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The British Museum and the eichstag in Berlin have many similarities. Both of these historic buildings have undergone facelifts recently, and Lord Norman Foster and Partners Architects created both of these facelifts. Both of the buildings feature domes or cupolas, and both have modern elements Foster created to blend naturally with their historic natures. Both of the buildings have features that draw the viewers' eye to the top or apex of the buildings. The British Museum has a domed reading room and a steel-lattice roof that soars over an open courtyard. The eichstag has a refurbished dome in the center of the building over the Great Court.
The two buildings are both ornate and opulent in their architectural style, but the British Museum is much older, and has had more additions and refurbishing than the eichstag. The British Museum was first housed in a mansion, and opened for…
Author not Available. "History of the British Museum." The British Museum. 2005. 30 Aug. 2005.
Author not Available. "Reichstag." A View on Cities. 2005. 30 Aug. 2005.
< http://www.aviewoncities.com/berlin/reichstag.htm >
After the initial frustration of the reparations crisis subsided in 1923, cooler heads prevailed for a time and the Weimar Republic started to address its immediate economic problems. The Weimar solved the fiscal crisis by replacing the devalued and disreputable rentenmark with a new currency, the reischmark. (146) The Dawes Plan eased reparations anxiety by bringing in American bankers to loan Germany hard currency to support the reischmark while overseeing the payment of reparations in reischmarks. (146)
Structurally, the Weimar government encouraged free trade and sought to restore Germany's historic trade surplus by favoring the production of goods for export, which eased unemployment greatly. (149) Germany's economic recovery was also aided by loans from investors in the United States, which underwent an extended boom throughout the 1920s owing partly to the economic gains it made during Germany's wartime absence from world trade. (158) By 1929, Germany had made enough economic…
Considering the enormous challenges facing it, it is somewhat of a miracle that the Weimar Republic endured for as long as it did. However, it is not so puzzling if one recognizes that during the Weimar period, the political situation tended to reflect the economic conditions. In this sense, it is not hard to imagine a stable moderate-left coalition emerging after five more years of economic prosperity. However, considering the fragile economic foundations and persistent political threats, the Weimar had a very small margin for error, a margin exceeded for it by the Great Depression.
Orlow, Dietrich. A History of Modern Germany. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008.
Termination of the Republican Government in Germany in 1933
The last years of the Weimar republic were marked by even more political instability than in the previous years. On March 29, 1930, finance expert Heinrich runing had been appointed the successor of Chancellor Muller by Paul von Hindenburg after months of political lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military. The new government was expected to lead a political shift towards conservatism, based on the emergency powers granted to the Reichsprasident by the constitution, since it had no majority support in the Reichstag. After an unpopular bill to help the Reich's finances had not found the support of the Reichstag, Hindenburg established the bill as an emergency decree based on Article 48 of the constitution. On July 18, 1930, the bill was again invalidated by a slim majority in the Reichstag with the support of the Sozialdemokratische…
By the time Bismarck had to leave the Chancellor's office in 1890, France and Russia were working to forge an alliance in both commercial and military terms. French capital markets were supplying Russian industrialization with the investment that was drying up, not least thanks to Bismarck's intervention, from the German side. The French arms industry looked to provide the Russian armies with modern equipment. Russian officers were lavishly entertained in Paris, and naval squadrons paid much-heralded visits to Le Havre and St. Petersburg. This was the "nightmare" that Bismarck had always feared, posing a threat to Germany's strategic borders in the west and to Austria's existence in the east.
Subsequent German foreign policy initiatives, notably the initiation of a large battle fleet under the naval laws of 1898 and 1900, drove Britain into diplomatic alignment (the Entente) with a Franco-Russian alliance already in the offing at the time of Bismarck's fall. "In 1912 Lord Haldane, then the British Secretary for War, hoped that, given the new correlation of forces, Germany might be willing to sign a naval agreement to limit numbers. In Berlin, however, Haldane met with stiff resistance from Tirpitz and the Kaiser: too much prestige and funds had been invested to retreat and acknowledge defeat. There was to be no arms control."
Intensified by the reign of the far more militaristic Kaiser Wilhelm II, Bismarck's legacy would contribute to the political culture in which Nazism found significant support-bases. As a result, in Germany, as in Japan and Italy, later attempts to extend democracy would succeed in establishing the unstable democracies of the Weimar Republic. Despite advances in industry and science under the Second Reich, Germany retained a despotic aspect to its character, due to
After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…
Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.
Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.
Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm . Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
He liked to show of the luxury than by now he could afford at the expense of the robberies conducted by him and his men and his very influential position. A closer look to Goering's life of luxury shows that he was more than enjoying his success, his arrogance and extravagance being by now well-known.
Goering had good organizational skills and he was appointed in charge of so many different positions because he had the capability to follow the Nazi ideology with more belief than many others. Goering was truly dedicated to the Nazi cause, although not entirely unmotivated.
Goering was the man that stood behind the elimination of the Jewish community from German economic life, as he fined the German Jewish community a billion marks and order their exclusion from economy, their properties, even schools, parks, or forests. Goering was one of the leading figures that planned the "Aryanisation"…
Hermann Goering, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring ;
Hermann Goering, Jewish Virtual Library, available at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/goering.html ;
Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War 1), available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagdgeschwader_1_%28World_War_1%29 ;
Manvell, Roger and Franenkel, Heinrich, Goering, Greenhill Books, London UK, 2005;
The Germany Army also condoned what had happened in the purging of the Night of the Long Knives, showing that their side was with Hitler and thus they began their association with him that would nearly lead them to a world conquest (1996). The two-hour, highly emotional speech that Hitler gave at the Reichstag explaining his behavior to the German people as well as to the disbelieving foreign press would be one of the most important speeches of his career (1996). The "brownshirts" were either brought into Hitler's army or they just simply disappeared while the would become Hitler's main tools of mass murder that would go on for another eleven years (1996).
ection E: Conclusion.
The Night of the Long Knives was absolutely vital in Hitler's consolidation of power. Before the purge, Hitler had opposition in the A party who were still interested in some of the original ideas…
Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power. New York, NY: Penguin, 2006.
History Place. The Night of the Long Knives. World War II in Europe, 1996. Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from the Website,
Maracin, Paul R. The Night of the Long Knives: Forty-Eight Hours That Changed the History of the World. Guilford, CT: First Lyons Press Paperback Edition, 2007.
Conservatives and socialists splitted society and failed to create a functioning coalition. After years of authoritarian monarchic control, proportional system of election led society to political chaos, as nearly 20 parties with different political programs from communist to right radicals were represented in eichstag. None of country's politicians was successful either in diplomacy or in the art of achieving compromise. The experience of political pluralism led to political and economical disorientation in society, as in a period of 1919-1933 Germany witnessed several temporary coalitions in parliament and twelve governments, which were unable to stabilize country's economy.
Haffner describes that political crisis was a common attribute of Weimar republic's pluralism: "From 1914 to 1923 all governments had been weak" German parliamentarians of Weimar republic faced a common problem of all young political parties. Being one of the most popular parties in the country with wide support in society and even being…
Gay, Peter Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider W.W. Norton & Company 2001
Haffner, Sebastian Defying Hitler: A Memoir Picador 2003
Eyck, Erich History of the Weimar Republic Macmillan Pub Co 1970
The German suffering after the first world war and the humiliation of Germany with other nations gave the Nazis the opportunity to feed hatred of the Jews and at the same time promise that if the People gave in to the Nazi ideology, they would be in the land that would hold them a superior way of life. That the followers of Hitler followed the Ideals as true and that they also created in their own minds the need to eliminate groups of people who disagree like the communists and the Jews was the fundamental cause of the holocaust. Why did it come about? It was argued that while the political climate of the times did not show much promise, Hitler was able to deliver what he promised even if it was based on evil. This gave him ground support. One of the chief supporters of Hitler, and Aman who…
Abzug, Robert H. 1985. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi
Concentration Camps. Oxford University Press: New York.
Aroneanu, Eugene; Whissen, Thomas. 1996. Inside the Concentration Camps:
Eyewitness Accounts of Life in Hitler's Death Camps. Praeger: Westport, CT.
This included the
annexation of Czechoslovakia. He reneged on areas in Poland which had been
ceded from German in the Versailles treaty. While Britain and the Soviet
Union were unable to come to an alliance, Germany was able to develop a non-
aggression pact with Stalin, negotiated over the partitioning of Poland.
Hitler continued to work against significant disbelief on the part of the
general European public and conquered France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg
and Belgium. Hitler took advantage of Europeans disbelief that another war
to the extent degree of World War I was possible, and certainly not
possible under the restrictions placed on Germany by the Treaty of
Versailles. Hitler's victory brought France and Italy to his side.
Hitler was unable to obtain air superiority over Britain, despite
blistering attacks on British cities. The ability of the British to hold
out against the rest of Europe was a rallying cry…
he second was Article 48 of the constitution, which stated that, in an emergency, the president could issue important decrees without approval of the Reichstag -- a backdoor that eventually brought Hitler to power.
Despite these difficulties, the Weimar republic also had its strengths. For the first time in its history, Germans under the republic enjoyed the freedom of democracy and a Bill of Rights guaranteed every German citizen freedom of speech, religion, and equality under the law and all men and women over 20 years of age could exercise their right of vote. Moreover, after a severe economic crisis brought about by hyperinflation in 1923, Gustav Stresemann, the German chancellor (1923) and foreign minister (1923-29) brought about a remarkable turn-around and until 1929 the German economy boomed and cultural life flourished like never before. Unfortunately, Stresemann died in 1929, which ended the golden period of the Weimar Republic and…
The aftermath of the First World War, which Germany lost, would have been difficult for any government as it was for the Weimar Republic. The government faced considerable economic and political problems in its early years. This was mainly due to the devastation suffered in the war and the harsh reparations imposed by the victors, as well as the result of violent opposition from the extreme leftists and the extreme rightists.
Apart from these problems which were not of its own making, the republic also suffered from two inherent weaknesses in its constitution that eventually led to its downfall. The first was the system of "proportional representation": a system in which people vote for a party instead of voting directly for a candidate. This proved disastrous as dozens of tiny parties emerged, with no party being strong enough to get a majority in the Reichstag. The second was Article 48 of the constitution, which stated that, in an emergency, the president could issue important decrees without approval of the Reichstag -- a backdoor that eventually brought Hitler to power.
Despite these difficulties, the Weimar republic also had its strengths. For the first time in its history, Germans under the republic enjoyed the freedom of democracy and a Bill of Rights guaranteed every German citizen freedom of speech, religion, and equality under the law and all men and women over 20 years of age could exercise their right of vote. Moreover, after a severe economic crisis brought about by hyperinflation in 1923, Gustav Stresemann, the German chancellor (1923) and foreign minister (1923-29) brought about a remarkable turn-around and until 1929 the German economy boomed and cultural life flourished like never before. Unfortunately, Stresemann died in 1929, which ended the golden period of the Weimar Republic and signaled the rise of Hitler and the Nazis. At that time, there was no strong personality in the Weimar Republic to oppose him effectively. Hence, if we consider whether the fate of the Weimar Republic depended on personalities or the underlying trends; the answer would be: a bit of both.
GERMANY & COMPOSITION OF GOVERNMENT. The research focus CURRENT ( year ) developments composition government. Preferred Resources: 1)The Economist 2) BBC News .
Development and Composition of German Government
Federalism is a key feature of the political system of Germany and its governance. Federalism dates back in the period after orld ar II when Germany was under the leadership Prussians. At this time, "Germany" consisted of a patchwork of states. These states formed the "Old Empire" (Altes Reich) with a common institution, the so-called Immerwahrender Reichstag in Regensburg (1663 -- 1806), composed of representatives of the respective territories. Its key features were power-sharing, bargaining and compromise-seeking (Kitschelt and olfgang 16).
Following the dissolution of that Empire in 1806, 39 territories formed, under Napoleon's protectorate, the Rheinbund (Rhine-Confederation) which was unwieldy and inefficient. The Vienna Congress in 1815 established, the confederal Deutscher Bund, as successor of the Old Empire and with…
Kitschelt, H., and S. Wolfgang. "Germany: Beyond the Stable State (Special Issue),, 26:4." West European Politics 26.4 (2010): 12-26. Print.
Scarrow, Susan. "Party Subsidies and the Freezing of Party Competition: Do Cartels Work?" West European Politics 29.4 (2010): 619-39. Print.
Streeck, Wolfgang, and Thelen. Kathleen. . Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies (Eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.
The Economist. "Ready for a Bush Hug " The Economist 2006: 15-19. Print.
orld ar II broke out, Russia was not prepared, nor did she manage to be the military threat she could have been, because the nation was weakened by lack of industrialization, the defeat by Japan in 1905, and a lack of support by the people for involvement in this new war. hat seems clear is that Russia was not prepared when the war began and had to work to muster its army, provide war materials, and protect its own territory against the German advance. The fact that Germany was indeed stopped cold in Russia shows how well the Russians did their job, but the issue is why they did not do what they could before the war started given that the whole world could see war coming long before it reached Russia. More recently, though, the question of unpreparedness has been given a new look, and a new theory of…
McTaggart, Pat. "Winter Tempest in Stalingrad." World War II 12(4)(November 1997), 30-36.
Raack, R.C. "Stalin's Role in the Coming of World War II: Opening the Closet Door on a Key Chapter of Recent History." World Affairs 158(4)(1996), 198-211.
Taylor, a.J.P. The Origins of the Second World War. New York: Athenaeum, 1985.
Tucker, Robert C. Stalin in Power. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.
Therefore, it compromised the superiority of the German art and body politic. The Bayreuth festival, founded by Wagner, was utilized by the Nazis as a propaganda tool against the Jews.
Both Hitler and Wagner were not only racist, but both were also artists and politicians. Whereas Wagner exhibited a number of talents, Hitler was known for his painting and oratory skills. Both were paranoid that they had Jewish forbearers. Some of those things that Hitler and Wagner shared agreed upon are as follows: race is based on appearance, language, nationality and genetics; an "Aryan" white race is the supreme race of purity, beauty, and goodness; Germans will rule the world; all race other than Aryan are inferior; Nietsche's Will to Power and social Darwinism are the foundations upon which personality and society ought to be based; Jews were contaminating German blood; Jesus was not a Jew; Jews have no religion;…
In 1918 Iceland became independent but remained under the rule of the Danish king. At the end of the war a plebiscite showed a 75% pro-Danish majority and the North Slesvig was once again reunited with Denmark (Miller 224).
As World War I was coming close and Denmark remained neutral Jews started moving to the country. There are no exact statistics since many of these immigrants were wary of the authorities, but as many as twenty to thirty thousand Eastern European Jews may have entered Denmark during this period and approximately 3,000 stayed permanently, thus doubling the Jewish population (Hammerich in Kisch). More did not stay because the existing assimilated Jewish community wanted to pay their passage out; they believed their position in society was threatened and latent anti-Semitism would spread. The Jewish congregation even actively cooperated with authorities such as the police to expel unemployed or unwanted individuals from…
Buckser Andrew. After the Rescue. New York: MacMillan, 2003
Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University, 2001
Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1979
Kische, Conrad. The Jewish Community in Denmark: History and Present Status.
Germany is only fighting out of conquest, an intolerable aim in the present world. The modern weapons, including the submarine and the tank, have made wars more costly in terms of lives. Germany seems to disregard this loss, whether it is their own or not. Germany's conquest cannot be won. Yet, the nature of the German Chancellor seems to press the nation onward, killing many of their own in the process. It is unreasonable to expect the nature of the German leadership to change now, after they have already suffered great losses. Even now, the Chancellor claims Germany is "Stronger than we were before" (Peace ejected, 1916).
If all of this reasoning is not enough, we have the final news of German collusion with Mexico to deal with. We have heard of the Zimmerman telegram from February of this year. In it, the German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman offers portions…
Marshall, S.L.A. (1982). The American heritage history of World War I. New York: American Heristage / Bonanza Books.
Peace rejected, will fight on, says Chancellor; Germany stronger than when first offer was made, he tells Reichstag. (1916, June 6). The New York Times, p. 1-2.
Smith, P. (1985). America enters the world" A people's progressive era and World War I (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wilson, W. (1985). Wilson's Address to the Senate, January 22, 1917. In Paul M. Angle (Ed.), By these words: Great Documents of American liberty, selected and placed in their contemporary settings (pp. 322-328). New York: Rand McNally.
It is finally understood why such a burdened population would look to dolph Hitler and his Nazis to restore economic stability in the country.
2. Germany at the end of World War I
The German parliamentary republic, also known as the Weimar Republic, was established in 1919, shortly after the end of World War I, and officially brought the German Revolution to an end (Blanning, 2000, p. 159). This era was one of much political and social turbulence, as Germany was left in shambles after being defeated by the llies in the Great War.
The stage for the conflict was set by the terms by which Germany was held accountable in the Treaty of Versailles. The Versailles Treaty of 1919 was an agreement that was signed by the llied Powers and the German authorities during World War I, and it is this treaty that officially brought this particular war to…
As the Great War would come to a resolution, the political and economic contexts in Germany would come to be met with more unrest. In the face of social pressures, as well as the sense of the hurt national pride -- due to both the loss of the war but also to the fact that it was being held accountable -- the German authorities strived to restore balance. The outcome was however far from the desired one.
Weimar was faced with numerous problems as soon as it was established in 1919. Germany had lost a war, and its central government could not exercise much power on international or domestic affairs. The Weimar Republic adopted a system of proportional voting, which promoted a creation of twenty-eight small, weak, and decentralized parties (Finer, 1946, p.555).
It was nearly impossible for one particular party to maintain power for a long period of time, and the Weimar Republic started to lose its credibility and support of the German people. Because the central legislative body of the Weimar Republic, or the Reichstag, was feeble and unpopular due to the constantly changing ruling party, the power of the German states grew, and they frequently ignored orders or directions of the central government. This instability would constitute a primary factor in the generation of the
In her article, "Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11 -from an organizer's point-of-view" the military could have done more. In particular the author asserts that General Myers who controlled such military operations, couls have done more to prevent the attacks (Brouillet). Instead the general was awarded one of the highest military honors for his inaction prior to 9/11 (Brouillet). The author also explain that she organized rallies and showecd people a film entitled "The Great Deception" which was the first televised show that contradicted the claims that were being made by the mainstream media in the aftermath of 9/11.
Mark Dunlea is one of the most outspoken voices on the events of September 11 and the lack of cooperation from the Bush administration in reference to a bipartisan review of the terrorist attacks. Dunlea is a member of the Green Party of New York city. In fact, Mark Dunlea…
Brouillet, Carol Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11
from an organizer's point-of-view. Retrieved January 2, 2005 from;
Dunlea, Mark. Madame President: The Unauthorized Biography of the First Green Party President. Big Toad Books: New York.
In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,
The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."
So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…
Bailer-galanda, Brigitte. "8." In Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, edited by Kurthen, Hermann, Werner Bergmann, and Rainer Erb, 174-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103409458
Bosworth, R.J.B. Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990. New York: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103664388
Crew, David F. Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945. London: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33602574
The latter was an important member of this party, and also a staunch anti-Semite. The association with Eckart therefore further solidified Hitler's prejudice against Jews and other non-Aryan races (Fuchs 12)
Like many Germans, Hitler was deeply shocked by Germany's surrender. At the time, he was lying in a military hospital, recovering from a mustard gas attack. Recalling the anti-Semitic and political pamphlets he read as a teenager, Hitler came to believe that Jewish politicians had signed the armistice, thereby surrendering Germany at the point of victory (Schwaab 46).
The German surrender thus served as a catalyst for Hitler's entry into politics
Hitler believed that these Jewish politicians were preparing the way for a communist takeover of the German nation.
Shortly after meeting Eckart, Hitler produced his first anti-Semitic writing, advocating for a solution to the growing German problem. Hitler's solution involved "rational anti-Semitism." He vowed not to use traditional…
Fuchs, Thomas. A Concise Biography of Adolf Hitler. Boston: Berkly, 2000
Haffner, Sebastian. The Meaning of Hitler.
Boston: Harvard University Press, 2004
Housden, Martyn. Hitler: Biography of a Revolutionary? New York: Routledge, 2000.
His speeches showed that he was a charismatic outstanding personality with self-confidence and energy. He knew how to influence and manipulate crowd; civilians, SA or German army. He spoke what people wanted to hear, what they were afraid to say but what they thought about. This was his weapon and he used it skillfully. He believed that German was a great nation and he made people to believe it. In his speeches and political program Hitler paid a lot of attention to propaganda of a new Germany, with iron order and strict social hierarchy. In order to solve political and economical problems Hitler proposed to eliminate "hidden enemies of state": Jews and communists. It was much easier to accuse someone in own faults than to find origins of the problem, and "hidden enemies of state" were the best scapegoats. Anti-Semitism was common for Germans in the twentieth century and it…
Ron Rosenbaum Explaining Hitler: The Search of the Origins of His Evil Harper Perennial 1999
David, Abraham The Collapse of the Weimar Republic: Political Economy and Crisis, Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1986
Sheridan, Allen, The Nazi seizure of Power: the experience of a single German town, 1922-1945 F. Watts, 1984
Chronicles of Holocaust available online:
This allowed Hitler to retain some of the factionalism that had characterized the early life of the party, and to continue to 'play' different political figures and factions off of one another in state conflicts, to support his own power, so that he always 'won' in the end. Ultimately, all legal authority rested in Hitler's hands.
By undercutting the sanctity of a legal system and making the true control of the state rest in the hands of one, singular authority, Hitler was also able to distance himself from potentially unpopular political decisions. This sense of unstable authority kept all lower officials constantly in a state of anxiety as to their opinion in the eyes of the great leader, as to whether they would be blamed when things went amiss, and thus everyone catered to all of Hitler's whims. Kershaw calls the state's structure almost feudal-like in its arrangement, with every…
Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: Profiles in Power. New York: Longman, 1991.
CONESED PUBLIC SPACE: MEMORIES & HISORY
Contested Public Space: Memories and History
Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas
he Memory Landscape.
Mary's is a large old-style brick church belonging to the council of the Hanseatic city of Lubeck. On the floor at the rear of the church, broken pieces of two large bells remain where they fell during an air raid in World War II. he third largest church in Germany, it took 100 years to construct St. Mary's but just one Palm Sunday night in March of 1942 to nearly destroy it. As with so many churches ruined by bombing during the war, parishioners debated about restoration. Citizens living on war-torn homeland are caught: here is a lingering desire to preserve physical destruction as a message or signal to subsequent generations, or as an effort to share the horror of war time experience. If the physical evidence of…
The Construction of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin.
A competition for the design of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin was held in April of 1994. Twelve artists were invited to submit a design and a stipend of 50, 000 German Marks was provided to each candidate. The proposals would be reviewed by a jury with representatives from architecture, urban design, art, history, administration, and politics. Interest in the project grew and at the end of the competitive period, 528 proposals had been submitted. Rounds of reviews commenced and 13 proposals were selected. But during the interim period between meetings, the jurors -- who ostensibly were then able to review the critiques of their fellow jurors -- asked that 11 proposals be put back in the running. Two proposals were finally recommended to the foundation for feasibility study. One proposal was designed by Simon Ungers architectural group from Hamburg, and one proposal was designed by Christine Jackob-Marks. Jackob-Marks' work included names of murdered Jews engraved in a large concrete plate, with empty spaces signifying Jews who could not be identified by name. Her proposal also included debris from Massada where the Jewish inhabitants avoided capture by invading Romans by killing themselves. Chancellor Helmut Kohl vetoed this proposal. It was considered too "German" and too similar to the Nazi death rosters. The controversy continued under many different guises.
In June of 1998, Peter Eisenman's design was chosen, but it was scaled down to 2,711 blocks, or stelae, after considerable controversy.[footnoteRef:22] Daniel Liebeskind, who was pupil of Eisenman's, claimed that Eisenman stole his design from the Berlin Jewish Museum's Garden of Exile. In July of 2001, billboards reflecting Holocaust denial sentiments appeared in Berlin triggering a funding controversy. [footnoteRef:23] In October of 2003, there was a major disruption to the project. Degesch, a subsidiary of the German company Degussa, was revealed by a Swiss newspaper to be the same firm that made Zyklon-B, the gas used in the gas chambers to murder Jews in the extermination camps. Degussa had been hired to coat the concrete slabs with an anti-graffiti substance. In fact, many stelae had already been coated and the anti-graffiti substance had been discounted as in-kind sponsorship of the memorial. Degussa had National-Socialist leanings during the war and this fact was ostensibly known to the construction management company and to Lea Rosh. Rosh declared that she had no prior knowledge of the connection, and she is reported to have said that, "Zylon-B is obviously the limit."[footnoteRef:24] Another subsidiary of Degussa had, but this time, already poured the concrete foundation for the stelae. Members of the Jewish community were outraged at Degussa's involvement and wanted them out of the project. Politicians on the Board of the foundation did not want to impose further expense on the project by stopping construction, or worse, destroying any construction that Degasse had already accomplished. The cost of this action was estimated at €2.34 million. One Board member, Wolfgang Thierse, was reported to say, "[T]he past intrudes into our society."[footnoteRef:25] The Zentrairat der Juden in Germany was outspoken about not continuing the work with Degrasse. Hezryk Broder emphasized that, "The Jews don't need this memorial, and they are not prepared to declare a pig sty kosher." [footnoteRef:26] Peter Eisenberg, perhaps in a bid to see his work finished, supported continuing the project with Degrasse. In November 2003, work restarted with Degrasse. In May of 2005, the Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas was completed. At the opening ceremony, Peter Eisenberg spoke about the significance of the Mahnmal, saying that, "It is clear that we won't have solved all the problems -- architecture is not a panacea for evil -- nor will we have satisfied all those present today, but this cannot have been our intention."[footnoteRef:27] [22: Historic Sites -- Berlin, Op. Cit. ] [23: Ibid. ] [24: Translated from "Die Grenze ist ganz klar Zyklon B." Leggewie / Meyer, 2005, p. 294. ] [25: Translated from "Die Vergangenheit ragt in unsere Gesellschaft hinein." Claus Leggewie and Erik Meyer (2005) "Ein Ort, an den man gerne geht." Das Holocaust-Mahnmal und die deutsche Geschichtspolitik nach 1989. Munich, DE: Carl Hanser Verlag Publisher. Munich. p. 294.] [26: Translated from "Di Juden brauchen dieses Mahnmal nicht, und sind nicht beriet, eine Schweinerei als koscher zu erklaren." Leggewie / Meyer, 2005, p. 294] [27: Berstein, Richard. (2005, May 11) Holocaust Museum opens in Berlin, The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/2005/0511/international/europe/11germany . ]
The way in which Hitler took over Germany was very open, but yet it was not thwarted by others in the political realm. By the time they realized what was taking place, it was already done.
Hindenburg was still president of Germany at that time, but right before he died a law was passed that the presidency would be abolished with his death, and all power over the government and the country would go to the chancellor (Hitler) (Benderwky, 62). This was a very insidious way to get the remaining power that he was still lacking, and it provided him with completely political and legal control over Germany and its people. In 1934, Hitler told a reporter how people had laughed at him 15 years prior, when he stated that he would become ruler of Germany (McNab, 70). At that time, he said he would remain in power, and his…
Aigner, Dietrich. Hitler's ultimate aims -- A programme of world dominion? In Koch, H.W. Aspects of the Third Reich. London: MacMillan. 1985. Print.
Bendersky, Joseph W. A History of Nazi Germany: 1919 -- 1945. NY: Rowman & Littlefield. 2000. Print.
Maser, Werner. Hitler: Legend, Myth, Reality. London: Allen Lane. 1973. Print.
McNab, Chris. The Third Reich. NY: Amber Books Ltd. 2009. Print.
Dada and Degenerate Art in Germany
At the end of WW1, Germany found itself in a period of transition. Held responsible for the war and forced to pay reparations, the Weimar Republic was in a disastrous state. The Kaiser Willelm II had abdicated, hyperinflation decimated the value of the mark, and erlin was fast becoming vice capital of the world with "New Frau" poster-girl Anita erber taking pride in her position as the high priestess of immorality.[footnoteRef:1] It was a new Germany in every respect -- but not one that was destined to last: it was new in the sense that for the first time in its culture, the Germans were embracing the end -- the end of the old order, of the old code, of the old art and moral imperatives; life was short and falling apart at the seams as fast as the mark was becoming worthless. Jobs…
Altshuler, Bruce. The Avant-garde in Exhibition. NY: Abrams, 1994.
Barron, Stephanie. Degenerate Art: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany. NY:
Droste, Sebastian; Berber, Anita. Dances of Vice, Horror and Ecstasy. UK: Side Real
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…
"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current
File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03
In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.