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esistance to Change
Change is the single most widely discussed and written about issue, which affects every facet of our lives whether professional or personal. No where is this 'change' a bigger problem than in the corporate sector where implementation of change can trigger massive resistance. esistance in its turns gives rise to numerous other problems including loss of efficiency, productivity and revenues. Because of the potential pitfalls of resistance, every organization works hard to avoid it, in some cases with the help of hostile strategies. However resistance to change must not be 'resisted' because it is the natural and mostly a rational reaction to the introduction of something new, which threatens to erode the old and the familiar. esistance, as long as it is rational and reasonable, must be carefully analyzed and addressed in order to discover the precise reasons behind it. esistance is usually associated with some kind…
Edgar H. Schein, Professor of Management Emeritus, MIT Sloan School of Management, "Kurt Lewin's Change Theory in the Field," 1995
Peter de Jager; Resistance to change: A new view of an old problem, The Futurist; Washington; May/Jun 2001
esistance to Change:
The various analyses regarding resistance to change tend to take the perspective that change agents are usually doing the right thing whereas its recipients establish unreasonable barriers to hinder the occurrence of the change. Consequently, change agents tend to be viewed as undeserving victims of the dysfunctional and absurd reactions of change recipients. ather than the perspective of change agents as people who develop their environments and realities, they are viewed as people who tackle objective resistance from change recipients. In most cases, resistance to change is never depicted as the outcome of balanced coherent strategies and objectives.
How Change Agents Contribute to Change esistance:
esistance to change doesn't occur as a sudden or direct reaction to a specific instance of change but it occurs as a product of the interactions between change agents and change recipients. While this resistance can be used by change agents as…
"Change Agents: Rethink Resistance to Change." (2007, April 16). Outlook for Change
Managing Organizational and Social Change. Retrieved December 20, 2011, from http://www.outlookforchange.ca/index.php/archives/25
Ford, D.J., Ford, L.W. & D'Amelio, A. (2008). Resistance to Change: The Rest of the Story.
Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 362-377.
Resistance to Change Management
Why do some employees resist change within the structure of the organization? What can management do to bring those employees along as the company transitions to another strategy? This paper addresses those issues and other related to resistance to change.
The Literature on Resistance to Change Management
Roy Smollan, senior lecturer in Management at Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand, notes that some companies refer to resistance to change as a "brickwall" or a "dangerous roadblock to transformation" (Smollan, 2011, p. 12). Resistance to change is normally seen as a dynamic where employees refuse to carry through with authorized instructions, but the real, ultimate problem may be found in the frustration of the manager who sees things are not falling into place (Smollan, 13). "Handle resistance with care" and don't assume it is "willful or ignorant"; engage in "full and honest communication" (Smollan, 15).
Agboola, Akinlolu Ayodeji, and Salawu, Rafiu Oyesola. 2011. 'Managing Deviant Behavior and Resistance to Change,' International Journal of Business and Management, vol. 6, 1-5.
Aiken, Carolyn, and Keller, Scott. 2009. The Irrational Side of Change Management. McKinsey Quarterly, vol. 00475394, 100-109.
Bughin, Jacques, Livingston, John, and Marwaha, Sam. 2011. 'Seizing the potential of 'big data'. McKinsey Quarterly, vol. 00475394.
Mantere, Saku, Schildt, Henri A., and Sillince, John A.A. 2012. 'Reversal of Strategic Change,' Academy of Management Journal, vol. 55, 172-196.
This is a potentially lethal competitive weakness and it is going to take nothing less than total focus and a re-definition of the organizations' structure (Whitford, Moss, 2009) if Ajax is going to survive. In other words I would not sugar-coat it or just show the financial statements on performance, I would show a revised organizational structure that put my commitments where my organizational chart was, so to speak. I'd put transformational leadership in action and actually get the roles of each and every person defined for the maximum level of competitive strength relative to our Pacific im competitors. My mission and vision for Ajax would be to cause those competitors as much pain and loss of profit as possible, I would unite the company on a mission to mess with our competitors and make their strategies and goals exceptionally challenging and difficult. In other words I would direct the…
Byrd, J. (2009). Stress, Organizational Change and Management Planning. The Business Review, Cambridge, 13(2), 8-15.
Neves, P., & Caetano, A.. (2009). Commitment to Change: Contributions to Trust in the Supervisor and Work Outcomes. Group & Organization Management, 34(6), 623.
Smollan, R., & Sayers, J. (2009). Organizational Culture, Change and Emotions: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Change Management, 9(4), 435.
Whitford, T., & Moss, S.. (2009). Transformational Leadership in Distributed Work Groups: The Moderating Role of Follower Regulatory Focus and Goal Orientation. Communication Research, 36(6), 810.
Organizational Culture & Change
According to the organizational model of the ideal workplace culture, positive workplace cultures are humanistic and encouraging; affiliative; achievement-oriented and self-actualizing. Unfortunately, the workplace culture of Conglomerate, Inc. In practice is oppositional, avoidant, and perfectionistic. This suggests that employees feel that they are not treated as valuable assets by management and that managers avoid rather than embrace input from employees. It also suggests that there is little room for a "safe space" for employees to make mistakes to learn, grow, and generate new and potentially valuable ideas. ather, employees are being held to rigid and unyielding standards that might not be reflective of reality. Workers feel as if they must stifle their real opinions to fit in.
Positive workplace cultures, in contrast, solicit information from employees and create bonds of affiliation between management and all workers. Humanism means instilling a relationship founded upon mentoring…
Lewin's change management model. Mind Tools. 12 Oct 2014.
Theory X and Theory X Mind Tools. 12 Oct 2014.
Coping with Change
Change is a process that occurs everywhere though many people are generally reluctant to embrace the concept. One of the major reasons for difficulties in accepting or embracing change is that humans are creatures of habit and adhere to daily routines. Consequently, when change occurs, people's activities and thought patterns are interrupted. While understanding and coping with change is an important part of daily life, embracing the concept is relatively a difficult process for many people. Actually, this process is characterized by resistance to change due to internal and external factors. Some of the major reasons why individuals are resistant to change include self-interest, lack of trust in management, lack of understanding, low tolerance for change, and varying assessments of the need for change. egardless of whether the resistance is fueled by internal or external factors, individuals need to develop an appropriate plan for overcoming that resistance…
Baker, S.L. (1989). Managing Resistance to Change. Library Trends, 38(1), 53-61. Retrieved
March 7, 2014, from https://ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/7649/librarytrendsv38i1h_opt.pdf?sequence=1
Kotter, J.P. (1995, April). Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Harvard Business
Review, 59-67. Retrieved March 7, 2014, from http://www.sykehusapoteket.no/Upload/Topplederprogrammet/Litteratur/2.1%20Leading%20Change%20-%20Why%20Transformation%20Efforts%20Fail%20by%20JP%20Kotter.pdf
esistance to Change
Change is one of the most predictable forces in any organization today. With competition reaching cutthroat levels and organizations struggling to gain greater market share, it is only practical to expect change. Change can be in many forms. A firm may come up with a different strategy for selling its products or increasing its production or an organization might decide to introduce new technology to enhance productivity. But as certain as change is, resistance to it is also a given. When change is introduced in any form, people who are already accustomed to the old ways are more likely to resist changes. They would want to do anything in their power to stick with the old ways of doing things and this can create friction, resentment and overall performance degradation. To minimize risks of resistance and to overcome it, there are several methods that consultants advocate. Some…
Peter B. Grazier, Overcoming Resistance to Employee Involvement, http://www.teambuildinginc.com/article_overcoming_resistance.htm (Accessed 5 Aug, 2005)
'Change Management and Employee Resistance- The choices employees make and their consequences" (Accessed 5 Aug, 2005)
esistance to Change
The concept of employee resistance to change is an important one to consider especially from a change management perspective, wherein a change in some aspect of an organization is required. Overcoming the hurdle of employee resistance to change can be an imperative part of effectively implementing change. Therefore, knowing what to do to assist in rising above this hurdle should be an essential element of change management. This paper will consider the organizational factors and employee attributes that may contribute to employee resistance to change.
esistance to change may be defined as the action and behaviors of individuals or groups as whole who view a change that is implemented within their space as a threat to their ability to successfully perform their duties. esistance can come in a variety of ways -- through active and passive behavior -- but is typically negative in some aspect and contributes…
Hanif, M., Khan, S., Zaheer, A. (2014). Impact of organizational resistance to change on BPR implementation. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(4): 186-196.
Kissack, H., Callahan, J. (2010). The reciprocal influence of organizational culture and training and development programs: Building the case for a culture analysis within program planning. Journal of European Industrial Training, 34(4): 365 -- 380.
Schyns, B., Schilling, J. (2013). How bad are the effects of bad leaders? A meta-
analysis of destructive leadership and its outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 24: 138-158.
Challenging Resistance to Change
The consistently most challenging aspect of any new initiative in a company is managing change at the strategic, process and most important, people level. If there is only a single initiative a company can undertake in a year, the most important is galvanizing the role of employees to the vision, mission and objectives of the company they work for. The most effective change management processes are predicated on having change processes that have a direct, related impact on organizational performance (Pettigrew, Woodman, Cameron, 2001). Included in this requirement is the need for leaders to personalize change management strategies so they provide employees with motivation to change over the long-term (Dent, Goldberg, 1999).
Specific Guidance for Change Management Strategies
The foundation for ensuring a high level congruence between performance improvement programs that center on greater ownership of outcomes on the part of employees on the one hand,…
Dent, E., & Goldberg, S. (1999). Challenging "resistance to change." The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35(1), 25-41.
Pettigrew, A., Woodman, R., & Cameron, K. (2001). Studying organizational change and development: Challenges for future research. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 697-713.
Christina Gold Leading Change at Western Union
Summary of the case
The case study is about the Western Union Company, which is under the leadership of Christina Gold. The executive officer (Gold) intends to introduce a change in the structure of the company. The company needs to change the nature of its production from the U.S.-centric focus of production to the regional structure. The key main divisions of focus include the Americas, Europe, Africa, the Middle East and South Asia, and Asia-Pacific. They needed the change to introduce new organizational culture focused on decentralized management of activities. Through this, Gold wanted to increase the responsibility and the authority of the regional heads in handling profits and losses in their lines of operation. Adopting the change meant that it could provide an opportunity for the company to expand its global operations.
Introducing the change also targeted at increasing the consumer target…
Bessant, J., & Tidd, J. (2013). Managing innovation: Integrating technological, market and organizational change. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Konrad, A. & Mitchell, J. (2005). Christina Gold Leading Change at Western Union. Harvard Business Publishing. Product #906M07-PDF-ENG
Leban, B., & Stone, R. (2008). Managing organizational change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
People/Task-Centered for Minimizing Resistance to Change
People/Task-Centered Recommendations for Minimizing Resistance to Change
Organizational change refers to the alteration in a firm's alignment with its exterior climate. Such changes may include process re-engineering, improvement, business mergers, restructuring, business expansions, a new organizational culture, new technologies and change in leadership. Change may be incremental or transformative. In essence, organizational change is any transformation requiring changes in human performance. For many leaders, the primary strategic challenge is managing people and overcoming resistance during the change process. Lack of effective leadership and resistance to change are the central reasons why most change initiatives fail.
While seeking to address the challenge of address resistance, organizational leaders should think in the line of task and people actions. People-centered strategies recognize the human aspect of the organization. The human aspect looks at resistance to change as involving emotional, cognitive and behavioral states, which mutually reinforce each…
Autism: Constant vs. Varied
Varied reinforcers have been shown repeatedly to have many benefits over constant reinforers. But real life environmental challenges can preclude reliable measurement results, making it less clear how the response patterns contribute to subject preferences and their resistance to change. The study article by Miros et al. utilize a fixed-ration assessment methodology grounded in an additional level of variability that fluctuates in their testing methodology between the subject's preference assessment and the baseline and reinforcement tests of resistance. The expectation is to address findings in other studies that have limited the generality of results because ordinary disruptive challenges are confronted in applied settings. As such, this study moves the discussion forward and allows for a greater reliability of the role of variation in reinforcers in affirming and sustaining prosocial outcomes.
In the Miros study four young male subjects between the ages of six and 10 were…
Bowman, L.G., Piazza, C.C., Fisher, W.W., Hagopian, L.P., & J.S. Kogan (1997), Assessment of preference for varied verses constant reinforcers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 451-458.
G. Cosgove (2011). See Schedules of Reinforcement, Educate Autism, retrieved from http://www.educateautism.com/applied-behaviour-analysis/schedules-of-reinforcement.html
Hagopian L.P, Bruzek J.L, Bowman L.G, Jennett H.K. (2007) Assessment and treatment of problem behavior occasioned by interruption of free operant behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40:89 -- 103.
The macro level problem for this company is that there is no coherent purpose for the OD group. The group was hired, most of them outsiders with little experience, by John Zoltan. Strategically, it is unclear what they contribute. They act like rock stars and Zoltan treats them as such, but they do not make a specific contribution to the company, and certainly not one that justifies their salaries and expenses.
On the micro level, this disconnect between the cost of the OD group and the benefit, along with their attitudes, has cause a lot of rifts within the organization. Zoltan is strongly in favor of the group, as they are his pet project, but the rest of the organization struggles to see the usefulness of the group, and the group themselves do little to endear themselves to everybody else. So there is a high level of interpersonal…
Ford, Ford and d'Amelio note that most change literature takes the view that resistance to change is irrational and dysfunctional. If this is the view that is taken by the actual change agents, it is not hard to see that the change agents themselves could be contributing to resistance to change. Resistance cannot always be interpreted as self-serving or irrational (two things that are contradictory, it should be noted). The first step is a change agent not becoming part of the problem is to recognize that there may be other, more logical motivations for resistance. This is not to say that resistance is never irrational or self-serving, but just that change agents cannot assume this to be the case. If they do make such an assumption, then their response to the resistance may only make matters worse. They may invalidate the opinions of those resistance the change, something that…
Ford, J., Ford, L, & D'Amelio, A. (2008). Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Academy of Management Review. Vol. 33 (2) 352-377.
Kotter, J. (1995). Leading change: Why transformational efforts fail. Power Projects Inc.. In possession of the author.
Existence value of resistance
Organization change involves introducing new conversations and shifting existing conversations and patterns of discourse. However, new conversations have a hard time competing with existing conversation and so the challenge for change agents is getting new conversation heard. This is where resistance can be of value. esistance helps to keep the conversations in existence. Although talking negatively or complaining and criticizing have been viewed as resistance, it can be beneficial because it keeps the topic alive, giving other the opportunity to participate in the conversation.
Engagement value of resistance
esistance is one possible form of engagement with change acceptance and ambivalence being others and might, in some cases, reflect a higher level of commitment than acceptance, because some resistance is thoughtful. Change recipients who are highly committed to the success of the organization but who disagree with proposed change because it threatens something of value to them…
Issham Ismail, 5th. (2010). Proceeding of the 5th International Conference on ELearning: Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, 12-13 July 2010. Academic Conferences Limited.
Yuxia Qian, Ohio University. (2007). A communication model of employee cynicism toward organizational change. ProQuest.
Paul Parkin. (2009). Managing Change in Healthcare: Using Action Research. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ford, J.D., Ford L.W. & DaAmelio (2008). Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Academy of Management Review, 33, 362-377.
Describe at least three internal and external drivers of change for the organization in this simulation.
Internally, organizational changes are driven by three external pressures, as defined by Lewin's along the three-stage model of unfreezing, changing and refreezing employee behaviors. Motivating people during each of these change stages reinforces the acquired behaviors. Unfreezing involves the motivational factor of persuading people to replace the old behaviors and attitude with the preferred behaviors and attitudes by demonstrating the need for change by infusing employees with the knowledge and the confidence that the new behaviors and attitudes are needed to cope with external pressures. (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). hen, refreezing means the new behavior and attitude become integrated into the normal standard operating procedures of the organization. hen, the external pressures of positive reinforcement, modeling and coaching should be used to encourage the desired behaviors continuance. 'Change and constancy are relative…
To implement the above change strategy in response to pressures, the CEO had to weight he current personnel needs, the changing needs of the external environment, the internal demands of the corporate hierarchical structures, and the emotional and economic demands of the employees.
What kinds of resistance might the leader expect to see? Identify and explain at least five of these. What strategies might you employ to manage each of these areas of resistance?
According to Kreitner and Kinicki, "Resistance to change is an emotional/behavioral response to the real or imagined threats to an established work routine." (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). Of the authors' ten reasons employees resist change, five reasons that were of particular impact in the scenario were: surprises and fear of the unknown, as when innovative or radically different changes are introduced without warnings, and the natural emotion/tendency for employees is to become fearful. To prevent the spread of invalid rumors, managers must develop communication plans to minimize employees' emotions of fear of the unknown. Secondly, a climate of mistrust can arise when change comes under pretense and deception and employees come to distrust their managers. In an effort to prevent such an undesirable climate of secrecy managers must honestly discussing coming changes. Thirdly, intimidating changes can cause employee to doubt their capabilities. To
A variety of technical and management issues arise during the implementation and operation of any change process. Change management in technology projects is essential to implement and monitor mechanisms to support and control users, business, and technology (Yarberry, 2007). There are different change project modules used at any stage of a project development. These include the change curve, Lewin's change management model, and Beckhard and Harris change model used in the understanding phase. The project-planning phase uses the impact analysis, Burke-Litwin, McKinsey 7s framework, Leavitt's diamond, organization design, and SIPOC diagrams. The implementation stage uses Kotter's 8-step change model, training needs assessment, while the communication change uses stakeholder analysis, stakeholder management, mission statement, and vision statements. In this analysis, the Leavitt's Diamond, the Kotter's 8-step change model, and Leavitt's model for organizational change is concerned with the interdependence of four main factors, including structure, people, technology, and task.…
Aladwani, A.M. (2001). Change Management Strategies for Successful ERP Implementation. Business Process Management Journal 7, 266.
Bruckman, J.C. (2008) Overcoming Resistance to change: Casual Factors, Interventions, and Critical Values. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, Psychology Press 11, 211-219.
Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page
Davison, R. (2002) Cultural Complications of ERP. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM 45, 109.
If the need for change is accepted, rationally, then emotionally, then gradually workers will become more willing and open to learn, and to incorporate the change into the organization's standard operating procedures. Individuals are more apt to accept change if, for example, they are convinced that it will improve patient care in the long run, than if the directive is merely dispensed as required because 'management says so.'
The critical aspect of fifth phase of the change process of "learning" is how changes are introduced. Communicating is an essential aspect of 'buy-in' but so is fostering a positive sense within the organization about the proposed changes by 'creating early wins' (Campbell 2008). This will lead to an increase in people's perceived own competence in their new roles. Unfortunately, starting with easier projects is not always feasible, but even if it is not, a Clinical Nurse Leader must be particularly sensitive…
Campbell, Robert James. (2008, January/March). Change management in healthcare.
The Health Care Manager. 27 (1): 23-39
Recklies, Oliver. (2010). Managing change. The Manager. Retrieved February 24, 2010 at http://www.themanager.org/strategy/change_phases.htm
Schuler, a.J. (2003). Overcoming resistance to change. Retrieved February 24, 2010 at http://www.schulersolutions.com/resistance_to_change.html
Above all else, senior management must show belief in and a strong commitment to the change as well for it to succeed (Aladwani, 2001). Best practices in this area are achieved when companies rely on transformational or Coach-based leadership relative to transactional or authoritarian-based means
(Ash, Burn, 2003). The greater the belief those most affected by the EP implementation see the new system as a compliment to what they are doing, the lower the resistance to change. Senior management must take on a leadership role for this to happen however.
Based on the lessons learned from successful and unsuccessful EP implementations, the key success factors of enabling top management leadership to take a role in defining risks and rewards of the new implementation is critical (Aladwani, 2001). Second, the EP implementation must be "owned" by those most affected by fit for the change management program to be effective…
Aladwani, a.M. (2001). Change management strategies for successful ERP implementation. Business Process Management Journal, 7(3), 266-275.
Ash, C.G., & Burn, J.M. (2003). A strategic framework for the management of ERP enabled e-business change. European Journal of Operational Research, 146(2), 374-387.
Carton, F., Adam, F., & Sammon, D. (2008). Project management: A case study of a successful ERP implementation. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 1(1), 106-124.
Kemp, M.J., & Low, G.C. (2008). ERP innovation implementation model incorporating change management. Business Process Management Journal, 14(2), 228-242.
Software quality management, compliance, and collaboration across the entire organization also need to be integrated at the process and role level with the LMA supply chain. As the LMA supply chain is very unique in that it specifically deals with prototypes often that are under covered under security guidelines and clearances, there needs to be continual focus on change management and task ownership in this area as well. For LMA supply chains is their major source of pricing competitive advantage as the company ahs been responsible for several innovations in this process area (Cheung, Myers, 2008). In conclusion as CEO of LMA the challenge of attaining and strengthening global competitiveness begins with being a transformational leader followed by concentrating on transforming compliance into a competitive advantage, and also striving to create a high level of task ownership, mastery and collaboration within and between the company's teams and outside partners including…
Appelbaum, S., J. Berke, J. Taylor, and J. Vazquez. "The Role of Leadership During Large Scale Organizational Transitions: Lessons from Six Empirical Studies." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 13, no. 1
(March 1, 2008): 16-24.
Spencer Arnesen, and Jeff Thompson. "ERP merger mania." Strategic Finance 85, no. 4 (October 1, 2003): 30-36.
Mark Brenner. "It's all about people: change management's greatest lever." Business Strategy Series 9, no. 3 (May 1, 2008): 132-137.
Smaller firms can use change management concepts to assess the current economic and environment and find a unique niche that they can fill, and become a first mover in a new marketplace. Strategies for dealing with change resistance are often important in large organizations with many different employee subcultures, but a small firm may also be resistant because of its 'homey' atmosphere that can cause resistance to change. A smaller organization with more limited resources can likewise benefit from the constant housecleaning of inefficient ideas and processes of change management. In both small and large organizations, change only happens through people, and the people-focused strategy of managing change and making changes work rather than hinder the organization is useful to all organizations, regardless of size ("Thirteen Tips for Managing Change," 2006, North Central Regional Educational Laboratory).
McNamara, Carter. (1997). "Basic Context for Organizational Change." Management
Help. Retrieved 6…
McNamara, Carter. (1997). "Basic Context for Organizational Change." Management
Help. Retrieved 6 Mar 2007 at http://www.managementhelp.org/mgmnt/orgchnge.htm
Thirteen Tips for Managing Change." (2006). North Central Regional Educational
Laboratory. Retrieved 6 Mar 2007 http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le5spark.htm
Change Is Never Easy
One of the hardest things for any company to accomplish is graceful change. This is true for at least several reasons. The first is that change is psychologically difficult: Letting go of the known for the unknown, even when the unknown is likely to be a good deal better, can seem fraught with numerous perils. The other major reason that change can be so difficult for companies and other large organizations is that group enterprises require a relatively high level of stability and predictability to thrive. Even an organization that is composed of highly skilled, intelligent, and flexible people cannot change as quickly as can a single individual. This is simply too much inertia in the system and too many specific relational dynamics that have to be shifted for change to occur as quickly as can be the case with an individual.
That said, it remains…
However, this research does not stop at the idea that inertia exists as a powerful force in organizations; rather, after acknowledging the power of inertia, the authors moved past this idea (which does not account for the real and successful changes that can and do occur in a number of organizations) to incorporate "theories of organizational learning and innovation not found in the original formulation of structural inertia. The result is a broader model of inertia and momentum in organizations."
In other words, any sophisticated analysis of change must be able to account for the ways in which organizations resist change in the name of stability but also how they are able to overcome this inertia and actually effect change. One of the most important aspects of this piece of research -- and a strength that was in fact exhibited by CMIG -- is that organizations tend to resist change not out of weakness but because stability (which can here be seen as the counterpart to change) is valued by so many different stakeholders:
Hannan and Freeman's (1984) structural inertia theory offers a model of the process of organizational change that includes both internal and external constraints on organizational change. The first part of their argument addressed the probability of organizational change. They argued that organizations exist because they are able to perform with reliability and, if questioned, to account rationally for their actions. Reliability and accountability are high when organizational goals are institutionalized and patterns of organizational activity are routinized, but institutionalization and routinization also generate strong pressures against organizational change. Thus, the very characteristics that give an organization stability also generate resistance to change and reduce the probability of change. The second part of their argument dealt with the effect of organizational change on survival. They argued that because both internal and external stakeholders prefer organizations that exhibit reliable performance and because change disrupts both internal routines and external linkages, organizational change is hazardous. (Amburgey, Kelly, & Barnett, 1993).
Change in the words of Wong (2007, p.195) "may consist of policy changes, new requirements, reorganizations, new management, budget cuts, or a change in business plans." As the author further points out, these changes could either be systematic or sudden. Changes are largely inevitable. In projects, changes according to Meredith and Mantel (2009, P.167) could be caused by three things; errors in initial assessments, receipt of new info regarding the ongoing project, and project environment changes. In some instances, a manager could encounter some behavioral alterations on the part of team members as they encounter change. The said alterations in this case could be as a result of the different responses people have to change. For instance, as Wong (2007) notes, while there are those who may be curious to learn more or view the possibility of change as an opportunity, others could either be suspicious or skeptical…
Adair, J.E. ed., 2004. The Concise Adair on Team Building and Motivation. London: Thorogood Publishing.
Meredith, J.R. & Mantel, S.J. 2009. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Tomczyk, C.A. 2010. Project Manager's Spotlight on Planning. Alameda, CA: SYBEX Inc.
Wong, Z. 2007. Human Factors in Project Management: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques for Inspiring Teamwork and Motivation. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
The change leader should feel confident about the change if decision criteria are driven by impartial and objective considerations and his position is based on organizational, mission, vision and strategies. Then leader should try to convince all employees on objective and factual grounds while also taking care of their emotional issues. If leaders do not behave well and control their own emotions then employee morale gets affected. "Most executives do a good job of communicating a strong sense of urgency to effect change and move people out of their comfort zones. This often launches a flurry of activities in the right direction to start with. However, sustaining the quality and level of activities is a different ball game. For the abstraction that is called business, it requires more than organizational structure, incentives and job descriptions to have a multitude of people work in a concerted manner towards a common objective…
Lawler III, E. & Mohrman, S.2003,'HR as a Strategic Partner: What Does it Take to Make it Happen?', Human Resource Planning, Vol.26, No.3, p.15+.
Thite, M. 2004, Managing People in the New Economy, Sage Publication, New Delhi.
David, F. (1991). Strategic Management. 3rd Ed. McMillan
Jansen, K. (2000). The Emerging Dynamics of Change: Resistance, Readiness, and Momentum. Human Resource Planning. Vol: 23. Issue: 2.
Change Strategy Worksheet and Simple SWOT Analysis
Would the strategy best facilitate change for the short or long-term and why?
Education and communication
The strategy would enhance both long-term and short-term change. It prevents the presence of resistance especially where there is inadequate information about The New Hire Orientation Project. The step is essential because people will start to adjust to the new system even before the project is established. More so, the strategy allows employees and other stakeholders to understand the primary reasons for establishing the change (Zeng, 2014). Education will also play a significant role because it will enable the employees to connect the practicum change with the institution's short- and long-term objectives. For this reason, they will help with the implementation of the change.
Participation and involvement
I would facilitate change for the short-term. In this case, it is effective in situations where the initiators do not…
Campbell, R. J. (2008). Change Management in Health Care. The Health Care Manager. Volume 27, Number 1, pp. 23-39
Eacott, S. (2011). Leadership Strategies: Re-Conceptualising Strategy for Educational Leadership. School Leadership & Management, 31(1), 35-46
Goksoy, A. (2015). Organizational Change Management Strategies in Modern Business. IGI Global
Karlsson, C., & Tavassoli, S. (2015). Innovation strategies of firms: What strategies and why? J Technol Transf The Journal of Technology Transfer. doi:10.1007/s10961-015-9453-4
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…
Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.
Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
The commonly-cited approach to deal with resistance to change is to "highlight the risks of clinging to the status quo and to be forthright about the uncertainty of the future when introducing employees to the proposed changes, which assumes that employees can rationally predict and understand their interests (Tavares 2009, p.11). Furthermore, employees are often justifiably suspicious of change, given that their personal interests and management interests may not be aligned. The recent series of debacles in the technology sector, the American auto industry, and the financial services industry are all testimony to this fact. Thus finding a true 'change management' approach that is demonstrably effective remains elusive: furthermore, managers often have trouble understanding why certain changes do work. This confusion has shifted theorists' emphasis back to leadership at top -- in other words, the idea that if people won't change, managers must change people. And sometimes "in unusual cases,…
Tavares, T. (2009, September). 'Change management' faces major changes. Canadian HR
Reporter, 22(16), 11. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global.
(Document ID: 1895112551).
In that sense, Wilkoff (1995, as cited by Weick & Quinn, 1999) reports on her attempts to intervene between two companies that had fused together in an unsuccessful mergence. The actors of the various companies persistently disagreed due to cultural differences in mindset, whereupon the consultant, recognizing this, changed her strategy. he began meeting with each actor separately and explaining the other's performance from his or her particular cultural assumptions. In this way, once each had understood the other, could both meet together and the mergence actually become effective. In a similar way, says chein, can change be best implemented when the leader is willing and able to looking into, work with, and attempt to understand other cultural patterns. History is change. Change necessitates working with and understanding the heterogeneity of cultures that constitute the world. A leader who does this becomes flexible to the change dynamic and can best…
Bartunek JM. 1993. The multiple cognitions and conflicts associated with second order organizational change. In Social Psychology in Organizations: Advances in Theory and Research, ed. JK Murnighan, pp. 322. 49. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Beer M, Eisenstat RA, Spector B. 1990. The Critical Path to Corporate Renewal. Boston, MA: Harv. Bus. Sch.
Brand, a. (1990). The Force of Reason: An Introduction to Habermas, London: Allen & Unwin.
Crawford, Amy. "The Swamp Fox." Smithsonian.com. (http://www. smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/biography/fox.html)
esistance to Change Within Sony Corporation
propose strategies that the current CEO Howard Stringer can Ilise to try to manage this resistance
Morgan identified eight organizational perspectives that can be used as frameworks for organizational resistance. In the case of Sony Corporation, the CEO Howard Stringer faced resistance when he tried to introduce the western way of management. The employees resisted the changes, and this brought about many other issues. Using Morgan's organizational metaphors, Howard Stringer could have managed to overcome this resistance. The machine view suggests that employees will operate as expected, work by following laid out procedures, and operate like clockwork. Using this metaphor, Howard could have initiated top-down commands that employees would have to follow (Muller et al., 2010). This metaphor works by reducing waste, increasing efficiency, and product standardization. At Sony Corporation, this metaphor might not work since most of the work is not repetitive, or…
MULLER, S.D., MATHIASSEN, L. & BALSHOJ, H.H. 2010. Software Process Improvement as organizational change: A metaphorical analysis of the literature. Journal of Systems and Software, 83, 2128-2146.
SUDDABY, R., HARDY, C. & HUY, Q.N. 2011. Introduction to special topic forum: Where are the new theories of organization? Academy of Management Review, 36, 236-246.
SUMI, A. & SCHUETZ, M. 2011. Is Sony Turning Around?, Pokfulam Road, Asia Case Research Centre, University of Hong Kong.
The first is structural resistance. This resistance may lie in the organization's rigidities as demonstrated by their current structure.
Closed mind-sets of organizational members offer another form of resistance to change. This is often found in a dedication to obsolete business strategies. Organizational members may simply not see the value in the change to occur, when compared to existing processes and procedures. Dan Sweeney, a vice president at IBM's retail consulting practice, found IBM in exactly this situation.
The corporation was stuck in their mechanistic command and control model, a business strategy that had lost its effectiveness (Engdahl, 2005).
The organization may also be entrenched in organizational culture that simply isn't conducive to change. In some instances the organizational values can be a powerful motivator of change, however, in others, it may be a strong resistor. This is especially true in the instances where organizational members don't have the skills…
Engdahl, R. (Summer 2005). Organization evolution: The natural change model for organizational structure in changing times. Organization Development Journal, 23(2). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Gray, S.N. (Summer 2005). Tipping points: Building momentum for lasting change. Organization Development Journal, 23(2). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Schaafsma, H. (1997). A networking model of change for middle managers. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 18(1). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Weymes, E. (May 2003). Relationships not leadership sustain successful organizations. Journal of Change Management, 3(4). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Implementation can include oversight of the physical hardware installation and training of staff members. The new system should be implemented in phases such that the entire system does not collapse in the early stages of development.
During these two phases healthcare professionals working in the organization will be given the opportunity to actively adapt to the new system. Professionals will be included in the development and design to ensure that their needs are met in the final system. In addition, comprehensive training will be provided to ensure that all staff members are able to use the new technology. These processes will help reduce resistance to change and improve overall outcomes and utility of the new system.
The most prominent resource needed to undertake this change is money. Financial resources will be needed to purchase all of the equipment needed to computerize the hospital's information systems. In addition financial…
Baharozian, D.B. (2005). Electronic medical records in practice: Are we there yet? Ophthalmology Times, 30(22), 45-47.
Swartz, N. (2005). Electronic medical records' risks feared. Information Management Journal, 39(3), 9.
reality in the business world is the need for change. When such a need is perceived in a company, it is almost always going to result in resistance. There are a variety of reasons for this. In order to effectively deal with change and resistance to change in the workplace then, it is necessary to understand the nature of the necessary change as well as the reasons for resistance. In an attempt to understand the nature of resistance, it is important to remember that resistance from employees to change is often a necessary and healthy thing. When it is dealt with effectively, resistance to change can be as beneficial as change itself. The best way to deal with resistance then is to recognize it and use it to implement the proposed changes in the most effective way possible. To do this, it is useful to study the phenomenon not only…
Anderson, Dean & Linda. "Resistance to Change." In "Results from Change: e-newsletter, April, 2002. Being First, Inc. http://www.beingfirst.com/changeresources/articles/200204/
Business Strategy: Change. 2005. http://www.strategy-business.com/resiliencereport/resilience/rr00003?pg=all
There is no acknowledgement that leaders may indeed be flexible according to the situation and followers that they are dealing with. Even though women, for example, may favor a more laissez-faire type of leadership style than men (Eagly, Johannesen-chmidt & Van Engen), this does not mean that they will do so in all circumstances, or indeed that all female leaders will have this tendency.
The Path-Goal Theory
The path-goal theory is one of the most flexible and popular models used in the changing business world today. It allows for an integration of various styles, personalities and situations. The components inherent in this theory is the particular path that employees are expected to follow in order to reach a certain desired goal. The position of the leader in this model is to provide followers with desirability in terms of goals and the removal of obstacles along the way towards obtaining the…
Eagly, A.H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M.C., & van Engen, M.L. (2003, July). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591.
Hughes, Richard L., Ginnett, Robert C. & Curphy, Gordon J. (2002). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (4th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.
Kuriger, Craig C. (2006, July/August) Workplace change and worker fears: when new technology enters the workplace. Army Logistician
Parker, Dennis R. (2002, January/February). Create opportunities, not fear, through change. Leadership.
The focus of each study is how to navigate the complexities of organizational change while keeping the company in balance and moving forward towards its objectives (Galbraith, 1982). One analysis concentrates on the structural components of an effective culture that is agile enough to change yet solid enough to be stable enough to grow on (Designing the Innovative Organization) (Galbraith, 1982). The other concentrates on how best to define the cultural foundation of a company from a sociability and solidarity standpoint (Goffee, Jones,1996). Both of these approaches are highly effective in creating a navigational focus on change management and cultural strategy decisions. As both analyses illustrate just how potent the potential is for modifying a culture based on its ability to take into account the myriad of factors that resist change, their insights would be invaluable for managers looking to side-step the major stumbling blocks evident in resistance to change.…
Galbraith, J. 1982 Designing the Innovative Organization. Organizational Dynamics.
Goffee J. And Jones, G. 1996. What holds the modern corporation together? Harvard Business Review. November-December.
Effective Communication Strategies
Overview of the Schools' Current Situation
Issues Discussed During Faculty etreat
Issue to be discussed on 14th September, 2012
Issue to be discussed on 15th September, 2012
Issue to be discussed on 16th September, 2012
The report entails a thorough analysis of the current difficulties faced by the Montgomery University of South Carolina. Despite the presence of necessary infrastructure, the University has been facing various problems in maintaining the educational standards which is directly related to University's funds management. Another troubles area is the attraction of new students and retention of the old ones.
A survey has been conducted for understanding the possible causes of these problems. The possible reasons along with the possible solutions identified, will be discussed in the Faculty retreat which will be taking place from 14-16 September, 2012. It will be suggested that a body managing the performance of the faculty members…
Dent, E., & Goldberg, S. 1999a. Challenging "resistance to change." Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35: 25 -- 41.
Dent, E.B., & Goldberg, S.G. 1999b. Resistance to change: A limiting perspective. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35: 45 -- 47
Knowles, E.S., & Linn, J.A. 2004. The importance of resistance to persuasion. In E.S. Knowles & J.A. Linn (Eds.), Resistance and persuasion: 3 -- 9. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
There are a number of issues at play in this scenario. The two employees are raising some interesting, practical concerns. However, management may have already dealt with these concerns. Thus, there is a point where management needs to act on its strategies, knowing that it has already considered the issues that Vernon and Bud are raising. The key now is that management needs to change the way that these two are thinking and get them on board with the change.
esistance to change occurs for several reasons. Some people's mental models are essentially non-flexible, and as a result they are unable or unwilling to conceive of change. This makes them resistant to change. The first question the company has to ask is whether these two are resisting change because they have thought this issue through and have legitimate concerns about the company's strategy, or because they are simply resistant…
Lawrence, P. (1969). How to deal with resistance to change. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://hbr.org/1969/01/how-to-deal-with-resistance-to-change/ar/1
Stauffer, D. (2011). Mindset: Innovation's third way. Innovator Mindset. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://blog.innovatormindset.com/2011/09/19/mindset-innovations-third-way/
Tanner, R. (2014). Organizational change: 8 reason why people resist change. Business Consulting Solutions. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://managementisajourney.com/organizational-change-8-reasons-why-people-resist-change/
change management strategy can ensure organizational success. Change is inevitable, as internal and external forces will impact organizations continually, requiring ongoing adjustments and assessments. As Nguyen Huy & Mintzberg (2003) point out, "resistance to change is bad," because resistance is a futile exercise in clinging to what will no longer work (p. 79). The goal is not to generate forces of change unnecessarily but to recognize when change is needed, what kinds of change, and how to steer the organization in the right direction to successfully navigate the new playing field. As Morgan (2006) points out, some organizations even thrive on change, particularly when change becomes part of the ways employees use their critical and creative thinking to continually collaborate on new ideas and directions for the organization. Unfortunately, the case study of the elementary school is one that highlights the need for change-resistant organizations to inject new life and…
Kotter, J.P. & Schlesinger, L.A. (2008). Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved online: https://hbr.org/2008/07/choosing-strategies-for-change
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organization. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Nguyen Huy, Q. & Mintzberg, H. (2003). The rhythm of change. MIT Sloan Management Review.
Organizational Planning and Goal Setting
Why the older, original planning and goal setting process will no longer work for H2o Solutions
Today, an organization can adopt any of the three types of organizational structures; the centralized, top-down planning, and the decentralized models. Initially, H2o Solutions followed the centralized and top-down planning model. However, the model became ineffective as the company grew. H2o Solutions now needs to integrate the very employees it has hired into the planning and goal-setting process. This cannot be achieved by the original top-down approach because it puts all the decision-making powers exclusively in the hands of the senior management. The company needs a new model, which will enable the senior managers to disseminate decision-making powers to low-level and middle managers. With the old model, H2o Solutions suffers from adverse impacts of multiple management layers which stretch from the senior leadership down to frontline employees. The senior…
Cassidy, C, Kreitner, B, & Vanhuss, S. (2014). Administrative Management: Setting People Up for Success. New York: Cengage Learning
Daft, R. L. & Marcic, D. (2010). Understanding Management. New York: Cengage Learning
Dyck, B. & Neubert, M. (2008). Management: Current Practices and New Directions. New York: Cengage Learning
Sinofsky, S. & Iansiti, M. (2009). One Strategy: Organization, Planning, and Decision-Making. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
The Leadership Style
The Change Process
Change Leadership in emember the Titans
The film is set in the 1970s in April of 1971, during a period in which the United States Supreme Court passed a historic judgment about the issue of state imposed segregation in public schools. Following the judgment in the same year T.C. Williams High School located in Alexander Virginia were racially integrated which serves as the setting on which the film is portrayed. The context of the film is critical to understanding the plot because during these events there was social discord between blacks and whites in America (Titans et al., 2015).
The story begins with the integration of the schools. As a result of the integration, the football teams of the two schools were merged and a new team was formed. Herman Boone was appointed head coach who was chosen by a wining…
Hu, J., & Liden, R. (2011). Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: An examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 851-862. doi:10.1037/a0022465
Rus, D., van Knippenberg, D., & Wisse, B. (2010). Leader power and leader self-serving behavior: The role of effective leadership beliefs and performance information. Journal Of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 922-933. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2010.06.007
Titans, R., Yakin, B., Howard, G., Washington, D., Patton, W., & Harris, W. (2015). Remember the Titans (2000). IMDb. Retrieved 19 March 2015, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0210945/
Overcoming esistance to Change
Change management can be most difficult in companies that are entrenched in their company culture. In the case of the company in the study, the company has a high number of employees that have been with the company for a long period of time. These employees present the greatest challenge to overcome in terms of change management. They are more likely to continue to do their jobs as they have done them in the past. For employees that have been with the company the longest, the proposed changes in customer service would mean changes in long-established daily habits and routines. outines are comfortable and changing these routines can be stressful for employees, particularly those who have been there for long time. This study will examine the limits and obstacles that make changes in organizational structure difficult for companies with an entrenched corporate culture.
Beer, M., Eisenstat, R.A., & Spector, B. (1990). "Why Change Programs Don't Produce Change." Harvard Business Review. 68(6). 158- 66.
Cascio. W.F. (1993). " Downsizing: What do we know? What have we learned?" Academy of Management Executive 7(1), 92-104.
Oxman, J. & Smith, B. (2003). "The Limits of Structural Change," Sloan Management Review. 77-82.
Simons, R., Mintzberg. H., & Basu. K. (2002). "Memo to: CEOs:." Fast Company. 59, 117-121.
Spending any time at all at one of the nation's first, oldest and largest state theaters, a founding member of the League of esident Theaters, brings to mind only one phrase above all others: "Off with their heads." The theatrical organization is run as if by the mad Queen in Alice in Wonderland. No real management is performed. Instead, edicts are issued by the CEO and founder and carried out without regard to the bottom line or any standards of acceptable organizational behavior. In short, there is the rule of fear, and nothing more.
When the theatre runs into problems, the solution is not to find remedies for those problems, but to replace personnel -- itself a highly expensive proposition -- and seek more government and corporate grants to cover the costs of operating the theater. The board of directors has been asked by more than…
References http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000881292' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
As we will see in the case studies, leadership is a decisive factor in the process of diagnosing and in the implementation of changes in the operation of a corporate organisation. IT, HR and corporate work ethics may be excellent. However, without secure and decisive leadership, the best organisational makeovers can fail miserably.
In this part of the essay, this author will illustrate three models and techniques in the change management professional literature for diagnosing organisations. ith regard to this, we will compare and contrast three different diagnostic models/techniques, including the main strengths and weaknesses of each. In this discussion, we will also examine the relationship between each diagnostic model/technique and the organisational development and political approaches to organisational change.
In the first we will consider, a great person and a great organisational management team leads change and the charge, focusing in on areas that needs to be changed.…
Aloini, D., Dulmin, R., & Mininno, M. (2007). Risk management in erp project introduction: Review of the literature. Information & Management, 44, 547 -- 567.
Flamholtz, E.G. (2011). The leadership molecule hypothesis: Implications for entrepreneurial organizations. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 1-24.
Ford, M.W., & Evans, J.R. (2006). The role of follow-up in achieving results from self-assessment processes. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 23, 589-606.
Friedman, B.A. (2007). Globalization implications for human resource management roles. Employment Responsibility Rights Journal, 19, 157 -- 171.
Kotter's sequence: establishing a sense urgency creating a guiding coalition.
Change management: Best Buy's successful adoption of change
Change management: Best Buy's successful adoption of change
It is said that change is constant and the one constant in economic life is change. But despite the 'predictability' of change, the phenomenon of change resistance is another 'constant' in organizations. John Kotter in his book Leading Change offers an eight-step prescription to fight against change resistance, to create a positive environment that fosters change. The efficacy of Kotter's eight steps can be seen in Best Buy and its shift a results-only system of valuing employee's contributions, which stands in stark contrast to its previous attempts to institute change.
Establish a sense of urgency
At Best Buy, before adopting a results-only work environment, the organization was a "ferociously face-time place" (Smashing the Clock, 2006, Business Week). Burnout and attrition of high-quality…
Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Smashing the Clock. (2006) Business Week. Retrieved January 10, 2011 at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_50/b4013001.htm
According to Liao (2006), "The companies have entered into significant, long-term agreements that give Lenovo customers preferred access to IBM's world-class customer service organization and global financing offerings. This will enable Lenovo to take advantage of IBM's powerful worldwide distribution and sales network. Lenovo's customers are able to count on the entire IBM team - including sales, services and financing - for access to IBM's legendary end-to-end it solutions" (p. 3). In addition, pursuant to IBM's five-year contractual commitment, it will also provide Lenovo with warranty services and provide Lenovo customers with leasing and financing arrangements. According to Liao, "Through this long-term relationship, customers will receive the best products with the lowest total-cost-of-ownership" (2006 p. 3). Among the company's initiatives in this final phase of the change management process were additional efforts to further support their new dual business model. To this end, Lenovo upgraded its technology to work with…
About Lenovo. 2007. Lenovo: United States. [Online]. Available: http://www.lenovo.com/lenovo/us/en/ .
Bass, Bernard M. 1997. "Does the Transactional -- Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?" American Psychologist, 52(2), 130.
De Angelis, a.P. 2006, Spring. Don't 'dis' Chinese science. Issues in Science and Technology, 22(3), 31.
Dessler, Gary. 2006. "Expanding into China? What Foreign Employers Should Know about Human Resource Management in China Today." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 71(4), 11.
Yet Arab-Americans are not necessarily hostile to the idea of greater community intervention, provided it is done to enhance community life, and not done to profile all Arab-American residents as terrorists. In fact, in the city of Chicago, there have been calls for greater police intervention in Arab-American communities by parents and local leaders, to reduce the threat of violent crime. Nizar Hasan, president of the Arab-American Police Association, believes Arab-American youth are increasingly falling into negative criminal behaviors. "It's getting worse…Some of these kids first try [drugs], get hooked, want more and look for ways to make money to support their habit, which means criminal activity" (Bohn & Schott 2009). However because Chicago, like many cities, does not track crime rates amongst Arab-Americans they are not labeled as 'minorities' -- "according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, persons from the Middle East and North Africa, like those…
Bohn, Lauren E. & Paul Schott. (2009, November 17). Blight of street crime creeping into Arab-
American community. Merrill reports. Northwestern University. Retrieved October 19,
2010 at http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=147319
Elliott, Andrea. (2006, June 13). After 9/11 Arab-Americans fear police, study finds. New York
Change initiatives in any organization can meet with success or failure, and results are dependent upon the leadership involved. In my experience, I have worked within a variety organizations, however none as recent as a technology organization of which I provide program management solutions. Management has come to the realization that there is a need for better collaboration with information and data. That there is a need for a certain amount of transparency in the information gathered. Their past way of interacting with data would create the triplicate touch of information, thus questioning the validity of data integrity and at the same time, information was lost in translation. Leadership in efforts of change management requires a deeper understanding of the projects at hand, as well as an understanding of the organizations global picture.
In the organization I currently work in, the task is the creation of an online solution to…
Boyatzis, R., Goleman, D., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership. Boston: Harvard Business
Koestenbaum, P. (2002). Leadership: The Inner Side of Greatness, A Philosophy for Leaders 2nd Edition. New York: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
Change management is one of the most important components in the successful operations of a company or business organization. The modern business environment is characterized by numerous changes that are attributable to various factors including technological developments and globalization. In this regard, business organizations or companies increasingly face the need to adopt changes in their operations in order to align their businesses with the industry they operate it. However, the process of instituting organizational change in complex and can hurt a company’s operations if not conducted appropriately. As a result, there are various change management models that have been developed to help the management in instituting and managing organizational change. These models help in management of planned and unplanned change in the organization in order to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness in the industry or market it operates in. Some of these change management models include Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step Change…
Human beings are by nature change-resistant and particularly within an organizational context there is anxiety about change, given fears of job losses or simply being unable to adapt. It is essential to convince change agents of the need and urgency for change and also of the congruency of the change with the evolving vision for the company.
A "vision statement should have four elements: a customer orientation, employee focus, organizational competencies, and standards of excellence" ("Changing the game," 2015:3). The change should be demonstrated to enhance all of the organization's capacities, not simply improve its bottom line in the short-term. Having an effective vision statement is necessary for effective change. The Lewin Model of organizational change stresses the need for a three-part adaptation process called unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. In other words, the organization must be temporarily destabilized or unfrozen before it returns to a new…
DiMaggio, M. (2009). The top 10 best (and worst) corporate mergers of all time... or, the good, the bad, and the ugly. Rasmussen. Retrieved from:
McClure, B. (2015). Mergers and acquisitions: Why they can fail. Investopedia. Retrieved from:
These are the two most powerful factors that anchor the Force Field Model analysis of the enterprise software industry. With the driving and restraining forces in continual interaction and at times conflict, productivity shifts drastically across the continuums of industries based on the impact of driving and restraining forces (Paquin, Koplyay, 2007).
Cincom is being affected by the disruptive driving forces of CAPEX and OPEX most severely as competitors are quick to create a competitive advantage for themselves by seizing these areas and exploiting them in the market. CAPEX and OPEX are driving such a high rate of disruptive innovation and transformation change that it is in turn disrupting cultures of companies and reordering stakeholder dynamics as well (Koslowski, Struker, 2011). The political and technological forces are also driven by these economic ones, with the restraining forces of the Force Field Model applied to enterprise software being led by CIOs…
Armenakis, a.A. & Harris, S.G. 2002, "Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness," Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 169-183.
Boga, I. & Ensari, N. 2009, "The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success," the Psychologist Manager Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 235.
Bordum, a. 2010, "The strategic balance in a change management perspective," Society and Business Review, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 245-258.
Brown, a.D. 1994, "Transformational leadership in tackling change," Journal of General Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1-1.
Change anywhere is never easy, in fact most people in an organization usually have a difficult adjustment when it comes to that. However, it is a process that cannot be avoided, it must happen. An organization may have no other choice but to change. hen this occurs, it is important to make sure that the employees are all on the same page and that this change is good and scary at the same time. There are so many various reasons for an organization to change, for instance a sudden change of the financial climate or the arising threat of competition. Through getting a good understanding of the procedure and theory of organizational change, an organization such as the Fairfax Media Group can manage change in the best conceivable way.
In Jennifer M. George's and Gareth R. Jones book, Contemporary Management, organizational change is well-defined as "the crusade of…
Fisher, D.R. (2000). Global and domestic actors within the global climate change regime: Toward a theory of the global environmental system. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(3), 221-234.
Ford, R. (2004). Organizational learning, change and power: Toward a practice-theory framework. The Learning Organization,, 13(5).
Macri, D.M., Tagliaventi, M.R., & Bertolotti, F. (2002). A grounded theory for resistance to change in a small organization. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 15(3), 292-310.
Nelson, L. (2005). A case study in organisational change: Implications for theory. The Learning Organization, 12(3), 18-30.
Facilitating Organizational Change
Change in Organizations
Change is often resisted at both the individual and organizational levels despite the potential for positive outcomes. The reasons for this are varied and the process of identifying them can be difficult. obbins and Judge (2010) note that most organizations have developed practices and procedures over an extended period and being based on behaviors to which employees are strongly committed are by and large stable. In order for an organization to keep up in an ever evolving world it must learn and change accordingly. This paper examines the characteristics of a learning organization, barriers to change, and some of the elements that must be present in order to bring about organizational change.
Characteristics of a Learning Organization
A "big picture" organizational point-of-view, a supportive organizational culture and a common understanding and agreement of organizational goals are elements necessary for the creation and maintenance of…
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Resistance to Change
There are any number of reasons for resistance to change in an organization, among them poor communication, self-interest, exclusion, lack of trust and lack of skills (Brookins, 2017). Sometimes change is resisted specifically because the organization does not communicate the need for change effectively -- the people see the disruptive aspects of change but they don't understand the motivation behind the change nor the objectives of the change. In such situations, they may resist, but had the communication surrounding the change been better might not have resisted.
However, not all change is positive from the perspective of all people. What business executives and managers see as positive might be negative, and in such cases resistance can be entirely legitimate in nature. If people are losing their jobs, or if their roles shift to the point where they feel that they no longer have the right skill set…
In the economy today change is inevitable in any organization in the world. This is because each and every organization strives to remain strong in the market as well as being relevant. The only way the organizations can achieve this is through evolving so as to ensure that they are at the same level with the rest of the world. Changes occur even in big organizations like Samsung electronics. Samsung electronics is among the largest phone makers in the world and change is inevitable for them. This is because there is a lot of evolution in the world of electronics and Samsung has to undergo changes within the organization that will ensure what they produce is exactly what the world wants. It is very difficult for Samsung to avoid change as it is the new ideas that promote its growth as an organization.
There are many reasons that…
Anderson A., (2013). The Five Top Qualities Needed for an Effective Leader to Facilitate Change in an Organization. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/five-top-qualities-needed-effective-leader-facilitate-change-organization-5.html
Miranda B., (2013). What Causes Resistance to Change Within an Organization. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/causes-resistance-change-organization-347.html
Nadler & Tushman, (1995).What Changes in Organization. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0073404993/579428/Sample_Chapter.pdf
Coping with Change
In many cases, change is a daunting prospect. Although the world effectively exists in a continuous state of change, alterations to people's daily lives -- particularly as related to their families or to their workplace environments -- can frequently generate resistance from the individuals most affected. Still, there are other times in which change is desired and readily embraced. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze a host of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors that are responsible for producing resistance to change in people, in order to better understand this phenomenon and to ultimately cope with it.
External resistance to change stems from a number of factors, particularly in an organization or workplace environment. One of the most readily identifiable of these is lack of trust in management (Pasubathy, 2010, p. ). Quite simply, there are numerous situations in which people are not consulted about change, and it…
Bolognese, A.F. (2014). Employee resistance to organizational change. www.newfoundations.com. Retrieved from http://www.newfoundations.com/OrgTheory/Bolognese721.html
Pasubathy, G. (2010). Factors influencing resistance to change among employees. Universiti Utara Malaysia. Retrieved from http://etd.uum.edu.my/2673/
Wember, T. (2013). "Kotter's 8-step change model." www.leadershipthoughts.com Retrieved from http://leadershipthoughts.com/knowledge-articles/kotters-8-step-change-model/
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…
Abramson, Mark A., and Paul R .Lawrence .2001. The Challenge of Transforming
Administration and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision,
50(10), 1843-1860, Review 62: 555-67.
Armenakis, Achilles A ., and Arthur G .Bedeian .1999 .Organizational Change: A Review of Associates.
Factors that affect an organization's capacity and willingness to change need to be examined and exploited. Organizational culture, which is a set of shared values and assumptions that are followed by the members of an organization, plays an important role in affecting the attitude of an organization to change. If an organizational history has been unwelcome to change in the past, it is highly unlikely that an organization will be willing to accept change in the future. Sometimes, core competency can assist in the process of change (Porter, 1980).
Lastly, at the individual level, the process of change is completed when it is implemented within a company. The task of the general manager then becomes of envisioning the future of the change and of facilitating cooperation among the workforce. He is also responsible for implementing change at various levels of production, development and distribution. In particular, what needs to be…
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Organization Change - Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Change is the only inevitable factor within any organization in the contemporary society. The changes that take place in line with the Human esources as well as the technology are so rapid that to stay relevant, each organization must of necessity keep up-to-date with the changes that are relevant to the organization. However, to have effective change, amid all the challenges that come with the attempt to effect change, there must be leadership that leverages power and is in a position to influence change and manage it to the conclusive end. It should be noted that change is not a destination but a continuous process, hence change management must also be continuous and not static. Changes in organizations take place all the time and each and every day which in most cases are…
Agguire D., et.al (2013). Culture's Role in Enabling Organizational ChangeSurvey Ties
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Managing Human esources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…
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Kotter, J. (1995, march-april). Leading Change:Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Havard Business School Review, 59-67.
Coping Change, people embrace concept. We, part, creatures habit follow daily routines. When change occurs, activities thought patterns disrupted. Describe a situation resistant change identified areas: a.
One of the most well-known quotes from Ancient Greece belongs to Heraclitus who said the "Nothing is constant in life but change." People have a natural tendency to resist change as a means of self-preservation and regard it as having most often a negative impact on one's existence. This is particularly true in changes that occur in the professional life or the personal / emotional environment.
Experience has proven that change always opens a new direction in life and a new path to follow. However, there are situations in which all people do not embrace change and their reluctance in fact represents their most important shortfall. I noticed this several months ago at the workplace, when a new informational system was decided to…
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Time for change.org (2014) "Kotter's theory of change." available online at http://www.changecards.org/change-theory/kotters-theory-of-change/
The open communication and team objectives will make the COA team realize high energy, renewed commitment to the change process, and openness. In this stage, the FHA team has adopted the change, and requires leadership to sustain the drive. At this stage, an effective leadership style to maintain the drive to change is the management by objectives (Bridges & Bridges, 2009). This leadership style drives people to connect to the objectives of the change process and to the change plan. I would also motivate the team by recognizing the effort in the change process to avoid complacency.
Key Elements in the Leadership Organizational Change Process
The leadership model created in the change process was accentuated with smart-power or the model of visionary leadership. In this model, organizational and project team communication was achieved by adopting the principals of strategic control, balance of constraint and creativity, transfer of information,…
Bridges, W. & Bridges, S. (2009). Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change. 3rd ed., Da Capo Lifelong Books.
Kondalkar, V.G. (2010). Organization Effectiveness and Change Management. PHI Learning.
Martini, P.H. (2008). Toward an Integrated Model of Visionary Leadership: A Multilevel Study. Regent University, Proquest, AAT 3340923.
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