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Factors such as previous exposure to/experience with technology, confidence and anxiety when confronted with mathematical issues or propositions, ease of personal interactions, other sources of anxiety or situations that inspire confidence, and a host of other related professional and personal metrics were taken, in order to be correlated with measurements of overall technology use, technology-inspired anxiety, an technological confidence. Measures were all recorded quantitatively using a standard Likert scale as typically employed in similar structured survey/questionnaire instruments, providing a reliable tool for establishing concrete measurements.
Data collection took place according to standard survey/questionnaire methodology, and was very straightforward and low-intensity. After the survey/questionnaire instrument had been designed and properly validated, sufficient copies were produced and packaged with pre-paid return envelopes included, and were then shipped in bulk to the Office of Children's Services offices in Fairbanks, Anchorage, Juneau, and Wasilla in bulk, saving on resources, cost, and time.…
Case studies are in essence external detailed investigations of an individual, group or an institution. (MODULE 14.QUALITATIVE ESEACH) As a method it enables the researcher to uncover and explore variables and factors that each individual case study reveals -- and this in turn adds to the overall perception and understanding of the topic or issue under investigation. Case studies also differ from more statistical and quantifiable methods of inquiry in that "…the focus of attention is the individual case and not the whole population of cases" (MODULE 14.QUALITATIVE ESEACH).
From a more philosophical viewpoint, the case study is more open-ended and less dependent on a research methodology that focus on a limited or "bounded system." A central aspect of this method is that content and case studies have the particular advantage of focusing on any system or issue in its natural context or habitat. (MODULE 14.QUALITATIVE ESEACH)
Abbott S, and Gunnell C. ( 2004) Older people's experiences of diabetes care.
Journal of Diabetes Nursing, May, 2004. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MDR/is_5_8/ai_n6178317/
Asimakopoulou K. And Hampson S. (2002) Cognitive Functioning and Self-
Management in Older People With Diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum 15:116-121.
Thus, questions like "what is the meaning of life?" cannot be answered with the scientific method; there are no physically observable details related to this question, and each individual might -- and usually does -- come up with their own answer.
Observation is the second step of the scientific method. In order to answer a scientific question, observations must be made that suggest possible answers to the question, or relationships with other phenomenon that might cause the questioned phenomenon. After enough observation is made, a hypothesis can be formed. This is the third and one of the most central steps in the scientific method. A hypothesis proposes a possible answer or solution to the question posed in the first step; it is an educated guess based on the observations made in the second step.
The fourth and most vital step in the scientific method is testing the hypothesis through experimentation.…
Boeree, C. (2000). "The history of psychology." Shippensburg University. Retrieved 6 February 2009. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/historyofpsych.html
Kaleta, R. "Overview of psychology." University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 6 February 2009. www.uwm.edu/Course/820-101/Kaleta/Intro/InS00OverviewPPT.htm
Trochim, W. (2006). "Types of data." Knowledge base. Retrieved 6 February 2009. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/datatype.php
Based on previous research and desired constructs within this design, researchers found this method was the best method to be used within the structure of this particular study. Data was then collected from these interviews and used in quantitative measurement along with then explaining qualitative confounds. This then helped measure the effectiveness and other ramifications of retail zoning conducted by valuers based on the principle that the front portion of any retail shop is worth more than the further back portions. The results of the interviews were presented in tables which can be found at the end of this study. These case studies were used to provide examples of the various techniques used and were later processed through excel spreadsheets.
This study presented several variables which provide further insight into the nature of retail zoning and how valuers then subsequently adjust the material worth of retail properties. The first variable…
Davies, Martin. "Conducting an Interview for Data Collection." Teaching and Learning
Unit Faculty of Economics and Commerce. University of Melbourne. Retrieved 22 Dec 2008 at http://tlu.ecom.unimelb.edu.au/pdfs/Conducting_an_Interview.pdf.
Hale, David. (2008). "Decent Exposure: Commercial or Retail Zoning Part II."
EZineArticles.com. Retrieved 22 Dec 2008 at ( http://ezinearticles.com/?Decent-Exposure-Commercial-or-Retail -(Zoning),-Part-II&id=1289129.
In a block design, both control and randomization are considered" (Experimental design, 2010, Yale).
In stratified randomization, certain factors are declared to be potentially critical in influencing results and are allocated between the two different groups to ensure that only the experimental variable is emphasized (Johnson 2005). For example, when studying the effects of having fast food restaurants near schools and their effects upon student BMI, it would be easy to conclude that poorer neighborhoods tend to have more McDonald's, but that other factors besides the proximity of fast food affect poorer children's higher BMI (such as fewer supermarkets and fewer places to exercise). However, by stratifying the different groups, and having each group have the same number of children from various socioeconomic groups, the results would be more relevant if both poorer and wealthier children had higher BMIs if their schools were located near fast food establishments. This would…
DePoy, Elizabeth & Laura N. Gitlin. (2005) Research: Understanding and applying multiple strategies. Mosby.
Experimental design. (1997-1998). Statistics. Yale University.
Retrieved March 4, 2010 at http://www.stat.yale.edu/Courses/1997-98/101/expdes.htm
Johnson, Laura Lee. (2005). Issues in randomization. Microsoft PowerPoint. NCAM.
Other states, in the case of medical research, mandate that a more stringent standard is applied -- that of the reasonable person standard (Edwards 2008). In other words, would a reasonable person consider the nature of the research ethical and acceptable? This seems fairer -- but is also more intensely subjective. And when conducting research in a different cultural context, it may be difficult for the researcher to evaluate the subject's conception of justice within the subject's own culture.
When research is performed upon minors or patients whose lucidity may vary from day-to-day, a medical surrogate may be legally required or advisable, in terms of giving consent for the use of research. Confidentiality at all times should be respected for minors and adults alike. The patient must, to the maximum of his or her ability, be able to understand his or her situation and the implications of the benefits and…
DePoy, Elizabeth & Laura N. Gitlin. (2005) Research: Understanding and applying multiple strategies. Mosby.
Edwards, Kelly. a. (2008, April 11) Informed consent. The University of Washington.
But there is also a strong ethical objection to case studies for that same reason: the lack of objectivity in accumulating facts may actually allow for greater bias on the part of the researcher. Since the researcher has a higher level of participation amongst his or her study subjects than an individual merely accumulating data, he or she might favor certain personal points-of-view, based upon favoritism of some community members. The intensely subjective nature of research might also yield more of a portrait of the researcher's perceptions, rather than of the population itself.
Advocates of a more experimental approach to research would likely point out that case studies are not inherently 'better' than quantitative data in filtering bias. After all, Margaret Mead's famous anthropological study Coming of Age in Samoa has been widely critiqued because of the anthropologist's relatively filtered contact with the Samoan people. Furthermore, although something might be…
DePoy, Elizabeth & Laura N. Gitlin. (2005) Research: Understanding and applying multiple strategies. Mosby.
Ensuring Reliability and Validity in Research Methodology
In the field of social science research, research methodologies were formulated to generate data that would appropriately answer research objectives either through the quantitative or qualitative paradigms. It is known among researchers that there is no lone research methodology that can adequately provide data and answer a research objective single-handedly; it takes a combination of two or more methodologies to provide an almost valid and reliable answer to the problem or objective being studied. While some research utilize one methodology to generate answers about the problem, most researches use more than one methodology in order to provide general and specific analyses and interpretations about the data that can be beneficial to answering the research's problem.
What makes multiple methodologies-studies more reliable and valid is that they compensate for the limitations that other methodologies may have. Take as an example the methodologies under the…
The pope end efeence fo the book is a follows:
Sims, R. R. (2002). Teaching Business Ethics fo Effective Leaning. N.p.: Geenwood Publishing Goup.
The title of Chapte 8 is as follows:
"Pactical Appoaches to Teaching Business Ethics."
(Sims, 2002 p 139).
The diect in-text quotation using APA style is as follows:
"Ageement on the goals of teaching business ethics by the key stakeholdes and good intentions do not wok all by themselves." (Sims, 2002 p 33).
Sims (2002) agues that an incease of inteest in teaching business ethics among faculty membes facilitates a debate about whom to choose fom the teaching staff to teach the topic. The debate aises because many faculty membes do not have a fomal taining in ethics making the faculty assume the esponsibility of taking up the fomal taining fo the chosen faculty membe. A majo bone of contention is that…
references used to complete the article.
Part C: Electronic Sources
Alison, D. A. (2015, April 29). How Low Can Oil Prices Go?. In Investopedia. Retrieved September 17, 2016, from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/active-trading/042915/how-low-can-oil-prices-go.asp
children deprived of normal, healthy environmental stimuli in low-income, inner city environments' could be undertaken using quantitative and/or qualitative research methods, if both are used the process will be referred to as a mixed method research. A quantitative and a qualitative approach are outlined in this paper.
Quantitative research is undertaken where a large number of results are gathered for research that will usually be in numerical form, and will be characterized by breadth rather than depth (Bryman, 2012). When undertaking research on the issue of travel to and from schools McDonald (2008) successfully used questionnaires that could be distributed to parents of pupils at selected schools in a particular area. The data collected was then subject to a statistical analysis is order to convert the data into meaningful, generalizable results. The use of self completing questionnaires is a common tool for the collection of quantitative data, as it is…
Bryman, A, (2012), Social Research Methods, Oxford University Press
McDonald N, (2008), Children's mode choice for the school trip: the role of distance and school location in walking to school," Transportation, 35, 23-35
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods, Sage
Sinkovics, Rudolf R; Penz, Elfriede; Ghauri, Pervez N, (2008), Enhancing the Trustworthiness of Qualitative Research in International Business, Management International Review, 48(6), 689-714
Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology
Envisioned research Methodology and Design
Descriptive Research Methods
Research Designs Considered
Explanatory Sequential Design
Exploratory Sequential Design
The Embedded Design
Research Validity and Reliability
Strengths and weaknesses
Method of Data Collection
Primary Data Collection
Secondary Data Collection
Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs
The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…
Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.
Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.
represented by different methodologies, describing the purpose of every methodology and providing an example of a research problem for every methodology. The ideas that will be discussed in this paper include exemplifying what encompasses a research problem and also making comparisons and contrasts between qualitative research and quantitative research with respect to their strengths and weaknesses.
To enable the researcher manipulate one variable while measuring other variables and therefore making it possible to examine cause and effect of research problems
To measure the relationship or correlation that exists between two variables
To question and interrogate a massive group of people regarding their philosophies and standpoints on a certain phenomenon
To develop a theory or theoretical model where none exists in the literature in relation to the sample
To describe and interpret…
Bryman, A. (2007). The Research Question in Social Research: What is its Role?" International Journal of Social Research Methodology 10: 5-20.
Choy, L. T. (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(4), 99-104.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage.
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…
Mayo, J. (2002). Case-based Instruction: A Technique for Increasing Conceptual Application in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 65-74.
O'Connor, B., & Cordova, R. (2010). Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time While Attending Graduate School Part-Time. Journal of Education for Business, 359-368.
van der Voot, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). ''Managing'' Corporate Community Involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 311-329.
Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.
In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…
Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (n/s). Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research. Retrieved from University of South Alabama website: http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec2.htm
Ndunda M. (2004). Introduction to Educational Research. Retrieved from College of Charleston website: http://www.cofc.edu/~ndundam/NOTESSPRING2001/635chapt1.htm
Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Different Research Methods. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from https://explorable.com/different-research-methods
Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.
Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…
Borlaug, S. (2007). Secondary Data Sources for Public Health: A Practical Guide.
Cambridge University Press.UK.
Hox, J.J. & Boeije, H.R. (2010). Data Collection Primary vs. Secondary. Utrecht University. The Nethertland.
Morrell, K. (2010). Quantitative Data Basic Introduction. USA.
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…
Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf
Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf
Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at: http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html
It is helpful for oth the author and the readers. The literature review must identify works that have een pulished on the topic in case y accredited scholars and researchers (Taylor, 2010). Usually, the literature review is an introduction to the research project.
The purpose of the literature review consists in introducing the readers into the knowledge and ideas referring to the selected topic for the research project in case, and to help the readers adjust to the research topic. Also, a good literature review should not only list these issues, ut also identify and explain their strengths and weaknesses in order for the readers to e ale to develop a more clear idea on the researched topic.
As mentioned aove, conducing the literature review also helps the author of the research report to develop new directions that the research process can follow. This helps the author to develop more…
bibliography is more of a summary, focusing on presenting bibliographic information referring to each source used in the research project. Also, each source is briefly described, in order to provide the readers information on the issues they can find when accessing that source.
1. Sridhar, M.S. (2008). Research Methodology. ISRO Satellite Center. Retrieved March 4, 2010 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/1016595/Research-Methodology-Part-3-Research-Design-Plan .
2. Taylor, D. (2010). The Literature Review: A few Tips on Conducing it. University of Toronto. Retrieved March 4, 2010 from http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specific-types-of-writing/literature-review .
Without adapting both instruments and the analyses of responses based on some level of assessment of the cultural values and interpretations, results (especially from qualitative research instruments such as the proposed questionnaires and interviews that will be most effective in this research) are likely to be less accurate and are certain to be less meaningful to the organization in question (Stahl & Bjorkman 2006). Taking into account cultural diversity as well as other types of personal values and beliefs that might affect results is necessary to ensure that the information collected is reliable and remains meaningful through interpretation (Stahl & Bjorkman 2006).
There are also other more mundane factors that must be controlled in order to ensure that adequate amounts of reliable information are gathered in the research process. Proper foresight and knowledge regarding statistical techniques and demands during the gathering of data is necessary, such that reliable conclusions can…
Bharracharyya, D. (2007). Human resource research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
HR Guide. (2001). Job analysis. Accessed 31 January 2011. http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G012.htm
Stahl, G. & Bjorkman, I. (2006). Handbook of research in international human resource management. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
goal of this research is to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of negative outcomes for at-risk youth. The basis for the analysis will rely on prior literature on parenting styles, co-parenting conflicts, and also child pre-disposition to violence. A literature review is the initial research design, with the goal of explaining the nature of the problem and the variables involved (Blakstad, n.d.). The research may progress into two further stages, including an exploratory and primarily qualitative phase. Subsequent to the exploratory research, a pilot study with longitudinal design may be warranted, but experimental designs are not indicated in a project of this nature.
Because the research is currently exploratory in nature, as it is in the early stages, several descriptive research designs would be highly appropriate. Three of the descriptive research designs that would be appropriate to this dissertation in particular include Case Study and Descriptive esearch. Later…
Blakstad, O. (n.d.). Research designs. Retrieved online: https://explorable.com/research-designs
De Vaus, D.A. Research Design in Social Research. London: SAGE, 2001; Trochim, William M.K. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006.
Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Case study research design. Retrieved online: https://explorable.com/case-study-research-design
0 applications. The survey also attempts to define the eturn on Investment from investing in social networking applications, and derives a figure of $1.9M by 2013, corroborating a figure from Forrester esearch.
Completing any research project designed to capture business-to-business (B2B) market data takes an approach to isolating respondents within each organization that have a role in evaluating the technology being studied. The survey methodology concentrates on the role of it staff in evaluating social media applications. It would have been more effective if the researchers had also concentrated on the line-of-business managers and those responsible for the performance of business units who could make use of social networking applications as well. The integration aspects of Enterprise 2.0, as the coordination point for legacy systems, are what the it staff most concentrated on. To make this a more effective study, the unmet needs of the line-of-business users also need…
Ashley Jones (2008, September). Studies Suggest That Enterprise Social Media Will Change the Face of Business. EContent, 31(7), 14-15. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1556481791).
http://www.econtentmag.com/Articles/News/News-Feature/Studies-Suggest-That-Enterprise-Social-Media-Will -- Change-the-Face-of-Business-50353.htm
Link to press release from Trampoline Systems:
esearch and the Scientific Method: A Concise Definition
esearch as a term does not have an assigned definition. Indeed, different authors have in the past offered varying definitions of the same. In the opinion of Goddard and Melville (2004), research does not limit itself to information gathering. esearch as the authors point out "is about answering unanswered questions or creating that which does not currently exist" (Goddard and Melville, 2004). In that regard, an individual who seeks to systematically gather new information in an attempt to find answers to specific questions is in one way or the other involved in research. On the other hand, when it comes to the scientific method, the same according to Jackson (as cited in Coon and Mitterer, 2010) can be defined as "a form of critical thinking based on careful collection of evidence, accurate description and measurement, precise definition, controlled observation, and repeatable…
Brain, C. & Mukherji, P. (2005). Understanding Child Psychology. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes Ltd.
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2010). Psychology: A Journey (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Gravetter, F. & Forzano, L.B. (2009). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Goddard, W. & Melville, S. (2004). Research Methodology: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd.
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research
Research is imperative to quality analysis and development of theories. In any science, no matter if it is a physical, psychological, or sociological, research is integral to formulation of working theories. ithout research, not only can problems not be solved but problems cannot even be properly determined. Having said that, it is important to understand that there are many different types of research methodology. Not all forms of research, and thus the data that they collect, are created equal. Some methods of research are far superior to others and the findings of researchers more influential and verifiable than research conducted in other methods. In The Research Methods Knowledge Base, authors Trochim and Donnelly (2008) discuss the importance of research and also explain the difference between types of research that can be conducted. Two types of research that they explore are experimental and quasi-experimental and in so…
Trochim, W & Donnelly, J. (2008). The Research Methods Knowledge Base. (3rd ed.) Mason,
Although every research setting will be unique in some fashion, there are some generalities involved in content analysis that can be followed by novice researchers. For example, according to Riffe, Lacy and Fico (2005), "Usually, but not always, content analysis involves drawing representative samples of content. The data collected in a quantitative content analysis are then usually analyzed to describe what are typical patterns or characteristics, or to identify important relationships among the variables measured" (p. 2).
Narrative analysis. This research methodology considers the narrative stories provided by narrators as representing their authentic social reality (Etherington, 2004). According to Etherington, "Narrative analysis views life as constructed and experienced through the telling and re-telling of the story, and the analysis is the creation of a coherent and resonant story" (2004, p. 81). Narrative analyses is not intended to identify commonalties or conceptual themes among narrative accounts, but rather relies on the…
Correlational research. This type of research identifies and evaluates the natural relationship that exists between different variables. According to Groat and Wang, "This characteristic means that it is particularly appropriate in circumstances when variables either cannot be manipulated for practical reasons or should not be manipulated for ethical reasons" (2003, p. 244).
Developmental designs. This type of research is used to measure changes that occur over lengthy periods of time (Developmental research, 2012). For example, a developmental design would be suitable for analyzing the differences in academic and social development in low-income vs. high-income neighborhoods. This research design is most common when working with children as subjects and can be undertaken using several methods: longitudinal, cross sectional, and cross sequential (Developmental research, 2012).
Survey research. Survey research collects data from a large number of respondents in an attempt to gain a better understanding about this sample as a whole (Grinnel & Unrau, 2005). According to Grinnel and Unrau, "It is essential, therefore, that survey research procedures produce data that is accurate, reliable, and representative so that findings can be generalized from a sample to the larger population or to different research situations" (p. 272). One of the main strengths of survey research concerns its flexibility for data-gathering purposes. De Vaus (2002) notes that, "A survey is not just a particular technique of collecting information: questionnaires are widely used but other techniques, such as structured and in-depth interviews, observation, content analysis and so forth, can also be used in survey research. The distinguishing features of surveys are the form of the data and the method of analysis" (p. 3). This main strength, though, is offset somewhat by the constraints that are inherent in the approach, but these constraints are frequently related to
Designing effective research for the purpose of studying administrative or policy issues can be a difficult task. An effective research design elicits the information and data necessary for the researcher to conclude certain results and findings that are both valid and reliable. Theoretically a research design will provide the researcher with efficient tools and a methodology that will be efficient and effective. However, theories are not always practical when it comes to administrative, policy or social concerns.
One expert recently wrote "it is important to know that one model may not meet the needs of every locality" (Cimino, 2008, p. 19) and this is true regarding whether to use qualitative, quantitative or mixed research as well. The vast majority of time administrative problems arise because people view events with such diversity. esearch that attempts to quantify qualitative findings is oftentimes much more difficult than theory would imagine.
There are some…
Cimino, C. (2008). Diocesan and local leaders use new models to enable schools to survive and thrive, Momentum (Washington, D.C.), Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 18 -- 22
Zha, S.; Kelly, P.; Park, M.K.; Fitzgerald, G.; (2006) An investigation of communicative competence of ESL students using electronic discussion boards, Journal of Resource Technology Education, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 349 -- 367
In aaccounting research, the model used would be called analytical modeling, which consists of sstudies that use models with no specific underlying economic theory but use mathematical techniques. The mathematical formulas are applied to test and establish laws and accounting practices. Simulation, or the practice where the analysis is so complex that it requires a computer, is also an example of an inductive accounting practice research methodology.
Finally, pragmatic research utilizes pragmatic validity, which views research from a prescriptive-driven perspective. For example, solutions to problems that actually occur in the complex and high field of practice are developed in a way that, while valid for a specific situation, need to be adjusted according to the context in which they are to be applied. In the accounting area, general empirical research is a catchall that includes primarily descriptive empirical work. Another example of an accounting research methodology that consists of pragmatic…
Blaikie, N. (2007). Approaches to Social Inquiry. ISBN 0745634486.
Fleming, R., Graci, S. & Thompson, J. (2000). Dawning of the Age of Quantitative/Empirical Methods in Accounting Research. The Accounting Historians
Journal. (June 2000).
Mixed Methods Research
Two important aspects of qualitative research relates to the role of the researcher and the manner in which knowledge is viewed. These two aspects fundamentally distinguish qualitative research from quantitative research (Creswell, 2014). In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject(s). This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon (Denscombe, 2010). This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon. The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…
This amount of flexibility helps to give them an edge, in adjusting with a host of challenges they are facing over the long-term. (Hanna, 2009, pp. 30 -- 53)
The article that was written by Gruber (2011) is showing how frontline employees play a vital role in addressing the needs of stakeholders. This is because they are directly working with customers, suppliers and third parties on a regular basis. Those firms that understand how to: address these requirements and motivate them will see an improvement in the way they are interacting with everyone. This is point that there will be a transformation in the operating environment of the firm (by addressing the specific needs of stakeholders). Over the course of time, this will have a positive impact on how they are interacting with everybody in achieving a host of objectives. The information from this source is useful, in highlighting how…
Barnes, B. (2010). Assessing the Contribution of Leading Mainstream Marketing Journals. International Marketing Review, 27 (5), 491 -- 518.
Brodie, R. (2008). Contemporary Marketing Practices. Journal of Business, 23 (2), 84 -- 94.
Brudan, a. (2011). Rediscovering Performance Management. Measuring Business Excellence, 14 (1), 109 -- 120.
Gruber, T. (2011). Analyzing the Preferred Characteristics. The TQM Journal, 23 (2), 128 -- 144.
Were the subjects giving their answers or the answers that the interviewers were trying to elicit? The lack of uniformity in the interview process makes that an impossible question to answer.
The focus groups themselves also had some basic problems. Besides being relatively small, they were not anonymous. In fact, each participant's name was recorded on a note card at the onset of the discussion. According to the case study, only the community school leader knew their actual identities, but their identities were not anonymous. Given the nature of this study, that was not a sufficient amount of protection for their identities. With regard to drug use and interaction, it would seem that the participants would want anonymity from this individual above all others. With that it mind, it seems clear that not all responses recorded were as honest as they might have been with the guarantee of anonymity. This…
Reseach Associate Jennifer F. Lawrence prepared this case under the supervision of Professor V. Kasturi Rangan as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation.
Copyright © 1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call [HIDDEN] or write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163. No
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ased on the guiding research question, a deductive approach was deemed best suited for the purposes of the study proposed herein.
The selection of an appropriate research strategy is important to the successful outcome of a study (Maxwell 1996). ased on a review of the available research strategies, the research strategy to be used in the proposed study will be to use a qualitative analysis of the secondary literature to develop a custom survey to collect relevant quantitative primary data. This research strategy is highly congruent with the guidance provided by Poggenpaul, Myburgh and Van Der Linde who report, "There is a strong argument for qualitative research strategies as a prerequisite for quantitative strategies" (2001, 408). The use of both qualitative and quantitative data is also congruent with Neuman's observation that, "oth qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet…
Batra, R., & Homer, P. (2004) The situational impact of brand image beliefs. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14(3) 318-330
Benz, C.R., & Newman, I. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology: Exploring the interactive continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Costabile, M. (2000), A Dynamic Model of Customer Loyalty. Presented to 16th Annual IMP Conference, September 7th-9th, Bath (UK). [online] http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CBwQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.impgroup.org%2Fuploads%2Fpapers%2F43.pdf&ei=5q-sTarLD4W10QH2tfj4CA&usg=AFQjCNGRQdbe1PJHk7dPAY23xvIzBf2rvg&sig2=pNYCgID7L4yz5rihCh0chA
obtained from this course, there are several different ways for conducting research that a researcher can choose from. While the research question is the major factor that drives the research methodology, the selection of a research method for a specific study also requires consideration of other factors. This is a major issue in the research field because researchers continue to struggle in identifying the most suitable methodology for a study. In essence, one of the major questions when conducting a research is, "What is the most suitable research methodology for the study?" This question is significant because of the role research methodology plays in generating credible and accurate results. According to Holden (2004), research methodology affects the study results and how conclusions are derived from the research findings.
When making decisions regarding the most suitable methodology for the study, one of the most important considerations for the research is the…
Holden, M.T. (2004). Choosing the Appropriate Methodology: Understanding Research Philosophy. Retrieved from Waterford Institute of Technology website: http://repository.wit.ie/1466/1/Choosing_the_Appropriate_Methodology_Understanding_Research_Philosophy_ (RIKON_Group).pdf
Williams, L. (2010, January 1). 7 Research Challenges (And How to Overcome Them). Retrieved from Walden University website: https://www.waldenu.edu/connect/newsroom/publications/articles/2010/01-research-challenges
e., contemporary or historical issues (Eisenhardt 1989; in Naslund, 2005);
(3) the extent of control required over behavioral events in the research context (Yin 1994; as cited in Naslund, 2005); and (4) the researcher's philosophical stance, i.e., his/her understanding of the nature of social reality and how knowledge of that reality can be gained. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund (2005) states that qualitative research methods "primarily create meanings and explanations to research phenomena" and include data collection methods such as:
(2) Fieldwork including interviews and questionnaires, diary methods, documents and texts, case studies; and (3) the researcher's impressions and reactions to observed phenomena. Quantitative research methods serve to make provision of a broad range of situations as well as being fast and economical.
Commonly utilized quantitative research methods include those of:
(1) Laboratory experiments;
(2) Formal methods; and (3) Numerical methods and techniques. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund states that analysis identifies…
Experimental Research (2009) Experimental Resources. Online available at: http://www.experiment-resources.com/experimental-research.htm l' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
FSB's holdings in Hansabank were 98% (Swedbank 2005). In 2007, Hansabank controlled 62% of the entire Baltic (Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia) card market which is located in a small, but quickly developing market which has a high amount of savings and low credit card usage. The 2006-year, as predicted was a particularly good year for Hansabank. They were first among banks in the credit card market in the Baltic and had the largest sector of the deposit market at 32% to back things up (Hansabank/Swedbank 2007 13).
Needless to say, the market research before entering potential markets is critical in predicting how much of a gamble is involved in that market penetration. The market research prior to the entry into the Nordic and Baltic markets was extensive and meticulous and paid off nicely the next year in 2006.
E. Performance During the ecession
Even good companies have their…
BBC. (2010). UK Bank Barclays Reports Profits up 92% to £11.6bn . Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8517438.stm . Last accessed 14 Dec 2011.
Barclaycard. (2011). Barclaycard Timeline. Available: http://www.barclaycard.com/what-we-do/timeline.html . Last accessed 14 Dec 2011.
BBC. (2011). Barclays Profits Fall by a Third. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-14368974 . Last accessed 14 Dec 2011
Business Case Studies. (2011). Barclays Bank. Available: http://www.sap.com/uk/about/success/casestudies/barclays.epx . Last accessed 14 Dec 2011.
The data collection methods
Questionnaires effectively aid in data collection. To capture the right data, it must be well organised and prepared. The variables required in the result must be prepared well in advance for they guide the researcher on how to frame the questionnaire. The questions in it must be clear and simple to avert confusing the respondent. A time frame should set on the duration a respondent should stay with the questionnaire. The mode of its distribution should be established to ensure only the relevant responds receive it.
Another data collection method to be employed will be oral interviews. The interview question should be prepared in advance with reference to the variables required. Good interviewer training is necessary for it prepares him on how to ask the questions and manage the interviewee.
Possible methods of data analysis
A thorough data analysis process is crucial for effective data analysis.…
Leading Action esearch in an Elementary School Setting
One of the risks that is routinely encountered classroom teachers is the potential to become mired in a set of educational practices that may or may not be suitable for their students at any given point in time. ather than remaining in a teaching rut, though, a growing number of reading teachers have recognized the value of action research to inform and improve their classroom practices. In order for this method of inquiry to be effective, though, all stakeholders must be educated concerning the tenets of action research, what areas of interest are most appropriate for study and their respective roles in the process. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning leading action research in an elementary school setting, including an assessment of the current degree of comfort that exists at the author's school and…
Brkich, K. L. & Shumbera, K. (2010, Summer). Action research: How to create your own professional development experience. Science and Children, 47(9), 47-51.
Cooper, K. & White, R. E. (2012, October). The recursive process in and of critical literacy: Action research in an urban elementary school. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 41-45.
Eisner, E. W. & Day, M. D. (2004). Handbook of research and policy in art education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gruenert, S. & Whitaker, T. (2015). School culture rewired: How to define, assess, and transform it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
E-Commerce Marketing Plan
Nielsen Media esearch was founded in the 1920s by Arthur Nielsen and it focused on assessing the success of advertisements within the consumer markets. During the following decade, the organization commenced to assess the success and popularity of radio programs. The means in which the organization assessed the ratings of television programs evolved and these were eventually applied to compute the ratings of television programs. Today, Nielsen is evolving to assess the ratings, popularity as well as other elements regarding radio and television programs, but also online efforts. Additionally, the company is also measuring ratings on novel equipments, such as TiVos. This very evolution of Nielsen and its ability to quickly adapt and ensure rating measurement on a variety of media creates its unique selling proposition. "You know you are a powerful research company when your results change the face of television programming. The king of TV…
Hoeger, W.K., Hoeger, S.A., 2008, Lifetime physical fitness and wellness: a personalized program, 10th edition, Cengage Learning
2010, Hoovers, http://www.hoovers.com last accessed on December 6, 2010
2010, Kantar, http://www.kantar.com / last accessed on December 6, 2010
2010, GfK, http://www.gfk.com / last accessed on December 6, 2010
unequivocal (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). Also, it should ideally be 10-15 words long. The title of the quantitative article is "Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses" (Hayes, Douglas & Bonner, 2015). The title clearly adheres to the recommended length of an article title. In addition, the title unambiguously identifies of the purpose of the study, which is to examine relationships between nurse characteristics, work environment attributes, job satisfaction, job stress, and burnout in nurses working in haemodialysis units.
The abstract should provide a succinct summary of the study, inclusive of the research problem, purpose of the research, methodology, sample size, findings, as well as conclusion and recommendations (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). The reader should judge from the abstract whether an article is worth further reading. Hayes, Douglas & Bonner's (2015) article provides a precise and straightforward overview of the study, clearly summing up the…
Ahanchian, M., Meshkinyazd, A., & Soudmand, P. (2015). Nurses burnout in psychiatric wards. Fundamentals of Mental Health, 260-264.
Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., & Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(11), 658-663.
Hayes, B., Douglas, C., & Bonner, A. (2015). Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 23, 588-598.
Lee, P. (2006). Understanding and critiquing qualitative research articles. Nursing Times, 102(29), 30-32.
Qualitative research is different from quantitative research methodologies on the premise that it does not rely on numerical data. Qualitative research rely on text and image since it's a type of scientific research that seeks to provide contextual descriptions of the experiences of people regarding as specific research issue. In most cases, qualitative research methods are considered suitable in identifying intangible factors through a scientific inquiry such as socioeconomic status, religion, social norms, and ethnicity (College of Computer and Information Science, n.d.). In this regard, there are several aspects that distinguish qualitative research writing, which are brought by specific designs, steps of analysis, and data collection procedures. An understanding of these aspects of qualitative research writing helps in enhancing the effectiveness of the research process and research findings.
Salient Aspects of Qualitative Research Writing
In his discussion on qualitative research procedures, Creswell (2014) proposes ten aspects that differentiate qualitative research…
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
Operation and Data Management at the Water-Authority: will there be a sustainable water supply for the next century. A case study of Water Infrastructure Management in the Caribbean. As the research problem implies, I intend to conduct a case study examining water infrastructure management in the Caribbean with the goal of determining whether existing water infrastructure management will provide sustainable water usage for the next century. The nature of the research problem requires a comparison of the currently available water resources, the renewable water resources, current water usage, and projected water demand over the coming century to determine if the water resources are adequate and will continue to be adequate for the foreseeable time period. Although the question could be approached from a quantitative perspective or a mixed-methods perspective, I believe that water usage and water management are as much about perceptions and beliefs as they are about quantitative analysis…
Brikci, N., Green, J. 2007. A guide to using qualitative research methodology. Available from:
. [2 September 2014].
Shah, A. 2010. 'Water and Development', Global Issues. Available from:
. [2 September 2014].
Economical and Ethical Issues in Recycling
There is a general agreement that the U.S. should be undertaking more recycling, with only 34.3% of current waste recycled. The rate is increasing, and while there have been legislative moves, it may be argued that the ethical awareness and economic factors have had a greater impact. The research proposal argues that the dualistic approach to recycling seen in the anthropocentric model can be used to show how and why the take up has been restrained, as there is a need for economic motivations to support the practice. These are now occurring, but there is still room for improvement. By undertaking quantitative research with businesses and consumers the paper proposes the gathering of information that can be statistically analysed to identify the most efficient policy approaches to improve recycling.
The level of waste generated in increasing; it is estimated that in…
Surveys also provide the ability to reach large numbers of participants and if needed, a wide geographic area can be reached through mail surveys.
Surveys provide the ability to gather data and categorize it by several headings including demographic, geographic or other criteria.
The survey will be divided into three different sections. The first section will be used to collect demographic data. The survey questions will be about race, family structure, age and other things that determine demographic information about the participants.
The second section of the survey will move to the study at hand. Questions will be asked about past performance and habits, current performance and habits and future performance and habits. This is an important part of the survey as it allow the researcher to look into the mind and thinking of the participant with regards to the topic of this study.
The third section will…
Cross, Geoffrey A. David, Carol S. Graham, Margaret Baker Thralls, Charlotte; (1996) Thinking and rethinking research methodology. Business Communication Quarterly
Goldman, Irvin (1999) Q. METHODOLOGY AS PROCESS AND CONTEXT IN INTERPRETIVISM, COMMUNICATION, AND PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY RESEARCH. The Psychological Record
Overcash, Janine. (2004) Narrative research: a viable methodology for clinical nursing.
esearch Design. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed in this study. Instruments include self-report measures and personal narratives of 91 native Hindu married couples (182 participants) from three types of living arrangements that I have mentioned earlier. The qualitative part on the other hand was utilized via personal narratives of the participants (ibid, p.82).
esearch Instruments. For the quantitative part, marital happiness was assessed using the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The questionnaire also includes a demographic survey portion which was based on the National Health and Social Life Survey. Quantitative questions on intimacy and conflict can also be found in the questionnaire. For the qualitative part, the instrument devised explored 12 dimensions of the participant's lives: their expectations about their partner, career, self, well-being, intimacy, marital relationship, family living arrangements, in-laws, parents, their conflict history, good times they had shared, and the cultural norms guiding marriage…
City University of Hong Kong Website. (n.d.) Chapter Three: Research Methodology.
Retrieved from http://www.is.cityu.edu.hk/staff/isrobert/phd/ch3.pdf on Sept. 16, 2009.
Kroelinger, M. (2002). The Research Problem. Retrieved from http://www.public.asu.edu/~kroel/www500/the%20Research%20Problem.pdf on Sept. 16, 2009.
Nachmias C.F. & Nachmias, D. (1996). Research Methods in the Social Sciences.
This introduces another theoretical and practical difference between business proposals and formal research, and that is the evaluation of their results. Typically business proposals have specific revenue and cost objectives associated with them, yet lack the precision of results that formal research has. Business proposals' variability is not as easily quantified and measured, and therefore potentially overcome as the more planned approach of formal research. Formal research methodologies can take into account potential sampling errors, respondent biases and also control for specific errors in completing the study. The finite and highly measured result of formal research is in contrast to the business proposal's multitudinous effects on people and groups in the company it is meant for. Formal research also can be longitudinal or focused on comparing the implications of a given research methodology over time, with no specific payback except for the creation of knowledge. For business proposals it is…
Jeffrey Jablonski (1999). Teaching the complexity of business proposals. Business Communication Quarterly, 62(3), 108-111. Retrieved January 6, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 44309653)
Judd, Larry R. (1990). Importance and Use of Formal Research and Evaluation. Public Relations Review, 16(4), 17. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 9051599).
Luuk Lagerwerf, Ellis Bossers. (2002). Assessing business proposals: Genre conventions and audience response in document design. The Journal of Business Communication, 39(4), 437-460. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 238607751).
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…
Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Given, L. (2008). The Safe Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
As many of these types of foods are purchased for special occasions, there is also the need for measuring just how many events that typically occur in the projected customer bases' lives during any given year to further estimate market size. Not only does the number of cakes and desserts need to be forecasted, but the flavors and type of cakes and pastries as well. In short, primary research must assist in the primary strategic positioning of the store, validate the store concept, define the market position in terms of pricing and quality levels define the menu and its contents as best as can be measured as well.
In contrast to secondary research where time and costs are typically the major constraints that force companies to use published market research data, the formation of a new business is one is best managed as a longer-term, more thoroughly researched, and more…
BC Stats (2005) - 2001 Amended Census Profile of British Columbia. Published September, 2005. Accessed from the Internet on October 17, 2007 from location: http://www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/data/cen01/profiles/59000000.pdf
Figure 2: Richmond
Of Richmond's total population, 54% are immigrants.
Of Richmond's total population, 15% were born in Hong Kong, 10% were born in China and 5% in Taiwan.
Hermeneutic or Phenomenological esearch
Hermeneutic and phenomenological research is qualitative measurement analysis tools. They focus on the understanding and interpretation and execution of theory. Both are becoming more and more popular with contemporary research methodologies (Fuchs 1993). Together, they embody the studying of social phenomenon external to the manipulation of the research. They aim to understand how we construct and gain knowledge from the external world around us. Thus, hermeneutic research "is interpretive and concentrated on historical meanings of experience and their development and cumulative effects on individual and social levels," (Laverty 2003 p 15). Phenomenological research is additionally very descriptive and thus examines the foundational structure of experience as a way of gaining knowledge (Fuchs 1993). One study, conducted by Ajjawi & Higgs (2007) embodies these elements within its methodological structure.
The study contains particular elements adhering to ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions. Ontology focuses on the categories of…
Ajjawi, Rola & Higgs, Joy. (2007). Using hermeneutic phenomenology to investigate how experienced practitioners learn to communicate clinical reasoning. The Qualitative Report, 12(4), 612-638.
Fuchs, Stephan. (1993). Three sociological epistemologies. Sociological Perspectives, 36(1), 23-44.
Laverty, Susann M. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3), 1-29. Web. http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/2_3final/pdf/laverty.pdf
This underscores why hypotheses are so critical for a research design, because as can be seen from the above discussion, they have a direct bearing on the selection of variables, the selection of research strategies, and ultimately how the research is used. The selection of variables were based, in both studies, on those factors most controllable by either the online e-tailers themselves or in the case of organizations, measurable internally and susceptible to arbitrary standards. Notice that each set of variables, in each studies, does not look to an external evaluation of trustworthiness. The use of attitudinal variables, the collection of psychographic data both from online customers and it professionals to ascertain how they are grouping themselves, and a more precise set of hypotheses and research variables would yield a much more balanced and accurate assessment of the issues of online trust and it Professional performance as it relates to…
Krishnamurthy, Sandeep. An Empirical Study of the Causal Antecedents of Customer Confidence in E-Tailers by First Monday, volume 6, number 1 (January 2001),
Oz, Effy. Organizational commitment and ethical behavior: An empirical study of information system professionals. Journal of Business Ethics; Dordrecht; Nov 2001
Denial of Security Clearance: An Examination and Application of eal World Business Statistics
The purpose of this research is to identify the factors most relevant to decisions involving access to classified information and the denial of such security clearance. From an analysis of the commonly cited reasons for such denials, which range in official reports from sexual misconduct to the equally ambiguous and somehow more intriguing issue of "financial considerations," to acquiring specific information regarding the circumstances and considerations involved in particular incidents of either clearance approval or denial, this research would aim to develop an understanding of who might be granted clearance and who would be denied such clearance and access (Dice 2011). A broad and accurate understanding of current security clearance procedures and rationales would hopefully be developed as the ultimate objective and conclusion of the data analysis conducted in this research.
This research problem is…
Dice. (2011). Top reasons for security clearance denial. Accessed 21 February 2011.
Participation in a esearch Study
It is imperative that a subject understands the importance of his or her involvement in any research study. This is fundamental especially in researches that may involve full participation of an individual (which may affect his or her daily activities). As a result, every researcher must ensure that his or her subjects are fully informed about the research and are ready to follow through to the end. Every researcher must have a set strategy, to evaluate how informed his or her subjects are on the research at hand.
Interview: The participant in this case is interviewed on the subject matter at hand to ensure that he or she knows the research in depth. This way the key leaders in the research have an opportunity to evaluate the credibility of the individual to participate throughout the research without fill discretion (ichardson & Godfrey, 2010).
Dobson, C. (2008). Conducting research with people not having the capacity to consent to their participation. The British Psychological Society, 1-44.
Dresser, R. (2001). When science offers salvation: Patient advocacy and research ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
In Global Health Research, Is It Legitimate To Stop Clinical Trials Early on Account of Their Opportunity Costs?. (2009). PloS Med, 6(6).
Richardson, J.C., & Godfrey, B.S. (2010). Towards ethical practice in the use of archived transcripted interviews. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 6(4), 347-355.
Freuds work and researches which clearly indicate that they were developed through researches involving case studies. In a case study every aspect of the subject is researched and analyzed so that obvious and notable patterns and behaviors can be identified so that particular causes for behaviors and psychology in some cases can be identified. The main purpose is to learn what can be learned from one subject and some basic points in this way can be generalized and applied to others as well (Yin. 1984). However case studies happen to be very subjective since they are mostly based on one area of focus, so it makes there points or even them very hard to generalize and apply their results to a larger proportion of subjects.
Types of Case Studies
Explanatory: These types of case studies are used for investigations which are casual in nature.
Exploratory: these types of case studies…
Powell, R.R. (1985). Basic research methods for librarians. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Simons, H. (1980). Towards a science of the singular: Essays about case study in educational research and evaluation. Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia, Centre for Applied Research in Education.
Stake, R.E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Swisher, R., & McClure, C.R. (1984). Research for decision making, methods for librarians. Chicago: American Library Association.
Summary and Analysis of The Forgotten Followers Contingency Model of Leadership and Follower Self-leadership by Seokhwa Yun and Jonathan Cox and Henry P Sims Jr.
This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of leadership and follower attributes on follower self-leadership. The abstract provides a clear summary of the study in terms of its purpose, research methodology, findings, implications and limitations of the study, practical implications, and originality/value of the study. As shown in the abstract, the purpose of the study was to assess the effect of leadership and follower attributes and follower self-leadership. The researchers found that the impact of leadership on follower self-leadership was dependent on follower need for autonomy.
As part of conducting the study, these researchers introduce several concept beginning with the idea that, “Not everyone wants to be empowered!” The statement basically highlights the two major differences in people’s response to self-leadership opportunities i.e. some people…
criminal procedure and the idiosyncrasies of criminal practice vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction" (Jaros, 2010, p. 445). If what Jaros states is true, then it is probably true as well that evaluating the different circumstances surrounding the commission of crime is also widely diverse in its practice. There are a number of methodologies that are used in various research including studies relating to the study of criminal justice and different aspects of that arena; two of the more commonly used methodologies employ quantitative and qualitative methods of research.
The quantitative methodology is used by researchers who are seeking to quantify certain areas of study or the results of such studies. Quantifying involves numbers, percentages and numerically evaluated data. One of the benefits that can be derived when using quantitative evaluation is that such a method provides numerical data for comparative studies. Comparative studies show specific numbers calculated from participant…
Behavioral Sciences and the Law (2006) online accessed at Wiley Inter-Science on November 11, 2010, at www.interscience.wiley.com
Bhola, H.S. (1990) Evaluating 'literacy for development' projects, programs and campaigns: Evaluation planning, design and implementation, and utilization of evaluation results. UNESCO Institute for Education, xii
Bonta, J.; Wallace-Capretta, S.; Rooney, J.; McAnoy, K.; (2002) An outcome evaluation of a restorative justice alternative to incarceration, Contemporary Justice Review, Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 319-338
Chaiken, J.M. & Chaiken, M.R.; (1982) Varieties of criminal behavior, Santa Monica: Rand Publishers
Recommended during latter phases of research projects.
Recommended during earlier phases of research projects.
Projects in different areas are not linear in approach.
All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected.
The design emerges as the study unfolds.
The study of a drug interaction in x population is different than a study of language variation in y population.
Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data.
Researcher is the data-gathering instrument.
Sometimes subjectivity is at risk.
Data is in the form of numbers and statistics.
Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects.
Audience and style needs.
Objective -- seeks precise measurement & analysis of target concepts, e.g., uses surveys, questionnaires etc.
Subjective - individuals' interpretation of events is important, e.g., uses participant observation, in-depth interviews etc.
Both important to tell the entire story -- both sides of the picture.…
Education research can benefit from the quantitative paradigm precisely because it is so often a subjective field. Teachers and lecturers tend to take a subjective approach when working with their students. This is logical, as any field where human beings are involved will necessarily be subjective. However, the field of education should particularly be standardized, because it focuses on preparing the labor force of the future (Thomas, 1998). Future employers would therefore wish for a particular standard in their employees. This standard should be quantified. This quantification process can be achieved by applying quantitative research principles in education. The general subjectivity of the field can therefore be balanced by a more standardized logical approach. Logical facts discovered by these methods can then be used as a basis for personalized, subjective, and individual teaching approaches that each teacher considers appropriate for his or her classroom. The correlational approach involves the consideration of data to determine the degree to which two or more quantifiable variables relate to each other (Johnson, 2001).
This relationship is then used as a basis for further quantitative study. This is particularly useful in studies such as those focusing on education, as students' performance can be correlated with other influencing factors such as previous performance throughout the year. This can then be used in order to establish methodologies that would be more effective for future practice.
An advantage of this method is that it forms a good initial basis for further research. It provides the researcher with a sound springboard for further study. It can also produce useful data for retrospective analysis. A good correlation between variables can for
Students who are bussed to a larger school can use the time to be productive; reading, homework, etc.
1.5-2 hours per day of commuting is unacceptable for students and will eat into their family and work time.
A larger school will provide greater opportunity for social networks, sports, music, drama, and more extracurricular activities.
Loss of community will make the younger students uncomfortable as well.
A larger school will provide greater academic opportunities for the HS students in preparation for university; there are more resources available.
The student to teach ratio will change and the students will be part of just another large classroom.
Thus, the question really comes down to potential. Neither side can equivocally state that the future of the students will be better or worse; there are arguments for both as well as the possibility that the solution will be quite positive for some,…
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. New York: Sage.
Groves, R. a. (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books.
Hatton, J. (1996). Science and Its Ways of Knowing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Benjamin Cummings Publishers.
The Help Desk has grown from being a stand-alone service strategy to one that is leading many organizations to support a multi-channel and in some instances, multi-channel based approach to delivering service.
Examples of TSS options across different service industries include on-demand service and support through guided solution applications on websites, guided help on telephone systems, (ATMs), electronic kiosks for baggage check in or a boarding pass at airports as well as for room check out at hotels, and service computers with internet connection at airports (Dabholkar 1994, 1996; Kotler 2000; Meuter, Ostrom, Roundtree, and itner 2000; Carlin 2002; Harler 2002; Wright 2002).
The transformation of service options from the Help Desk to multi-channel strategies that are technology-based service can be viewed in terms of the relationships between employee, customer and technology components (Figure 1). Note that a single strategy of just using a Help Desk fails to support the…
Bibliography of all resources to be used in qualitative research and literature review
Anitsal, Ismet, Mark a. Moon, and M. Meral Anitsal (2002b), "Technology-Based Self-Service: Toward a New Retail Format," Marketing Advances in Pedagogy, Process, and Philosophy, Beverly T. Enable (Ed.), Vol. Greenville, North Carolina: Society for Marketing Advances, 146-151.
Bates, Albert D. (1989), "The Extended Specialty Store: A Strategic Opportunity for the 1990s," Journal of Retailing, 379-388. Bateson, John (2002),
Bitner, Mary Jo, William T. Faranda, Amy R. Hubbert, and Valarie a. Zeithaml (1997), "Customer Contributions and Roles in Service Delivery," International Journal of Service Industry Management, 8 (3), 193-205.
Carlin, Mary (2002), "Technology Tamed: The New Future of Self-Service." Randolph, New Jersey: Kiosk Business, the Magazine for Customer-Activated Solutions.
knowledge is so vast that no one really knows everything. One often discovers that what they know about something is not accurate or utterly wrong (Taflinger, 2011).
Research is normally conducted for two main reasons, i.e., to learn the facts around a phenomenon or to collect evidence. When one conducts research to learn about something, it is for their personal gain. The learning process is a continuous one in life. One cannot stop learning. Whatever new information you encounter constitutes some form of learning. It may be the data about your favourite rugby player or the relativity theory. Research, on its part, is a systematic form of learning. It is organized. Research entails a special focus on something to add to your knowledge base. One may peruse through the Scientific American for the latest research news on quantum mechanics or check the sports page for the results of last night's…
Badley, K. & Scott, J. (2011). Fruitful Research: A Biblical Perspective on the Affective Dimension of Research. Faculty Publications - School of Education. Paper 94.
Beech, G. (2016). Researching the Teaching Context: Faithful Practice. ICCTE Journal.
Driscoll, D. L. (2011). Introduction to Primary Research: Observations, Surveys, and Interviews. Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, 154.
Research Methodology. (n.d.). Stopvaw.
Luke & Associates depicted low rates of employee retention. etention levels did not promote sustainability in the organization, and did not generate any significant revenues in case of some departments of the organization. ecruitment, hiring, and employee training processes incurred high costs. Although these costs proved equitable when amortized over 8-10 years, they weren't sustainable when absorption was required within 2-3 years. The organization's management expressed anxiety over these low retention levels. Management was also concerned about the recurring ill fit of newly hired personnel with company culture and position demands, in relation to basic knowledge and demonstrated competences. To tackle this problem, the firm decided to take into account a venture involving action research program to study various tactics for improving key recruitment interview processes.
Action research, which comes under the participatory research category, involves stakeholders affected by practices, strategies and systems linked to specific situations or issues, which…
Burnes, B. (2004). Kurt Lewin and the planned approach to change: a re-appraisal. Journal of Management studies, 41(6), 977-1002.
Fountain, J. (2004). Focus assessment studies: A qualitative approach to data collection (Vol. 6). United Nations Publications.
McCreesh, N., Frost, S., Seeley, J., Katongole, J., Tarsh, M.N., Ndunguse, R., ... & White, R.G. (2012). Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 23(1), 138.
Salganik, M.J. (2012). Commentary: respondent-driven sampling in the real world. Epidemiology, 23(1), 148-150.
Business esearch Issues
Any business that wishes to remain successful must conduct some level of ongoing research into various aspects of their business operations and effects. Microsoft is certainly no exception to this rule, and research into its level of customer satisfaction can suggest certain pitfalls that the company is endanger of falling into as well as providing clear and concrete methods by which the company can improve its sales and profitability. In order for such research to be effective, however, there must be proper controls on the validity and reliability of the data being collected and the methods of analyzing and interpreting such data. The following pages will examine specific ways by which the validity and reliability of data collected through customer surveys can be assured, and how that data can be put to direct and effective use within the Microsoft Corporation't improve its customer satisfaction levels.
Burns, R. & Burns, R. (2008). Business Research Methods and Statistics Using SPSS. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Herbst, F. & Coldwell, D. (2004). Business Research. Cape Town, SA: Juta and Company.
Landstrom, H. (2009). Pioneers in Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research. New York: Springer.