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Virtual esearch Ethics Question Set
ead the interview with Elizabeth Buchanan on virtual research ethics: eadings in virtual research ethics: Issues and controversies. (2004, January-June). Information Technology Newsletter, 15(1), 22-25.]. You can find this article through the Ashford Online Library. Write a summary of this interview and add your thoughts on how this affects the business research process.
In an interview on virtual research ethics conducted with Elizabeth A. Buchanan -- which was published in Information Technology Newsletter in 2004 -- the acclaimed ethicist offered her views on the evolution of ethical conduct in the internet age. As a scholar dedicated to the study of ethics, and the Endowed Chair/Director for the Center for Applied Ethics at the University of Wisconsin/Stout, Buchanan is eminently qualified to express her views on this subject, and her contribution to the greater discussion on ethical research practices should be considered valuable at the very…
Buchanan, E.A. (Ed.). (2004). Readings in virtual research ethics: Issues and controversies. IGI
3, No, 1; (2005): S30
S37. etrieved from: http://www.annfammed.org/cgi/reprint/3/suppl_1/s30.
QUALITATIVE ESEACH DESIGNS
Identify and describe some of your initial reactions to the article. What jumped out at you? Did this article spark a desire in you to design a similar study? Why or why not?
My immediate reaction to the article was that it demonstrates how easily and thoroughly conceptual flaws in subject recruitment and selection can undermine the relevance and accuracy of conclusions of even an otherwise well-designed and executed study (Williamson, 2009). On one hand, the study seemed to execute the five stages of critical qualitative research outlined by Carspecken (in Hardcastle, Usher, & Holmes, 2006); on the other hand, it seems to have wasted that execution on a fundamentally flawed set of subject inclusion criteria. Specifically, the study attempted to examine the correspondence and to draw logical inferences from any apparent causal relationship between elements of lived…
Ekstedt, M. And Fagerberg, I. "Lived experiences of the time preceding burnout."
Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 49, No. 1; (2005): 59 -- 67. Retrieved from:
Hardcastle, M., Usher, K., and Holmes, C. "Carspecken's five-stage critical qualitative research method: An application to nursing research." Qualitative
Cigarettes became popular among World War soldiers as "soldier's smoke (Randall 1999)." Camel held 45% of the U.S. cigarette market by 1923 while Philip Morris produced women's cigarette, described as "mild as May." The American Tobacco Company produced Lucky Strike for women and captured 38% of the market. The number of female teenage smokers increased three times between 1925 and 1935 alone. In the spirit of competition, the American Tobacco Company in 1939 launched Pall Mall, which made it the largest tobacco company in the U.S. Cigarette sales went up higher during World War II when cigarettes even became part of soldiers' C-rations with food. Tobacco companies sent free cigarettes to soldiers at war. When they went home, they were a steady source of income to these companies. Alongside in the 50s, more and new evidence about the link between smoking and lung cancer was turning up. Tobacco companies first…
AMA. Ethical Norms and Values for Marketers. American Marketing Association, 2010.
Retrieved on October 20, 2010 from http://www.marketingpower.com/About AMA/Pages/StatementofEthics.aspex
Clay, Rebecca A. Advertising to Children: Is It Ethical? Vol 3 # 8 Monitor on Psychology: American Psychological Association, 2000 Retrieved on October 20,
2010 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep00/advertising.aspx
If she decides to give the results to the company that is sponsoring her, it is her responsibility and she is liable of suffering the consequences.
In order to avoid ethical issues, Jane could organize these interviews as concerning consumers, as a statistical survey that she can publish in the university's newspaper, therefore becoming public knowledge. The identity of the surveyed restaurants should be concealed, otherwise it is unlikely that their staff would be willing to participate in such a study.
If Jane could introduce other factors of interest for the surveyed restaurants in this research project, they might be interested in participating. Also, Jane could reveal the results of her work after she stops being a student at this university. However, this does not eliminate the ethical issues from this situation, but it clears the university of taking part of such actions.
4. It is not surprising that Jane,…
1. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2007). Research Methods for Business Students. Prentice Hall. Retrieved September 2, 2010 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=43wDBmAKzA4C&pg=PA200&lpg=PA200&dq=mystery+customer+observation&source=bl&ots=xdG4kkCVGt&sig=rkqNg2pDvK3PfEj4jocQhnM3NgU&hl=ro&ei=scJ_TLf9A8vHswaC8MzkDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CEcQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=mystery%20customer%20observation&f=false .
2. Douglas, A. (2007). The Impact of Mystery Customers on Employees. Liverpool John Moores University. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
3. McGregor, F. (2005). Exploring the mystery of customer satisfaction. University of Wollongong. Retrieved September 2, 2010 from http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1026&context=asdpapers .
4. Brender-Ilan, Y. & Shultz, T. (2010). Perceived Fairness of the Mystery Customer Method: Comparing Two Employee Evaluation Practices. Retrieved September 2, 2010 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/y43737105u851682/.
Research ethics is defined as the application of moral rules and professional codes of conduct in the collection, reporting, analysis, and publication of research subjects’ information, particularly the active acceptance of the subjects' right to privacy, informed consent, and confidentiality (Millum & Sina, 2014). The three main objectives of research ethics are the protection of human subjects, ensure that research is carried out in a manner that serves the interests of society, groups, or individuals, and examines particular research activities and projects for their ethical soundness.
The ethical case study chosen is case 1. The ethical issues present in the case are privacy and confidentiality, and lack of informed consent. According to the case, Roger was given information after he made a promise he would not reveal the information to anyone else. Therefore, there was no informed consent from the leading shaman. Since there was a verbal agreement that the…
Millum, J., & Sina, B. (2014). Introduction: international research ethics education. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, 9(2), 1-2.
Schmucker, C., Schell, L. K., Portalupi, S., Oeller, P., Cabrera, L., Bassler, D., . . . Von Elm, E. (2014). Extent of non-publication in cohorts of studies approved by research ethics committees or included in trial registries. PLoS ONE, 9(12), e114023.
Kathy Pezdek of Claremont Graduate University. To conduct the ethical review thoroughly, Pezdek's credentials would need to be evaluated, in terms of whether the author had conducted similar research in the past. There is no indication that Pezdek worked with colleagues on this research but it might be helpful to know if she had conducted similar studies in the past to determine the level of entrenchment in the field.
This is a criminal justice research into the effect of different types of eyewitness testimony on plea bargaining decisions made by prosecutors and defense attorneys. Specifically, the research question was about whether the strength of the eyewitness evidence, characteristics of eyewitnesses, and eyewitness memory factors have a bearing on plea bargaining outcomes.
The methodology used was a survey; participants consisted of 93 defense attorneys and 46 prosecutors from matched counties in California. No deception was used. The survey simply presented a…
Pezdek, K. Influence of Eyewitness Memory Factors on Plea Bargaining Decisions by Prosecution and Defense Attorneys in California, 2010-2011. ICPSR32181-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2012-07-31. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR32181.v1
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…
Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.
Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.
SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
The ethics of the design research demands that 'the research is valid and that threats to validity have been taken into account', and reporting has been accurate and sufficient details have been listed and supplemented for the clarity and appropriate interpretation of the research content, furthermore 'in qualitative research, it is important to be particularly careful about how to choose direct quotations from the data in the research, and ensure that they are representative' (Ian, 2003).
Many professional associations, government agencies, and universities have developed, adopted and practiced specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics i.e. East Carolina University, National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have developed their own ethical rules related to the design research. Some of the influential ethical policies on design research includes, 'the Uniform equirements (International Committee…
David B. Resnik. What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2006. Referred from www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources
Deni Elliott, Judy E. Stern. Research Ethics: A Reader. 1997. UPNE Publication. pp. 216
Ian Gregory. Ethics in Research. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2003. pp. 93
Helen Simons, Robin Usher. Situated Ethics in Educational Research. Routledge. 2000. pp. 84
However, there are often no rules, or weak ones, and that can create an ethical dilemma on the part of marketers. They must decide for themselves what lines they want to cross, and set their own codes of ethics. here rules only provide guidelines, these can be open to interpretation. As we have seen with the area of marketing to children, however, the marketing industry has kept ahead of the regulators in how they approach the issue. The government has barely been able to ban Joe Camel, and has no answer for companies that reach children with child-oriented web content that blends.
In order to create a code of ethics where there are no laws to provide guidance, there are bodies that have taken the lead. A company should begin, for example, with a statement of ethical norms from the American Marketing Association (2012). There are three ethical…
Akaah, I. & Riordan, E. (1989). Judgments of marketing professionals about ethical issues in marketing research: A replication and extension. Journal of Marketing Research. Vol. 26 (1) 112-120
Shrubsole, G. (2012). Marketing and advertising that respects children's rights. The Guardian. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/marketing-advertising-respect-childrens-rights
Horovitz, B. (2011). Marketing to kids gets more savvy with new technologies. USA Today. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2011-07-27-new-technolgies-for-marketing-to-kids_n.htm
Smart Consulting Group. (2009). Dishonest marketing in pharmaceuticals demands a big price to pay. SCG. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://www.smartconsultinggroup.com/2009/11/dishonest-marketing-in-pharmaceuticals-demands-a-big-price-to-pay/
Ethics, Gross National Products
Gross National Product
Ethics is a branch of Philosophy and deals with the basics questions about right and wrong, virtue and vice, as well as good or bad nature of things human beings do in their daily lives. Thus, ethics is essentially related to the moral aspect of things. A thing, act, or idea of practice might be legally correct but may not be morally sound in given conditions. For instance, the pursuit of profit by firms is legally correct but ignorance to the well being of society in which that firm operates is morally incorrect. Essentials of ethics: The essential elements of ethics are related to the character of actions being taken by the human beings. The topic essentially deals with the behavior and its outcomes with respect to the impact created on fellow human beings and society as a collective…
Stimpert, J.L., & Duhaime, I.M. (1997). SEEING THE BIG PICTURE: THE INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRY, DIVERSIFICATION, AND Business STRATEGY ON PERFORMANCE. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 560-583.
Taylor, A., Chaloupka, F.J., Guindon, E., & Corbett, M. (2000). The impact of trade liberalization on tobacco consumption. Tobacco control in developing countries, 343-64.
Yue, C., Beghin, J., & Jensen, H.H. (2006). Tariff equivalent of technical barriers to trade with imperfect substitution and trade costs. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88(4), 947-960.
The Bureau of Land Management/Department of the Interior videos illustrate a wide variety of issues related to ethics in administrative civil service positions. All of the ethical dilemmas and issues addressed are outlined and codified in publications and handbooks. However, no booklet can cover the nuances and extent of all ethical situations and especially the trickiest conundrums. As the video points out, there is no substitute for actual advice from a skilled professional in the field of ethics counseling. This is why departments like the BLM or the Fish and Wildlife Service have on staff ethics counselors. Ethics counselors are on call to answer questions and solve dilemmas when they arise, thus preventing problems that can lead to severe penalties ranging from fines to probation and/or prison. All employees are responsible for their own ethical conduct, which is why it is not possible to plead ignorance in cases like…
Government of Canada (2015). Panel on research ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/eng/policy-politique/initiatives/tcps2-eptc2/chapter7-chapitre7/
MLB National Training Center. (2009, September 22). Retrieved from http://www.ntc.blm.gov/krc/uploads/411/EthicsSep2209.html
United States Department of Justice (2015). Do it right. Retrieved online: http://www.justice.gov/jmd/do-it-right
The Institutional eview Board (IB) was created to protect human rights in research studies. Prior to the creation of ethical standards in research individual rights were frequently violated without consequence for such actions. Extreme examples of ethical violations include the experiments conducted on individuals during the Nazi Concentration Camps and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. In both cases individuals were inflicted with significant harm without knowledge of the study or willing participation. Currently the Department of Health and Human Services regulates federal guidelines to ensure the safety and protection of participants in research studies. Following ethical guidelines ensures protection of human beings' rights and the integrity of research. In the case study of Lucy, several ethical violations occurred including: lacking of formal IB approval for her research study, issues with informed consent, and misrepresentation of the research authorship.
Lucy, a special education teacher, sought IB approval for her proposed research…
Adam, Z., & Boyd, S. (2010). Ethical challenges in the treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Ethics & Behavior 20 (6).
Roig, M. (2009). Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing practices:
A guide to ethical writing. Office of Research Integrity. Retrieved from:
Ethics to Practice: Analysis of 'end of life' decision making
The foregoing discussion is an incursion into nursing ethics. Implication(s) to 'omission' of information as a customary practice within our healthcare institution is reviewed in relation to best practices pertaining to 'informed consent,' and hospital policy is not definitive. Directed at the evolution of ethical decision making, the general query to the study focuses on the parameters of informed consent where individual practice is concerned.
In the nation of Canada where I am a nurse the number of situations where patient informed consent decisions might be subject to our national code of nursing ethics is many. e face critical ethical dilemmas every day, as emergency procedures and critical care interventions are standard practice. Complexity in decision making is furthered in the conduct and approaches made by international colleagues on contract in our institution by way of exchange.
The primacy of…
Bullough, B. ed. The Law and the expanding nursing role. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980.
Callahan, Joan, ed. Ethical Issues in Profesional Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Canadian Medical Protection Association (CMPA), 2010. Web.
Finlay and Fernandez. Failure to report and provide commentary on research ethics board approval and informed consent in medical journals is discussed Journal of Medical Ethics, 34.10 (2008), 761-764. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.023325.
Milgram's study illustrates that many who have had the responsibility taken from them are although not happy but content to continue with a procedure as long as they are not directly held responsible, thereby giving rise to an obedience through social bonding and situations (Hayes & Orell PG).
In this situation in a comparison with the Tuskegee experiment and Milgram's experiment it can be argued that the members of the medical team were acting under orders from the government and therefore were blameless in their experiments as were the teachers in theory only following orders, obviously this form of passing blame can be seen be as a paradigm in ethical understanding as we are all cogent beings with the ability to reason and question yet it seems when a person is actively allowing himself to take the blame as such then all reason as to ethical understandings of what is…
Brown, Kathleen W.; Cozby, Paul C.; Kee, Daniel W.; Worden, Patricia E (1999) Research methods in human development (2nd ed.). Mountain View, California, Mayfield Publishing Company.
Burley, Kim a., (1995 08-01), Family variables as mediators of the relationship between work-familyconflict and marital adjustment among dual-career men and women.. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 135, pp 483(15).
Crane a (1999 Jul) Are you ethical? Please tick yes or no on researching ethics in business organizations, Journal of Business Ethics 20 (3): 237-248
Journal is published by Kluwer Academic Publishers)
This impacts the entire citizenry, not just the think tank or its backers. Again, we reach the intersection between classical ethics philosophy and economics. hether or not a think tank strives to eliminate bias from its published research, if that research influences public policy to the detriment of the populace, it would be considered unethical. Resnick (2007) promotes the idea that research ethics are important to maintain the trust of the public in such research. hen considering the outcomes of published research, we must then consider whether an economic think tank bears any duty of care towards the populace at large.
It such a duty of care is not owed to the populace, to whom is it owed? This brings back the question of motivation. Basic motivation theories such as Maslow's Hierarchy discuss motivation in terms of human needs (NetMBA.com, 2007). Applied to an organization, we find the heart of…
Broome, John. (1999). Ethics out of Economics. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at http://books.google.com/books?id=Nj0nBRX8pVsC&dq=ethics+economics&printsec=frontcover&source=bll&ots=rk9IvUym0q&sig=l8-MdbqiVZBnqacBGm7Rs0Zsc6g&hl=en&ei=W82mSfz-H4H8tgfA7MHXDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=11&ct=result#PPA2,M1
Friedman, Milton. (1970). The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Resnick, David B. (2007). What is Ethics in Research and Why is it Important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis.cfm
No author. (2007). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. NetMBA.com. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
Criminal justice research presents a unique set of ethical challenges. Two of the most significant ethical challenges include the need to protect participant confidentiality, and the need to pursue research that promotes social justice. Lowman & Palys (2001) analyze some of the ethical and legal threats to confidentiality, showing how criminal justice researchers can balance their legal and ethical obligations with their commitment to research efficacy, validity, and reliability. Nouwen (2014), on the other hand, is concerned with the research questions and methodologies used to investigate issues related to social justice, advocacy, and human rights. Both of these are important issues to consider when designing and applying criminal justice research.
Criminal justice research frequently involves situations in which participants divulge sensitive information about a crime they were involved in, a crime they witnessed, or a criminal justice procedure they participated in such as the arrest or processing of an offender.…
ethical quandary revolves around research ethics. Numerous reasons may be cited to explain the significance of complying with ethical standards when conducting research. Firstly, standards support research objectives like error avoidance, knowledge, and truth. For instance, the forbidding of research data fabrication, falsification, or misrepresentation facilitates error minimization and promotion of true facts (esnik). Secondly, as studies typically require significant coordination and collaboration between a number of individuals belonging to diverse organizations and areas of expertise, ethical norms support key values like trust, justice, answerability, and mutual respect. For instance, authorship guidelines, patenting and copyright policies, peer review-related confidentiality laws, policies of data sharing and other research-linked ethical principles help safeguard intellectual property and simultaneously encourage collaboration. A majority of scholars wish for acknowledgement for their individual contribution to a field and dislike having their research ideas released early to the world, or stolen. Thirdly, a number of ethical principles…
(2010). American Psychological Association (APA). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/
Resnik. "What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important?" National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).2015. Web. 14 Oct 2016. .
"Responsible Conduct of Research: Research Misconduct." Columbia - CTL - Columbia Center for Teaching and Learning. Web. 15 Oct 2016. .
(n.d.). UAF home - University of Alaska Fairbanks. Research Misconduct - Office of Research Integrity. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from http://www.uaf.edu/ori/responsible-conduct/research-misconduct/
ole Of Leadership And Employees In Organizational Innovation
Organizational success in the current global environment characterized with significant challenges is highly dependent on innovation and creativity. Innovation and creativity contribute to the success of organizational interventions, thereby, contributing to its competitiveness. The current global environment is characterized by rapid adoption of new technologies, reduction in the life cycle of products, and globalization. As such, it implies the need for the organizations to become creative and innovative to compete, survive, lead, and grow in the wake of these challenges. Similarly, significant evidence shows that leadership and the employees play an important role in driving innovation and creativity within the organization. For instance, studies have shown that leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles, influences innovation, and creativity within the organization positively. However, limited knowledge on the contextual factors under which the effect occurs exists.
Similarly, empirical evidence…
Eisenbeiβ, S.A., & Boerner, S. (2010). Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(4), 364-372.
Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership, Creativity, And Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.
Hu, H., Gu, Q., & Chen, J. (2013). How and when does transformational leadership affect organizational creativity and innovation?: Critical review and future directions. Nankai Business Review International, 4(2), 147-166.
Liao, S., & Wu, C. (2010). System perspective of knowledge management, organizational learning, and organizational innovation. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(2), 1096-1103.
Ethics comprises of an intricate set of principles, morals and institutional outlines that standardize scientific activity. Educational and social researchers face complex challenges occasionally, when they encounter the conflict of their legal and moral responsibility towards protection of their participants on one hand, and maintaining the standards, criteria of quality and significance of research on the other hand. Although, the research design or findings does not always restrained or deteriorated by ethical principles. At times, ethics are supportive in enhancing the quality of research, while some other times it's not. Additionally, researchers "bear a special responsibility for protecting the interests of vulnerable groups throughout the research process" (Tangen, 2014, p. 678).
At all times, educational practitioners have realized the weighed down value of education and that the quality of education rests on ethical standards. The consciousness of educational researchers regarding the ethical dimensions of their research is increasing day by…
Abed, M. G. (2014-2015). A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, And How May These Be Addressed. i-manager's Journal on Educational Psychology, 8(3),1-14.
Comer, S. K. (2009). The Ethics of Conducting Educational Research on Your Own Students. Journal of Nursing Law, 13(4), 100-105. doi: 10.1891/1073-74188.8.131.52
Dooly, D. L. (2013). Academic Achievement in Arkansas High Schools Based on the Implementation Level of a Teacher Advisory Program. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/305027410?pq-origsite=summon
ESRC. (2015). ESRC Framework for Research Ethics. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from http://www.esrc.ac.uk/files/funding/guidance-for-applicants/esrc-framework-for-research-ethics-2015/
Ethics add to the beauty of profession whether medicine, healthcare, sociology, politics, education, business and even technology. Lack of ethics might not kill someone in most of cases but it certainly does affect the beauty of life. In psychology, ethics does play a role in developing trust between the client and the professional. Single parenting is a social psychology problem that also demands ethical practice since it deals with trust and confidence. Whatever is a different behavior from normal practices might need psychological guidance. Often there is a need to train people, couples, students, job candidates and single parents. The psychologists are bound by social contract. They do not only have to follow the job description but also have to meet the expectations of the clients and the industry in terms of ethical performance. While the dignity of the profession matters most in psychology. From decision…
Canadian Psychological Association, (2000), Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, Retrieved
Therefore, the best way to help employees act ethically is to view the workplace and daily operations as a training ground.
In your estimation why is there a growing need for organizational ethics programs? What are the factors contributing to ethical problems in the global corporate world? What are possible solutions?
The need for organizational ethics program is growing for several reasons. First, organizational ethics have become crucial for companies to avoid legal and financial distress. Second, ethics help businesses run smoothly and well, attracting the best caliber of employee. Ethics programs are important especially in large organizations with a diverse staff. Global and multinational companies will be working with people from around the world, who operate in unique ethical environments. Ethics programs help multinational companies create standards for employees that will help avoid conundrums and miscommunication. Ethics programs bring all employees together on the same page and therefore become…
Ethics in Decision-Making
Clegg, Stewart Martin Kornberger & Carl Rhodes. (2007). Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making. he Sociological Review, 55:2.
According to Stewart Clegg, Martin Kornberger and Carl Rhodes' article, "Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making" from the Sociological Review, ethical decision-making is not optimized with either an outcome-driven consequentialist approach nor a rule-bound deontological approach. "We suggest that rules for ethical decision making, rather than ensuring ethical outcomes, can work to insulate organizations from moral responsibility" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 393). Because of recent ethical scandals, there has been a drive to seek a heavily prescriptive and rule-bound approach to ethics, but the authors believe that "ethics is best considered in terms of the way that organizations are sites for ethical difficulties, dilemmas and deliberations (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 394). heorizing ambivalence in ethical decision-making is the ambitious goal of the article. he article uses the…
The solution of 'going by the rules' is often offered because of the difficulties and complexities of managerial decision-making in large organizations. Managers cannot perfectly calculate the 'correct' decision. In contrast to the ideal of perfect rationality, contemporary organizational theorists tend to see organizations as 'garbage cans' or mixes of personal and organizational ethical orientations. It is often uncertain what will 'tumble out' decision-wise, even when there are efforts to have policies in words. In the face of such randomness, a personal ethical orientation and sense of justice is required. "In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).
For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.
What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and act within the conditions of undecidability (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 405).
Description of esearch Procedure
The study reviewed here was conducted in order to test whether the ethical standards were much more loosely based on individual decision practices rather than a larger universal underlying theme. esearchers used the Vignette method which is "a scenario-based approach that is about how managers (participants in this study) respond to certain ethical dilemma situations," (Kim & Chun 2003: 378). Thus, various situations within the context of marketing were given to the sample population of Korean managers as to find correlations and similarities within how Korean business is supposed to act when acting within the limitations of ethical practices. 473 original participants were given questionnaires, with 452 totaling the final number of answered questionnaires for analysis.
Flaws in Procedural Design
Yet, within the context of this study, only managers were included. There were no participants on the two extreme sides of the spectrum. No one form…
Kim, Sang Yong & Chun, Sung Yong. (2003). A study of marketing ethics in Korea: what do Koreans care about? Journal of Management. 20(3):377-379.
Ethics Awareness Inventory (EAI) is a way of measuring different people's ethical approaches. It measures ethics in four different dimensions: character, obligation, results, and equity. The combined score for character was 8, the combined score for obligation was 4, the combined score for results was -4, and the combined score for equity was -8. My ethical profile was most closely aligned with character, and least closely aligned with equity. My obligation and results scores were opposites, which was interesting because those two traits are thought be diametrically opposed.
The character perspective is aligned with virtue theory, and looks at what is good to be, rather than what is good to do. In other words, actions are not as critical as character. This means that the character perspective is not overly focused on actions. In fact, character looks more broadly at ethics than a simple determination of right and wrong and…
While the initiative is laudable, the results are not palpable and cannot be extrapolated, indicating as such that research on the topic has still to be conducted.
At the level of the individual, the reading of the article confirmed the complexity of the ethics and morals within the business community. Still, aside from this, it also indicated that the organizational entities are primarily focused on their profitability objectives, and they will strive to attain these goals at the expense of either suppliers, either suppliers and employees. The firms strive to make those ethically and morally sound decisions for the satisfaction of their customers.
Finally, the article changed the perception over the topic of ethical and moral decision making by widening the overall comprehension of the issue. Before reading the article, ethics and morality were perceived as something innate, or learned from the home. Still, the article opens a new window…
Tangpong, C., Pesek, J.G., Shareholder value ideology, reciprocity and decision making in moral dilemmas
Ethics in Nursing
Every professional in the field of healthcare has a special responsibility and obligation to treat patients with care and dignity -- and at all times there should be an ethical approach as well. Nurses, too, is a vitally important component of healthcare, are nurses are certainly bound by ethical rules and values, and this paper delves into the various aspects of ethics in nursing.
Ethics and Nursing
"Codes of ethics refer to systems of rules and principles by which a profession is expected to regulate the moral behavior of its members and demonstrate its responsibility to society" (Numminen, et al., 2011, p. 710).
Ethics in nursing boils down to taking responsibility for providing good care to patients, being fair, professional and just, Zane olf writes in the peer-reviewed journal Nursing. But there is more to it than just offering professional care, olf continues. The author, who is…
Kangasniemi, Mari. (2010). Equality as a central concept of nursing ethics: a systematic literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 24(4), 824-832.
Lachman, Vicki D. (2012). Applying the Ethics of Care to Your Nursing Practice. Nursing.
Numminen, O.H., Leino-Kilpi, H., van der Arend, A., and Katajisto, Jouko. (2011).
On the contrary, for Kant, to live a moral life is to live a life that is lived almost completely because of obligation (Moran, Rein & Goodin 2008, p 354). Someone can still do something that is their duty, but that doesn't mean that what they do isn't immoral. A simple example would be if a person owed money: in Kantian morality, if a person paid back the money simply because they owed it and they felt it was their moral obligation to do so, this would be moral; however, if a person paid back money only because they thought that it would help them out if they ever needed to borrow money again, this would be immoral.
Kantian morality -- or the ethical system that we call "deontological" (luhm & Heineman 2007, p. 26) -- has to do with whether or not "its rules do not allow us to…
Bardach, Eugene. (2008). A practical guide for policy analysis: the eightfold path to more effective problem solving. CQ Press; 3rd edition.
Bluhm, William. & Heinemann, Robert A. (2007). Ethics and public policy: method and cases. Longman.
Fischer, Frank. & Miller, Gerald J. (2006). Handbook of public policy analysis: theory, politics and methods. CRC Press; 1st edition.
Moran, Michael., Rein, Martin. & Goodin, Robert E. (2008). The Oxford handbook of public policy. Oxford University Press.
Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with what areas of human interest?
life after death b-god c-morality
The answer is c. Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with moral questions, or the question of what actions are considered to be right or wrong. Moral rightness and moral wrongness are philosophical areas of inquiry, requiring analysis and debate. The ethics of an action can be debated on the intentions of the actor, the consequences of the actions, or on other factors. There are many different approaches to the study of ethics, which is why there are so many different ethical and moral philosophers.
Ethics depends on the study of religion, or needs to be based on religious knowledge, true or false.
False. Although some philosophers, like Kant, refer to God in their philosophical treatises, there is no need for a philosophy of ethics to be grounded in…
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.
Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.
Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
Ethics Awareness Inventory
According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of these two categories are in conflict; for instance, usually people who base ethical decisions on obligation or duty are not as concerned with results as with principles. However, I scored high in the results-oriented category as well. I believe that my ability to span both categories of ethical decision making have proved beneficial for me in the past and will continue to in the future. For example, the ethics awareness inventory analysis indicated that I do not operate in terms of absolutes; I do not feel that there can be any absolute standards of right and wrong because the world is too complex. Therefore, I am more prone to being open-minded and flexible than people who do feel that there should…
Ethics and the Internet
As the computer has evolved in the modern world, so the potential for communication has also increased. The computer, and the development of the Internet, has meant that human society has become more connected than ever before and the barriers between nations and people around the globe have been broken down. While this is a positive development in many ways, the growth of the Internet has also meant that there has been an increase in a wide range of new problems. One of these is the issue of ethics. "Just as ethics evolve as human societies grow and change, so similar ethical questions are raised during the evolution of this global electronic community." (Ethics on the Web)
The more that technology for communication and open publication of information advances, the more questions are raised about issues relating to moral codes of behavior and problems about what…
Ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 11, 2005. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/e/ethics.htm
Ethics on the Web. 1995, Accessed March 11, 2005, http://www.echonyc.com/~ysue/ethics.html
INTERNET ETHICS: OXYMORON OR ORTHODOXY? March 12, 2005.
So it has been suggested that social context of care must be examined and to establish limits to the ethics of care. In contrast, constructive evaluation of care ethic indicates that sensitivity as well as emotional response to particular state of affairs such as family discussions with doctor provide significant guides to morally satisfactory actions plus care ethic also seem to favor accepting procedures from Conflict Resolution as well as Dispute Mediation as optional way to approach evident ethical disagreement (Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy, 1996).
So on the whole, if we think regarding repair as something that should involve tools at least the type of tools found in hardware as well as plumbing supply stores and at construction sites, our cast of fixing characters is frequently going to involve men not for the reason that all men have them or apply them even if they have them…
Virginia Held. The Ethics of Care. New York: Oxford University Press, Feb 2007.
Gilligan, Carol, et al. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Devolpment. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Ethics of Care." Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosphy 1996. April 4, 2008 http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/80130/part2/II_7.html .
Spelman, Elizabeth V. "2 the Household as Repair Shop." Setting the Moral Compass: Essays by Women Philosophers. Ed. Cheshire Calhoun. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Education on ethics must be wider compared to "moral development" in that it must tackle the broader consideration of a wide-ranging vocation, and constricted in that it must tackle problems particularly to the accounting vocation. (esearch on Accounting Ethics)
Definite duties of the accounting profession are put forth in the different code of ethics circulated by important establishments like the AICPA. The AICPA's foremost rule of professional conduct declares: In discharging their duties as professionals, associates must implement responsive professional and moral views in all their works. (Business and Accounting Ethics) the failure of auditor sovereignty infringing ule 101 of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct was the topic of a research project using 2,000 arbitrarily chosen AICPA members in public accounting profession as a staff auditor, senior, or manager. These executives were offered with 15 roles that are an infringement of ule 101 and were directed to give their…
Accounting and Accountability: A Challenge for corporate culture. The 13th International Symposium on Ethics, Business and Society. IESE Business School, University of Navarra. Barcelona, Spain. May 7-8, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.iese.edu/en/files/6_6343.pdf . Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Schachter, Joseph. Research on Accounting Ethics. CPA Journal. April 1999. Retrieved at http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/1999/0499/News_Views/NV12.HTM . Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Smith, Katherine T; Smith, Murphy. L. Business and Accounting Ethics. 21 June, 2003.
Retrieved at http://acct.tamu.edu/smith/ethics/ethics.htm. Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
All ethical approaches can be validly applied to family life education. Defined as "the educational effort to strengthen individual and family life through a family perspective," family life education views family through ethical lens. However, ethics in family life education extends beyond the ultimate goals of promoting high-level family functioning. The ethics of family life education pertains to the practitioner-client relationship. According to the National Council on Family elations (2012), practitioners need to be aware of the power and responsibilities they have when forming relationships with clients. Although all ethical approaches are equally as valid, relational ethics offers special insight into the nature of family life education. elational ethics "a contemporary approach to ethics that situates ethical action explicitly in relationship," (Austin, 2008). Ethics are primarily situational, but only because ethics evolves out of dialogue and cooperation and not out of rigid ascription to ethical rules. This is not…
Austin, W.J. (2008). Relational ethics. SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods.
Dahlberg, G. & Moss, P. (2004). Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education. Routledge.
Elliott, M. (1999). Classifying family life education on the World Wide Web. Family Relations 48(1): Jan 1999.
National Council on Family Relations (2012). Family life educators code of ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.ncfr.org/sites/default/files/downloads/news/cfle_code__of_ethics_2012.pdf
Pharmaceutical drugs are among the most expensive products to produce globally and as a result have a major impact on the profitability of these firms. Without accurate financial reporting of these costs many investors have no idea of whether the companies are doing as well as they report they are.
The second most troubling issue that is impacting the community and the pharmaceutical industry is the lack of credibility of scientific research and its implications on the new drug development and marketing strategies of pharmaceutical firms (Verschoor, 2006). This continues to be a major concern specifically for government regulators who have seen pharmaceutical industry spend up to $5.5B a year to promote drugs to physicians, often citing inaccurate or falsified research (Verschoor, 2006). Not only does this impact the physician's credibility if the drugs do not perform, it also harms the patient.
The third major issue is the lack of…
Curtis C. Verschoor. (2006). Pharma Industry Has Many Ethics Issues. Strategic Finance, 87(8), 16, 18, 61.
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…
Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2009/03/ethnographic-research-a-key-to-strategy/ar/1
Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition/
Kohlberg, L. (1971) From Is to Ought: How to Commit the Naturalistic Fallacy and Get Away with It in the Study of Moral Development. New York: Academic Press.
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Ethics: Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
The main thrust of the readings
The readings focus on the U.S. statutes prohibiting U.S. companies, citizens, and employees from issuing any valuable thing to foreign government executives for securing business benefits. The underlying thrust of the readings is twofold: first, that corruption must be deterred and second that government officials must promote economic relationships between their companies and foreign firms through the promotion of ethical foreign investment.
The rigid enactment of the FCPA has placed these two thrusts in a state of tension. Law enforcers and courts could interpret the readings broadly. For instance, any valuable thing includes not just payments in cash but also meals, gifts, entertainment and drinks. This element is not associated with any de minimis value and makes companies uncertain when they are expected to comply with the FCPA. From the readings, the FCPA has been enforced and institutes criminal…
Brenkert, G.G., & Beauchamp, T.L. (2010). The Oxford handbook of business ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cory, J. (2005). Business ethics: The ethical revolution of minority shareholders. New York: Springer.
Kumar, B.N., & Steinmann, H. (2008). Ethics in international management. Berlin, Ge: Walter de Gruyter.
Pastin, M., & Hooker, M. (1980). Ethics and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Business Horizons, 23(6), 43
More than replacing a Code of Ethics, solutions to the issue might revolve around simply understanding, adopting, and enforcing codes that are already in place. For instance, the IACP code of ethics for law enforcement has four major themes that would clearly handle most situations: 1) Fairness towards everyone -- the public, clients, the accused, colleagues, etc. Fairness also implies the maxim of not using one's power to take advantage of the public (e.g. bribes for service, etc.); 2) Service -- Public service is a calling -- the community holds law enforcement personnel to a high standard, and expects service to be part of the regular job description; 3) Importance of the law -- Upholding the Constitution or the statues of the law that are mandated by the profession, and; 4) the importance of personal conduct -- law enforcement professionals must hold a standard of behavior that is consistent and…
Banks, J. (2004). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Chery, D. (May 7, 2009). Judges on Wrong Side of the Law. CBS News. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/04/national/main566433.shtml
IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology. (2012). Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions. Ethics.itt.edu. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://ethics.iit.edu/
Pollock, J. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Declaration of Helsinki
In this article the author emphasizes that having a code of ethics is still as important as it has always been but this new code includes the idea of informed consent and how to deal with those that are unable to provide it. The author goes on to address how important human subjects are to the area of medical research but stresses that this importance does not outweigh the adherence to a code of ethics when conducting research.
The Declaration of Helsinki has a lot in common with the Nuremberg Code but really expands the code to include more things in greater detail. The code now contains a section that deals with informed consent. Although the code does not address research on those subjects who are unable to provide informed consent, the code does address such research, asserting the ethical acceptability under certain circumstances of what is…
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…
Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.
Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.
Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
Ethics are at the core of human behavior and decision-making. This paper evaluates the results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory, a proprietary software designed to measure a person's ethical stance. The results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory can be applied to that person's psychology, and can help supervisors make human resources decisions related to the individual. Moreover, organizational psychologists especially benefit from ethical inventories. It is important to apply ethical awareness and psychological principles to personal, social, and organizational issues.
The Ethics Awareness Inventory is proprietary software designed to profit off of the need to evaluate and analyze every single human decision. Available for a select group of people, the Ethics Awareness Inventory "is a program that can evaluate one's ethical style," in the same way a quiz can evaluate what food, country, or sexual position is most appropriate (Collack, 2007). As with most quizzes, the Ethics Awareness…
Collak, V. (2007). Ethics awareness inventory. Retrieved online: http://collak.net/index.php?view=article&id=50&tmpl=component&print=1&page&Itemid=60&option=com_content
"Ethical Leadership," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_58.htm
DSL access speeds are just slightly higher than dial-up and as a result often do not have the performance necessary for supporting multiple WiFi users. In these installations of DSL in high density urban locations including apartment buildings, the speed degradation is noticeable and immediate when someone else is also using the WiFi signal. Conversely the speed of a cable modem-based WiFi connection is at times so fast there is no noticeable speed degradation as a result. Those that contend that using a neighbor's WiFi signal when their neighbor is connected via cable modem seek rationalization for taking excess bandwidth, and is also the argument those people use who freely share their paid-for access (Dalton, 2008). The actual WiFi Access Point or transmitter in a persons' apartment or home can vary in broadcasting strength, with the most fundamental ones only capable of producing a strong enough signal for 50 feet.…
Brain Albright (2003, March). Wireless insecurity. Frontline Solutions, 4(3), 16-19. Retrieved October 31, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 315880611).
Stephen J. Conroy, Tisha LN Emerson. (2008). Ethical Cycles and Trends: Evidence and Implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(4), 905-911. Retrieved November 3, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1518109871).
Richard J. Dalton Jr. (10 August). Some Wireless Internet Subscribers Give Service to Neighbors Also. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News,1. Retrieved November 4, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 382700651).
Young Yong Kim, San-qi Li. (1999). Performance evaluation of packet data services over cellular voice networks. Wireless Networks, 5(3), 211-219. Retrieved November 4, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 399174691).
This information, stored on a computer and used to correlate with other data could be considered invaluable by many researchers, but the patients have a right to keep certain information private, and to suggest anything else would be an ethical violation of the patient's privacy.
Because computer ethics is such a volatile issue, an entire branch of study has grown up around computer ethics, which proponents who believe the computer age caused these ethical issues, and others who believe these issues would have surfaced anyway. One of the proponents of computer ethics, who actually was the first to teach the concept, Walter Maner, from Old Dominion University, is a proponent of the computer creating brand new ethical issues. An expert quotes Maner, "For all of these issues, there was an essential involvement of computing technology. Except for this technology, these issues would not have arisen, or would not have arisen…
Adams, H.R., Bocher, R.F., Gordon, C.A., & Barry-Kessler, E. 2005 Privacy in the 21st Century: Issues for Public, School, and Academic Libraries. Libraries Unlimited, Westbrook, CT.
Bynum, Terryl 2008 Computer and Information Ethics, Stanford University, URL=" http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/ "
Fisher, C.B. 2006 Privacy and Ethics in Pediatric Environmental Health Research-Part I: Genetic and Prenatal Testing. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(10), 1617+.
Rennie, John 2008 Who's Watching You: The Future of Privacy, Scientific American, URL=" http://www.sciam.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=28825D7D-D772-2192-12177C05B4B2AED7 "
Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social orker -- Paul Adams
Professor Paul Adams of the University of Hawaii's Myron B. Thompson School of Social ork in this peer-reviewed article explores those aspects of social work that "…are not primarily about identifying and resolving dilemmas" (Adams, 2009, p. 83). Adams delves into the "ethical tradition" -- and the potential therein -- that had its roots in "the virtues and character" of social work practitioners from Aristotle and Hippocrates to today's social workers. In other words, how can today's social worker -- and the field of social work -- learn from the past to enhance the field ethically? This paper reviews and critiques Adams' research, which is very interesting and enlightening in the context of values, human interaction, and social work.
Review / Critique of Adams' Article
Ethics, in the view of Strom-Gottfried, refers to the "…embodiment of values into…
Adams, Paul. (2009). Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social Worker. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 36(3), 83-105.
Their primary duty is that of guiding the spiritual and religious aspects of the lives of their community members. They should give the highest priority to their duties towards the community including church service, counseling and other ceremonial functions required by their profession. As part of their professional and ethical duties, pastors are also required to show an interest in community development and increase their participation in community activities. This has become a necessity in modern culture because people expect institutions to take an interest and an active role in the community development efforts. Institutions cannot expect to benefit from the resources of the society and not give back. This is why business organizations, universities and even political parties make community development a part of their organization's commitment to the society and the people they serve. eligious institutions like the church are also expected to follow this example. The pastor,…
Arnold, W.V. (1982). Introduction to Pastoral Care. Westminster John Knox Press.
Bush, J.E. (2006). Gentle Shepherding: Pastoral Ethics and Leadership. Chalice Press.
Gula, R.M. (1996). Ethics in Pastoral Ministry. Paulist Press.
Hewart-Mills, D. (2011). Pastoral Ministry. Xulon Press.
The housing market was already strong, but the elimination of practical reasons for validating lender information opened several doors very wide, each with an unpleasant surprise hidden behind it. First, because realtors earn their commissions based on sales and on the relative value of property, they have little incentive to disqualify bad risks of eventual mortgage default. Second, banks became equally unconcerned with the veracity and accuracy of the financial information provided by prospective home buyers and it was no longer in anybody's interest to curb increasing home values. Third, the reliance on credit on the part of so many Americans fueled a housing and property development boom in many areas. Multiple Ethical Violations Provide the Ignition for Economic Disaster:
Lack of concern for verifying lender qualifications became so rampant in the first part of the 21st century that lenders offered "no-doc" loans that required no formal documentation of income…
Daft, R. (2005) Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000) Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…
Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.
Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police
Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
107) could also apply here. The confidentiality clause in such a case then only applies insofar as it is estimated that there is no need to disclose confidential information to others. In the case of Mrs. Z, her family deserves to know about her situation, because it affects their lives pertinently.
Because of the increasing cultural diversity throughout the world, cultural values also play an important part in making ethical decisions in the nursing profession. In the case of Mrs. Z, for example, she appears to have no powers of decision making either in her home or in society in general. Inside the home, her mother-in-law runs the household, while her husband is in charge of important decisions. This could have a significant influence upon her decision not to disclose her condition to her family.
According to Karahanne, Evaristo and Srite (2006, p. 34), for example, also note that cultures…
Alligood, M.R., Marriner-Tomey, a. (2006). Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application. Elsevier Health Sciences.
DeWolf Bosek, M.S. And Savage, T.A. (2007) the Ethical Component of Nursing Education: Integrating Ethics into Clinical Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Goodman, K.W. (2008, Jan) Privacy, Confidentiality, Law and Ethics. Norhteast Florida Medicine Supplement. Retrieved from: http://www.dcmsonline.org/jax-medicine/2008journals/ethics/privacy.pdf
Karahanna, E., Evaristo, J.R., and Srite, M. (2006). Levels of Culture and Individual Behavior: An Integtrative Perspective. Advanced Topics in Global Information Management, Vol. 5. Idea Group, Inc.
However, there were too many issues with the company and with one of Andersen's lawyers -- Nancy Temple -- to say that the company was not aware of what was taking place. Accountants are trained to handle facts and figures, and they know when something is incorrect.
In the Arthur Andersen/Enron case it was believed that Temple and others knew that the figures were wrong but wanted to show the profits for the company so that the stock prices would continue to grow (Thomas, 2002). What was making investors rich was slowly killing a large accounting firm and a company that was previously good to work for -- a company on which many people depended. Pensions and other perks of working for Enron vanished seemingly overnight, making it very difficult for many of the employees (a large number of them older) to be hired anywhere else. These were people who…
Schulman, M. (2006). Incorporating ethics into the organization's strategic plan. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Santa Clara University. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/strategic-plan.html
Thomas, C.B. (2002). Called to Account. Time Business. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,263006,00.html
Ethics in a Long-Term Healthcare Business
Ethics in the health care industry spans a wide spectrum of activities and most of the obligations are cast by law on the professionals and the second by the common practice and morals of the profession. Both are important to the progress of the institution and also the health care industry. Compliance of statutes is of primary importance.
There are many rules and statutes that must be complied with by all organizations and one such recent legislation is the hospital information access system. The HIPAA rules apply to all personnel in the system and extend to laboratory technicians, and lawyers and insurers. The culpability comes if the information was disclosed to a third party who did not have an association with the entity -- the clinic and was permitted to access the information. In such cases where the physician discloses information to another…
Andre, Claire; Velasquez, Manuel. (2013) "Aged-Based Health Care Rationing" Retrieved 8
June, 2013 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v3n3/age.html
Chaikind, Hinda R. (2004) "The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ACT
(Hipaa): Overview and Analyses" Nova Publishers.
Ethics in Technology
Business - Management
The purpose of this paper is to highlight and present the ethical issues that are involved in using modern technology. The paper highlights some of the current ethical issues faced by computer users that are due to unethical practice and lack of proper ethical policies by different businesses. The paper pinpoints the causes and gives recommendation on how the current issues can be minimized. A portion of this paper also consists of lawsuits that have recently occurred due to unethical practices adopted by businesses.
Ethics in Technology
We live in a modern era, the era of modern technology and innovation. Our lives are encircled by modern creations. These technology and advancement have surely brought comfort and ease in our life but unfortunately, the use of modern technology has also given rise to many ethical problems out of which few are a topic of discussion…
Anderman, E.M., & Burton Murdock, E. (2007). Psychology of academic cheating. (p. 1). California, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2009). Understanding computers: Today and tomorrow, comprehensive. (12th ed., p. 712). Boston, USA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
Rogozea, L. (2009). Towards ethical aspects on artificial intelligence. Manuscript submitted for publication, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1044129
This may involved going around the legal department to the top managers, or back to the human resources manager. The firm would then be informed of the ways in which your work will be compromised by the legal department's stipulations. A request should also include testimony as to the value of having those constraints removed. This alternative demonstrates professionalism, affords you the opportunity to conduct your work they way you want to, and is the only way to gain leverage over the intransigent legal department.
The third alternative is to walk away from the project. This alternative would prevent you from violating your own ethical code. Also, it would prevent you from being forced to turn in substandard work. There would be a small hit to your professional pride about not finishing the work you were hired to do, but ultimately as a consultant you must have control of your…
Ethics of Spider Man
The character Spider Man is a foundational superhero of the modern era. His history and life demonstrate the development of an ordinary and even some would say subpar or at the very least "un-cool" young adolescent into a super hero by a twist of fate, i.e. being bit by a genetically modified spider on a science filed trip. The early life of the Spider Man character as depicted in both comic books, television cartoons and movies in live action or animation depict a young man, who stumbles upon a great power and then struggles with how to use that power. In the 2002 film depiction, and true to the comic storyline Peter's/Spiderman's ethics are developed through the film as he struggles with his new found powers, seizing the opportunity to use them for personal gain, by attempting to win money as an amateur fighter/wrestler in a…
Lee, S. (1962) (Spider Man) Amazing Fantasy Vol. 1 #15.
Jenkins, P. (September 2002) Peter Parker, Spider-Man Vol. 2 #48, titled "The Big Question,"
Raimi, S. (Director). (2002) Spider-Man [Motion Picture]. USA. Columbia Pictures Co.
Raimi, S. (Director). (2004) Spider-Man 2 [Motion Picture]. USA. Columbia Pictures Co.
esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…
Burke, K. And Leben, S. (2007). Procedural Fairness: A key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction.
Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. 44 (1), 4-25.
Davis, A.J. (2008). Racial Fairness in the Criminal Justice System: The Role of the Prosecutor. Colombia Human Rights Law Review. 202 (39), 202-32.
Hurwitz, J and Peffley, M. (2001). Racial Polarization on Criminal Justice Issues:
However, if it were the case that the Chinese legal system protected the innocent and executed only those criminals who have been properly, duly, and fairly convicted and sentenced for crimes appropriately punished by execution, it is much harder to argue against the use of their organs to benefit society. From an objective point-of-view, once a person dies, it is wasteful not to use his or her organs to benefit living people. The attachment we have to the body after death is primarily a function of social learning and nonsensical superstition in the first place. Logically, it would be ethically permissible, to require that organs be harvested from all deceased persons once their families have had the opportunity to pay their respects.
The ethical problem in this case is much more about the way that Chinese citizens become prisoners in the first place and the way that the decision to…
Any kind of other personal information that is collected will be securely stored and monitored by the Chief Investigator. ("Information Privacy Principals," 2010)
5.2 Give details of the arrangements that have been made for the safe storage of the data and also the measures, which will be adopted to protect confidential records about research participants?
(a) During the study. All data will be securely stored under lock and key.
(b) After the study. All data will be stored under lock and key. The Chief Investigator will be the only person who is allowed access to the information.
5.3 How will confidential records be destroyed after the study is complete?
5.4 Will anyone else, apart from the Chief Investigators, have access to confidential records or human tissue samples?
Yes [ ] No [x]
5.5 May any party, other than investigators claim ownership of the materials or results derived from the…
The Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap. (2009). McKinesy & Company. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/app_media/images/page_images/offices/socialsector/pdf/achievement_gap_report.pdf
Information Privacy Principals. (2010). Office of Victorian Privacy Commissioner. Retrieved from: http://www.privacy.vic.gov.au/privacy/web.nsf/content/information+privacy+principles
MP Ignores the Job Needs of the Less Educated. (2010, July). Sydney Mourning Herald. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/politics/mps-ignore-job-needs-of-the-less-educated-20100719-10hr1.html
National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia. (2010). Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Retrieved from http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/agenda/agenda89/australi.htm
5. Eating food that falls on ones shirt - if a person is in public, they should use a napkin to remove the food off of their shirt and have a waiter dispose of it (Dining Etiquette, n.d.).
If one is at a meal or at a business acquaintance's residence, and have just been dished up a serving of appetizing stuffed mushrooms and they are allergic to them, they should politely refuse them if they would seriously be harmed. The hard fast rule is as far as feasible. One should not make a commotion and embarrass anyone. If one suffers from food reaction or has a particular partiality, they should tell the host when they agree to the invite. At a buffet or great assembly it is very easy to pass up getting food that one doesn't consume. However, in a number of circumstances it would be extremely uncomfortable if…
Business Dining Skills for Job Seekers. (2010). Retrieved October 14, 2010, from World ClassBusiness Etiquette Web site: http://www.etiquetteoutreach.com/business-dining-etiquette-tips/
Dining Etiquette. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2010, from Web site:
Echlin, Helena. (2010). Doggy Bag Dilemma. Retrieved October 14, 2010, from Chow Web site:
This prompts the recommendation that a tape recorder be used to ensure that data sets are accurately reported and that, additionally, the findings and analysis may be cross-checked against actual recorded evidence of the exchange and intonations thereby produced.
External validity is somewhat more complex, because it demands that the outcome of our research is not just illuminating of findings concerning the specific resource officer and district interviewed, but can also be applied to our broader understanding of the subject. The best way to accomplish this is to conduct an array of interviews all guided by a very similar line of questions, differentiated only by the individual directions into which individual subjects will tend to steer questions. The result should be multiple sets of data allowing for comparison and synthesis of qualitative findings.
This interest is also useful in achieving a better understanding of the reliability of the proposed study.…
Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-607/
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Sage Publications.
Policies are becoming commonplace as a result. The paradox of e-mail and Internet monitoring within corporations is on the one hand anchored by the many legal precedents of corporations being held liable for their employee's illegal activity (Wakefield, 2004) yet too much constraints on this and other forms of communication directly impact their performance and morale. Intermediating these two extremes is the role of education to provide the necessary insights into why specific safeguards are critical for ensuring the corporation does not inadvertently expose itself to legal risks by being too loose with policies yet concentrating enough on privacy and ethicacy issues of employees so as not to hinder their productivity and ownership of their jobs. Balancing the rights of any corporation to monitor e-mail traffic needs to be balanced against the rights of individuals to privacy.
obin L. Wakefield (2004). Computer Monitoring and Surveillance. The CPA Journal, 74(7), 52-55.…
Robin L. Wakefield (2004). Computer Monitoring and Surveillance. The CPA Journal, 74(7), 52-55. Retrieved February 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 663573171).
Ethics Issues in Nursing
he quality of healthcare experienced by patients today is radically impacted by the personal resources that can be accessed by those in need of routine healthcare, preventative healthcare, and medical treatment. Well-to-do patients have always been able to purchase quality medical treatment at a premium, and the opposite has also always been true: patients who are marginalized by society or live in poverty typically forego preventative healthcare and often receive medical treatment for both chronic and acute conditions when it is too late to be effective.
he poverty analysis statistics provided by the Gini Coefficient ("Measuring Inequality," 2012) paint a grim picture of impoverished people living in the Gulf Coast states who experience levels of inequality equivalent to those experienced by people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Peter J. Hotez is the dean of the National School of ropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and…
The poverty analysis statistics provided by the Gini Coefficient ("Measuring Inequality," 2012) paint a grim picture of impoverished people living in the Gulf Coast states who experience levels of inequality equivalent to those experienced by people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Peter J. Hotez is the dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and the president and director of the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development. Hotez resides in a poor county in Texas where he has observed the link between poverty and a cluster of tropical diseases that are typically considered to be a problem only in developing countries (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4). In addition, Hotez is clear that fiscal incentives are weak or nonesistant for pharmaceutical companies to develop new vaccines and treatments for these tropical diseases (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4). In his words,
A key impediment to eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the United States is that they frequently go unrecognized because the disenfranchised people they afflict do not or cannot seek out health care. Even when there is a clinic or community health center in an impoverished area, it often lacks the necessary diagnostic tests, and the staff is rarely trained to recognize and manage neglected tropical diseases. (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4)
With many healthcare fronts today requiring funding and service redesign, tropical diseases may not fare well in the line-up until and unless they impact mainstream populations. But what about those diseases that are common in the overall population, for which treatments do exist, yet the provision of service is inadequate or ineffective? This is the healthcare issue that gets a full-court press from Dr. Aaron Shirley. Dr. Shirley has personal and institutional memory of healthcare in Mississippi: he was the first black resident at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, served as physician at the first community health center in the Mississippi Delta in the 1960s, and is a co-founder of the HealthConnect system in Mississippi (Hansen, 2012). In 1993, Dr. Shirley received a MacArthur Foundation "genius" award as a health care leader. Yet, in 2012, Shirley said, "I've been coming here [the Mississippi Delta] for 40 years and nothing has changed" (Hansen, 2012, p. SR-4). The issue is that regardless of Medicaid or health insurance, or access to community clinics or home health services, poor people in Mississippi continue to have health problems. "They don't get better, and the diseases borne of poverty and obesity are not prevented; thousands of people frequent emergency rooms for illnesses that could have been tackled by primary care. They need something more." (Hansen, 2012, p. SR-4). Ironically, the healthcare solution for Mississippi Delta residents may reside in a model based on prerevolutionary Iran. James Miller, healthcare system consultant learned about the Iranian model for primary-healthcare during a meeting in Europe and recognized how well the model could overlay the Mississippi healthcare crisis. Miller noted, "When the