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hetoric and the Public Sphere
As the iconic co-founder and CEO of Apple Inc., and the innovator responsible for revolutionizing the way humanity communicates in the modern world, Steve Jobs was uniquely positioned to understand the immense persuasive power of rhetorical ability. Throughout his storied career Jobs' reputation for effectively communicating visionary ideas was exceeded only by his preternatural ability to persuade, shaping public perception and convincing consumers time and time again that the latest Apple product was an essential addition to their lifestyle. When Jobs took the stage to deliver his now legendary commencement address to the 2005 graduating class at Stanford University, the late multimedia mogul responsible for the Macintosh personal computer, iPod, iPhone, iPad, along with a wide array of similarly groundbreaking advances in computing technology, was poised to present his own life as an allegory for the dogged pursuit of one's personal passion. In doing so,…
Dawkins, M.A. (2013). Aristotle's rhetoric. Informally published presentation, USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.
French, J., & Raven, B. "The Bases of Social Power." In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies
in Social Power. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, 1959. 150-167.
Herrick, J.A. (2005). The history and theory of rhetoric. (3rd ed., pp. 1-30). Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/21w.747/section2/Supplements/Herrick intro.pdf
Rhetoric in Great Speeches
Cultural / Ideological Analysis
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) is credited by objective scholars and historians as having brought the United States out of the Great Depression, and as having guided the United States through the difficult and dangerous period during orld ar II. FDR was fiercely challenged by members of Congress when he was working to dig the country out of the Great Depression with his "New Deal." Members of Congress attacked FDR's programs as "socialism" -- these attacks -- using "socialism" as a hot-button word to stir up the population -- were quite similar to what the current U.S. president, Barack Obama was accused of as he battled to win legislative approval of his signature healthcare reforms, the Affordable Healthcare Act. Along the way to achieving his goals to get the country on a financially even keel and to defeat Hitler and the Japanese, FDR's…
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. (1999). Great Speeches. Dover Thrift Editions. Mineola, NY:
Courier Dover Publications.
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (2005). My Friends: Twenty Eight History Making Speeches.
Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
George Campbell defines rhetoric as "the art or talent by which discourse is adapted to its end. The four ends of discourse are to enlighten the understanding, please the imagination, move the passion, and influence the will." The success of each of these four components of rhetoric can render an argument either effective or ineffective. Campbell therefore defines effective rhetoric mainly in terms of its aims, rather than in terms of the components of the discourse itself such as ethos, pathos, and logos.
Any effective rhetoric will "enlighten the understanding." One of the foremost jobs of a rhetorician is to deepen the audience's understanding on his or her chosen subject. For example, if a speaker is discussing global warming, he or she will want to provide some background information on the phenomenon: perhaps the history of global warming and the basic scientific processes that occur. Enlightening the understanding entails…
hetoric and Politics in Orwell's "Politics and the English Language"
In his essay "Politics and the English Language," George Orwell uncovered the way language contributes to the reinforcement of certain political ideas. According to Orwell, sloppy language contributes to poor thinking, which in turn further degrades language and allows language to be deployed in the service of violence and repression. Considering this process underlines how language ideologically circumscribes the possible beliefs of any given group by encouraging and discouraging certain modes of thought.
The relationship between thinking and language is reciprocal, such that language "becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts" (Orwell, 1946, para. 2). eversing this vicious cycle of linguistic and mental degradation is necessary, because Orwell argued that "most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the…
Orwell, G. (1946). Politics and the English language. Retrieved from http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/essays/politics-and-the-english-language.htm
Rhetoric relates to the control of knowledge, and thus, the control of social and political power. It is therefore essential to deconstruct rhetoric to discover patriarchal and other forms of bias. Not only do biases lead to distorted knowledge, but biases like sexism also lead to the normalization of misogyny. Bell Hooks also notes that feminist rhetoric deconstructs, challenges, and ultimately eliminates all forms of oppression and not just sexism. Racism and other types of discrimination can be traced to faulty rhetoric.
As Foss and Griffin state, changing rhetoric is an act of empowerment. "The traditional conception of rhetoric," note Foss and Griffin, "is characterized by efforts to change others and thus gain control over them," (3-4). hereas patriarchal rhetoric is a discourse of dominance and control, feminist rhetoric is a discourse of "equality, immanent value, and self-determination," (4). Switching from a patriarchal to a feminist rhetoric can therefore have…
Foss, Sonja K. & Griffin, Cindy L. "Beyond Persuasion: A Proposal for an Invitational Rhetoric." In Communication Monographs.
Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for Everybody: Passionate Politics. Cambridge: South End Press.
"Michel Foucault on Rhetoric." Retrieved 10 May 2010 from http://bradley.bradley.edu/~ell/foucfft.html
In his chapter specifically on civil rights he gives several examples of how religious rhetoric moved through the institutions that had historical roots in faith and the dissimination of the moral proofs of faith into mainstream education. This thesis is significant in that many institutions, for both blacks and whites in the early days were founded by religious orders and when those institutions began to transition to more modern ideals they also borrowed from more diverse religious sources to do so. The example of how Gandhi's teachings were integrated into mainstream education for blacks is a foundational argument that supports this thesis as well as the whole thesis of the work. Individuals seeking more modern and multicultural ideals regarding how to demonstrate that all peoples are equal and should have equal rights, including those in the minority did not have far to search as they looked to world examples for…
In "Should College Athletes Be Paid?" Allen Sack argues that colleges and universities are exploiting their athletes but that they should still not get paid. A professor at the University of New Haven and a former college football player for Notre Dame, Sack has also written a book on the subject called Counterfeit Amateurism: An Athlete's Journey Through the Sixties to the Age of Academic Capitalism. The phrase "counterfeit amateurism" is a phrase Sack uses to describe the progression of college sports from a purely amateur athletic scenario to a big business. Yet athletes are rarely receiving the full benefits of their success. Sack would prefer to see a return to true amateur college sports devoid of the big media attention garnered today, but acknowledges that the current trend is towards the "sports entertainment empire," (Sack 2).
Paying athletes is unnecessary and would not necessarily help them achieve their…
Sack, Allen. "Should College Athletes Be Paid?" Christian Science Monitor. 7 march, 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.newhaven.edu/20719.pdf
It was not until the enaissance that the art of rhetoric would retain the heights it had reached in the classical period.
The enaissance favored classical forms of rhetorical theory - particularly Latin. The enaissance period can be seen as a severe reaction to the medieval period's emphasis on dialectical forms of scholastic endeavor. One of the key figures in the revival of the classical study of rhetoric was Erasmus. Vernacular rhetoric also began to gain in popularity during this period; this was rhetoric written in languages other than Latin and Greek, such as English. One of the best-known early English examples of this tendency was the Arte of hetorique by Thomas Wilson, which was penned in 1553. Wilson outlined what he considered to be the five main canons of rhetoric, after the classical definition by Aristotle: invention, disposition, memory, elocution, and utterance.
These five areas of rhetoric would come…
Garver, E. (1994). Aristotle's Rhetoric: An Art of Character. Chicago: University of Chicago
Hansen, M.H. (1991). The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes. Boston: Blackwell.
Nelson, J.S., Megill, a., & McCloskey, D.N. (1987). The Rhetoric of Human Sciences:
In his essay "Definition of Man," one of the clauses by which Burke describes man is, "separated form his natural condition by instruments of his own making" (Burke 13). This clearly implies an underlying "supposed to be," or ultimate reality, which Gorgias denies.
Another of the Greek Sophists was Protagoras, who -- like the other Sophists generally -- asserted that true knowledge could never really be obtained. He arrived at this conclusion by a very different means than Gorgias, however, simply asserting that the first way of knowing anything, asking the gods, usually did not yield an answer; one could then appeal to science, which gave only incomplete answers and was ultimately up to the interpretation of the third and final source of knowledge, man -- who was imperfect, susceptible to error and influence. Burke might contend that rather than there being no real knowledge, there is actually an overabundance…
Bizzell, Patricia and Bruce Herzberg. The Rhetorical Tradition. Bedford St. Martin's Press, 2001.
Burke, Kenneth. "Definition of Man."
Isocrates. "Against the Sophists."
4). Polermo's approach to rhetoric was not like the emotional appeals advocated by the other ancient Greeks, nor did it contain the same adherence to logic and truth that the Romans would later develop, but rather he undertook al things as simply as he could, distrusting both intense emotional passions and an adherence to logical arguments that seemed to show more of an individual's own shrewdness than it did the validity of their rhetoric (Yonge).
Central to the idea of rhetoric is the prolegomenon, a sort of preamble used to set up the parameters and/or explain the basic idea of a complex argument, related to our more commonly used word "prologue." hen rhetorical arguments are complex, as most orations were, the prolegomenon introduces the topic and sets the terms that will be used in the main body of the rhetoric. Examples of rhetorical speeches abound, and on topics both hugely…
Easterling, P.E. And Kenney, E.J. The Cambridge History of Classical Literature. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Heath, Malcolm. "Aphthonius' Progymnasmata." 1997. Accesssed 16 February 2009. http://www.leeds.ac.uk/classics/resources/rhetoric/prog-aph.htm
Yonge, C.D. (trans). The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers by Diogenes Laertius. Accessed 16 February 2009. http://classicpersuasion.org/pw/diogenes/dlpolemo.htm
In the final analysis the film under discussion can be deconstructed and critiqued from a postmodern perspective. This refers to the underlying ideologies and metanarratives that inform the narrative and imagery of the film.
From a postmodern point-of-view truth is never static or fixed and is always relative to a certain context or stance. The film in question makes use of a number of rhetorical devices to put forward its central argument. These include aspects such as the metanarratives of science as well as environmental nostalgia. There are many other ways in which this film could be deconstructed to reveal fissures in the apparent logic and coherence of the documentary. hat is clear is that even a discursive postmodern reading of the film indicates that Gore unconsciously or consciously makes use of various cultural predilections and ideologies in estern culture to support his stance in this film.
An Inconvenient Truth ( 2006). Direction: Davis Guggenheim. Paramount Classics.
FOUCAULT, DERRIDA, WOMEN'S SPEAKING JUSTIFIED AND MODELLING LEGAL
ARGUMENT ( Book Review). 26 January, 2010.
rhetoric and how is has been altered ever since Aristotle's days. The major emphasis is laid on comparing the two forms of rhetoric and seeing how it has changed over time. There is discussion on the use of rhetoric in daily life, politics and the media.
hetoric is basically the art of speaking or language that has long been helping writers and speakers. The main purpose behind the use of rhetoric is to motivate or persuade people. Many a times people confuse informing and persuasion. hetoric has been used for informing people and just mere informative talk; however the main reason behind using it is to persuade persons. The skill of rhetoric has been used a lot in the Western culture and has played a central role in it. Sadly enough, rhetoric hasn't remained what Aristotle initially proposed it to be. In simple words, it could be that the…
Aristotle,, WR. Roberts, ES. Forster, and Ingram Bywater. Rhetorica. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924. Print.
Dimaggio, Paul J. And Walter W. Powell . "The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields.." American Sociological Review, 48. 147160 (1983): Print.
Fontana, David. "Obama and the American Civil Religion from the Political Left ." The George Washington International Law Review, 41. 4 (2010): Print.
Gedicks, Frederick . " American Civil Religion: An Idea Whose Time is Past?." GEO. WASH. INT'L L. REV, 41. (2010): Print.
Johnson repeated the phase two hundred years later of women preaching (Woolf 774).
Were Woolf to unequivocally state, "Men used to think that women can't act or speak," and then moved on to her next thought, then we hardly would be convinced by her argument. In order to be fully convinced, we rely on that traditional rhetorical supplement known as quotation.
The invention of a talented sister for Shakespeare is one of Woolf's greatest rhetorical inventions. Judith Shakespeare becomes a metaphor not merely for the role of woman in society during Shakespeare's time, but for the plight of all women in general, and all women artists in particular - including, in both categories, Woolf herself.
Finally, the tone of Woolf's essay sweeps us up into her argument from the very beginning and forces us to engage with the issues at hand. Woolf's tone is established at the conclusion of the…
Aristotle identified the productive sciences as those concerned with the making of things, such as farming, art, and engineering. Aristotle did not say much about productive knowledge. The practical sciences are concerned with action and with how we ought to act in various circumstances, in both private and public affairs. Knowledge becomes theoretical when its goals are neither production nor action but simply truth, and this is what we now think of as science. For Aristotle, this truth contained by far the greatest part of the sum of human knowledge. Aritotle then divides this subject into three species, meaning the theoretical philosophies of mathematics, natural science, and theology.
hetoric is also linked closely to the field of logic, and Aristotle expresses this link when he examines language and expresses the view that he is "interested only in sentences that are true and false (commands, questions, exhortations, and the like are…
Aristotle. From Rhetoric. In P. Bizzell & B. Herzberg, the Rhetorical Tradition (Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martins, 1990), 155-194.
Barnesl J. (2000). Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bizzell, P. & B. Herzberg (1990). The Rhetorical Tradition. Boston: Bedford Books.
Cicero, M.T. (1976). On the Commonwealth. New York: Macmillan.
rhetoric in modern day proceedings, the topic will reflect the modern day influence that rhetoric has on governmental processes from decision making to laws that are passed in Congress.
The paper shall deal with the importance of rhetoric in modern day proceedings, with its influence on governmental processes from decision making by Presidents to that of the Congress, The paper shall argue that rhetoric is far moved away from reality.
The terminology 'rhetoric' traces its origin in different periods of time in its different interpretations. Its different interpretations at different times led people to seek its origin in many ways and in varied histories. At times it is used disparagingly as oral out bursting of radicals; at other times it is generalized as a public speech. Traditionally, it is also seen to be used to indicate a branch of study relating to speech. People are also seen to use the…
Short and Highly Idiosyncratic History of Rhetoric. Retrieved at http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~robertsmiller/histrhet.html. Accessed on 15 July, 2004
Bennett, Drake; Pauken, Heidi. All the President's Lies. The American Prospect Volume. 14 no. 5, May 1, 2003 Retrieved from www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/bennett-d.html. Accessed on 15 July, 2004
Bostdorff, Denise; Goldzwig, Steven. Idealism and pragmatism in American foreign policy rhetoric: The case of John F. Kennedy and Vietnam. Presidential Studies Quarterly; New York; Summer 1994; Volume: 24, Issue: 3, p.515
Friedlin, Jennifer.Scorecard on Bush Finds Rhetoric Gap. March, 08, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/1740Accessed on 15 July, 2004
Only wealth and the existence of the complex commercial society that underpinned it was capable of bringing together this great diversity of objects and making them available for human pleasure - the pleasure of the eye as well as of the stomach. The partial peeling of the orange (an exotic fruit in seventeenth-century Holland), the slicing of the melon and the opening of other fruits, and of the oyster shells, underlines the point that all this wealth is available for consumption, both on the surface and within.
In comparison with the first painting, this image does not speak very forcefully of decay, death, and the subject of vanitas. These elements are present, in the mottling of some of the fruit, the insects feeding on the sliced peach, the mouse that scampers among the food. It is present, too, in the lobster so prominently displayed near the front of the picture…
Barthes, Roland. "The Rhetoric of the Image." Image, Music, Text. Trans. Stephen Heath. New York: Noonday Press, 1977.
Israel, Jonathan I. "Adjusting to Hard Times: Dutch Art during its Period of Crisis and Restructuring (c.1621-c.1645)." Art History 20:3 (1997): 449-476.
Kahr, Madlyn Millner. Dutch Painting in the Seventeenth Century. New York: Icon Editions, 1993.
Leppert, Richard D. Art and the Committed Eye: The Cultural Functions of Imagery. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Leadership, Business and Rhetoric
Leadership, Business, and Rhetoric
To what extent do different situations merit different types of leaders? Different situations definitely require different types of leaders. When it comes to a team environment, transformational leaders who work with others instead of giving orders are the best choice. Some environments, such as the military, do not lend themselves to that type of leadership, though. These environments require a transactional leader who is clearly in charge and has no problem giving orders to others. There are generally severe penalties for not carrying out these orders, and there is little, if any, teamwork between the leader and the followers. One style of leadership will not be effective in all situations, nor should it be used in all situations.
Can we identify a set of personality traits common to all successful leaders? The most successful leaders are natural leaders. That means they do…
Rhetoric of Slavery
The term "slavery" evokes forced labor where people are captured and made to work without being paid, where people are given barely any clothing and barely enough to eat, where families are broken apart and where those labeled as slaves are denied any rights that they should have as human beings. Specifically, the idea of slavery is applied to pre-Civil ar American or to the Jewish people when they were enslaved by the Egyptian pharaohs. However, the same ideas described can also be applied to those incarcerated in the penal system, at least according to those who are seeking to improve the lives and opportunities for those who are currently behind bars. This reevaluation of incarceration as "modern slavery" is a rhetorical device used by those with an agenda interested in promoting and improving conditions within the prison system but does not take into consideration the feelings…
The Farm: Angola, USA. Dir. Liz Garbus, Wilbert Rideau, and Jonathan Stack. 1998. DVD.
Ford, Glen. "Private Prison Corporations are Modern Day Slave Traders." Black Agenda Report.
Black Agenda Report. Apr. 25, 2012. Print.
Vernacular hetoric has an element of discussion which ensures that there is hope of better and newer social circumstances to emerge as the ideologies behind social movements keep changing. The combination of hetoric and vernahas yielded the momentous Theory of Vernacular hetoric which embodies the teachings of persuasive use of inherent and familiar tongues to offer resistance by persons to bring social change.
Amos, . (1969). House Form and Culture. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin.
Aristotle. (2006). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse. Oxford University Press.
Boyd, T.E. (1991). Deep in the Shed: The Discourse of African-American Cinema. Iowa Journal of Literary Studies, 11(1), 99-104.
Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature and method. Univ of California Press.
Conley, T. (1994). hetoric in the European tradition. University of Chicago Press.
Hauser, G.A. (1999). Vernacular voices: Univ of South Carolina Press.
Hauser, G.A., & McClellan, E.D.…
Amos, R. (1969). House Form and Culture. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin.
Aristotle. (2006). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse. Oxford University Press.
Boyd, T.E. (1991). Deep in the Shed: The Discourse of African-American Cinema. Iowa Journal of Literary Studies, 11(1), 99-104.
Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature and method. Univ of California Press.
marketing approach, marketing rhetoric reality businesses' (Drucker, 1973: 64). Critically evaluate extent marketing rhetoric reality organization.
Marketing in Organizations
The competitive business environment determines companies to increase their efforts in developing successful marketing activities. The statement made by Drucker regarding the fact that marketing is rhetoric rather than reality in many businesses has little application in the current market environment. This is because the theory and practice of marketing have significantly developed since Drucker made this statement.
There are several definitions of marketing. The American Marketing Association defines marketing as the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers (Blythe, 006). Marketing is defined by Philip Kotler as the science and art of exploring, creating, and delivering value in order to satisfy the needs of targeted customer segments (Kotler & Armstrong, 009). Another definition of marketing refers to marketing as…
2. Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2009). Principles of Marketing. Pearson Education. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=ZW2u5LOmbs4C&pg=RA1-PA17&lpg=RA1-PA17&dq=marketing+definition&source=bl&ots=BX_nv82hxo&sig=WRKWD3inps2J8pQ8zdE2INKCIQs&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=0RZbUOXrBsn2sgby84DABA&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=marketing%20definition&f=false .
3. Blythe, J. (2006). Principles and Practice of Marketing. Thomson Learning. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=nSyZmgLkWD8C&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=marketing+definition&source=bl&ots=Tfc3Cpc00g&sig=q8uVRP4Dqn72pgttEAs6hMA9JMQ&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=4BdbUM_UDoXCswaFkoF4&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=marketing%20definition&f=false .
4. Hunt, S. (2010). Marketing Theory: Foundations, Controversy, Strategy, Resource Advantage Theory. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=MA5TniOfYwIC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=marketing+definition&source=bl&ots=fB1Dx5VDCv&sig=GaRQpuTu2OP8lYkGu2oPkLCQYIw&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=nhhbUOuWAcTssgaTyYDAAg&ved=0CFkQ6AEwBzgU#v=onepage&q=marketing%20definition&f=false .
hile these are some of the more famous elements of rhetorical theory, they do not require extensive discussion here for two reasons. Firstly, they are fairly well-known. Secondly, and more importantly, they actually do not provide much insight into the uses of rhetoric, because Aristotle implicitly inserts an ethics into his discussion of rhetoric that precludes it from having as robust an application to the real world as would be desired, due to the fact that rhetoric does not equally "target the emotional and rational attitudes and convictions" of the audience (Martina 567). In particular, Aristotle's theory suffers from assumptions regarding human beings receptivity to logic and a belief that rhetoric is ultimately "a means of attaining truth and knowledge" (Hugenberg 1). In fact, rhetoric is more often than not deployed as a means of avoiding or otherwise obscuring the truth, and but Aristotle's moralizing attitude precludes him from effectively…
Archer, Lauren Renel. "The Rightful Place of Science: Understanding the Intersection of Rhetoric, Politics, and Science in President Obama's First 100 Days." Communication,
2010. United States -- Colorado: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT).
Aristotle. On Rhetoric: Book 1. 29-53.
Aristotle. On Rhetoric: Book 2. 118-191.
This, then, is what takes us to the argument that false rhetoric is the greatest danger to democratic rule.
Imagine what kind of leaders we would have if only false rhetoric existed? False rhetoric allows for the use of lies, manipulations, "spin" to become an accepted part of our political discourse - Bill O'eilly is a perfect example of the false rhetorician. His "newscasts" are filled with verifiable lies, false facts, and rhetoric that is designed to appeal to a very specific portion of the country - hard-line conservatives for whom "truth" is predicated on a moral position. False rhetoric convinced the nation that Bush would be a good, balanced, fair, and reasonable President - and what is more striking, perhaps, is that Karl ove and his like are actively stringing false rhetoric wherever possible with the goal of creating a permanent epublican majority - convincing people to vote for…
Plato. The Republic. New York: Penguin Classics, 2003.
Gordon, James L. The Rhetoric of Western Thought: From the Mediteranean World to the Global, 7th Ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt, 2000.
Aristotle & Cicero on hetoric
As children we are conditioned to a particular form of discourse that is framed by a significantly complex set of variables including our culture, gender, ethnicity, birth order, political identity and power, religion, and personality. How we employ words, in what context, and with what relative level of effectiveness is determined by all of these factors and more. hetoric is, however effectively argued over, a tool to be used within verbal discourse with the intent to convince others of a particular point-of-view. Political speech is perhaps the most obvious form of rhetoric we experience, but it is also employed in attempts to sell us things, to get others to go on dates, to win jobs and promotions, and to teach our children lessons on how to live life. hetoric's power is in its ability to convince - to win over people to a particular "side,"…
Aristotle. Rhetoric. New York: Courier Dover, 2004.
Erickson, Keith. Aristotle: The Classical Heritage of Rhetoric. New York: Scarecrow Press, 1974.
McKendrick, Paul. The Speeches of Cicero. New York: Duckworth, 1994.
Steel, Catherine. Cicero, Rhetoric and Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Burke had a "puissant sense of the potency and efficiency of the word," Schwartz goes on (Schwartz 1966), which meant that man reveals his "symbolizing capacity through language."
The ceremony continues, with some spiritually appropriate remarks offered by the clergy in charge. Sometimes, the bride and groom write the script from which the clergy will read. And often, the bride and the groom write their own personalized vows. But in many cases, the clergy asks the groom if he takes this woman to be his wife, and does he promise "...to love, honor, cherish and protect her, forsaking all others and holding only unto her?" The groom of course answers "I do." And then the same litany is repeated by the bride prior to the traditional exchange of rings. "edding rings are an outward and visible sign of an inward spiritual grace and the unbroken circle of love, signifying to…
Burke, Kenneth. A Rhetoric of Motives. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1950.
Foss, Sonja, Karen Foss, and Robert Trapp (1991). "Introduction to Kenneth Burke."
From Contemporary Perspectives on Rhetoric. 2nd edition. Waveland. Retrieved 23 Nov 2007 at http://bradley.bradley.edu/~ell/burke.html
Hochmuth, Marie. "Kenneth Burke and the 'New Rhetoric'." The Quarterly Journal of Speech. (2003): 133-144. Retrieved 5 Dec. 2007 at http://www.comm.umd.edu/faculty/tpg/documents/HochmuthonBurke.pdf
Thus, what makes Vatz's view of rhetoric so much more applicable to rhetorical theory today is that it gives the study of rhetoric an actual purpose and a means of expanding knowledge and understanding. Bitzer's view is ultimately reductive, removing the potential for greater analysis and the uncovering of how humans make meaning by suggesting that any meaning exists already, and as such requires no further investigation. In essence, Bitzer's view of rhetoric is a thought-terminating exercise, because it reduces the object of rhetorical theory to a mere side-effect of reality, suggesting it is only worth examining as a corollary to central topic, which would be Bitzer's all-powerful situations. This is due to the fact that Bitzer begins his entire endeavor with a flawed assumption regarding meaning, such that the rest of his thesis can only progress towards a reductive and ultimately incorrect conclusion. In fact, one might not need…
Bitzer, Lloyd. "The Rhetorical Situation." Nature and Relevance. 17-24. Print.
Vatz, Richard. "The Myth of the Rhetorical Situation." Philosophy and Rhetoric. 6.3 (1973):
In explaining Aristotle's hetoric, the following paper will first begin with a brief on the definition of hetorician as defined by Aristotle. According to his definition, a rhetorician is an individual with the certain ability to 'see the persuasive element'. (Topics VI.12.149b25). Thus, rhetoric is that ability which sees the possible persuasive element in every given case. (het.1.2,1355b26f)
Aristotle thus terms rhetoric as a neutral tool, which can be used for either of the good or bad purposes by both the virtuous as well as the depraved individuals. Accepting his art of rhetoric's ability to be misused, he even proposes certain factors that can be used to overturn the misuse of rhetoric's, for example rhetoric is true for all goods, except for virtue, that it is better used in convincing the just and the good as compared to the unjust and wrong arguments, and that the…
Herrick, J. The History and Theory of Rhetoric: An Introduction. MA: Allyn & Bacon. 2001
Rhetoric I', by Aristotle translated by W. Rhys Roberts at http://www.textfiles.com/etext/AUTHORS/ARISTOTLE/
Jowett, Benjamin, 'Plato's Phaedrus', accessed on 10.14.02
Logos in online communications changes because diction has changed such as in the use of slang. Words can be copied, pasted, and inserted into related documents that are then shared with the group via the online collaboration software and so words have become less sacrosanct, more a part of the common domain.
Online collaboration tools aid communication and make at-a-distance meetings possible. However, online communication has drawbacks. One major drawback with online communication is the potential for misunderstanding because of the lack of nonverbal communication cues. Unless the speaker uses video conferencing tools, his or her emotions are difficult to read. The use of emoticons does not make up for slight twitches in facial muscles, eye contact, or posture in helping viewers read the speaker. Therefore, online communication tools make the pathos part of the rhetorical equation more difficult to execute. Group members need to use creative means to convey…
Canons of Rhetoric." Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://virtualology.com/rhetoricaltheory/canonsofrhetoric.com/
Cisco WebEx. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://www.webex.com/index.html eParticipation. Blog retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://blog.eparticipation.com/
Zara, O. (2004). Managing collective intelligence: toward a new corporate governance. Axiopole. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://www.axiopole.com/pdf/Managing_collective_intelligence.pdf
This is important to note because it demonstrates how Foucault is seemingly predicting now more-common method of discussing ideologies and their tactics in positively biological terms.
Secondly, recognizing that the discourses surrounding sex that developed and in some cases were deployed over the course of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries helps one to understand why "what is said about sex must not be analyzed simply as the surface of projection of these power mechanisms," because it is the actual discursive deployment themselves which embody the power mechanisms under discussion (Foucault 100). These discourses cannot help but to legitimize and reiterate the reigning power structure. The discourses of morality, science, and criticism utilized by the "family organization" in order to constrain and control an individual's sexuality simultaneously serve to define and support the family organization in the first place. This is a crucial contribution to the study of rhetoric and…
Eribon, Didier. "Michel Foucault's Histories of Sexuality." 7.1 (2001): 31-86.
Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction, Volume 1. New York: Vintage
Leps, Marie-Christine. "Critical Productions of Discourse: Angenot, Bakhtin, Foucault." Yale
Rhetoric is the use of language to persuade others, and visual rhetoric therefore represents the use of images to perform the same function. e are constantly exposed to visual rhetoric when we read magazines, watch TV, or travel down a city street, in the form advertisements for products and services. These ads are created by corporations, non-profits, and the government, and their purpose is to provide information and/or persuade you, the audience, to pay attention and possibly become interested in their products or services. The non-profit called "The Shelter Pet Project" represents a collaborative effort between the U.S. Humane Society, Maddie's Fund, and the Ad Council in order to promote pet adoption from shelters as the first choice for prospective pet owners ("Campaign fact sheet"). The most visible product of this collaboration is the production of attractive and well-designed ads that present an argument for a mutually-beneficial…
Barribeau, Tim. "Better Photography Could Save the Lives of Abandoned Animals." PopPhoto.com (2011, Sep. 19). Web. 13 Jan. 2012.
Chapman, Cameron. "Color Theory for Designers, Part 1: The Meaning of Color." Smashing Magazine (2010, Jan. 28). Web. 13 Jan. 2012.
Humane Society. "Bandit." TheShelterPetProject.org n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2012.
Humane Society. "Campaign fact sheet." TheShelterPetProject.org. n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2012.
hetorical Strategy hetoric Identities
Burned: A rhetorical analysis of a modern adolescent novel in verse
The book Burned by Ellen Hopkins examines how being raised in a fundamentalist religious faith can make it difficult for an adolescent to establish an independent identity. All adolescents must go through a struggle in our society to establish a positive sense of self, but the protagonist's circumstances make it particularly difficult. In Burned, Pattyn Scarlet Von Stratten, the eldest daughter in a large Mormon family, is sent away to live with her aunt, after her family can no longer control her. Pattyn finds happiness and freedom in the arms of a non-Mormon boy named Ethan. However, that happiness is shattered when she returns home and eventually Ethan dies in a car crash.
This narrative might seem impossibly melodramatic and unrealistic on paper. However, the way that Hopkins conveys it is through a unique style:…
Hopkins, Ellen. Burned. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.
Business hetoric: Drilling in the Marcellus Shale
and Environmental Politics
Inexpensive energy sources are a requirement if the country is going to continue to thrive the way it has for more than 200 years. The United States is trying to decrease the amount of fossil fuels that it uses in everyday applications. However, the worry is not the fuels themselves, but the costs associated with the fuels. Fossil fuels are a viable resource if they are clean and extracted from the earth in ways that can be shown to be environmentally friendly. Because of these requirements, natural gas has become one of the new class of fuels that is thought of as superior to producing products from crude oil.
Natural gas is a clean energy source that can be extracted more safely than other sources of gas. Another bonus is that the product is very plentiful in the United States.…
American Petroleum Institute (API). (2010). Hydraulic fracturing: Unlocking America's natural gas resources. American Petroleum Institute.
Brown, V.J. (2007). Putting the heat on gas. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 76-77.
Chambers, A.J. (2007). Report of the international energy transactions committee. Energy Law Journal, 30(1), 207-217.
City of New York. (2010). Natural gas drilling overview. Retrieved from http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/news/natural_gas_drilling_overview.shtml
Key Terms and Definitions:
DeLuca, K. And Demo, a. (2000). Imaging nature: Watkins, Yosemite, and the birth of environmentalism.
B. Central Claim:
The popularity of landscape photography led directly to environmentalism.
C. Central Focus or Purpose for Criticism:
Images can have a greater impact than words when trying to create a rhetorical point.
D. Arguments About the Text:
-Yosemite was saved because Carleton Watkins took a picture of it
- Pictures create reality
-1864 Yosemite protection came from photographic evidence
- Pictures led to public support of the environment and natural landscapes
- the sublime is both wonderful and can feel horror as it creates fear such as in cliffs
- There are secular and religious joys which can come from the natural world.
- Watkins image is a rhetorical devise which uses political, cultural, commercial,…
The rhetorical appeal to the reader's feelings is most obvious in the photograph, where feelings of freshness and health and yet of indulgence and luxury commingle, but can also be seen in the flirtations enticement to spend more time with the product as mentioned above. The attempt to appeal to the reader's intellect is minimal in this ad, though the prominently featured word "vitamin" in the product's title is certainly at least a partial intellectual appeal, telling the reader's that this product is healthy and beneficial as more than simply a beauty product. The content in the middle of the text passage also describes the product in a way that makes it sound like an extremely intellectually engineered makeup product. The reader's sense of self is appealed to by the suggestion that one's lips are not the best lips they can be -- the lips one was "meant" to have…
Plato's (and Socrates') Criticism of Rhetoric in "Gorgias"
In Plato's philosophical work entitled "Gorgias," the philosopher's criticism of the method of rhetoric as a form of persuasion is the primary focus of Plato's written work. In the said philosophical and ethical discourse, Plato uses the character of Socrates as the 'voice' or transmitter of the message that Plato wants to extend to his readers/audience. "Gorgias" is a philosophical discourse in that I explore the truth and falsity of how effective and fraudulent the process of rhetoric can be in discovering the truth and living life righteously and in the proper way of living that Plato (or Socrates) refers to as "proper existence." There is much evidence wherein Plato illustrated his disagreement with the rhetorical methods of persuasion, although he categorized his disagreements with various issues wherein rhetorical methods are usually used: in the realm of education, politics, and moral philosophy.…
Expression of Love and the Rhetoric of Romance in Swann's ay And Love In The Time Of Cholera
Florentino Ariza in comparison to Charles Swann
Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "Love in the Time of Cholera" and Marcel Proust's "Swann's ay" both deal with romance as being a force that both benefits and damages people's mental status. hereas the devoted lover in "Love in the Time of Cholera," Florentino Ariza, puts across great dedication toward his loved one and their union, Charles Swann appears to be less interested in the emotional aspect of love, as he appears to respond to stimuli on the basis of his diplomatic character.
One is perfectly able to observe and to understand the love that Florentino feels toward Fermina Daza, as the man expresses authentic romantic love. In contrast, the love that Swann puts across in regard to Odette appears to be without an actual bases, as…
Marquez, Gabriel Garcia, Love in the time of cholera, (Vintage, 2007)
Proust, Marcel, Swann's way, (Forgotten Books, 1934)
I did not find a quote for this, I came to deduce this as a result of reading through the book
I haven't found a quote here, this was also deduced from a larger part of the text
Technology and Society
All print media including books, newspapers and magazines are in deep trouble today thanks to new developments in technology, as are traditional methods of classroom instruction and school curricula. To that extent the Internet can be described as a revolutionary invention that has altered and transformed the way information is presented and conceived. Individuals are learning and creating innovative ways to contribute to relevant knowledge at an excessive speed, and the estern world has become dependent on this technology and also more aware of its negative side. hether the technology in our surroundings is causing human beings to become distracted, affecting our communication skills, or making them stupider is a question that has to be addressed.
This memorandum will describe these issues of trivialization and the 'shallow-ing out' of contemporary American culture, most of which are either as deliberately exaggerated and sensationalized as the Internet itself or…
Corey, G. et al. Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2011.
Milliken, J. Brands and Social Media Participation; United Breaks Guitars. Coreographytv, 2010.
Morozov, Evgeny. "Losing Our Minds to the Web." Prospect, June 22, 2010.
Technical Memo -- Babcock & Wilcox
The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Power Generation Group
From: J.J. Kelly, Plant Integration
Subj: Customer Guidance on High Pressure Injection Operation
Our sophisticated high-pressure injection system can prove challenging to our customers.
A number of our customers have reported problems when operating the high-pressure injection system. Their reports indicate that our customers may not have all the information that they need to safely use the systems. These situations suggest that our customers don't understand when or how they can safely shut down following an accident that requires the continuous operation of the high-pressure injection system.
To illustrate this problem, two examples of recent events at the Toledo site are provided below.
On September 24, 1977, after depressurizing due to a stuck open electromatic relief valve, high-pressure injection was automatically initiated.…
President Kennedy also used Aristotle's logic or logos to convince people to fight against public enemy such as poverty. JFK also used metaphor and the most famous sentence delivered after metaphor was "asks not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country." (Nicholas, 2001 P. 283). The phrase was to appeal and persuade American people to devote their energy to the building of their country as well as cherishing their country as a nation. While the speech was specifically focus on American public, it was also adapted to global people in general. His speech was rhetoric in nature because the speech was a unique for of public speech ever made by any U.S. president.
The paper explores relevance of rhetoric and rhetoric criticisms in public communication. The paper identifies the importance of rhetoric is politics, business and academic communities. To demonstrate importance…
Campbell, K.K. (2008). Rhetorical Criticism. The International Encyclopaedia of Communication.
Cyphert, D. (2010). The Rhetorical Analysis of Business Speech.Unresolved Questions Journal of Business Communication. 47 (3): 346-368.
McCroskey, J.C.(1997). King Martin Luther 'I have a Dream' in: An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication.7th Ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon: 288-291.
Nicholas, C.(2001). 'Ask Not… a Critical Analysis of Kennedy Inaugural'. Great Speech for Criticisms and Analysis. Alistair Press.
Certainly, rhetoric lends itself to the discovery of truth, as truth (Aristotle suggests) always makes more intuitive and intellectual sense compared to falsehood, and so equally talented rhetoricians will be more convincing sharing the truth than sharing falsehood. However, critics have pointed out that there is so "tension between Aristotle's epistemological optimism and his attempt to come to terms with rhetoric as a culturally and contextually specific social institution.... [as Aristotle says] scientific discourse is concerned with instruction, but in the case of [certain audiences] instruction is impossible; our proofs and arguments must rest on generally accepted principles... rhetoric [is] something separate from and inferior to scientific and ethical deliberation." (Haskins, 2004, 13-14)
Aristotle's historical effect on rhetoric and its continued fallout
It may seem self-evident that arguments today would be based as much on logic and the greater good than on past authority and religious dogma. However, such an…
Abizadeh, Arash. (2002) "The passions of the wise: phronesis, rhetoric, and Aristotle's passionate practical deliberation." The Review of Metaphysics, v56 i2 p267(30)
Aristotle. (350 BCE) Rhetoric. Trans. Rhys Roberts. [MIT Classics Archive Database]
Haskins, Ekaterina V. (2004) "Endoxa, Epistemological Optimism, and Aristotle's Rhetorical Project" Philosophy and Rhetoric - Volume 37, Number 1, pp. 1-20. [Muse Project Database]
By connecting the awarding of a peace prize with the concerns of a world in which terrorism has become a constant threat, Obama makes clear the exigency of his message when he says: "I do not bring with me today a definitive solution to the problems of war."
Nobel laureates are given few formal constraints in terms of their responses but Obama faced the more general constraints of trying to meet very high expectations and the conflicting expectations of the peoples of different nations. I believe that he did a good -- though not perfect -- job in meeting these differing expectations, and so crafted a speech that served as a fitting response to the occasion.
Whether or not one believes that Obama achieved the Aristotelian concept of ethos -- the ability to make a credible ethical appeal -- depends probably more on one's own politics than the speech itself.…
Indeed, arguably he is playing a little loose with the terms here, for persuasion, while it may be based on logic, is rarely simply logic. Rather it is logic combined with at least a coating of emotion.
In the following passage toward the end of his speech Obama uses language that I believe to be persuasive in a way in which Aristotle would approve, for Obama is using facts to build a case for his point-of-view rather than simply trading in emotion that he has called up for the occasion: This is not sophistry.
And that's why this award must be shared with everyone who strives for justice and dignity -- for the young woman who marches silently in the streets on behalf of her right to be heard even in the face of beatings and bullets; for the leader imprisoned in her own home because she refuses to abandon…
Greek and Roman times, rhetoric and rhetoric theory has been one of the issues that were discussed and improved, appearing in almost every aspect of life. There was rhetoric in politics, but also in everyday life, in discussions or seminars. When declaiming something and sustaining your point-of-view, you were actually exercising rhetoric.
This constant evolution of rhetoric theory gave way today to a new theoretical description. According to our source, "the new rhetoric is a theory of argumentation." The theory of argumentation, as part of the new rhetoric theory, comes as a completion to the theory of demonstration and he two are closely linked. Indeed, even instinctively, we argument something in order to demonstrate our conclusion, in order to prove our interlocutory our point-of-view. Argumentation and demonstration are such complementary.
As follows, as in any rhetoric theory, the argumentation, as an act of rhetoric, is given by the orator, in…
1. Golden, James; Berquist, E. Goodwin. The Rhetoric of Western Thought. Eighth Edition. Pp. 336-356
This implies that a lot about us is built via our symbol systems. Burke's asserts that a correlation exists between the nonverbal and the oral. Burke believes that non-verbal language involve signs plus labels that help one to understand things. Burke asserts that when a person speaks the words that come from him are a product of the inspiration that emanate from the animalitic and symbolic nature of man.
Burk further explores language by asserting that the name 'situation' is fundamental in conducting an explanation of the social framework relating literary text. This is possible by stating that a text of literature originates from culturally 'problematic situations'. According to Burke, treating language from the focal point of 'situation' and strategies leads to the notion that literature proposes a progression of traditional art and various communication methods, for example, oral and other forms regarding symbolic expression. Burke further refutes the existence…
The complex ideas of space and time are more philosophical than anything, but are no doubt necessary when discussing the unique aspects of historical review. Azarhayu & Foote (2008) addressed this issue in their research as they offered models of how to interpret historical sites using the concepts of space and time. This essay will review this article and highlight the important aspects regarding spatial rhetoric and how certain spatial strategies can be applied to modify a historical narrative for academic purposes.
The research article was premised on the idea that actual space may dictate the historical interpretation of any single historic event. The authors wrote "historical sites provide a tangible link to the past that they evoke. In this sense, the presentation of history on-site only makes explicit that which is implicit in the local landscape." This concretization of history has certain advantages and disadvantages,…
Azaryahu, M. & Foote, K. (2008). Historical space as narrative medium: on the configuration of spatial narratives of time at historical sites. GeoJournal, 24 Sep 2008, 73: 179-194
hakespeare's rhetoric has always astounded his contemporary audiences through his almost supernatural ability to perceive and present the universality of human nature on stage, regardless of the time his characters lived in.
The three different types of techniques used in rendering the play to the public are different, but related art forms: literature, theater and film. They reflect their author's or directors' vision of the story originally presented by hakespeare on stage at the Globe, in London, at the beginning of the seventeenth century.
Kings of cotland, England, and later Great Britain, had always been challenged in keeping their place on the throne and hakespeare himself lived through times that were still full of intrigue and plotting against the sovereign. Mary tuart, accused of plotting against the queen of England, Elisabeth I, had been executed in 1587, still a vivid memory for many who attended the shows put on…
Steven M. Buhler considers the way Shakespearean plays have been adapted for the American stage in the second half of the twentieth century as a result of finding the correspondents for the politics of the Renaissance England in the U.S. politics. "What attracted the writers what not only the topical pertinence of the subject matter, although their plays do react to recent assassinations, but the writers were also drawn to the play's and Shakespeare's more general resonances in American political culture" (Buhler, edited by Moschovakis, 2008, p. 258). Shakespearean royal characters that plotted and killed against former sovereigns in order for them to become their usurpers were always punished in the end and Macbeth is no exception. In the American politics, the reality is much more nuanced and the punishment comes as a revenge on stage, a wishful thinking, a thirst for justice, rather than a reflection of the contemporary reality.
The staging of Macbeth, even in the modern time of the nineteenth century, was no stranger to violence outside the stage. "Rival performances of Macbeth in nineteenth -- century New York city would lead to the bloodshed and death in the context of establishing a national separate identity.[…] At least thrity-one people died and over one hundred were injured in the Astor Place riot on the night of May 10, 1849 (Shattuck, 1: 82-85)" (Buhler, edited by Moschovakis, 2008, p. 259).
Psychological explanation for people's inclination to witness violence in a context that is completely separate than their reality, on stage or on screen, lead to several interpretations for the respective character types and their need to see such manifestations of graphic image. The value of a drama resides in the development of its characters and the tension that gradually increases towards the end when it becomes almost impossible to bear. The public in the twentieth and twenty-first century needs the final scene where Macbeth' head is cut off in order to be able to regain its breath before coming back to reality. The bombardment of information in the twenty-first century made scenes of real horror available at the click of a button, but this is clearly not the explanation for the necessity to see violence at the end of the film or the play. It is not the actual image that the public needs because it lacks imagination or cannot conceive such an act, but it the punctuation of a long expected act of justice in a world that seemed governed by forces impossible to control and determine.
Mario Cuomo's Address To The Democratic Convention
Although alter Mondale was resoundingly defeated by Ronald Reagan in 1984, Mario Cuomo's opening address to the Democratic convention that same year remains indelibly imprinted in the minds of all of those who heard it, and those who re-hear it today. It is a clarion cry for a different vision of America, and a demand that all the voices of Americans are heard. In an era where liberals were often criticized for being anti-American, Cuomo makes inventive use of this notion, reversing common tropes of patriotism. As someone who believes in the American Dream, Cuomo says he must support a more progressive vision than currently exists in America today. He supports an America where all Americans are cared for, where America is not simply a race where only the strongest are rewarded. He recalls stirring images from America's past to render this point:…
Cuomo, Mario. "1984 Democratic National Keynote Address." American Rhetoric.
16 Jul 1984. [13 Nov 2011]
Paul Keating's edfern Speech
Paul Keating's speech at edfern Park provides examples of rhetoric that are discussed below. The speech uses of and the three modes of persuasion: pathos, ethos, and logos. The use of epiphora, particularly in tricolon format, lends both cadence and emphasis. The word imagine is used in this manner and in epiphora convention, as the word is repeated in successive clauses. The connotation of the word confident is made more powerful by its proximity to the word imagine. Further, antithesis is threaded throughout by deliberate distinctions between non-Aboriginal and indigenous Australians, and presumably to use the favored terms of reference for every member of the audience -- as it is a political speech. There is a great divide between the experiences and treatment of the privileged primarily white non-indigenous citizens of Australia and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people. Keating does not shy away from…
Cockcroft, R. And Cockcroft S.M. (2005). Persuading people: an introduction to rhetoric. (2nd ed.). Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan.
Keating, P. Australian Launch of the International Year for the World's Indigenous People. Redfern Park, Sydney, Australia. December 10, 1992
____. (2011). Communication: rhetoric and reasoning. [Course readings]. Magill, SA: School of Communication, International Studies and Languages, University of South Australia.
Standardization of "Ban the Burqa"
The wearing of burqas should be prohibited in Australia.
The liberal perspective on burqas is invalid.
The liberal perspective on burqas is that they merely represent a cultural difference or represent a repression of women that Australians should "gently" discourage.
Australia is a good country because of its freedom, which should be exercised to terminate the freedom of muslims from wearing burqas.
Burqas are synonymous with criminality.
Burqas conceal identities to allow criminality.
One shop owner was robbed by a burqa-wearing criminal whom it is impossible to catch because of his clothes, so the clothes are insidious.
Burqas represent female oppression.
There is equality for women in Australia, so burqas must be prohibited to maintain that equality.
The argument that wearing burqas is simply an aspect of cultural diversity is wrong.
Australian immigrants should embrace Australia's culture.
Wearing burqas (and engaging in native cultural practices)…
The speech is full of images and words denoting grand principles, especially "freedom," and the manner in which these are intermingled with the logical arguments and exhortations for support -- and pledges of support -- that have direct literal meanings blur the line between discursive and presentational symbols. Each of Obama's words has specific meaning out of the context of this speech, and each word largely retains this meaning within the speech, but the context of the speech as a whole shifts the meanings of these words and of the entire speech, transforming the symbols into something that appears to have ore substance presentationaly than is substantiated through a discursive examination of the same speech.
An excellent early example of the way Obama melds discursive and presentational symbols is in his first direct reference to the division that Berlin experienced for decades: "And on the twenty-fourth of June, 1948, the…
Brand, Peg. "Susanne Katherina Knauth Langer." Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London, 1998.
Langer, S. (1951) Philosophy in a New Key. "Discursive Forms and Presentational Forms"
Liukkonen, Petri. "Susanne K. Langer." Accessed 29 April 2010. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/slanger.htm
New World Encyclopedia. "Susanne Langer." Accessed 29 April 2010. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Susanne_Langer#Symbols_and_myth
Meanwhile, Huckabee supports local political jurisdictions passing laws that punish undocumented immigrants, and he asserts those laws "protect the economic well-being, physical safety, and quality of life" for citizens in those communities. By using "physical safety" Huckabee frames this issue in the context that immigrants are criminals out to harm people. But the Immigration Policy Center (IPC) (Rumbaut, et al., 2007) reports that "Foreign-born Mexicans" had an incarceration rate" of 0.7% in 2000, "more than 8 times lower than the 5.9% of native-born males of Mexican descent." And while the "undocumented population has doubled to 12 million since 1994," violent crime in the U.S. has declined 34.2%, the IPC reports.
Moreover, according to the American Immigration Law Foundation (Esbenshade, 2007) local ordinances such as the ones Huckabee believes in (that make it illegal to rent to undocumented immigrants, for example) - if they conflict with federal immigration law - are…
Dougherty, Michael Brendan. "The Audacity of Huck: The Religious Right roils the Establishment by backing one of its own." The American Conservative 7.2 (2008): 6-8.
Esbenshade, Jill. "Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing
Ordinances." American Immigration Law Foundation. Retrieved 7 February 2008, at http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_sept07.shtml.
Guidelines for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis. "The Guidelines." Retrieved 6 February, 2008 from http://core.ecu.edu/engl/snyderh/1100/raguide.html
By allowing his children to address him by hist first name, Atticus is dismantling one of the many traditions that serve to reinforce and perpetuate traditions that ultimately only serve to delegitimize the experience and perspective of certain people. This forces the viewer to take Scout's recollections and narration more seriously, because although they are the memories of a relatively young child, the viewer cannot help but treat them with a little more respect in recognition of the respect that Atticus, as the most idealized character in the entire film, grants them.
Thus, taking a cue from Atticus, Scout and Jem are respectful and relatively well-behaved, but are never hesitant to question or challenge attitudes and behaviors that they perceive as unjust or unjustified, and particularly in the case of Scout, are especially sensitive to behaviors that hypocritically contradict the ostensible moral standards of society. hile is worth noting that…
Edgerton, Gary. "A Visit to the Imaginary Landscape of Harrison, Texas: Sketching the Film
Career of Horton Foote." Literature/Film Quarterly 17.1 (1989): 2-12.
Foote, Horton. To kill a mockingbird, the screenplay: and related readings. Boston: McDougal
speech of Achilles to Agamemnon to the Speech of Hector to Andromache
The two speeches, of Achilles to Agamemnon and the one of Hector to Andromache, represent two different types of ethics in regards to rhetoric; this can be seen within the context of the speeches as well as the events. The speech of Achilles to Agamemnon is seen as a type base rhetoric, and the speech of Hector to Andromache is seen as philosophical rhetoric.
The base rhetoric is something which follows a direction of evil; it ends in exploitation and is something condemning. This type of rhetoric hates all which oppose it, and would rather that it were greater than everything else -- it despises anything equal or greater than it. The base rhetoric is something which tries to keep anything from achieving or receiving any types of support which can be seen in the form of noble…
Homer, Robert Fagles, and Bernard Knox. "The Iliad." (New York: Penguin, 1991). Print.
Pollan stresses the need to cook our own food and reassert the historical and cultural importance of food in our lives. Again this strengthens Pollan's rhetoric and continues the line of reasoning he began in Omnivore's Dilemma.
So it's good to be encouraged by Pollan, who eulogises the pleasures of cooking, and to be reminded of some basic truths."hen you cook at home, you seldom find yourself reaching for the ethoxylated dyglycerides or high-fructose corn syrup," he says. "The cook in the kitchen preparing a meal from plants and animals has a great many worries, but 'health' is simply not one of them because it is a given."The final advice given by Pollan encapsulates it all: "Don't eat anything your greatgrandmother wouldn't recognise as food." ("Food Really Does Grow" 12)
The rhetoric of his work is demonstratively evident as his lines of reasoning attempt to make consumers more responsible for…
Crumbpacker, Bunny, "You Are What You Eat." The Washington Post April 9, 2006; BW09.
Dinovella, Elizabeth. "Think Globally, Eat Locally." The Progressive Nov. 2006: 41.
Flannery, Maura C. "Plants in Production." The American Biology Teacher 70.1 (2008): 51.
"Food for Thought; What We Eat, from Source to Table." The Washington Times 30 July 2006: B08.
hen conducting an ideological critique, the researcher must be concerned with the way ideology is evidenced (or repressed) in the artifact, and a useful concept for identifying these "traces of ideology" is the notion of the ideograph, or the "political language which manifests ideology," which, according to Michael McGee, is "characterized by slogans" (Foss 248, McGee 5). McGee argues "that ideology in practice is a political language, preserved in rhetorical documents," and as such, can be identified in rhetorical artifacts via the "vocabulary of ideographs" frequently deployed in speech. Here it is important to note the importance of context, because in general McGee identifies ideographs as particular words, but one need not view these specific words as eternally and always ideographs; that is to say, these specific words may be identified as ideographs "by the usage of such terms in specifically rhetorical discourse, for such usage constitute excuses for specific…
Condit, Celeste Michelle. "In Praise of Eloquent Diversity: Gender and Rhetoric as Public
Persuasion." Womens Studies in Communication 20.2 (1997): 91-116.
Fernald, Anne E. "A Feminist Public Sphere? Virginia Woolfs Revisions of the Eighteenth
Century." Feminist Studies 31.1 (2005): 158-82.
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
45). ith the ideology of the ownership class necessarily becoming the dominant ideology throughout the world not simply through the spread of industry and capitalism but through dramatic changes in international trade and economies brought about by capitalist/industrialist changes in single countries, the bourgeoisie acquires (or acquired) dramatic power to shape global events and politics through their shaping of the thoughts that can be had and the modes by which they can be expressed -- through their control over rhetorical interpretations and expression, in other words.
Implications of Marx's Rhetorical Theory
Using a Marxist approach to rhetorical theory has a variety of benefits and drawbacks to theorists and critics working from many different perspectives. The benefits to such a perspective are clear, if somewhat ominous -- they give concrete and measurable ways in which to develop an understanding of thought itself, and of how thoughts are created and expressed (and…
Marx, Karl and Engels, Frederick. Manifesto of the Communist Party. 1848. Accessed 28 February 2013. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/Manifesto.pdf
Marx, Karl. The German Ideology. 1845. Accessed 28 February 2013. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/german-ideology/ch01a.htm
Ultimately, the man must fight back and destroy her in order to get back to civilization. The character displays elements of the borderline personality as well as obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Annie ilkes is presented as an obsessive-compulsive personality in the way she keeps her home, in the way she becomes dedicated so thoroughly to this writer and his works (and especially to the one character of Misery, with whom she identifies so closely), and in the expectations she has placed in the past on her patients and now on this particular patient. Davison and Neale identify the obsessive-compulsive personality as a perfectionist, preoccupied with details, rules, schedules, and so on. They state that such people are also work rather than pleasure oriented. They are inflexible, and their interpersonal relationships suffer as a result (Davison and Neale 269-270).
Annie ilkes is seen as obsessive-compulsive in the way everything has to be…
Bitzer, Lloyd F. "The Rhetorical Situation." Philosophy and Rhetoric (1991), 1-14.
Davison, Gerald C. And John M. Neale. Abnormal Psychology. New York: John Wiley, 1994.
Ebert, Roger. "Misery." RogerEbert.com. 30 November 1990. December 2, 2007. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19901130/REVIEWS/11300301/1023 .
Reiner, Rob. Misery. Castle Rock Entertainment, 1990.
Doctor Martin Luther King, Jr. is celebrated four decades after his death because he was an effective and persuasive civil rights advocate. A holiday marks the birthday of Doctor King because of what he accomplished using nonviolent civil disobedience in the tradition of Mahatma Gandhi. However, the holiday also reminds students of English, of History, of Speech, and of Law how to be a persuasive rhetorician. King was so effective and persuasive precisely because he was an enormously powerful wordsmith; King was uniquely able to translate overwhelming emotions and sensitive subject matter into logical, well-formed, and inarguable stances. As a result, his "I have a dream" speech has become a part of common vernacular, as have several original sayings derived from his speeches and writings. Statements such as "injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere" have become so famous that many people would actually be hard-pressed to…
By being herself, she wins the two boys over. Harry begins to confide in her. When Harry plays the game as "Seeker," she recognizes when he falls under an evil spell, and she figures out how to counteract the bad magic so Harry can win and catch the Snitch. He couldn't have won without her. And it is Hermoine who discovers the nature of the "Sorcerer's Stone." She realizes that evil Voldamort is trying to get it for his own use. She cautions Harry to be careful, but at the same time she reassures him, "As long as Dumbledorf's around, you can't be touched, Harry." on tells her (following a spell she cast), "Hermoine, you're scary sometimes...brilliant...but scary." When all three land in a snake pit at one point, Hermoine tells them not to struggle as she has read about this and "Devil's Snag hates sunlight." Harry comments afterwards, "Lucky,…
Foss, S.K. (1989). Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
feminist rhetorical theory. omen have been historically minimized and isolated by the domination of the patriarchal majority. Although women have been able to make a degree of progress, finally achieving positions of social and political power, the number of women in these high offices is still far less than the roles that are filled by man. Modern women, far removed from the "angels in the house" of the Victorian age, are nonetheless still impacted by the sociological oppression of women which was reinforced during that era, according to the rhetorical theory of feminism. Given that this is the case, men and women need to be aware of these underlying gender biases so that they can both combat them and make sure that they themselves do not fall prey to them. People who deny that this subjugation of women may be enlightened by closer examination of the power dynamics which exists…
Cixous, H., Cohen, K, & Cohen, P. (1976). The laugh of the Medusa. Signs. 1(4). The University
of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL. 875-93.
Foss, S. & Griffin, C. (2003). Beyond persuasion: a proposal for an invitational rhetoric.
Communications Monographs. 2-18.