due to globalization and technological advancements. The increase of the threat of terrorism has contributed to the need to develop effective measures to lessen the occurrence and impact of such threats. One of the major measures used to help deal with the threat of terrorism is analyzing the terrorist mind because terrorism is basically a psychological act involving the use of violence or threat of violence. The psychological act is fuel by various factors including ideological differences and motivational issues.

While analyzing the terrorist mind is an important part to help fight terrorism, it is very ambivalent, which results in concerns whether it's necessary to dedicate time and resources to profile and predict terrorist motivations. The dedication of time and…… [Read More]

References:

O'Connor, T. (2013, September 10). Terrorist Profiling. Retrieved September 17, 2013, from http://www.drtomoconnor.com/4050/4050lect08.htm

Victoroff, J. (2005, February). The Mind of the Terrorist: A Review and Critique of Psychological Approaches. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(1), 3-42. Retrieved from  http://www.surrey.ac.uk/politics/research/researchareasofstaff/isppsummeracademy/instructors%20/The%20Terrost%20mind.pdf
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Anthony in June 2008 Casey

Words: 817 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1779162

To achieve these objectives, she murdered her daughter and created a story about how she was kidnapped. The situational choice theory states that crimes will occur based on individual choices and motivating factors. When this is applied to Anthony's situation, it is clear that murdering her daughter was a choice that she made. This is because she was motivated to have her personal freedom. ("eview of Basic Criminological Theory") (Jensen 284 -- 288) ("Casey Anthony")

What category of theory is least effective for explaining this young woman? Why?

The theory that is least effective in explaining Anthony's activities is the neo-classical approach. The reason why is because this theory is focused on understanding the importance and dynamics of character development. It will then examine how this will affect the person's ability to make rational decisions. In the case of Anthony, her character did not have any kind of impact in…… [Read More]

References

Casey Anthony. Investigation Discovery, 2011. Web. 6 Mar. 2012

Review of Basic Criminological Theory, 2012.

Jensen, Vicky. Women Criminals. Staten Island: Greenwood, 2012. Print.

MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
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Criminal Justice as Portrayed in

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12872871

The criminal association principle suggests that being socialized to regard crime as acceptable or to admire criminals plays a role in the choices made in that regard. The fact that Pistone and Napolitano were actually raised in very similar circumstances where each had the same type of exposure to organized crime families illustrates that rational choice is more important than criminal association because Pistone made the conscious choice to become a federal agent rather than one of the criminals who controlled his childhood neighborhood (Macionis, 2003; chmalleger, 2008).

The segment of the criminal justice system portrayed by Episode 71 is criminal investigations and the operations of the criminal justice system. Fisher was allowed to plea bargain the charges of attempted murder despite the fact that she deliberately shot the wife of her lover in the head in the attempt to murder her. The episode suggests that her age was a…… [Read More]

Sources Cited

Macionis J. (2003). Sociology. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.

Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Scaling Caste Walls With Capitalism's

Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68728881

By looking at the world from an individual perspective, some people actually managed to acknowledge that they were not really as inferior as some groups were inclined to believe they were and managed to surprise a whole world. By concentrating on his goals and on strategies he could use in order to achieve them, Khade practically reinforced his position in the business world and succeeded in spite of the fact that odds were against him.

Khade's story is inspirational for anyone who considers him or herself to be underprivileged as a result of coming from an obscure background. This makes it possible for people to understand that it is up to themselves to improve their general condition, as only by getting actively involved in trying to achieve their goals would they be able to truly succeed in accomplishing their dreams.

Instead of being influenced by cultural values that were meant…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Polgreen, Lydia, "Scaling Caste Walls With Capitalism's Ladders in India"
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Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task

Words: 13216 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93148396

" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)

The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf

ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm

Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.

Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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Teaching Ethics and Values in Public Administration

Words: 3701 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7201356

Goals of a Public Administrator

The implementation of the policies devised by the government is referred to as public administration. Moreover, public administration is also a discipline that is taught in many higher education institutions. This discipline is based on the studies that revolve around the aforementioned implementation and therefore it prepares the civil servants that would be working for the public service in the future (Frederickson, 1997). The fundamental goal behind the layout of the curriculum of this discipline and the training in this field is to advance the policies and management in order for the government to function effectively (Frederickson, 1997). There are various definitions that have been used to describe this term; "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; "the management of public programs" and "the study of the process of decision making by the government, the analysis of the devised policies, the…… [Read More]

References

Alvarez, K., & Stupak, R. (1993). An Analytical Essay and Annotated Compendium on Organizational Theory: Paradigms Lost and Needed in Public Administration. International Review Of Modern Sociology, 59 -- 81.

Brown-John, C. (1990). Budgeting in the Provinces: Leadership and the Premiers Allan M. Maslove, ed. Toronto: The Institute of Public Administration in Canada, 1989, pp. xxii, 175 Tax Reform in Canada: The Process and Impact Allan M. Maslove Halifax: The Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1989, pp. xv, 96 The Politics of Public Spending in Canada Donald J. Savoie Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990, pp. xiv, 433. Canadian Journal Of Political Science, 23(03), 568 -- 571.

Frederickson, H. (1997). The spirit of public administration. Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco, 80.

Geva-May, I., & Kfir, A. (2000). Developments in Policy Analysis and Evaluation in Public Administration. Public Administration, 78(2), 409 -- 422.