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Sacrament of econciliation
The concept behind reconciliation is forgiveness, the rite to forgive those who have done wrong, and being forgiven for committing wrongful actions. The Sacrament of econciliation examines how to work towards the renewal and restoration of relationships. At Saint P, in order to assemble and cultivate student's knowledge on the Sacrament of econciliation, they will be required to get past egoism through exercises that help analyze and look back on their relationships with themselves, others, and God as it pertains to forgiveness and being forgiven to bring forth tranquility and affirmation. (Cavalletti, 1992, p. 40) To achieve these goals, a variety of learning activities (to be carried out in the classroom) along with an increased spotlight in school events and through religious life within the classroom, will be implemented.
It is the responsibility of the school and the family to educate a student in understanding econciliation. A…
Cavalletti, S. (1992). The religious potential of the child: Experiencing scripture and liturgy with young children. Chicago IL: Liturgy Training Publications.
Congregation for Catholic Education (1988). The religious dimension of education in a Catholic school: Guidelines for reflection and renewal. Washington, D.C: St. Paul Publications.
Grajczonek, J., & Ryan, M. (2007). Prayer and Young Children. In Religious education in early childhood: A reader (pp. 44-61). Hamilton, Brisbane: Lumino Press.
Grajczonek, J., & Ryan, M. (2007). Teaching and learning in the early years religion class. In Religious education in early childhood: A reader (pp. 158-176). Brisbane: Lumino Press.
Sacraments a Dialogue With God
The Anglican faith is divided between those who are more Protestant in their beliefs and practices, and those who are more Catholic. Anglican Catholicism, sometimes referred to as the "High Church," is very similar to oman Catholicism, but does not recognize the Pope as the head of the Church. When it comes to the sacraments, the High Church, like the oman Catholic one, recognizes seven sacraments, while other Anglican churches recognize as little as two. Whether one recognizes seven sacraments, or only two, those sacraments are seen by Anglicans as "channels of grace, by which members of the Church are united to Christ, the centre of unity." (Staley, 1908, p. 64) These channels of grace have often been called a "dialogue with God."
The term "sacrament" comes from the Latin word sacer, meaning devotion to a particular deity, and "mentum," meaning intent, mind, or thought.…
Aquinas Thomas, "Summa Theologica III q61. The necessity of the sacraments." Retrieved from http://www.franciscan-archive.org/scotus/opera/Monte-ST3-
"The Holy Bible: King James Version. Bartleby.com" Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics, and Hundreds More. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/108/
Lewis, C.S., (2009) "C.S. Lewis on Women Priests: Priestesses in the Church?" Retrieved from http://jandyongenesis.blogspot.com/2009/01/cs-lewis-on-women-priests.html
As Bernard Cooke (1994) notes, for many centuries, sacraments were what "structured people's lives and experiences" (p. 6). The celebration of the holy mysteries (the concept that is denoted by the word sacrament) gave meaning and purpose to the lives of individual Christians as they united themselves to their Church and through that institution to their God, Our Lord Jesus Christ, Who instituted the sacraments. Christ's institution of the sacraments was a way for Him to continuously come to His faithful followers throughout the centuries and throughout their lives. The mysterious nature of this arrangement, of this institution was a feature of their confection. In fact, the mysterious nature of the sacraments is reflective of Christ's own mysterious nature, as depicted by Rausch (2017). Both are similar in that each requires an act of faith on the part of the follower. One must have faith in Christ to share…
Jesus as the Presence of Abba
Cooke's discussion of Jesus as the presence of Abba relies on Jesus' humanity because, it is His humanity primarily that we are able to identify with and that we ourselves, ultimately, rely upon in order to connect to Jesus' divinity. By bringing into the discourse the element of "Abba" it helps us to differentiate between the two natures of Christ -- Christ as man and Christ as God. And while we need both, for such is the nature of our own sinful predicament that we can only be saved by the Son of God made Man offering His own life to save ours -- we have a tendency to resist or be mystified by the divine nature. The human nature on the other hand calls to us and we recognize it. We recognize the divine nature as well but tend to be frightened by…
How does Edmund Spenser reconcile holiness with passionate love in his "Epithalamion"? For a start, we must acknowledge precisely what "holiness" means to Spenser. Spenser is the pre-eminent English Protestant poet, and supported the religious reforms of the Church of England against the Catholic church. This is precisely relevant to Spenser's imagining of marital love in the "Epithalamion" for one salient reason -- the Catholic church holds marriage to be a sacrament, whereas the English church (to which Spenser adhered) does not. This should be fairly obvious, because the English church was founded so that the King could have a divorce, but it was fairly recent at the time Spenser was writing: the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England were issued in 1563, and Spenser writes the "Epithalamion" a little more than thirty years afterward in the mid-1590s. A sacrament is an official religious sanctification: it imparts…
This manner of baptism continued from the early 30s AD until the oman Empire assumed control of religion in the early 300s AD. At that time the early Catholic Church required that individuals being baptized be clothed. In 1311 at the Council of avenna, the Catholic Church decided that full immersion was no longer necessary and began the practice of pouring. After the reformation of the 16th and 17th centuries, many Protestant denominations chose to return to the practice of immersion (Porter, 2008).
While most Christian denominations practice baptism, they differ on when and how the sacrament should be administered. Some churches, such as Catholic, Orthodox, Presbyterian, Lutheran, and Methodists practice infant baptism. According to Anonymous (2005), "For these churches, infant baptism is seen as a ceremony inducting the newborn into the community of faith and indicating the community's commitment to raise him or her to be a faithful Christian.…
Anonymous. (2005) "Christian Baptism." ReligionFacts. Retrieved from http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/practices/baptism.htm .
baptism. (2008). In The Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com.library.capella.edu/entry/columency/baptism
Porter, M.L. (2008) The history of baptism; from Jewish ritual to Christian doctrine. Suite101.com. Retrieved from http://www.suite101.com/content/the-history-of-baptism-a53162?template=article_print.cfm
Shaw, J. (2003). Baptism. Oxford Companion to the Body. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/baptism
The meaning, origin, and significance of the sacraments of the Church have been debated for centuries with scholastics like Thomas Aquinas arguing that each sacrament was instituted by Christ and others, like Luther, arguing that the sacraments gave no grace but were signs only. This paper will look at the traditional eschatology surrounding the Sacraments by giving a definition, discussing the elements of matter and form, and analyzing the phrase "es et Sacramentum" in relation to the former points.
According to Church scholastics and the traditional definition, a sacrament is an outward sign instituted by Christ to give grace unto our sanctification (Pitre). Each sacrament is referenced in Scripture, from Christ's baptism to His presence at the wedding feast of Cana to His promise to the Apostles that they would each be strengthened (confirmed) by the Paraclete; and each is part of the mystery surrounding Christ and His…
On the Sacraments in General. (n.d.). Baltimore Catechism. Retrieved from http://www.ourladyswarriors.org/faith/bc3-13.htm
Pitre, B. (n.d.). Sacramental Theology. Retrieved from http://www.brantpitre.com/documents/printable_outlines/sacraments.pdf
Richstatter, T. (2011). Glossary of Liturgical Terms. Retrieved from http://www.tomrichstatter.org/dDocuments/d18gloss.htm#RES%20ET%20SACRAMENTUM
Sacraments. (n.d.). New Advent. Retrieved from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm #III
While we know how we are supposed to honor the Spirit of the Lord, we cannot ever know exactly why events unfold as they do because to do so would be knowing what only God can know. Christianity teaches that mystery and the unknown (or unknowable) are nothing to fear provided one trusts in God.
Lecture Topic 11 -- Critiques of Religion -- What is the flaw in intellectual critiques of religion?
Most critiques of religion neglect the fact that the human intellect is incapable of judging matters that are only knowable to God. From the human perspective, various events and occurrences are unexplainable or seem to violate the concept of goodness or justice. However, applying human concepts, interpretations, and values to the actions of God is fundamentally impossible.
Lecture Topic 12 -- Science or Religion -- Why is it impossible to apply scientific reasoning to matters of religion?
.....sacrament of the Eucharist epitomizes the concept of transubstantiation, in which the spirit and presence of Christ is revealed to believers in the recognizable and tangible form. God's transcendence becomes God's immanence, thereby initiating a process of spiritual transformation. As Cooke (1994) points out, the Eucharist sacrament must also take place within a community, allowing each individual to perceive Christ through other believers. The importance of community is embedded within the ritual of the Eucharist because it is an act of sacred communion -- implying community, gathering, and communication. Therefore, the concept of the Eucharist is rooted in the act of sharing, on one level Jesus sharing His body with the people and on another level the community sharing the Word with each other. Moreover, the Eucharist represents "the message of human life redeemed and transformed by the power of God working through the death and resurrection of Jesus the…
To combat subjectivity, he called for interpretation to be subject to church authority, which was the voice of reason. Reardon (1981) echoes this interpretation: "Hooker sets out to refute the puritan contention that in religion holy scripture affords the sole and absolute authority and rule" (p. 280). Hooker shows that the narrow principle of sola scriptura "disregards the larger context of the divine law in creation within which even the scriptural revelation must be placed if we are to understand its proper scope and purpose" (Reardon, 1981, p. 280). Not far from the Reformers, they upheld the idea that the directly inspired written word contains supernatural revelation. There is perhaps less emphasis on preaching and proclamation in the Anglicans than in the Reformers.
hat is the status of the creeds and traditions? In Anglicanism, the Nicene, the Athanasius, and the Apostle's creeds are stressed as true because they are taken…
Aland, K. (Ed.). (2004). Martin Luther's 95 theses. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.
Avis, P. (2007). The identity of Anglicanism: essentials of Anglican ecclesiology. London and New York: T & T. Clark.
Bayer, Oswald. (2008). Martin Luther's theology: a contemporary interpretation (Trans T.H. Trapp). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Beckwith, R.T. (1988). "Anglicanism." In New dictionary of theology (S. B. Ferguson & D.F. Wright, Eds.), pp. 21-23. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
The Pope and the leadership guide us in our interpretation of scripture and tradition.
As stated previously, Roman Catholicism is truly a lifetime experience. From cradle to grave, Holy Baptism to the Anointing of the Sick, we are surrounded by these life giving and soul building acts and rarely appreciate them fully. This investigation has not only, truly deepened the author's knowledge of the sacraments by choosing Holy Eucharist, Baptism and Penance. They are an organic whole that represent the totality of our lives and with the spread of the Church's doctrines will hopefully encompass humanity as a whole.
Benedict 16th, (2009, June 14). Angelus. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/angelus/2009/documents/hf_ben-xvi_ang_20090614_en.html
Catechism of the catholic church. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3E.htm
Consequences of original sin for all humanity . (1986, October 1). Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/audiences/alpha/data/aud19861001en.html
Knox, James, & right, John. (1977, March 31). A letter from the vatican: first penance, first communion.. Retrieved…
Benedict 16th, (2009, June 14). Angelus. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/angelus/2009/documents/hf_ben-xvi_ang_20090614_en.html
Catechism of the catholic church. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3E.htm
Consequences of original sin for all humanity . (1986, October 1). Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/audiences/alpha/data/aud19861001en.html
Knox, James, & Wright, John. (1977, March 31). A letter from the vatican: first penance, first communion.. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cclergy/documents/rc_con_cclergy_doc_19770331_penance-communion_en.html
An Analysis of the Priesthood "in persona Christi" and "in nominee ecclesiae"
The questions that surround the functions of the priesthood and the diaconate today appear to be part and parcel of the greater uncertainty that surrounds ancient Church customs. This paper will attempt to analyze the meanings of the phrases "in persona Christi" and "in nomine ecclesiae" as they have reflected the functions of the ministers of the Church both in the past and in today. The conclusion of this research is that while the traditional Church maintained a clear definition (and reverent propriety regarding the mystery of the priestly aspect), today's Church is less sure of the role and function of the minister in relation to Church hierarchy and Church laity.
In Persona Christi
Historical Background: the Vestments
Pius XII's (1947) encyclical Mediator Dei describes for us the aspect of the priest in relation to Jesus…
Staley, V. (1894). The Catholic Religion. London, UK: Mowbray.
Tanner, N.P., ed. (1990). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. London: Sheed
Finally, the rise of science and technology due to industrialization militated against institutionalized religion (Bruce, 2002, p. 18). As people became more educated and reliant on science and technology in their everyday lives and work lives, religious disagreements with science and led people to abandon institutional religions as unscientific and backward. People knew that science and technology worked; therefore, religious arguments against science and technology tended to be rejected. In sum, the religious and secular teachings of the Protestant Reformation caused people to move toward greater secularization for religious, economic, social and intellectual reasons.
The Protestant Reformation significantly contributed to both Capitalism and Secularization in the est. By eliminating or reducing the Roman Catholic Church's underpinnings, including the Sacraments and obedience to Church authorities for salvation, the Reformation caused individuals to search here on earth for signs that they were saved and to rely on themselves rather than…
Bruce, S. (2002). God is dead: Secularization in the west - (Religion and spirituality in the modern world). Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing, Ltd.
Stepan, a.C. (October 2000). Religion, democracy, and the "twin tolerations." Journal of Democracy, 11(4), 37-57.
Weber, M.A. (2003). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.
According to the institutional authority of the Catholic Church, individuals must accept certain principles, go through certain orientation and membership procedures (such as confirmation and confession), and submit to certain authorities, such as priests, bishops, and the Pope.
Give a meaning of sacrament as it applies to church.
Sacraments in the context of a worship community are often defined as the invisible made visible, or how the divine makes itself physically manifest on earth. The most obvious symbol of this is transubstantiation in the Catholic Mass, where God is made present in the form of the host, through the ritual process evident during the ceremony. In other Christian traditions, such as Quakerism, the spirit may be spontaneously present during a communal and nonhierarchical worship ceremony, when it moves ordinary believers to speak. The church during the context of any worship ceremony is supposed to provide a unique space and time…
Montanism / Theology
Like many early heresies, Montanism has not left behind much in the way of written testimony: only one Montanist writer, Tertullian, has works that survive, and it is primarily in his work that the statements of the Montanist movement (Montanus, Prisca and Maximilia) survive in quotation. Gonzales notes that, among many differing interpretations of Montanism, one view sees them as something like "an early Pentecostal group." [footnoteRef:0] It is clear from accounts of Montanism that it included the emphasis on the Holy Spirit, including manifestations of glossolalia, that are seen in contemporary Pentecostals. ut overall, Montanus seems to have combined several contradictory impulses into his schismatic movement. The first hinged upon greater involvement of women in ministry: the heresy of Montanus is seldom mentioned without reference to "those demented women Prisca and Maximilia," as Saint Jerome calls them in his letter to Marcella refuting the Montanist heresy.[footnoteRef:1]…
Gonzales, Justo L. And Gonzales, Catherine Gunsalus. Heretics for Armchair Theologians. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2008.
Saint Jerome, Letter XLI. Accessed online at: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf206.v.XLI.html
Saint Justin Martyr, First Apology XXVI. Accessed online at: http://www.crossroadsinitiative.com/library_article/269/first_apology_of_st._justin_martyr.html
Swift, Jonathan. A Tale of a Tub. Accessed online at: http://www.online-literature.com/swift/tale-of-a-tub/8/
Book Of Ruth and Marriage: An Analysis Into Religious and Secular Conventions of the Time
The Gospels of the Old Testament provide the structure of Judaism. Yet, they also provide an interesting examination into the anthropological activities of an ancient people. For example, in The Book of Ruth, there is significant content that helps describe the nature of marriage between both individuals and between God and his mortal followers. Along with exploring the ceremonial and religious ties to marriage, The Book of Ruth also helps define what an ideal archetype of a Jewish wife was during the ancient time period the gospel was written; she is an obedient servant who is seen almost like property of her husband.
The Book of Ruth is the gospel from the Old Testament, and thus has its roots in ancient Hebrew tradition. Yet, it is also included in the Christian version of the holy…
Anderson, Gary A. "Marriage in the Book of Ruth." University of Notre Dame. 2005. Web. Retrieved 14 Dec 2013 from http://old.usccb.org/laity/marriage/Anderson.pdf
The Holy Bible. King James Version. New York: American Bible Society. 1999.
Zavada, Jack. "Book of Ruth: Introduction to the Book of Ruth." Old Testament Books. 2011. Web. Retrieved 14 Dec 2013 from http://christianity.about.com/od/oldtestamentbooks/a/Book-Of-Ruth.htm
Breugel, The Harvesters
Pieter Bruegel's sense of space in The Harvesters largely seems to conform to the rules for perspective as laid down by Alberti. For example, we can observe in Bruegel a fairly sophisticated understanding of Alberti's basic principles for establishing perspective. For example, Alberti describes the upshot of using his basic mathematical formula in this way: "I go on from there without any difficulty to do the heights of the surfaces, since a quantity will maintain the same proportion for its whole height as that which exists between the centric line and the position on the pavement from which that quantity of the building rises" (Alberti 1436). Perhaps the strongest central structural device in Bruegel's The Harvesters is established along this principle: this is the depiction of the row of as-yet-unharvested grain, which (roughly speaking) begins in the painting's lower left corner and extends diagonally towards the painting's…
..if you really want the Christ and truly love him, there is nothing that will prevent his coming and taking up his abode with you provided your love for him manifests..." through loving inner spirit of Christ instead only the outside. One may appear to be a Christian yet the Lordship of Christ in the life of the Christian means that present is love, compassion and forgiveness for others. The Christian loves the 'inner spirit of Christ because to desire only the outside of Christ will not allow Christ true Lordship in our lives. Loving the inner spirit of Christ requires loving the spirit of love...faith...compassion... The spirit of forgiveness." (Lindsey-Weinman, 19?
Humanity tends to only: "...desire the outside of Christ..." (Lindsey-Weinman, 19?
-2000) the Christian loves more than simply an image of Christ as 'Lordship of Christ' does not mean loving the image of Christ in his white…
Article I - God (2007) UMC Online available at http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1654
Article V - of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation. (2007) Online the United Methodist Church available at http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1649
Free Grace: The Sermons of John Wesley (1703-1791) Global Ministries: The United Methodist Church. 2007.
Jones, Rev. Dr. Gregory (nd) the Practice of Ministry and Your Understanding of God, Divine Grace, Humanity, the Lordship of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit dean of Duke Divinity School" FIX
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.
One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…
Grissom, Harold J. "Ritual Practice in American Religious Sects." The Journal of Religion. (April 2006): 239-48.
Hall, Manley P. The Psychology of Religious Ritual. Los Angeles: Philosophical
Research Society, 2003.
Harvey, Graham. Ritual and Religious Belief. UK: Equinox Publishing, Ltd., 2005.
It is not intended for the contemplation of the reserved sacrament. Under this new principle, Roman Catholic tabernacles are now set in separate chapels or other more appropriate places (ELCA).
Guidelines for Lutheran Churches
These Churches do not recommend the placement or use of eternal flame lamps in the worship area (ELCA 2011). Doing so will give the erroneous belief that God is present only because of the light or that He is absent if the light is off. Lutheran theology affirms the real presence of Christ in the sacrament and the maintenance of the elements for the sick and the homebound. Some Lutheran congregations keep a clear encased light near the elements to honor or indicate the area where these elements are kept but not to worship them (ELCA).
Symbols at the First Presbyterian Church
An acolyte carries a torch during a liturgical procession (FPCreidsville 2011). This light represents…
Anderson, Sherridan. The Use of Candles as a Symbol in Worship. Canadian Centre for Worship Studies: CCSW and Sherridan Anderson, 2003. Retrieved on May 19, 2011
Anderson, Todd D. The Lord be with You! Church of the Master United Methodist:
Otterbein University, 2011. Retrieved on May 19, 2011 from http://www.chmaster.org/education/articles/worship
Like Pope John Paul II, Pope enedict wanted to emphasize the mystery of the Eucharist, and to help the Church community put the Celebration of Mass and Sacraments into a context by which to move forward in time.
It is clear that both Pope John Paul II and Pope enedict XVI stand firm on maintaining the Traditions of the Church, both Sacramental and political, and with as little change to them as possible. It has long been the position of the Church that consistency in Tradition follows the path of God (YOUR TEXT TITLE, EDITOR, DATE).
There is certain symbolism associated with the liturgy that serves to link the community or laity to the tradition of the Celebration of the Eucharist; and that symbolism is the altar, the minister or priest, the cup that holds the wine or the lood of Jesus; the read that is the ody of Christ;…
Sorokin, P.A. (1962). Society, Culture, and Personality: Their Structure and Dynamics. New York: Cooper Square Publishers. Retrieved October 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94476772
Pope John Paul II (2003) Encyclical Ecclesastia de Eucharista
http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_ben-xvi_exh_20070222_sacramentum-caritatis_en.html , retrieved 22 October 2007.
Pope Benedict xvi (2007) Post Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Sacramentum Caritatis
Much like Catholicism, the religious system known as Islam whose believers are called Muslim dates back to around 610 A.D. when the prophet Muhammad allegedly was visited by the angel Gabriel who spoke to him and conveyed the actual words of Allah Himself (i.e., Allah as God). Muhammad was also told that he had been chosen by Allah as a prophet and that he must write down everything he had been told. Shortly before his death in 632 A.D., these writings became the Holy Quran, the sacred scriptures of Islam.
One of the most important similarities between Islam and Catholicism is that both are founded on monotheism or the belief in one God, a God who is believed to be "personal, righteous and holy" (Corbett, 2001, p. 233). Of course, one of the most contrasting differences between Islam and Catholicism is that Islam was founded in the Middle East as…
Corbett, Julia Mitchell. (2001). Religion in America. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
"Roman Catholicism." (1997). Biblical Discernment Ministries. Internet. Retrieved June 7,
2009 from http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/Cults/Catholicism/catholic.htm .
Faustus, who sees his time also coming to a close, becomes a kind of Hamlet-figure and doubts that he can be forgiven. Faustus' problem is more than a life of misdeeds -- it is a problem of lack of faith. The faith of Everyman may have been lukewarm, but it was not corrupt. The faith in the time of Everyman has been polluted by Lutheran and Calvinist doctrines.
Considering the form of the narrative, this is not surprising: Faustus is obsessed with fame and renown. Everyman has no name proper -- and neither does his author. That the author of the medieval morality play should be anonymous is nothing out of the ordinary, and indeed seems all the more fitting when one considers that the second most printed book after the ible was The Imitation of Christ, a work whose author never put his name on the original (and which…
Craig, H. Morality Plays and Elizabethan Drama. Shakespeare Quarterly 1(2), 1950, 64-
72. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/2866678
Everyman. NY: Fox, Duffield and Company, 1903.
Gardiner, H. Introduction. The Imitation of Christ (Thomas Kempis). NY:
The paper will focus on Luther and Zwingli and their views of the Lord's Supper. It will not cover the views of other reformers though they may be mentioned briefly because of their relationships to Luther and Zwingli. The Catholic Church's view of Transubstantiation will not be covered in depth though it must be discussed in relation to the theology of Luther and Zwingli.
Luther was and is to the Church of the Reformation: the great theologian of the Sacrament of the Altar"
Martin Luther's doctrine of the Lord's Supper was built on his strong belief in the Word of God. As a young man struggling with what today we would call depression, his professor directed him to an extensive study of Scripture. Luther began to study Augustine and the other church fathers, but once Luther moved beyond the writings and commentaries of others to the biblical text,…
Claude Rawson is best known as a scholar of Jonathan Swift and the eighteenth century, but Rawson's has also used the savage irony of Swift's modest proposal for a series of essays which consider Swift's invocation of cannibalism in light of a longer tradition (in Anglo-Irish relations) of imputing cannibalism literally to the native Irish as a way of demonizing their "savagery" or else to implying a metaphorical cannibalism to describe the British Imperial exploitation of those native Irish. Rawson reapproaches these Swiftian subjects in a more recent essay entitled "Killing the Poor: An Anglo-Irish Theme" which examines what Rawson calls the "velleities of extermination" in a text like Swift's "Modest Proposal" (Rawson, 300). Rawson examines how Swift's ironic solution of what to do with the poor of Ireland (eat them as food) undergoes, in various later iterations by Anglo-Irish writers including Shaw and ilde, transformation into a…
Burgess, Anthony. ReJoyce. New York: W.W. Norton, 1965.
Ellmann, Richard. Ulysses on the Liffey. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Henke, Suzette. James Joyce and the Politics of Desire. New York and London: Routledge, 1990.
Joyce, James. Ulysses. Ed. Hans Walter Gabler. New York: Vintage, 1986. Print.
beliefs and practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church can be somewhat differentiated from the basic beliefs and practices of the Western Church due to its veneration of iconography or spiritual imagery of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church can be differentiated as well from the Western Church in that they pray for the dead and are stated to believe that icons "…are a meeting point between the living and the dead; they believe God's grace is active in relics of the saints, they pray to angels; they have a view of sacraments that is differentiated from those of the Western Church in that salvation "…deposited in the Orthodox Church and the priest gives saving grace through the sacraments, so that people have a relationship with the Church rather than with Jesus Christ." (Young, 2007, p.1)
The Eastern Orthodox church is reported to be a fellowship of…
1) Young, David M. (2010) What's So Wrong with the Eastern Orthodox Church? European Institute of Protestant Studies. 2007 Jan 1. Retrieved from: http://www.ianpaisley.org/article.asp?ArtKey=easternorthodox
2) Meyendorf, John (2010) The Orthodox Church: General Information. Retrieved from: http://mb-soft.com/believe/txc/orthodox.htm
3) Benz, Ernst (2008) The Eastern Orthodox Church: Its Thought and Life. Transaction Publishers, 2008) Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=Q5Z_evECb1UC&dq=basic+beliefs+and+practices+of+the+Eastern+Orthodox+Church&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
4) Eastern Orthodox -- What are the main beliefs. (2010) AllExperts.com. Retreived from: http://en.allexperts.com/q/Eastern-Orthodox-1456/main-beliefs.htm
Book Chapter: A Theology of Communion for the Contemporary Catholic Parish
The study of ecclesiology is the study of how the Christian church, the ever-expanding body of believers, has evolved over time to respond to new political and social realities. Ecclesiology also takes into account the way organizational structures, hierarchies, and roles within the church have changed and reflect the nuances of a cultural milieu or historical epoch. In addition to all that, the study of ecclesiology also comprises the church’s relationship with surrounding community organizations. How the church forms strategic alliances with secular political, social, and economic institutions is also part of the complex array of issues that impact ecclesiology. Although some aspects of the church must remain stable over time to reflect scripture, church polity and organization remains one of the most dynamic aspects of Christianity and the role it plays in the world.
As MacDougall (2015)…
The Role of Christianity in Politics and Ethics
Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a German Lutheran arrested and imprisoned by the Third Reich and eventually executed for being found guilty of having taken part in an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. Bonhoeffer’s writings have since become influential in the modern world for their focus on the role that Christians can play in politics. Since the separation of church and state that America set the stage for with its own secular foundations, many have been conflicted or confused about the role that Christians should have in modern politics. For hundreds of years, the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church influenced the politics of Christendom and vice versa. With the Protestant Reformation there was a push towards secularism, and the Peace of Westphalia in the 17th century, which was forged without participation from the Pope, showed that states could handle their own affairs.…
Brock, B. “Bonhoeffer and the Bible in Christian Ethics: Psalm 119, The Mandates, and Ethics as a ‘Way’.” Studies in Christian Ethics, 18, no. 3 (2005).
Bonhoeffer, D. Ethics. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, Press. 2009.
Iyabo, O.A. “Christianity and Politics – Any Parallel Line? Christian Ethical Moral Point of View.”International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science, 2, no. 7 (2014).
Nissen, U.B. “Letting Reality Become Real: On Mystery and Reality in Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s Ethics.” Journal of Religious Ethics, 39, no. 2 (2011).
Olson, R.E. The Journey of Modern Theology: From Reconstruction to Deconstruction. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Pearson, T.D. “Bonhoeffer and the End of Christian Ethics.” Journal of Lutheran Ethics, 4, no. 8 (2004).
Plant, S. “The Sacrament of Ethical Reality: Dietrich Bonhoeffer on Ethics for Christian Citizens.” Studies in Christian Ethics, 18, no.3 (2005).
Tshaka R. &Senokoane, B. “The Christian Politician?An Investigation into the Theological Grounding for Christians Participation in Politics.”HTS Theological Studies, 72, no. 1 (2016).
Latour takes several steps to repair the damage done to the church by the moral misdeeds of rogue priests and, to a certain extent, the American and Mexican governments. Latour dispatches Valliant to Albuquerque and, in Valliant's travels, he performs sacraments and admonishes a priest for gambling with parish funds. Latour, for his part, helps rescue Magdalena from the abusive uck Scales and orders the founding of a girl's school - another important symbol of permanence and the church's commitment to the community. Latour also replaces Gallegos, a corrupt priest who drinks, gambles and left his parish in a "scandalous state," with Father Valliant (p.83).
Latour's house cleaning continues throughout the story, as he is determined to conquer the book's moral setting, as he conquered its natural setting. Perhaps Latour's greatest triumph is when he forces Father Martinez, who had become a "dictator to all parishes in Northern New Mexico"…
Cather, Willa (1962). "Death Comes for the Archbishop." New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.
Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…
Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm
Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/femalerabbi.html
The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html
Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
Baptism Debate: An Examination of the Purpose and Merits of Baptism
There is no trick involved in entering the Kingdom of Heaven, but many theologians argue that there are some important steps that must be taken to help pave the way, including being baptized. Issues such as whether complete immersion is required or simply a token sprinkling, who is authorized to perform baptisms and even the fundamental purpose and merits of baptism, have all been the source of enormously divisive controversy within the Christian church for two millennia. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning different views about the purpose and merits of baptism, and whether baptism is reserved for believers only or for infants as well. A discussion concerning what mode of baptism is biblical is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.…
Bryant, S.E. (2004, Winterr). "More Than a Symbol: The British Baptist Recovery of Baptismal
Sacramentalism." Baptist History and Heritage, 39(1), 120-123.
Cavendish, R. (1999). "Baptism." Man, Myth & Magic. New York: Marshall Cavendish
As the Archbishop of Canterbury during the tumultuous reign of Henry VIII, Thomas Cranmer was in an extraordinary position to effect changes in England's political and religious direction. Through his writings, Cranmer laid the foundations for establishing the Church of England and moved England into the path of the growing European Reformation Movement.
By facilitating the numerous divorces of Henry VIII, he helped to weaken the authority of the Pope in England and contributed to the greater hold of the King.
This paper examines the effects of Cranmer's developing theology on the history of Tudor England. The first part of the paper looks at the role Cranmer played in justifying the theological bases of Henry VIII's numerous divorces. The next part then examines Cranmer's religious convictions, as enshrined in the Ten Articles and later, in the two versions of the Book of Common Prayer.
In the last section,…
Cranmer, Thomas. "The Most Healthful Medicine." ca. 1540. reproduced in Christian History, 1995. 14(4): 34-37.
D'Aubigne, Merle. Reformation in England. 2 vols. London: Banner of Truth, 1991.
McCulloch, Diarmaid. "Cranmer's Ambitious Legacy." History Today, July 1996. 49(6): 23-32.
McCulloch, Diarmaid. Thomas Cranmer: A Life. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
persecution of Christians that took place during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries in England.
The religious persecution that was inflicted on Christians by the Church and State of England to extract compliance and adherence to the Church of England and the authority of the English Crown. There existed conflicts between the Protestant and Catholic Religions of the day and was a time of turmoil and upheaval for the people of England who did not hold the same religious beliefs as that of the Church and English Crown.
ackground and Historical Overview:
The Church of England was fully committed to the Roman Catholic Church that ruled from a position of supremacy and was backed up fully by King Henry VIII. During the year of 1530 the King who considered himself to be a "Defender of the Faith" issued as a proclamation that certain books and literature which was in conflict against…
Stephens, Leslie & Lee, Sidney, eds. "The Dictionary of National Biography" London Oxford University
Low, Sidney J. & Pulling, F.S. "The Dictionary of English History " Funk and Wagner. New York
New Standard Encyclopedia Ed. 6 Vol. 8, 1984 New Standard Publishing Co. New York.
Low, Sidney J. & Pulling, F.S. "The Dictionary of English History " Funk and Wagner New York
Greek bishops could also marry, although such alliances prevent them from rising in position in the church, where Roman priests took celibacy vows. Regarding doctrine, some could Latin approach as more practical and judicial, while the Greek was more speculative about the nature of the Godhead.
Martin Luther founded the Lutheran branch of Protestant Christianity. Luther rejected the authority of the Catholic Pope. The Bible alone was the ultimate authority for Luther. Salvation was by grace and by faith alone in Jesus Christ. Luther retained the sacraments of baptism, penance and Holy Communion and he held that in the Holy Communion the consecrated bread and wine are the Body and Blood of Christ
However, he rejected the ideas of purgatory, indulgences, invocation of the Saints, and prayers for the dead.
In contrast, while John Calvin also rejected the Pope, he believed that God alone could dispense salvation, holding to…
" Therefore, the Second Coming and the Rapture are coincidental events, both of which have to do with Christ returning to Earth. The Rapture specifically refers to what happens to human beings. Once Christ returns, the "thousand-year reign" on Earth begins. According to the FFM website, "Jesus Christ will one day return to bring believers home to Heaven and will reign with them over the Earth for 1,000 years." The thousand-year reign has scriptural origin, and is also called the Millennial Reign of Jesus. A "new heaven and earth," ostensibly a holier and happier one, will result from the Second Coming.
Speaking in tongues is a phenomenon that occasionally accompanies the baptism rite. Many Protestant and evangelical groups encourage speaking in tongues as proof of one's salvation during baptism (Robinson 2005). More formally known as "glossolalia," speaking in tongues is considered to be a supernatural manifestation of the glory of…
'History." Faith Fellowship Ministries.org.< http://www.faithfellowshipministries.org/history.html>.
"Our Beliefs." < http://www.ffmwoc.org/FFM3/Beliefs.html>.
Robinson, B.A. (2005). "Comparing the Beliefs of Roman Catholics and Conservative Protestants." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: Religious Tolerance.org.< http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_capr.htm >.
All human beings are considered corrupt and sick and, because of the original sin, are in close relations with the powers of evil, rending them unable to make a significant contribution to their liberation. Ironically in some way, it can be said that Lutherans believe in faith. Faith is understood as trust in God's love and is viewed as the only appropriate way for man to answer to God's initiative. "Salvation by faith alone" is the distinctive and criticized (by catholic adepts) slogan of Lutheranism. Opponents of this doctrine argued that this position does not do justice to the Christian responsibility to do good works; the answer was that faith has to be active in love and that there is an indivisible connection between good works and faith: the former follow from the latter as a good tree produces good fruit.
Worship. The Lutheran church is, by its own definition,…
http://www.newadvent.org/-Articles on the Reformation and Martin Luther
2. Encyclopedia Britannica - Articles on Protestantism and Zwingli, 1997 Edition, Vol. 26 and 12
3. Encarta Encyclopedia - Articles on Calvin and Zwinlgi
-How does the author identify symbolism? What symbols does he find the most evocative? Of the author's interpretations, which symbols do you find most plausible?
*Panofsky focuses on symbols which relate to the marriage sacrament:
*the joined hands of the couple
*the raised hand of the man
*the presence of a witness (van Eyck) who has signed his work accordingly
*the dog (as an image of marital fidelity)
*the religious icon of St. Margaret (invoked in childbirth)
*the room itself, with discarded shoes
*the single lit candle burning in the chandelier.
*Panofsky is interested in the way that the symbolism in the Arnolfini portrait disguises itself as realism: he identifies the result, for the viewer, as a "transfigured reality," where the transfiguration is perhaps indicative of the sacramental nature of what is depicted.
*Bedeaux never quotes the phrase "transfigured reality" but fixates instead on the notion of "disguised…
Calvinism and the Reformation
John Calvin (originally Jean Cauvin) was born July 10th, 1509, in the merchant city of Noyon, France, in a family of modest ancestry of watermen and artisans.
His father, Girard Cauvin, ran the course of a respectable bourgeoisie member who studied law and went all the way from a town clerk to the position of a procurator of the cathedral chapter. As a prediction to his son's further relationship with the Catholic Church, by the time he died he was excommunicated.
His older brother, a priest encountered similar troubles this department and was also excommunicated. Standing Firm on his position, he refused the sacraments on his death bed and was buried outside the churchyard.
John Calvin was the second son of Girard Cauvin and Jeanne LeFranc. For some, John Calvin's birthday was an unfortunate event, for others, a blessing. Throughout his career, he only appears to…
1. Hesselink, I. John (2004), Calvin's theology, in McKim, Donald K., The Cambridge Companion to John Calvin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
2. Parker, T.H.L. (1995), Calvin: An Introduction to His Thought, London: Geoffrey Chapman
3. Niesel, Wilhelm (1980), The Theology of Calvin, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House
4. Naphy, W, (1994), Calvin and the Consolidation of the Genevan Reformation, Westminster John Knox Press
The beauty of God’s covenant with us is that each and every day we have the opportunity to renew our faith and reinvigorate our lives through love. Participating in the sacraments is an act of true communion, for when we participate in the Eucharist we are engaging in a two-way dialogue with God. A covenant is a commitment, a bilateral agreement between God and each of you. Christ made it possible for us to cultivate this special relationship, for it is only through His sacrifice that it becomes possible for us to experience the power of the covenant in a direct way. When you participate in the Eucharist, try to remember its deeper meaning, to consider the importance and value of the covenant and what it means for the salvation of humanity.
The Eucharist is the direct extension of the new covenant between God and His people. Let us consider…
For the early Christians, the Holy Spirit was experienced as a real power in their lives
. The Holy Spirit empowered them to continue the work of Jesus. When a person received the Holy Spirit, they experienced a difference in their lives -- and others noticed it. That is still true today.Although all Christians receive the Holy Spirit through Baptism, God's Spirit works in many
ways in the world, in both Christians and non-Christians. Yet the experience of being 'baptised in the Spirit' is a time of entering a deeper spiritual dimension.Those who experience this deeper infilling, or new outpouring, of God's Spirit usually begin to discover new spiritual gifts
. The gift of prophesy or that of speaking tongues given to the reborn disciples imparts them with the ability to sense what God is saying to a group or an individual, and to pass on that message. This…
Bruce, F.F. Commentary on the Book of Acts. NICNT. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids, MI:
They strike a cord of rebellion against the perceived misdeeds of the Church. And most assuredly, this misdeeds are both visible and offensive in the proportions that affiliated it with the affluence and excess of the European monarchy. Luther takes the perspective that the leaders of the church have largely taken up a greater interest in serving to these material ends then reflecting the convictions of God. It is thus that he illustrates the irony of making the public beholden to their allegedly special relationship with the divine. Quite rationally and to this point, Luther declares that the very idea that any human being up to and including the pope might be capable of channeling us forgiveness for our sins by way of confession is disingenuous. Luther determines that "those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is absolved from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences.…
Coats, D., trans., Martin Luther's 95 Theses. (GEnie Religion & Ethics RT, 1992.)
Tuten, B., trans., the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola, Translated from the Autograph by Father Elder Mullen, S.J. (New York: P.J. Kennedy and Sons, 1914.)
Coats, Th. 1-2
hen it is an issue of culture or race, the more understanding between the couple, the higher the marital success rate. "Different cultures endure vastly diverse moral, ethical and value foundations that influence their perceptions of individual, family and societal lifestyle. hen these foundations are operating alongside the foundation of different cultural roots, as in intercultural marriages, problems and disagreement oftentimes occur." (McFadden).
Religion is extremely important to some people and completely insignificant to others. However, it is a huge factor that can greatly determine the success or failure of a marriage. Studies show that people who are from different religious backgrounds have a higher divorce rate. This may be due to the difference in beliefs. hen faced with two different religious backgrounds, many couples will choose one religion over the other; however, this generally tends to be short lived because after practicing one religion and building beliefs over many…
Sobande, Linda. A Tool to work You Marriage to Success. Ezine Articles.
McFadden, J., Moore, J.L. (2001). Intercultural marriage and intimacy: Beyond the continental divide. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 23, 261 -- 268
Marriage, a History." Psychology Today, May 01, 2005
Wood, Crissy. Predictors of Marriage Success. The Skyliner Campus News. 5/2/01.
Finally, Gandhi believed that Indian independence had to precede any agreements between the competing groups in the country: Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs. In contrast, Jinnah believed in the idea of two Indias, a Muslim India and a Hindu India. Furthermore, Jinnah believed that the Indian National Congress, composed of educated Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs, was the pathway to a free India, because through it they could extract more and more constitutional freedoms from Britain. Jinnah did not believe in direct confrontation, even the nonviolent confrontation espoused by Gandhi.
9. Vivekananda and Gandhi had a different definition of karma yoga than that found in the Bhagavad-Gita. In the Bhagavad-Gita, karma yoga is concerned with duty (dharma) regardless of earthly reward and dharma is linked to class or caste. The concept is that one may reach salvation by working for the pleasure of a supreme being.
In order to understand Gandhi's notion…
While Catholics view Jesus as being a part of God, Jews see Jesus as a human who was wonderful teacher and storyteller, not the son of God (Kreeft, 1987). In the eyes of Jews, Jesus does not have the power to save souls; only God can. For Catholics, Jesus is the Son of God who rose from the dead and saved humankind. Jews do not share this belief.
Catholics also believe that Jesus absorbed the sins of the people. For them, Jesus replaced Jewish law and erased the sins of their ancestors. For Jews, the commandments and Jewish law are still binding.
Judaism rejects the idea of original sin -- the idea that people are born with sins and require an act of grace provided by the sacrifices of Jesus to erase humankind's sins (Kreeft, 1987). For Catholics, salvation only exists through Jesus. In the eyes of Jews, humans are…
James D. Davidson, Dean Hoge, and Katherine Meyer. (2001). American Catholics. Alta Mira.
Kreeft, Peter. (May, 1987). Comparing Christianity & Judaism." National Catholic Register.
Liguorian. (January 2000). American Catholics: Three Generations, One Church. Liguorian: 12-16.
Hamlet's Ghost has presented a problem for critics and readers since it first appeared on stage some four hundred years ago. Serving as the pivot upon which the action of the play is established -- Hamlet's father's ghost delivers him important information about his death and the throne -- one is likely to ask whether the ghost is truly the soul of King Hamlet or rather a devil appearing in disguise in order to trick (like Iago) the hero of the drama into a fatal course. This paper will examine the theology behind Hamlet's ghost and compare and contrast the Christian and unchristian, Catholic and Protestant, traits found in the play.
As Roy . Battenhouse states, "One may agree with Dover ilson that the Ghost is the 'linchpin' without which Hamlet falls to pieces, yet question ilson's judgment that the Ghost 'is Catholic,' 'comes from Purgatory,' and 'is the only…
Battenhouse, Roy W. "The Ghost in Hamlet: A Catholic 'Linchpin'?" Studies in Philology vol. 48, no. 2, 1951, 161-192. Print.
Miriam Joseph. "Discerning the Ghost in Hamlet." PMLA vol. 76, no. 5, 1961, 493-502.
Miriam Joseph. "Hamlet, a Christian Tragedy." Studies in Philosophy vol. 59, no. 2,
Dulles proposed five models of the Church in his former book "models of the Church.' The first model sees the Church as "a divinely established society with definite articles of belief and binding law" (254). As a single, organized, visible order, salvation can be found in only one place -- the Church, inside it and not external to it, and to Roman Catholics inside one place and one place only and that is the RC church.
The second model postulates that the church is the communal site for an atmosphere of love and grace that is wrought through the Holy Spirit and is evidenced both between the community members themselves (between fellow and fellow) and also between worshipper and God.
According to the third model, the Church embodies within itself the Grace and spirit of Christ. In that sense, it serves -- or is -- a sacrament, a visible sacred…
Compare and contrast their approaches to the question of faith.
One of the features of the age of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky was the emergence of philosophical and religious thoughts that promoted spirituality without religion. The tendency to reject organized religion in favor of personal spirituality or a direct relationship with God gained prominence at this age in ussia because of widespread disillusionment with the state-supported religion, corruption and hypocrisy of the official clergy. None perhaps popularized such spirituality in ussia more than Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. Both of these figures had a complicated relationship with the official Orthodox Christianity. Tolstoy was excommunicated by the Holy Synod of the ussian Patriarch in 1901. But while Dostoevsky's criticism of organized religion remained subtle and he emphasized the importance of faith, Tolstoy was scathing in his attacks on ussian Orthodox religion and at times he directly questioned the existence of God. Tolstoy was a…
Boot, a. (2009). God and man according to Tolstoy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dostoyevsky, F., & Dostoyevsky, F. (1960). Notes from underground: And the grand inquisitor. New York: Dutton.
Jackson, R.L. (1993). Dialogues with Dostoevsky: The overwhelming questions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Rancour-Laferriere, D. (2007). Tolstoy's quest for God. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Shamanic intervention is also a part of the social fabric of these cultures, and the Shaman is often consulted in terms of political and tribal disputes. The classic Shamanic trance or journey consists of a number of elements:
Leaving the realm of the mundane, that is, the physical world; (2) Traveling to the supernatural; and (3) Returning to the world of the mundane.
In order to facilitate this vital function the Shaman often uses psychoactive plants such as Peyote to aid his perception of the spiritual world. "The transition between the world of the mundane and the supernatural world is frequently facilitated by inducing trance states using psychoactive plants."
The use of Peyote and the origins of the Peyote cult are buried in antiquity. An early Spanish chronicler, Fray ernardino de Sahagun, "estimated on the basis of several historical events recorded in Indian chronology that Peyote was known to…
Batchelder, Tim. Drug Addictions, Hallucinogens and Shamanism: the View from Anthropology. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, July 1, 2001
French, Laurence Armand. Addictions and Native Americans. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000.
Glazier, Stephen D., ed. Anthropology of Religion A Handbook. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.
This was however, not the view held by the Catholic Church in their view of the novel. The view of the Catholic Church, was that "the latter element" -- that is, human wretchedness -- had appeared "to carry the day" in a way that did injury "to certain priestly characters and even to the priesthood itself." Moreover, the novel portrayed a state of affairs so "paradoxical" and "erroneous" that it would disconcert "unenlightened persons" who formed "the majority of the readers."
Summary and Conclusion
Greene was not disconcerted by the view of the Church and simply remarked that he did not own the copyright and therefore could do nothing to change what was already written. The following quote from the work is quite poignant and after having read about the life of Greene can just as easily be assigned to come from within him as from within the mind of…
Schlosser, Stephen (nd) "Altogether Adverse" - American Magazine Issue 388. Online available at http://www.americamagazine.org/gettext.cfm?articleTypeID=1&text ID=2311&issueID=388
Greeneland (2005) Online available at http://www.amywelborn.com/greene/greene.html .
Graham Greene "The Power and the Glory" Online available at http://members.tripod.com/~greeneland/power.htm
Graham Green's "The Power and the Glory"
..the raving of...fools" which leads to "the suppression of Christian faith, the denying of the divine ord, and the blaspheming of the diving majesty." ere the world made up of "real Christians" (369), Luther points out, no "prince, king, lord, sword, or law" (written by men who govern the Catholic church) "would be needed." The Holy Spirit is the only law required for salvation, he said, often and in many ways. The Holy Spirit (369) simply asks no law, but leads followers of Christ down the path of doing "wrong to no one," loving "every one," and to "...willingly and cheerfully" suffer any injustice "...and even death from every one."
Luther ("Twenty-seven Proposals for Improving the State of Christendom") puts in writing his answer to the laws of the Roman church, and his "proposals" are profound and revolutionary. He calls for the separation of church and state, which was a…
Dillenberger, John. (1961). Martin Luther: Selections From His Writings. Chicago:
Quadrangle Books, Inc.
This sudden tragedy occurs, no less, just as Ophelia is to happily crown the hanging boughs of the tree, which symbolically represents the happy instance that must have occurred just prior to the play's opening -- Hamlet's engagement to Ophelia. As on the bank of the brook, so too with Hamlet -- an "envious sliver broke"; the "rash" and "intruding" Polonius interjected himself and denied Ophelia what her nature so plainly made her for: to love. He teaches her, rather, to doubt and to suspect. Ophelia falls victim to the plague of Elsinore, which may be stated as the conflict between truth and falsehood.
The Man's Nature
Hamlet engages in this conflict in an altogether different manner, however. If Ophelia and Gertrude approach it from the direction of love, Hamlet approaches it from the direction of reason. Gertrude and Ophelia intuit; Hamlet rationalizes. Ophelia, for example, appreciates Hamlet's predicament immediately…
Battenhouse, Roy W. "The Ghost in Hamlet: A Catholic 'Linchpin'?" Studies in Philology vol. 48, no. 2, 1951, 161-192. Print.
Dane, Gabrielle. "Reading Ophelia's Madness." Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies, vol. 10 (1998): 405-23. Print.
Garner, Shirley Nelson. "Shakespeare in My Time and Place." Shakespearean Tragedy
and Gender (ed. By Shirley Nelson Garner). Indiana University Press, 1996. Print.
persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.
ome before Christianity
The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…
Badnewsaboutchristianity.com (n.d.). Christian Persecution of Heretics - Bad News About Christianity. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.badnewsaboutchristianity.com/gbc_heretics.htm#_edn4 [Accessed: 10 Dec 2012].
Bainton, R.H. (1960). Early Christianity. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand.
Fitzgerald, T. (1998). The Orthodox Church. Westport, CT: Praeger Publisher.
Hackl, . (2012). Israel Considers Drafting Its Arab Citizens . Christian Science Monitor, August 1.
hurt your children; I love your children.' So thundered Fr. Percival D'Silva, trembling, in his sermon at the lessed Sacrament Church in Chevy Chase, MD," wrote Maureen Dowd in her weekly column in the New York Times (Dowd, 2002). Fr. Percival has been one of the few to speak out against the defensive attitude of the Catholic Church -- one of obfuscation, dishonesty and callousness to the victims. Fr. Percival called for Cardinal ernard Law of oston, co-indicted in several child abuse cases, to resign.
The Catholic Church has been rocked recently by allegations of sexual abuses -- especially against children. The problem is not isolated but all pervading. The cases of child, sexual abuses are about the same percentage as the general population. Most of the cases are not, in the strictest sense pedophilic -- sex with pre-pubescent children, but ephebophilia -- abuse of adolescent children. In a comprehensive…
Biechler, James E. (1999) "A Question of Rights: Celibacy and Pedophilia" Extracted from web site: http://astro.ocis.temple.edu/~arcc/rights7.htm
Cannon, Angie & Sheler, Jeffery L. (2002) "Catholics in Crisis." U.S. News & World Report,
Dowd, Maureen (2002) "Rome Fiddles, We Burn." New York Times, March 27.
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…
Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.
Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386
Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192
Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
Death in Everyman
The concept of death is a very complicated and often morose subject when it is covered and analyzed through the interpretations and scenarios depicted in a play, let alone a play as prominent and chilling as Everyman. However, there is usually a point and moral to these sorts of plays and Everyman is no different. While the mood of the play is somber and perhaps instills or otherwise causes feelings that are uncomfortable to think about, Everyman drives home the point that no matter one's wealth, prestige and power upon death, about the only thing that can be taken with you to the other side are one's deeds, both good and bad.
Lack of importance of Five Wits
Lack of importance of physical traits
c. Lessons for believers and non-believers
Moral of the play
Death in Everyman
Death and leading a "good life" are two subjects…
Allen, J. (2002). Plato: The Morality and Immorality of Art. Arts Education Policy
Review, 104(2), 19-24.
Gervais, W.M., Shariff, A.F., & Norenzayan, A. (2011). Do you believe in atheists?
Distrust is central to anti-atheist prejudice. Journal Of Personality And Social
Marriage and the Bible: Understanding the Concept
In ancient Israel, marriage was largely a social construct arranged between parents for their children -- divorce was possible but largely for the very rich, and even the Old Testament presumption was that marriage was a lasting, lifelong covenant (Elwell 1996: 346). The custom of marriage was often that of a "family" affair, with the parents governing the union rather than the personal will of the participants (Elwell 1996: 740). Today, marriage is largely considered a matter of personal choice without theological significance, much less an analog to the relationship of humanity and God (Elwell 1996:743). Although some aspects of the modern conception of marriage may seem to have positive benefits, in terms of its stress upon the spiritual bonds between individuals rather than social needs, the Biblical concept of marriage as that of a permanent union that cannot be dissolved because of…
Elwell, W. (1996). Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Baker Publishing Group.
baptism was "dipping." The word was widely used in the New Testament in Jesus' teachings and also in the letters of Paul. Jesus uses the term 'baptism' to refer to the death/suffering that awaited him (Mark 10:38)[footnoteRef:2]. He draws parallels between the suffering that awaited him and some form of immersion -- which he was to be drowned in. He says that the immersion was necessary and until he emerged from it, his work is incomplete (Luke 12.50). It therefore means that, right from the start, baptism symbolized Christians sharing in the suffering of Jesus Christ by immersing themselves into a mold similar to that of the suffering of Christ. Paul talks of baptism 'into' Jesus' death (Romans 6.3). Christians experience this as they celebrate Good Friday and also during the Holy Communion as they break the bread.[footnoteRef:3] [2: Williams, Rowan. eing Christian: aptism, ible, Eucharist, Prayer. 2014: 1] [3:…
"Baptism Is a Public Statement about Your Relationship with Jesus." NorthRidge Church. Accessed May 26, 2015.
Best, Thomas F. Baptism Today: Understanding, Practice, Ecumenical Implications. Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 2008.
Britton, Dennis Austin. Becoming Christian. Oxford: Fordham University Press, 2014.
Ervin, Howard M. Conversion-initiation and the Baptism in the Holy Spirit: A Critique of James D.G. Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1984. Print.
Friendship, Marriage and God
One of the most compelling themes of the Christian gospel is love. Christian love refers to many things including the divine love of God for Creation, and also to human love for each other. Human love can manifest in a number of different ways or types of relationships. Marriage and friendship are two of the most important and universal types of human relationships that are based on love. In spite of differences in culture, language, and ethnicity, all Christians perceive and communicate love in similar ways. Christian love as a strong theological component, as for the first time in recorded history, God became equal to love: "God is love," (1 John 4:8). The Bible also shows how and why love can be psychologically as well as spiritually transformative, which is why the theme of love remains constant throughout the New Testament. Essentially, there are three distinct…
Carmichael, E.DH Friendship: Interpreting Christian Love. New York: T&T Clark, 2004.
Cooke, Bernard. "Christian Marriage: Basic Sacrament." In Scott, Kieran and Warren, Michael. Perspectives on Marriage. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Lawler, Michael G. "Marriage in the Bible." In Scott, Kieran and Warren, Michael. Perspectives on Marriage. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Scott, Kieran and Warren, Michael. Perspectives on Marriage. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, 2006.
OLMC: A Non-Profit in KY
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Seminary is a non-profit organization located in Boston, Kentucky, that specializes in teaching and training young seminarians in the methods and styles of the Traditions of the Catholic Church. It is not your average Catholic seminary, however: it is not part of the local diocese and is not overseen by the local Bishop. It has not received permission from Rome to open its doors to young seminarians. In fact, the priests who established this seminary operate it illicitly as far as the authorities in Rome are concerned. Having opened its doors to international students in 2012, the seminary has been training young men from all over the world -- Brazil, Argentina, Africa, England, Asia, and America. Its aim is to produce priests and teachers who can go out into the world and spread Traditional Catholic doctrine. To understand what this…
"Bishop Confirms." CFNews. Web. 27 Mar 2016..
Lefebvre, Marcel. I Accuse the Council. Kansas City: Angelus Press, 1988. Print.
Lelong, Michel. "Towards a Necessary Reconciliation." The Recusant. 2012. Web. 27