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eligious Freedom estoration Act of 2012 was introduced by Senator Marco ubio for the purpose of repealing the recent mandate that infringes religious freedom and conscience rights of religious organizations by the recent mandate within President Obama's healthcare law. The bill was developed in order to revoke the provisions in the new health care law that compels religious of faith-based institutions to provide employees with insurance coverage for contraception without any charge.
The bill seeks to amend Title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act in order to promote religious conscience protections for individuals and organizations. Senator Marco ubio introduced this bill following recent initiatives by the Department of Health and Human Services to establish a new mandate that will require many church-affiliated institutions to provide their employees with private insurance coverage for birth control at no costs.
Component of Health Care Addressed by the eligious Freedom estoration Act:
Liberty Counsel. (2012, February 13). Liberty Counsel Backs Rubio's Religious Freedom
Restoration Act of 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from http://www.boogai.net/consrpt/liberty-counsel-backs-rubios-religious-freedom-restoration-act-of-2012/
"Religious Freedom Restoration Act." (2012, January). The Hill.com. Retrieved March 7, 2012,
from http://thehill.com/images/stories/blogs/flooraction/jan2012/s2043.pdf .
This modification of the Civil ights Act failed to define what was meant by "financially detrimental." This issue was left for the courts to decide and there was wide variability in case law.
In 1977, Title VII was modified to include widespread employer exemption, even in cases where the cost was minimal or caused little difficult to the employer (Ontario Consultants on eligious Tolerance, n.d.). This modification shifted the balance of power, almost entirely to the employer. They could allow or disallow as they wished, and an employee could be terminated for failing to follow the rules governing the company. eligion was essentially wiped out of the workplace by this act. In July of 1997, congress failed to pass a bill that would change the wording of Title VII back to something similar to the original 1972 wording (Ontario Consultants on eligious Tolerance, n.d.).
In August of 1997, the Clinton…
Ansonia Bd. Of Educ. v. Philbrook, 479 U.S. 60, 62 (1986).
Baxter, G. (2006) Note, Employers Beware: The Workplace Religious Freedom Act of 2000. Retrieved at http://org.law.rutgers.edu/publications/law-religion/articles/RJLR_2_2_6.pdf
Bellamy v. Mason's Store, 368 F.Supp. 1025 (D.C.Va.1973), aff'd, 508 F.2d 504 (4th Cir.1974)
Bhatia v. Chevron USA, 1984-1985 O.S.H.D. (CCH) 26,93, 734 F.2d 1382 (9th Cir.1984)
One of the most interesting cultural groups in America is the Amish. The Amish have a strong cultural belief in both folk medicine and faith healing, both of which may impact the decision to access modern medical providers and might actually conflict with prescribed medical treatments. However, their traditional healing methods are very successful for minor ailments. Moreover, there is nothing in their religious or cultural practices that prohibits them from seeking "modern" medical treatments when it is absolutely necessary. However, their definitions of what would be absolutely necessary are probably more stringent than those in mainstream culture. The reasoning behind this is not a fear of modern medicine itself, but based on the cultural tradition that they avoid the world. However, another reason that many Amish may avoid modern medical treatments is based in more practical concerns; Amish prohibitions against interacting with the outside world mean that most…
Hmong shamans help at Valley hospitals. (2009, November 10). Retrieved March 5, 2012 from Fresno Bee website: http://www.fresnobee.com/2009/10/10/1669868/hmong-shamans-help-at-valley-hospitals.html
Robinson, B.A. (2005). The Amish: History, belief, practices, conflicts, etc. Retrieved March
6, 2012 from Religious Tolerance website: http://www.religioustolerance.org/amish.htm
Birth Control Ethics
The author of this report has been asked to consider the ethical dilemma of whether businesses and organizations should be required as a matter law to offer certain birth control options as part of the health insurance offerings given by the organization. For many publicly traded and diverse organizations, there is not really a question involved and compliance is pretty automatic. However, organizations that are privately held and/or religiously oriented tend to be an entirely different matter. Such has been the case with Hobby Lobby and Wheaton College. The former went to court to demand that they not be required to offer certain contraception options and they won. The latter decided to drop offering insurance altogether because of the ethical and legal implications involved in doing so. While birth control may be seen as a right for all women, there are many people that do not see…
ACLU. (2016). Anti-LGBT Religious Exemption Legislation Across the Country. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 27 March 2016, from https://www.aclu.org/anti-lgbt-religious-exemption-legislation-across-country
Morton, G. (2016). Part-Time Staff Hours in Flux Due To Obamacare - The NonProfit TimesThe Non-Profit Times. The Non-Profit Times. Retrieved 27 March 2016, from http://www.thenonprofittimes.com/news-articles/part-time-staff-hours-in-flux-due-to-obamacare/
Pashman, M. (2015). Wheaton College ends coverage amid fight against birth control mandate. chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 27 March 2016, from http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/ct-wheaton-college-ends-student-insurance-met-20150728-story.html
Religious Freedom" is one of the hottest arguments in America. Some believe that religion -- specifically their religion -- is the only way and should be the law of the entire land. Others believe that Religion was invented when the first conman met the first sucker; they have no use for Religion at all, they stress that there should be complete separation of Church and State and that Religion should have no say about legal rights in America. Between those two positions is at least one other position: that Religion is a positive force but that every religion has basic truths and every religion is as legitimate as the others.
In America, the courts handle a lot of the arguments about Religious Freedom. I believe the relationship between religion and the courts is a double-edged sword because it helps define religious rights in the United States but it can also…
Ethics & Gay ights
The author of this report seeks to explain and fathom the current debate that is going on as it relates to gays and other "non-traditional" couples like lesbians, transgenders and so forth getting married much like heterosexual couples in the United States have done for centuries. The author of this report shall be truly ethical and say up front that she supports gay marriage but she will justify that belief through evidence and good ethical standards throughout this report. The main focal point of this report will be the recent legal fracases in states like Indiana that have tried to (or have) passed laws that allow LGBT people to be discriminated against on the grounds of religion as stated in the United States and/or elsewhere. While many point to the First Amendment's freedom of religion when it comes to saying that gays should not be married,…
ACLU. (2013). Court Rules Bakery Illegally Discriminated Against Gay Couple - ACLU -- Colorado. ACLU - Colorado. Retrieved 6 May 2015, from http://aclu-co.org/court-rules-bakery-illegally-discriminated-against-gay-couple/
Cornell. (2015). Article VI | Constitution | U.S. Law | LII / Legal Information Institute.
Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved 6 May 2015, from https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/articlevi
Cornell. (2015). Equal Protection | Wex Legal Dictionary / Encyclopedia | LII / Legal
S. citizens. In this program designed to help young ones value the freedoms they currently experience:
according to Tyler Barnwell, stands for grievance, as in "to petition the government for a redress of grievances." which denotes religious freedom, Leslie Anne Hill, a Presbyterian, states:
"means you don't have to follow a certain religion." stands for freedom of assembly, Sherri Jones states is "the right to get together with other people peaceably, but not to disturb anyone." which is for freedom of speech, Stephanie Kenfield relates: "means you can say anything you want to say, and nobody can stop you or anything, but not bad words and stuff." stands for freedom of the press, Justin Jolly explains: "You could write and say anything you want on a piece of paper or in a newspaper or anything like that." "Getting a grasp..., 1994)
The ruling for The Alpha Epsilon Pi v. The…
Blankley, T. (2001, March 7). Freedom under Siege. The Washington Times, p. 17.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius. (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved 12 December 2006 from www.bartleby.com/66/65/12465.html.
COURT THROWS OUT LAW USED TO BAN WEEDSTOCK 4TH DISTRICT COURT OF APPEALS DECIDES SAUK COUNTY'S OPEN AIR ASSEMBLY LAW VIOLATES THE FIRST AMENDMENT.(LOCAL/WISCONSIN)," Wisconsin State Journal (Madison, WI), July 25, 2003.
Religious Field Search
AHMADIS: THE OTHER FACE OF ISLAM
For the purposes of this paper I visited the local Ahmaddiya Muslim Community or as they prefer to called Ahmadis. Ahmadis are a sub-sect of the Islamic Community. What attracted to me to study this community was that unlike the general image we have of the Islamic community, this community is non-violent and is considered heretical by the larger Islamic community for having a prophet in succession to Muhammad, the founder of the Islamic faith. In many Muslim majority countries the Ahmadis are banned and in many others they have been ex-communicated from the Islamic mainstream. Apparently -- as I discovered- one of the other contentious issues between them and the rest Islamic community is the controversy over Jesus Christ's death, which I found interesting given that I considered Jesus an exclusively Christian figure. To my amazement it turns out that…
1. Ahmad, M.T (1989). MURDER in the NAME of ALLAH London, UK:
Lutterworth Press Cambridge
2. Durant, W. (1950), The Story of Civilization, 11 volumes, New York:
Simon and Schuster.
Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.
"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."
The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007
There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…
Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper
Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine, http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.
Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television
From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
There is no one standard for what is considered right and wrong in the world of American religion. The American religion that exists today may be described as "Agnostian-Secularian" meaning it is made up of multiple faiths, beliefs and convictions, some more Christian based and some more abstract in nature.
By and large the American 'religion' or modern society is varying accepting of people of many different faiths and idealisms. Though the government of this country is somewhat heavily influenced by Christian fundamentalist ideals such as those that Bush emphasizes, the public by and large particularly in the eyes of the media, is much more open and flexible in nature. There are some beliefs that may be considered more 'universal' in nature than others. There is for example an obvious preference among people living in the modern American world to belief in the basic concepts of right and wrong.…
Religious Symbols be worn in Schools?
Many parents and students were confused, when a school district in Nebraska stopped a 12 years old girl, Elizabeth Carey from wearing a necklace because it resembled a rosary. Rev. Joseph Taphorn said to press that "One ought to be able to figure out whether she's trying to promote a gang," he added. "If she's not, why would she be punished for her right of religious freedom and religious expression? (Haynes)"
Symbols are the powerful source of meaning and ideas. They have different meanings in different religions and are considered very important by the religious individuals and communities. The religious symbols also have a very close connection with the identity of a religion. The individuals believe their identity to be strongly connected with the symbols; therefore preserving these symbols is very important in their daily lives (Renteln 1575). Unfortunately, the United States of America,…
Ash. The Ban on Religious Symbols in Public Schools. Darkness Embraced. 2007. Published Aug 3,
2007. Retrieved Dec 10, 2012.
Clark, Matthew. Victories: Students can wear religious symbols to School. American Centre for Law and Justice. 2011. Published Dec 16, 2011. Retrieved Dec 10, 2012.
(Krukowski, 2001) Civil religion and workplace mysticism each change the institutional locus of religious expression from the church, synagogue, or mosque to another public organization- the state or the company. The existence of these different organizations hoists the main question of individuality and perhaps challenging faithfulness.
Both civil religion and workplace theology do not show the likely clashes and problems often met by employees who are also religious practitioners. Jews, Christians, or Muslims who are workforce of a company may well have grounds to question the customs of their company on religio-moral basis. Workplace theology in a funded organization does not distinguish these possible clashes. Institutionally conveying workplace theology is obviously not identical with permitting individual employees to convey their beliefs and customs at work. This grave outlook of workplace theology should not be realized, as a censure of persons who want to live out their definite religious or spiritual…
Alpert, Richard T. "Religious Diversity in the workplace." Retrieved at http://users.crocker.com/~amedpub/rc21d/Religion%20in%20the%20Workplace11.htm. Accessed on 4 February, 2005
"Workplace Religious Freedom: What is an Employer's Duty to Accommodate? A Review of Recent Cases" Workplace Religious Freedom / 49. Retrieved at http://homepages.ius.edu/LCHRISTI/Journal%20of%20emply/religious%20accommodation.pdf . Accessed on 4 February, 2005
Deveney, William D. (September-October, 2004) "Religious Harassment Claims: Case Studies in Good Faith." No. 05-05. Retrieved at http://www.etsw.com/NewsletterLB/2004_09-10.pdf . Accessed on 4 February, 2005
Promoting Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
Like the many other freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, freedom of expression is deemed to be a fundamental and inalienable human right. Towards this end, it is understood, within the said framework, to constitute the “freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers” (United Nations, 2010, p. 107). For this reason, freedom of expression ought to be granted and guaranteed protection by any jurisdiction that prides itself as a beacon of modern democracy. The United Kingdom is one such country, alongside other countries such as the United States and Canada. It is important to note that over time, social media has become a marketplace of sorts for the exchange, advancement, as well as promotion of ideas concerning a wide array…
Discuss changes in the religious culture between 1750 and present day in at least one country from each of the three regions of Asia we have studied (East Asia, South Asia, and South East Asia)
Changes in modern Asian religions: Japan, India, and Thailand
Buddhism is a religion which began on the Indian subcontinent but which has spread across East and Southwest Asia. Its portability as a religion may partially be explained by its ability to blend with other religions and folk traditions. For example, the two dominant religions of Japan have historically encompassed Buddhism and Shinto: two different religions that most citizens profess to one degree or another. A common phrase "born Shinto; die Buddhist" highlights the comfort with which both of these religions exist side-by-side. However, Buddhism in Japan has been undergoing some notable changes in recent years.
Buddhism has been practiced in Japan for 1,440…
Kapur, A. (2010). Hindu sect devoted to its environment. International Herald Tribune, 2.
Kitiarsa, P. (2005). Beyond syncretism: Hybridization of popular religion in contemporary
Thailand. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 36(3), 461-487.
McCurry, Justin T. (2008). Religion: Buddhism forced to turn trendy to attract a new generation in Japan: Priests visit bars to reach out to young sceptics amid dramatic decline. The Guardian, 31-31.
Building Political Support Through Church:
How Politics Affects Community
America is a country founded on the right to religious freedom. Upon the creation of its laws, the founding fathers created a religious-based constitution. Throughout the many decades, lawmakers have found it just to change particular portions in order to make it more generally accepted by all religions. The lines between law and religion have been skewed, and the way in which a politician may build support through religion has become extremely sensitive. Because religion affects community, as does the politician, it is important to examine as to how and how much.
Whether or not one is religious or of a particular religion, they may benefit from the religious community's efforts. Religion has long been a force of unity, and those with strong religious practices are often good citizens and good neighbors in a community (McKanan, 2010). Religion contributes to its…
Despite America's devotion to faith, there has been growth in violent crime, illegitimacy, substance abuse, and welfare dependency (Fagan, 1996). There are very few topics that divide a room quicker than politics and religion (Managing Communities, 2011), but the two must be addressed in respect for one another when policy makers create law (Fagan, 1996). When recently questioned about his faith, President Barack Obama replied, "My faith shapes my values, but applying those values to policymaking must be done with principles that are accessible to all people, religious or not (Obama, 2006)." However, despite America's comfort with religion and churches expressing themselves politically, intertwining the two has become a sensitive subject (People Press, 2000). In fact, many political figures use their religion to relate to potential voters (Cline, 1998), while some politicians use their opponents religion as a weapon to use against their opponent (The Economist, 2010).
How politicians must demonstrate their faith is best exemplified through Thomas Jefferson. He declared his religion, and doubts thereof, and did not impose it on others (Kim, 2010). When considering law, policymakers should do the same, and must be aware of how religion affects their community. First, there is often considered to be a link between family strength and practice of religion. Religious beliefs help form one's morals, as religion often demotes suicide, drug abuse, out-of-wedlock births, crime, and divorce. The regular practice of religion is said to also help mental health, self-esteem, and family and marital happiness. It also assists in strength and recovery from alcoholism, drug addiction, marital breakdown, and killer disease (Fagan, 1996). Without considering these factors when signing in new laws, policymakers will be ignoring crucial facts about their community.
Religion plays a key role in a community in America. Though the lines between law and religion are gray, policy makers must determine how to use religion to their advantage. The people they represent are of different religions, and not respectfully listening to all of them could harm or insult the community.
Accounting for Religion at Work
In general, religious discrimination is intolerable. This fact certainly applies to human resources management, in which department heads are tasked with hiring various people for positions in any number of organizations across vertical industries. However, the reality of this situation is that religious practices and observances can create substantial complications for organizations that can actually interfere with the fulfillment of organizational objectives. On some occasions, certain facets of behavior that individuals engage in associated with their religions can actually contradict with their job responsibilities and even prevent them from fulfilling them. As such, organizations that do not discern job placement based on religious tendencies may incur situations in which they are paying people to fulfill job responsibilities that they cannot do. Therefore, it might behoove organizations to consider religion as one of the factors for hiring people, and human resources management professionals need to be…
Adams, Ronald. "Balancing Employee Religious Freedom in the Workplace with Customer Rights to a Religion-Free Retail Environment." Business & Society Review 117, no. 3 (Fall 2012): 281-306.
Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth, and Fones-Wolf, Ken. "Managers and Ministers: Instilling Christian Free Enterprise in the Postwar Workplace." Business History Review 89, no. 1 (January 2015): 99-124.
McCrea, Ronan. "Religion in the Workplace: Eweida and Others v. United Kingdom." Modern Law Review 77, no. 2 (March 2014): 277-291.
eligious Liberty as Stated in the First Amendment
The practical and legal ramifications of religious liberty are not difficult to determine, for they follow from the theological implications of the concept of religious liberty. The idea of religious truth, such as defined by the North Carolina state government in 1776 which forbade anyone from serving who denied the truth of the Protestant religion, has no place in a country that holds religious liberty as law. Yet, religious liberty has not always been practiced, as North Carolina and Maryland (which was officially declared an Anglican state in 1692) both show. Today, the first amendment has been ratified to make such claims untenable. Nonetheless, many scholars question whether religious liberty itself is defensible. By acknowledging the right of religions to be exercised publicly, the U.S. constitution sets the stage for a massive fight between various and contending religious beliefs, which…
Associated Press. (2011). High Court Rules Against Fallen Marine's Father In Funeral
Protest Suit. KWTX. Retrieved from http://www.kwtx.com/home/headlines/High_Court_Rules_Against_Fallen_Marines_Father_In_Funeral_Protest_Suit_117242333.html
De Tocqueville, A. (1838). Democracy in America. (H. Reeve, Trans.). New York,
NY: George Adlard. (Original work published 1835). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=DUAvAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#
religious, social, economic, and legal elements of town life that made the city so difficult for feudal and manorial society to contain. As town life grew, the town's citizens became resentful of the control feudal society held over them. Cities grew, trade grew, and people began working for themselves, rather than someone else. The people no longer wished to pay their lord part of their wages or earnings, and they began forming their own town councils and guilds, removing control from the manorial society. As a result, manorial society became archaic and declined, while the towns grew and prospered. eligion grew, building increased, and the first companies came into existence as the towns grew and feudalism declined. Feudalism served a purpose, but it had outlived its usefulness and towns developed and society changed.
Early medieval life revolved around the manor and a feudal society who served the lord of the…
Editors. "The Middle Ages -- Town Life." Learner.org. 2009. 18 Nov. 2009.
Nicholas, David. The Growth of the Medieval City: From Late Antiquity to the Early Fourteenth Century. London: Longman, 1997.
Western world it appears is slightly alienated from the spiritual world that most people in the east like Hindus take for granted. For an average person in the West, physical and material world is the only world and spirit is only an illusion. For those in the east, like Hindus, physical world is the illusion and spirit is the only truth there is.
Western social, political and economic systems play an important role in the shaping of western concept of freedom. Freedom to choose, freedom of speech, freedom from bondage, freedom to vote, are some of the main ideals upheld by western society and thus freedom has become merely a hollow term used to describe a state of liberation in the physical world. Capitalism has also influenced the development of this concept as freedom to choose what one likes, build what one desires and move as and when one…
Frederic Spiegelberg. Living Religions of the World: Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1956
Hedebro, Goran. Communication and Social Change in Developing Nations. Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1982.
Peter Heehs. Indian Religions: The Spiritual Traditions of South Asia: An Anthology/edited. Delhi, Permanent Black, 2002
Intellectual Freedom in Libraries
In today's academic world intellectual freedom is a very important issue. In this paper various factors which are affecting intellectual freedom have been discussed along with efforts that need to be made in order to make the access of information possible for all. The issues being faced mainly by the librarians regarding the protection of confidential information of the library users have also been discussed in this paper. Furthermore the paper focuses on the important roles that can be played by the librarians in guiding and educating the people regarding the proper use of information.
Intellectual freedom is the liberty to express opinions in the academic world, the freedom of access to the information and the freedom of using that information (in a legal manner) without the fear of your confidential information being exploited. Intellectual freedom is very important for the academic growth of any society…
American Association of School Librarians. (2009). Empowering learners: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Association of School Librarians.
American Library Association (ALA). (2007). Office for Intellectual Freedom: intellectual freedom and censorship Q & A. http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/basics/intellectual.htm
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2004). The role of libraries in student-centred learning: the case of students from the disadvantaged communities in South Africa. The International Information and Library Review 36(3):263 -- 271.
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2011). Intellectual Freedom and Academic Freedom: Some Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries in Africa. Mousaion, 28 (2) 2011 pp. 76 -- 95
People are free to decide whether they want to sacrifice their lives or whether they don't.
Humanity today is imperfect because of several motives. One of the aspects in which humanity fails from letting justice prevail is determining the value of life. Nowadays, life has a price, and people usually determine what that price is depending on the circumstances. Clearly, it would seem barbaric to try and decide the value of a human being. Truthfully, it is barbaric even to associate the words value and human because of the fact that in the civilized world the human life is meaning much more than something you can put a price on.
Even if a man was to decide the faith of another man, and the latter would be killed, the first man would certainly feel a drawback from taking the decision. This can happen because all people have a conscience and…
Arabs/Tuareg vs. Africans
Arabs/Tuareg Ethnic Clash with Sub-Saharan Africans
Africa is a very tumultuous continent and for a number of reasons. hether it be fights relating to race, ethnic squabbles, religion or a combination of the three, wars and problems are not hard to find. North Africa in particular and its proximity to the Middle East makes an already hot situation all that much hotter. One particular conflict that is ongoing and protracted in nature is that which exists between the Tuareg Arabs and the blacks in sub-Saharan Africa. They occupy much of the same areas of Niger, Mali, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria…just to name a few. The problems between the two groups date back at least a thousand years and the wounds run deep for both sides. hile there perhaps may be chances for peaceful coexistence in the future, the last thousand years or so will probably prevent that…
Boundless. "Perception - Boundless Open Textbook." Boundless. N.p., 16 June 2014.
Web. 16 June 2014. .
GMU. "Women in World History: MODULE 9." Women in World History: MODULE 9.
N.p., 16 June 2014. Web. 16 June 2014.
The author of this report is asked to profile and otherwise answer questions regarding Canadian company JGH. A description of the services and structure will be offered and then the author will speak of the management theories and practices that the company engages in. How obvious and transparent these practices are will be discussed and whether or not it would be prudent and wise of JGH to continue that strategy. The climate of the organization will be summarized and critiqued as well as the diversity orientation of the firm. While JGH certainly has room for improvement, they are indeed doing many things quite well and they are certainly moving in the right direction.
JGH stands for Jewish General Hospital, a research hospital based on Montreal, Quebec, Canada. They are a McGill University teaching hospital and their website is tailored to the mixed language disposition of…
Brimmer, K. (2012, August 30). Hospitals recognized for promoting overall diversity.
Healthcare Finance News. Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.healthcarefinancenews.com/news/hospitals-recognized-promoting -overall-diversity
Hopkins. (2014, March 30). Diversity and Inclusion at Johns Hopkins. Diversity and Inclusion at Johns Hopkins. Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/diversity/
JGH. (2014, March 30). Jewish General Hospital - Hopital general juif. Jewish General Hospital - Hopital general juif. Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.jgh.ca/en/home
policy makers underestimate internet independence?
YouTube independence of positing video content
The internet moderated terrorism
egulating the internet for anti-terrorism
Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet
The purpose of the study is to explore the use of internet by terrorist organizations and the degree of independence that terrorist enjoy while conducting and coordinating their terrorism activities from the cyberspace. The topic is an area of interest for the researcher as it is significantly relevant in today's environment when cross-border terrorism has increased. As part of the academic and citizen world, the researcher feels it is essential to gauge the scale and severity of terrorism moderated by internet sources.
The main audiences of the research paper are academic instructors, research students of cyber security and government policy makers who can influence to control terrorism originating from the freedom of internet use for every user irrespective of the underlying motive.
Amble, J.C. (2012). Combating terrorism in the new media environment.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(5), 339-353.
Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2006). Digital diasporas and conflict prevention: the case of Somalinet. com. Review of International Studies, 32(1), 25-47.
Crilley, K. (2001, September). Information warfare: new battle fields Terrorists, propaganda and the Internet. In Aslib Proceedings (Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 250-264). MCB UP Ltd.
Denning, D.E. (2009). Terror's web: How the internet is transforming terrorism.Handbook on Internet crime.
A friend of mine has just offered to give me a well-written paper that he wrote for a philosophy class. It just so happens that the paper topic is just like the one I have been assigned in my philosophy class. His paper got an "A," and I know that he has not sold this paper or posted it on his blog. The chances of my being caught, therefore, are nil. Moreover, I am very busy and because I am distracted, it is unlikely I will do a very good job on my philosophy paper. If I turn my friend's paper in as my own, I will get a good grade without doing much work. I still took the class; I am still learning. This would just alleviate my stress.
However, after some deliberation I decide that I will write my own paper. I was tempted, but I…
The idea of human freedom transcends the spectrum of most subjects worthy of academic discussion. The purpose of this essay is to investigate, describe and discuss the concept of human freedom as it specifically relates to sociology and the social landscape. In order to accomplish this I will highlight some of aspects of human freedom to demonstrate the complexity and necessity of understanding this ideal. Political, religious and economic factors will be included to give this broad issue context and to further broaden the discussion and descriptions of this important subject.
Society could be described as a qualitative manifestation of human freedom. Differing cultures residing in various national landscapes appear to hold varying views on what is allowed or not allowed in these areas. Freedom is therefore rationally based upon the local and domestic traditions and practices of given areas. ar and conflict appears as the process where…
Carlisle, C. (2012). Evil, part 3. does freedom make us evil? The Guardian, 29 Oct, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/oct/29/does-freedom - make-us-evil
Greenwell, A. (2011). Catholic Social Teaching and Authentic Human Freedom. Catholic Online, 27 Dec, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.catholic.org/hf/faith/story.php?id=44188
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The United Nations Web Site. Viewed 20 November, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
These values might seem obvious to some, but they are actually values which so many religious institutions may preach, but not practice at all in their religious thought. Ultimately, those who view themselves as spiritual but not religious don't feel that faith can be shoved into scientific or empiricitic frameworks, and these same individuals reject the notion that all is real and can be known: rather these individuals believe that love, kindness, generosity, awe and wonder are some of the most important pillars of life and that it's nearly impossible to put these aspects in a box or encompassed in black and white thinking of certain religious dogmas. Many people who ascribe to this belief system truly do believe that there are secular movements in the world today which have similar spiritual foundations, but that many of these religious movements are just out of touch with those foundations (NSP, 2013).…
Brown, C. (2014, March 3). Spiritual but Not Religious an Oxymoron? Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/candy-gunther-brown -
Colson, C. (2008, September). The coming persecution: How same-sex 'marriage' will harm Christians. Retrieved from Christianexaminer.com:
Virtual eligious Service
Islam is a religion of great misconceptions and of immense misunderstanding. It was because of this same notion that this religion in particular was of great interest. With all the negative publicity that Islam receives in the media, people only get exposed to the violent extremists that represent a minute minority of this religion. A picture of violence and death is flashed on the television daily, forcing many to create negative misconceptions about Muslims. Their portrayal of how their females are treated is an aspect that has also come under speculation. The media portrays oppressed hopeless females, which induces viewers to think that this is actually true. These are both misconceptions that I had prior to my viewing of the online religious service and research.
Violence and terrorism are shown constantly across the television screen whenever extremist Muslims are depicted. This creates a sense of misconception as…
Adams, M., Bell, L.A., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for diversity and social justice. CRC Press.
Common misunderstandings of muslims [Web log message]. (2008, February 26). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com /Primetime/WhatWouldYouDo/story?id=4339516&page=1
Lawrence, B.B. (1998). Shattering the myth: Islam beyond violencec. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kazantzakis Freedom or Death
Captain Michalis, the hero of Freedom or Death, was based on Kazantzakis' father Michalis, a traditional Cretan community leader and warrior in the independence struggles who fought in the 1888-89 rebellion. He also introduces the Captain's best friend Nuri Bey and his wife Emine, who he also loves, but in the end he rejects them both in the cause of Cretan independence. The Pasha and the Metropolitan also symbolize the ancient clash of religions, cultures and civilizations that is fought out in this novel -- Greek vs. Turk, Christian vs. Muslim -- which also resonates with the contemporary word and the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan. These ethnic, tribal and nationalistic hatreds are so great and so enduring that they crowd out all romance, friendship or personal feelings, as all the characters join in the bloodbath. Only Nuri Bey commits suicide rather than go to war…
Kazantzakis, Nikos. Freedom or Death. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1983.
nnotated Bibliography: The Effects of Religious Exemptions on Pertussis and Other Diseases
brevaya, J. & Mulligan, K. (2011). Effectiveness of state-level vaccination mandates: Evidence from the varicella vaccine. Journal of Health Economics 30(5): 966-76.
Longitudinal data on the use of varicella immunizations was used to determine the real effects o immunization requirements mandated by various governmental entities within the United States. Significant increases in vaccination rates are found to be the result of such mandates within the first year of adoption, peaking within two years of adoption, and with minimal effects on the rate thereafter. pproximately twenty percent of short run increases in immunization adoption is attributed to mandates, and no differences were found in different socioeconomic groups when it comes to adoption rates. Though this research does not deal with exemptions specifically, it provides context and some direct implications for a discussion and examination of such exemptions.…
A seven-year population-based retrospective cohort study of individuals aged five to nineteen years old was used to create a mathematical model of risk associated with measles vaccination, exemption, and infection, and to determine if other patterns could be observed. Exemptors were determined to be thirty-five times more likely to contract measles than those that had been vaccinated, and populations of exemptors tended to be found within certain geographic pockets of close proximity which contributed to outbreak behavior. The model also suggests that a large-scale outbreak was experienced in exemptor populations one year earlier than in the broader population, which has direct implications on the effects of religious exemptions on overall public health and safety.
Siegel, A. & Salmon, D. (2001). Religious and philosophical exemptions from vaccination requirements and lessons learned from conscientious objectors from conscription. Public Health Report 116(4): 289-95.
In addressing both the legal and the practical implications of vaccination mandates and exemptions, the authors assert that states are not actually required to allow religious exemptions for public school entrances. Their findings also suggest that individual educational counseling for parents that object and stringent belief ascertainment by the state can limit the number of exemptions significantly in states that allow them. These recommendations are grounded in commentary on the effects of exemption that is of direct and contextual use to the research at hand.
Communication Islamic Countries
Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but even in the most democratic of states, such as the United States and the UK. When freedom extends to the press, the contestability of the topic gains an extra dimension. Some critics, for example, advocate freedom of the press only to such an extent as its ability to promote a peaceful existence and harmony among citizens and their government. Others, however, would see the press gaining complete freedom, regardless of its consequences for personal and collective peace. In Muslim countries such as Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, freedom extended to the press and the media is yet further muddied by the importance of religious and state rule in these countries. In both environments, Islam remains the main ruling force in…
Article 19. (2005, Dec.). Freedom of Expression aand the Media in Indonesia. Alliance of Independent Journalists. Retrieved from: http://www.article19.org/data/files/pdfs/publications/indonesia-baseline-study.pdf
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates Profile: Media. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14704229
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates: Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703998
El-Baltaji, D. (2009, Fall). Emirates Press Law. Arab Media & Society, Iss. 9. Retrieved from: http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=727
So, the rightness of the claim that the CIA needed more money cannot be supported by the fruition of terrorist attacks.
Hannity moves on into a discussion regarding immigration and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service -- or INS. Essentially, Hannity feels that the Immigration Act of 1965 makes it entirely too easy for illegal immigrants to exploit loopholes in the present legislation. In particular, he mentions how illegal immigrants are able to overstay their visits here in the United States and to obtain legal certifications like drivers' licenses in the process. Hannity believes that the INS is altogether too soft on illegal immigration and that this softness, created by the Clinton administration, has resulted in numerous social problems and contributed to the terrorist threat. He states:
This system that absolutely must be fixed before terrorists use such loopholes to strike us again. Illegal aliens must be incarcerated, not allowed…
Hannity, Sean. Let Freedom Ring. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002.
History has shown that freedom is not inherently a part of society, rather it is something fought hard for and won. When countries fight for freedom, when people rise for liberty, they do so because they feel they must. Whether it is a strict government, a deranged dictator, or a highly religious society, people have seen their freedoms limited to varying degrees. The United States has been built upon the idea that freedom should be a basic right. While the country has seen its fair share of battles, with itself and with outsiders, it has maintained this very ideal throughout its history.
What is freedom and liberty? Why is it so important that people would risk their lives to maintain certain freedoms? To begin analysis of these two words, I will present my own definition of freedom and liberty followed by how others define these two words. First and foremost,…
The type of atrocity that a religious ideal could cause, I think, became cemented forever for me during the events of September 11, 2001.
Those men operated not only from a sense of devotion to their country, a hatred for the United States, but also from a religious fervor that encouraged them to take their own lives and the lives of thousands of others. This brought home to me that religion, in whatever form, could be not only a comfort, but also a greatly destructive force.
Even if I think of my own religion, Christianity, I am forced to admit the reality of the situation; it has not always been the gentle, caring lifestyle that's so often promoted today. In fact, even today, many Christians use their religious zeal to hurt and destroy. If I think of the past, the Crusades, the Inquisition, and the Salem Witch trials come immediately…
Christian Coalition in the eligious ight
Explaining the ole of the Christian Coalition
The role of the Christian Coalition (CC) during the latter half of the 20th century was to rebuild the eligious ight () movement into a permanent grass roots political organization that would support policies and candidates favored by the eligious ight at all levels, especially at the local level. Under the leadership of alph eed, the CC adopted political pragmatism and professionalism giving the more political influence than it had in the past.
At the time the Christian Coalition was created, the Moral Majority (which played an important role in the election of onald eagan in1980) was closing, and the Americans for obertson (the successor of the Freedom Council created for Pat obertson's campaign for the epublican nomination for president in 1988) was drifting (Martin 1996, 300-301, 304, 308). The was without an effective and enduring political…
Martin, W. 1996. With God on Our Side. The Rise of the Religious Right in America. New York,
NY: Broadway Books.
S. But this incident was a turning point in the history of Iran and many believe that this conflict was staged to prove that Iran was not afraid of any country. The conflict played a huge role in exposing Carter's foreign policy. The book's weaknesses lie in its overemphasis on few successes of Carter's Presidency era and its failure to dwell on his numerous failures including inflation, poor international relations and unemployment. The book wants to show that it was President Carter who earned the release of hostages but the fact remains that these hostages were released the very day, he left the office and Reagan took over.
Carter, Jimmy. Sources of Strength: Meditations on Scripture for Daily
iving. New York: Random House, 1997
This book contains 52 lessons from the Bible that President Carter cherishes. Each lesson is meant for each week of the year. The book provides an…
Lieutenant James Earle Carter, Jr., USN." Department of the Navy.
Naval Historical Center. October 19, 1997. Retrieved February 16, 2007, at http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq60-14.htm .
This site can be treated as a primary source since it only gives factual information about President's time in Navy. The site explains how the ex-president joined Naval Academy and chronicles his rise to the rank of lieutenant. There are no major achievements mentioned during his service time in Navy except some academic achievements during wartime program. The site only informs about the various periods and stages in ex-president's service time. From this site, one can learn about Carter's interested in atomic and nuclear programs. He was interested in joining nuclear program with Admiral Rickover and was found capable enough to be a part of this project. He also received training as engineering officer to work at the nuclear power plant in 1950s.
Voice of Freedom
In chapter 15 it deals a lot with resistance to slavery and of course one of these was the best known of all slave rebellions which involved was Nat Turner, who happened to be a slave preacher. This chapter was also devoted in describing the conspiracies that went into the uprisings and the rebellions that actually changed the face of slavery. This chapter gave a very vivid detail in exploring what went on behind the scenes in regards to these revolts coming together. ith that said, this essay will explore this chapter and talk about the significance of the voice of freedom.
After the Civil ar, the definitions of freedom surely changed for nation, for the freedmen, and for southern whites in a lot of ways. Southern white were fearful. It was apparent that they never wanted slavery to end because it had a huge effect on…
Arts, Martin. "The Liberty Haggadah: From Slavery to Freedom. From Exile to Independence." 1-90. Chicago: Matan Arts; Hebrew - English edition, 2011.
Chambers, Glenn A. "From slavery to servitude: The African and Asian struggle for freedom in Latin America and the Caribbean." History 21, no. 9 (2008): 23-45.
de, la Fuente. "From slaves to citizens? Tannenbaum and the debates on slavery, emancipation, and race relations in Latin America." International Labor and Working Class History 77, no. 1 (2010): 154-173.
Foner, Eric. "Give Me Liberty!: An American History." 1-584. New York City W.W. Norton & Company; Seagull Third Edition, 2009.
Due to the forgiveness that is extended to every Christian by their faith in Christ as pronounced in the New Testament, Luther argues, all Christians are free to act in any way they please. When they continue to behave according to God's law as it is written in the Bible, they do so of their own free will; acts of charity and kindness are nto something that is required in order to receive forgiveness, but rather is an outgrowth of the charity and kindness that exists in people's hearts regardless of the status of their salvation, which is already assured so long as their faith is pure and strong. This quite obviously limits the power of the Church as far as condemning acts of any kind is concerned; even one found guilty of heresy would, according to Luther's argument, still receive salvation through their faith in Jesus Christ as the…
The Positive and Negative Effects of Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
In essence, social media in the UK provides an amazing platform for people to freely express their views, share information, and interact. Indeed, as McGoldrick (2013, p. 49) observes, “Facebook and other internet-based social networking sites (SNSs) have revolutionized modern communications.” Some of the most popular social media platforms in the country include, but that are not limited to, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc. It is important to note that unlike in the physical world where relations between people are governed by various social rules and etiquette standards, relations on social media tend to present a limitless and unrestricting facade. In recent times, some countries have attempted to limit the way people relate on social media – even closely monitoring content in an attempt to ensure that freedom of expression in social media is…
The Nature of Freedom in the 18th and 19th Centuries
The evidence shows that the nature of freedom in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was considered a natural right in some cases and a divine right in others. For example, when it was useful, people appealed to the idea of a Creator endowing people with certain “unalienable rights” and when nature was viewed as the source of life, the rights of man were considered something that just was.
Three passages from the different primary source texts that provide evidence for my claim are:
1. “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights… hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights”—from the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
2. “We hold these truths to…
Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security
The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.
On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…
CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.dead/index.html?hpt=T2
Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011 http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/PhilForum/Terrorism/Cook.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0496_0444_ZS.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0392_0001_ZS.html
Proponents of stem-cell research believe that it may be the secret to curing infertility, genetic imperfection and neurological degeneration, and on the premise of this supposition, have lobbied vigorously to prevent legislation that would protect embryos from harvest and use in research, espousing the idea that:
"Criminalizing human reproductive cloning in the United States will only make it less safe and more costly for these infertile couples. They will be forced to travel outside the United States to pursue their dream of creating a family. After all, according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), infertility is a disability and reproduction is a major life activity for the purposes of the ADA (Bragdon v. Abbott, 118 S.Ct 2196; 1998). In light of this, it is the right of each and every American citizen to bear a child." (Speeches, 21)
In spite of this, there were very few legislative efforts which…
Brannigan, Michael C. Ethical Issues in Human Cloning: Cross-Disciplinary
Perspectives. New York; Seven Bridges Press, 2001.
Brownback, Sam. James Greenwood. Symposium. Insight on the News.
Vol. 17, Issue
" (2009) Oguejiofor states that there is no understanding "exept if there is misunderstanding, a negativity that beomes the originative instane of hermeneutis…" (2009)
Oguejiofor writes that Senghor's onept of negritude is entered on the misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the Afrian and his heritage, a situation that has sine imposed enormous burden on all aspets of his life." (Oguejiofor, 2009) Oguejiofor states that negritude has been desribed "…as a philosophy of soial ation" and states additionally that in the view of Senghor "negritude was 'a weapon of defense and attak and inspiration." (2009) Speifially Senghor sates that negritude is the "sum total of the values of the ivilization of the Afrian world, it is not raialism, it is ulture." (Oguejiofor, 2009)
Oguejiofor writes that negritude as a philosophy "has the advantage of 'reognizing the situatedness of our lived historiity as the proper objet of refletion for Afrian philosophi thought. (Salhi…
cited in Quest, 2005)
When Senghor was imprisoned for the already mentioned two years period he composed poetry, read the work of Goethe and delved into Western philosophical works and as well reestablished his link with his fellow Africans and songs and tales were shared from Africa and this resulted in the "fostering [of] an alternative understanding of humanism and society." (Quest, 2005)
The Quest Journal editorial states that it seems nice to think that the prison experiences of Senghor as well as Senghor's knowledge spanning the intellectual traditions of the Western world and his admiration for values, traditions and cultures of Africa together resulted in a "subjectivity that was transcultural and transnational in it sympathies, accomplishments and aspirations." (Quest, 2005) Senghor set the stage for "a post-anthropological humanism, one that truly points to the possibilities for a democratic and cosmopolitan world." (Quest, 2005)
5. Poetry as 'Key' Outlet for Combating Cultural Alienation in for Africans
The work of Nyathi (2005) states that the work of Senghor influenced many and in fact that poetry "became a key outlet for Africans to combat cultural alienation." The work of Baaz and Palmberg (2001) entitled: "Same and Other: Negotiating African Identity in Cultural Production" relates the writings of Leopold Sedar Senghor "on negritude and the ideas of negritude which are "above all associated with the writings of Senghor and Aime Cesaire, were developed by African, Afro-American and Caribbean intellectuals in Paris in the 1930s." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001) Negritude was defined by Senghor as "the sum of the cultural values of the black world." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001)
Amish are a long-standing religious sect, created in the 17th century after the first Amish broke from the Mennonite Protestant tradition because of "what they perceived as a lack of discipline among the Mennonites" (The Amish: History, belief, practices, 2011, eligious Tolerance). The original Amish were of Swiss and German extraction. Many migrated to the U.S. In the early stages of the sect's formation, settling in Pennsylvania, and gradually branching out into New York, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri Ohio, and other states where they still reside today. No Amish remain in Europe. "The faith group has attempted to preserve the elements of late 17th century European rural culture. They try to avoid many of the features of modern society, by developing practices and behaviors which isolate themselves from American culture" (The Amish: History, belief, practices, 2011, eligious Tolerance).
The Amish used to be farmers, marking the culture as 'pastoral' in…
Adult baptism. (2011). Welcome to Manchester County. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at http://www.welcome-to-lancaster-county.com/amish-belief.html
The Amish: History, belief, practices. (2011). Religious Tolerance. Retrieved December 15,
2011 at http://www.religioustolerance.org/amish.htm
Frequently asked questions. (2011). Amish Studies. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at http://www2.etown.edu/amishstudies/FAQ.asp
This is only one of the implications that individuals are facing when it comes to these kinds of limits. Some people choose to ignore the limits that are placed on them if they feel that those limits are too restrictive. Others do not even recognize the limits that are placed on them and feel as though the limit-placer has no right to do so in the first place. Despite these things, however, it usually does not end well from an organizational standpoint for people who continue to 'break the rules.' Being fired is one of the implications of ignoring limits, and getting into trouble with the law can also be an implication of this. Usually people either leave of their own accord or are brought into line before any of this takes place, but that's not always the case.
For the people who ignore limits there are other problems, as…
philosophy of education through a historical and then through an explicitly Christian lens, with a focus on the political role of education, and the Christian philosophy of John Milton. Milton's 1644 works Areopagitica and Of Education are invoked to justify the true Christian purpose of education as being exposure to the sort of free expression and free exchange of ideas that are guaranteed in America under the First Amendment.
What would a true Christian philosophy of education look like? The answer might actually be surprising to the majority of Americans who identify themselves as Christian and seek a Christian education. In 2014, frequently Christian education can seem retrograde, a form of ressentiment and indoctrination that derides Darwinism and has a greater interest in upholding a political consensus than in embodying the ideals set forth by Christ Himself. I propose to examine a Christian philosophy of education through a somewhat unique…
Fish, S. (1971) Surprised by sin: The reader in Paradise Lost. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gaustad, E.S. (2005). Roger Williams. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gutek, G.L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A Biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Jefferson, T. (1778) A bill for the more general diffusion of knowledge. Retrieved from http://candst.tripod.com/jefflaw1.htm
America was a wonderful experiment in freedom and democracy which had never before been attempted by any nation. Nations either tried to give power to the people in order to prevent monarchies from rising to despotic power, or they allowed monarchs, despots and other sole figure heads to rise to power. In the case of allowing the people to rule, Europe and European's had learned many times that unbridled power in the hands of the people was no more just than the rule of despots. obs could become just as dictatorial as individual monarchs who sat upon golden thrones. Until America came into existence, nations could only expect to exist for a short time before political turmoil would create change of government, and the nation would start over again.
So as America grew from a fledgling nation to a powerful and economically stable country, those who had watched democracy struggle…
Mill, John Stuart. Dissertations and Discussions. New York: classic Books. 2000.
Madison, James. Federalist paper #10. 1775
De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America, essays on freedom. 1835. Accessed 21 May 2004. Website: http://www.tocqueville.org
country has been experiencing a religious "war of words" for several decades now. Some Democrats were caught completely off guard by it when most of the swing voters voted for Bush instead of Kerry, giving Bush the Presidency. Surveys and polls done afterwards revealed that those voters, the ones who won the election for Bush, were opposed to the Iraq war, but saw Bush as representing the one thing that was more important to them than whether we were at war or not: moral values. Actually the movement to make the Presidential race a moral one has been going on for decades, galvanized by the shift in this country in the late sixties and early seventies regarding both sex and drug use. The Roe V. Wade decision by the Supreme Court became a rallying cry, and that issue has been important in every Presidential election since. This time, the issue…
Sade -- Philosophy in the Bedroom
The Marquis de Sade's Dolmance argues for the elimination of religion, particularly monotheistic religion, as a necessary step toward a liberated republic. In Sade's estimation, the two constructs could not coexist. I disagree with Sade on at least two grounds. e know for a fact that religion and a free republic exist. Furthermore, Sade uses the term "freedom" but means nihilism.
hy, according to Dolmance, are monotheistic religions -- especially the Christian religion -- ill-suited for republics? Do you find his reason convincing? Give well supported reasons for your answer.
Dolmance, a 36-year-old bisexual libertine, believes that the abolition of religion would be France's last vital step toward the liberated republic. According to Dolmance,
[Y]ou cannot possibly liberate [Europe] from royal tyranny without at the same time breaking for her the fetters of religious superstition; the shackles of the one are too intimately linked…
Bloch, I. (1899). Marquis de Sade: His life and work. Retrieved from supervert.com: http://supervert.com/elibrary/marquis_de_sade/marquis_de_sade_his_life_and_work
Sade, M. (1785). 120 days of Sodom. Retrieved from supervert.com: http://supervert.com/elibrary/marquis_de_sade/120_days_of_sodom
Sade, M. (1968). Juliette, translated. New York: Austryn Wainhouse.
Sade, M. (2002). Philosophy in the bedroom, translated. Retrieved from www.supervert.com: http://supervert.com/elibrary/marquis_de_sade/philosophy_in_the_bedroom
Religious beliefs were the sustaining platform for the positions on slavery of both Robert E. Lee and John Brown, although both men were compelled in disparate directions as a result of their faith. John Brown's Calvinist background shaped his perceptions about the sinfulness of slavery and his strict upbringing led him to believe that the sinful practice slavery would only be won through relentless battle. Robert E. Lee was raised an Episcopalian, a variable that supported his belief that slavery would exist until God ended the practice.
The nineteenth century male, as he might be characterized in a reductionist fashion, was the officially ordained head of his household, who was most likely to be spending considerable time away from the home -- in the corrupt realm of public enterprise. Decision-making was the purview of males, which naturally included standards for commerce, politics, civic roles, and home life. Life…
Horwitz, Tony. Midnight Rising: John Brown and the Raid That Sparked the Civil War. New York, NY: Henry Hold & Company. 2011.
forum #4: Civil liberties/Civil rights
One recent famous 't-shirt' case involving the civil liberties of a defendant was Guiles v. Marineau, in which a middle-schooler who wore a t-shirt openly critical of President George Bush was suspended from school for being disruptive. Zachary Guiles "was later allowed back in school, but he was told that he couldn't wear the T-shirt unless he taped over certain pictures on the T-shirt -- pictures of a martini glass, lines of cocaine, straws, and razor blades. The pictures were references to substance abuse problems President Bush is said to have had as a younger man. These problems were also described in words on the T-shirt" ("Student Free Speech Rights: Guiles v. Marineau: Issues). Although the Supreme Court ultimately declined to hear the case, the Second Circuit judges where the case was decided "determined that for speech that isn't vulgar…Schools may not regulate such student…
Elliott, Justin. "Remember when the Patriot Act was all about library records." Pro-Publica.
17 Jun 2013. 27 Apr 2014. http://www.propublica.org/article/remember-when-the-patriot-act-debate-was-about-library-records
"Student Free Speech Rights: Guiles v. Marineau: Issues." ACLU. 27 Apr 2014.
esponding to hate crimes
Finally, all employees of the Trenton Public School District who become aware in the course of their employment that a student or other staff person has committed a hate crime or is about to commit one are required to immediately inform the principal and chief school administrator. According to the District's Equal Educational Opportunity Policy (File Code 5145.4), "All incidents of hate/bias shall be reported whether they occur during school hours on school grounds, on the way to or from school or otherwise" (p. 2). Teachers can play an important role in mitigating hate crimes in the schools by addressing anti-Semitism and Islamophobia (Haynes, 2011).
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
eference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. etrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
Black's law dictionary. (1990).…
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. Retrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
However, at the same time the onset of what many scholars regard as the first truly national event within the history of the fledgling United States of America took place throughout the 1740's, and indicated that the traditional religious beliefs that mandated a strict following of God would not so easily be overturned. The Great Awakening largely begin when George Whitefield, an Oxford-trained Anglican minster who came to Georgia in 1738, began touring through the lands pronouncing that people had limited time to repent before they were consumed by the fires of hell. This perspective certainly adhered to that which was shared by many of the pilgrims and puritans who initially began the colonies in the 17th century. Jonathan Edwards was another influential factor in this movement, and delivered a number of influential sermons during the early years of the 1740s in which he claimed damnation awaited anyone who would…
Same Sex Marriage
The legalization of same-sex marriage may be one of the most controversial social issues in the modern American political climate, and, in fact, throughout the Western world. While it may seem as if this highly polarizing issue has come out of nowhere, cultural norms about homosexuality and the acceptability of same-sex romantic relationships have always existed. Some societies have been accepting of same-sex relationships, others have violently condemned them, but there have always been cultural norms about sexually appropriate behavior. What is new is the legal battle over these cultural norms. The civil rights advances in the 1960s and 1970s, which successfully challenged the cultural norms that allowed for discrimination against some minority groups, led to changes in the legal environment, making legalization of same-sex marriage a possibility when it was outside of consideration years before. Also new is the fact that the development of privacy laws…
Callahan, J. (2009). Same sex-marriage: Why it matters- at least for now. Hypatia, 24(1), 70-
Denike, M. (2007). Religion, rights, and relationships: The dream of relational equality.
Hypatia, 22(1), 71-91.
.. [A despotic] government always [keeps] a kind of standing army of newswriters who, without any regard to truth or to what should be like truth, [invent] and put into the papers whatever might serve the ministers. This suffices with the mass of the people who have no means of distinguishing the false from the true paragraphs of a newspaper."
ut, these concerns were not enough to outweigh what Jefferson considered to be the necessity for freedom of the press, "The only security of all is in a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed. The agitation it produces must be submitted to. It is necessary, to keep the waters pure."
Thomas Jefferson." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_JeffersonAvailable 25 Oct. 2005.
Thomas Jefferson on Politics & Government, Freedom of Religion http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1650.htm. Available 25 Oct. 2005.
Thomas Jefferson on Politics & Government, Freedom of…
Thomas Jefferson." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_JeffersonAvailable 25 Oct. 2005.
Thomas Jefferson on Politics & Government, Freedom of Religion http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1650.htm . Available 25 Oct. 2005.
Thomas Jefferson on Politics & Government, Freedom of the Press. http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1600.htm . Available 25 Oct. 2005.
Mayor Justice Jackson
Lincoln High School Board
It would be safe to say that Lincoln Center City is basically a place that is an average-sized urban metropolitan located in the state of Fordham. This is a town where there are about 75,000 people that are living in Lincoln Center and this is a type of city that really prides itself on its diversity in cultures. However, this pride may not necessarily be continual. Is it possible that it is a little biased? In the cities defense, facts really do show that in this town a lot of people that are really attracted to Lincoln Center for the reason that of the City's thriving business atmosphere, and the population is therefore made up of numerous religions, cultures, and ethnicities. All of these do give it an advantage because it shows that it is a city that…
Jefferson's letter and Reply from the Danbury Baptists. (1807, October). President of the United States.
Lynch, Et Al V. Donnelly. (1985, March 5). U.S. Supreme Court.
County of Allegheny Et. v ACLU. (1989, July 3). United States Supreme Court.
Capital Square Review and Advisory Board V. Vincent J. Pinett & Donnie A. Carr & Kinghts of KU Klux Klan. (1995, June 29). United States Supreme Court.
And bee it also Enacted by the Authority and with the advise and assent aforesaid that whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth use or utter any reproachfull words or Speeches concerning blessed Virgin Marv the Mother of Our Saviour or the holy Apostles or Evangelists or any of them shall in such case for the first offence forfeit to the said Lord Proprietary and his heirs Lords and Proprietaries of this Province the sume of five pound Sterling or the value thereof to be Levyed on the goods and chattells of every such person soe offending, but in case such Offender or Offenders, shall not then have goods and chattells sufficient for the satisfying of such forfeiture, or that the same bee not otherwise speedily satisfyed that then such Offender or Offenders Shall be publiquely whipt and bee imprisoned during the pleasure, of the Lord Proprietary or the Lieut.…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445657
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445659 .
A www.geocities.com/lawandabrewer_uncp"Brewer, Jaques, Jones, and King. (2001). 23 Sept 2007 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/religion.htm .
Crossing the Ocean to Keep the Faith: The Puritans. (2007) Library of Congress. 23 Sept 2007 http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel01.html .
Friedrich Von Schlegel (1772-1829), German philosopher. Idea 14 in Selected Ideas (1799-1800), Franklin, Benjamin. His Autobiography. Vol. I, Part 1. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909-14; Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/1/1/.23 Sept 2007 http://www.bartleby.com/1/1/4.html .
eligious tolerance and freedoms do come out from holly scriptures of any religion, they are stated in Koran and in Bible nearly in the same way: "avoid unfaithful" not persecute them but simply avoid. These words have a deep meaning, which refers not just to the religion but also to any other belief and views. oger Williams was the first minister who introduced the principles of modern religious liberties into the civil practice as he wrote in the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution (1640):
No man shall be required to worship or maintain a worship against his will." Until then, Europe and America had endured what Thomas Paine later called, "the adulterous connection between church and state."
In order to defend the representatives of different confessions and guarantee free participation of citizens in country's public life, there had to be taken measures that would preserve from the dominance of one religious…
Madison, James Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments 20 June 1785
James Madison, Report on the Virginia Resolutions
Roger Williams the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution 1640;
Ward, Nathaniel the Simple Cobbler of Aggawam, 1645
While thee may be ational and ethical objections to killing a nealy fully developed fetus, thee ae none that petain logically to teminating a pegnancy that is only hous old, much less fo peventing a pegnancy that has not even occued. Religious beliefs and values may be pefect justifications fo such decisions on a pesonal level; howeve, they cannot eve be allowed to impose those values on othes who may not shae those paticula eligious beliefs.
The United States was founded lagely on the concept of eligious feedom by those who ejected the notion that the govenment should be able to dictate pesonal eligious beliefs. The agument that eligious feedom is meant only in the naowest sense as petains to the actual assignment of eligion by the state is weak. If eligious feedom meant only that the state could not equie a specific eligion, that would still allow the state…
references to any "God" because that violates the religious freedom of atheists. Similarly, there is no reason that atheists should not be able to purchase alcohol on Sunday just because that happens to be the religious Sabbath of Christians any more than Christians should have to be limited in their freedoms on Saturdays just because other religious faiths happen to celebrate their Sabbath on Saturday. Religious freedom should protect the right to practice any religion and to practice no religion and it should never allow any religious beliefs to be imposed in any way on others.
First Amendment, the Constitution, and the Supreme Court
Freedom of and from religion and freedom of speech are the distinct provisions of the First Amendment; it gives citizens of the United States the unalienable human right to assembly and speech. However, the language is intentionally vague. The framers of the Constitution, anticipating unknown applications of the amendment, gave power to the Supreme Court to act as ultimate arbiter in matters involving its provisions. The Constitution of the United States is a living document and the interpretation of its amendments by the Supreme Court changes over time. Freedom of speech and the press, and religious freedom, are exercised according to the Supreme Court's rulings in cases that come before it. Exploration of these cases illuminates the evolving meaning of the First Amendment and the freedoms granted therein.
The First Amendment to the Constitution is partially designed to protect journalists and news-content…
Abrams, F. (2005). Speaking Freely: Trials of the First Amendment. New York, NY:
Penguin Group (USA).
Campbell, D.S. (1990). The Supreme Court and Mass Media: Selected Cases,
Summaries, and Analyses. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.