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Saudi Arabia's International Business Law
Saudi Arabia and Socio Economics
Oil wealth, which led to dramatic standard of living increases in the Gulf for much of the second half of the twentieth century, no longer is enough to ensure the prosperity of several states. Living standards in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Oman have remained at a standstill in recent years. For example, from 1980 to 1998, the Saudi economy grew at an average of 0.2% a year -- a stagnation that ended only when oil prices soared in 1999 and 2000.
Gulf regimes have failed to diversify their economies beyond the oil sector. Oil dominates the Gulf economies, leaving them vulnerable to sudden price fluctuations. For example, about 40% of Saudi Arabia's GDP, and over 90% of its export earnings come from oil revenues. Many industries depend heavily on subsidized energy, as well as direct and indirect government subsidies, to…
Ali, A. And Al-Shakhis, M. (2008) "Changing Managerial Values in Saudi Arabia," Advances in International Comparative Management, 6, 81-102.
Al-Ghamdi., Salem (1999), "Success and Failure in S. audi- American Negotiation: American Views," International Negotiation, Vol. 4, 1-14.
Au, K. (2007), "Another Consequence of Culture Intra-Cultural Variation," The International Journal of Human Resources Managers Managements, Vol. 8 No.5, pp. 743-55.
At-Twaijri, M.I. (2002), 'The negotiating scale of Saudi industrial buyers: An empirical investigation," International Journal of Value-Based Management, Vol. 5, No. 1.
Saudi Arabia vs. American Business Culture
A number of U.S. And Europe-based MNCs have, in the past, suffered huge losses due to the lack of appreciation for the Asian way of conducting business, and their culture in general. This explains why it is necessary for businesses and individuals to understand and manage diversity in culture. There is a huge cultural variation between the western and the Asian worlds. Diversity management goes beyond just changing standards and valid expectations; it entails recognizing the fact that different groups would approach different situations in different ways, and then developing mechanisms through which potential frictions could be reduced. Whereas effective diversity management is a success factor, the contrary could have detrimental effects on the success of any business unit.
Differences between American and Saudi-Arabian Cultures
eligion and Language: U.S. doctrines strongly advocate for the separation of the church, and the state. The bulk of…
CESL. (2008). The Differences between Saudi Society and American Society. AE2. Retrieved from http://ceslae2.blogspot.com/2008/09/differences-between-saudi-society-and_13.html
Chaney, L.H. & Martin, J.S. (2012). Global Business Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs (2nd ed.). Santa Barbra, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Zaharna, R.S. (1995). Bridging Cultural Differences: American Public Relations Practices & Arab Communication Patterns. Public Relations Review, 21 (3), 241-255.
This also includes the well-known Saudi offshore portion of the Persian Gulf which was the focus of much interest and debate during the first Gulf War in early 1990's as a result of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
Geologically, these oil fields "are mostly the result of what is known as extensional block faulting" in ancient sedimentary rock layers (i.e., sandstone and shale) "in the crystalline Pre-Cambrian basement (or subfloor)" which runs approximately along a north-to-south axis deep beneath the Arabian desert. This gigantic structure "underlies the world's largest oil field Ghawar and other major oil fields, such as Khurais, Mazalij and Abu Jifan (Rickard, 156). To the trained geographer/geologist, the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia in the region of Al-Dahna with its as Summan Plateau, greatly eroded with deep gorges, is very indicative of oil reserves lying far beneath the surface, extending to depths of some 11,000 feet (Rickard, 157).…
Background Note: Saudi Arabia." U.S. Department of State. Internet. June 2007. Retrieved at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3584.htm .
Rickard, Michael J. Basement Tectonics in the Middle East. New York: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Inc., 1993.
Saudi Arabia." Encyclopedia Americana. Vol. 24. Danbury, CT: Grolier, Inc.
Thus, Saudi Arabia is caught between a short-run dependency on oil that has it opposing tight restrictions on oil consumption, but has a long-run interest in moving away from the oil economy, something that will only be forced by decreasing oil revenues.
There are indications that Saudi Arabia is willing to be flexible in negotiations. It is unlikely that the country would accept limits on its own consumption of fossil fuels, because of its economic dependence on oil, high unemployment and the need to diversify its economy. However, despite OPEC's posturing, it is highly unlikely that Kyoto or any subsequent protocol would have a negative impact on the country's earnings from oil. The main reason is that a decrease in sales to estern regions will be made up for with sales to India, China and other growth regions that for some reason have been excluded from Kyoto.
Saudi Arabia's main…
CIA World Factbook: Saudi Arabia. (2011). Retrieved November 21, 2011 from
In other words, the Court looked at why Nelson was suing Saudi Arabia, and determined whether those claims were based on Saudi Arabia's actions as a sovereign nation or on its actions as a business.
Sovereign immunity should continue, even if it results in the occasional unjust activity. To subject foreign governments to liability for their actions as governments would be allowing other countries to dictate the internal policies of foreign countries. In this instance, the conditions of Nelson's confinement sound absolutely horrific. Moreover, it seems clear that Nelson would not have been arrested had he not been performing his job-related activities and reporting safety violations that existed in the hospital. The Saudi Arabian government, undoubtedly, if United States laws applied, committed a number of torts and crimes in confining Nelson. However, Nelson was not in the United States. U.S. law did not apply to his scenario. Nelson could have…
Approximately 4.5 million have main telephone lines; almost 20 million have mobile cellular telephones; and more than 6.25 million have radio sets (ureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor 2004). More than 5 million own television sets, 4.7 million people use the internet, and there are around 22 internet service providers. Saudi Arabia has 213 airports; 8 heliports; 1.392 km railways; 59 marine ships. The average consumption of electricity by the population is 150 billion per kilowatt hour (ureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor).
Wildlife and environment issues center on desertification, depletion of underground water resources, the lack of perennial rivers or permanent bodies of water, and coastal pollution from oil spills (ureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor 2005).
Saudi men wear the traditional dress called a "thobe," which symbolizes equality (ArabNet 2002). Their headdress consists of the taiga, the gutra, and the iqal. A Saudi woman wears…
ArabNet. Clothing, 2002. Retrieved on May 7, 2008 at http://www.arab.net/saudi/sa_clothing.htm
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. Saudi Arabia. International Religious
Freedom Report. International Religious Freedom: U.S. Department of State, 2004
Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs. Saudi Arabia. Bureau of Public Affairs: U.S. Department of State, 2008
In order to get various information for comparative analysis, several online databases will be explored so that the scientific data and social factors that will be unearthed are factual enough and relevant to the study of obesity among teenagers.
The publication year was used from 2000 to present. This is because the researcher can be access to the best data. Also, this period has showed the fast economic development that has affected on life style and public health. Some of those internet resources will include:
1. Databases and Subject Resources at linders University Library: Medline - Ovid, Scopus, Science Direct?, and Web of knowledge -- ISI. All of these have the best database for retrieving data and studies. Also, the researcher can access the times cited and cited references, this is done with much ease hence the researcher will spend a relatively short time looking for the information he needs…
Following the study and the findings, it is important that a number of mitigating factors be engaged to help curb the obesity problem. There should be an advisory journals published by the government agencies and they be given to the citizens so that it forms a reference for them to check on their mass in relation to obesity. The wide spread obesity cases should also prompt the government to incorporate management of obesity in the curriculum sot that the students can start appreciating the importance of managing obesity as well as how it can be avoided and controlled (Osman & Al-Nozha, 2000).
There should also be a change in the lifestyle of the females, the sedentary life should be ignored and they should involve in doing light exercise and work outs to help them break the cycles of sedentary lifestyle. The transition of obesity from children to adulthood is very clear. This should prompt the government to educate mothers with small babies not to initiate obesity to their children at early time. This will break the nexus between the two levels of obesity. This is the most effective way of managing obesity as it reduces the time and resources that are required to mitigate the obesity.
The Non-governmental organization and other relevant stake holders should supplement the government efforts to manage the daunting issue of the obesity. This should be done by organizing workshops to help in training individuals on matters related to obesity. These trained persons on management and control of obesity. When all this efforts do not yield any positive results, then it may make the control measures to take a different turn that will compel people to check on their mass these include implementation of laws that will discriminate on the obese group when it comes to holding public offices.
orld Bank. (2009). Key development data and statistics. orld Bank. Retrieved October 27, 2009 from http://web.worldbank.org/BSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK:20535285~menuPK:1192694~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00.html
illiams, J. (2009). Oil price history and analysis. TRG Economics. Retrieved October 27, 2009 from http://www.wtrg.com/prices.htm
Kawach, N. (2008). Saudi debt set to drop sharply this year. Emirates Business. Retrieved October 27, 2009 from http://www.business24-7.ae/Articles/2008/8/Pages/Saudidebtsettodropsharplythisyear.aspx
Abocar, a. (2009). Saudi debt woes not derailing interest in mideast. Reuters. Retrieved October 27, 2009 from http://www.reuters.com/article/MiddleEastInvestment09/idUSTRE59P3NJ20091026
Kawach, N. (2009). Saudi Arabia's spending up by SR1trn in ninth plan. Emirates Business. Retrieved October 27, 2009 from http://www.zawya.com/printstory.cfm?storyid=ZAYA20091008043621&l=043600091008
SAMIRAD (2009). Supreme economic council. Saudi Arabia Market Information Resource and Directory. Retrieved October 27, 2009 from http://www.saudinf.com/main/e111.htm
Hardy, R. (2006). Unemployment, the new Saudi challenge. BBC. Retrieved October 27, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/5406328.stm
No author. (2009). Saudi seeks to up infrastructure investments. Maktoob. Retrieved October 27, 2009 from http://business.maktoob.com/20090000375542/Saudi_seeks_to_up_infrastructure_investments/Article.htm
Sawahel, . (2009). Saudi Arabia: 25-year plan for higher education. University…
Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). Saudi Arabia. CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved October 27, 2009 from
Saudi Arabia Culture & Doing Business There
The term "culture" refers to the complex accumulation of knowledge, folklore, language, rules, rituals, habits, lifestyles, attitudes, beliefs, and customs that link and provide a general identity to a group of people. Culture takes a long time to build up it may take generations to develop. So, it becomes very difficult to move to some other country and communicate with that culture in a proper way. The case at hand and a study of the cultural traits and traditions of Saudi Arabia would help the sale investigation team to understand the prospects of selling their products in the kingdom with respect to the prevalent culture in the country (Shoult, 2006).
As already mentioned, the culture of a country or a region is defined by and based on the beliefs, values, and attitudes of the people residing there or those who have been influenced…
Keillor, B. & Wilkinson, T. (2011). International business in the 21st century. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger.
Morrison, T. & Conaway, W. (2006). Kiss, bow, or shake hands. Avon, Mass.: Adams Media.
Shoult, A. (2006). Doing business with Saudi Arabia. London: Global Market Briefings.
audit committee characteristics affect firm performance in Saudi Arabia?
What are audit committees?
Many studies have been carried out to demonstrate the manner in which audit committees reports affect the overall performance of companies in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere in the world. The interest in conducting audit of accounts in different firms peaked in the early 1960's. Two main approaches of doing accounts investigations have emerged in financial literature. The first one is mainly based on sending out questionnaires to a pre-determined number of financial accounts users, asking them to rank a number of specific accounting items based on how important the item is to the decision making process (Buzby, 1974; Firth, 1978; Chandra, 1974; Turkey, 1985). The second approach was based on the link between a disclosure index of voluntary or mandatory or even total disclosure and specific company characteristics (source Alsaeed). The first step in conducting financial audit…
Xu, L.C., Zhu, T., & Lin, Y. 2005. Politician control, agency problems and ownership reform: Evidence from China. Economics of Transition, 13 (1), 1-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0351.2005.00205.x
Zahra, S.A. & Pearce II, J.A. 1989. Boards of directors and corporate financial performance: A review and integrative model. Journal of Management, 15(2), 291 -- 334. Sage Publications.
Zahra, S. And I. Filatotchev, 2004. Governance of the entrepreneurial threshold firm: a knowledge-based perspective, Journal of Management Studies, 41: 885-97.
Hajj is the largest gathering in the world, attracting millions of Muslims each year. As the Muslim community worldwide grows to well over one billion, the number of pilgrims to Makkah (which is sometimes spelled Mecca) also grows The sheer numbers of people itself presents challenges for EMS staff. The population of Makkah province is currently seven million people, which increases during hajj (Arab News, 2012). In 2012, there were more than 3.5 million men and women in attendance but those numbers are expected to climb to as many as ten million by the year 2020 (D'Alessandro, Edd & Al Mubarek, 2013). The mass gathering presents a number of concerns for EMS professionals, from acute injuries related to crowd swells to the spread of infectious diseases to cardiac arrests. Effective communication is critical for the success of all EMS efforts at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.
As the number of pilgrims…
Alanazi, A.F. (2012). Emergency medical services in Saudi Arabia: A study on the significance of paramedics and their experiences on barriers as inhibitors of their efficiency. International Journal of Applied Medical Research, 2(1), 34-37. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3657988/
Arab News (2012). Riyadh most populous Saudi city, Makkah most populous province. Retrived online: http://www.arabnews.com/node/407209
Aymen, A. (2016). An interview with the Hajj season EMS system general director.
Benedictus, L. (2015). Hajj crush. The Guardian. Retrieved online: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/03/hajj-crush-how-crowd-disasters-happen-and-how-they-can-be-avoided
Academic Research in Saudi Arabia
Academic Research roductivity and Efficiency
UNIVERSITY EDUCATION AND ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN SAUDI ARABIA-SOME FACTS
HIGHER EDUCATION IN SAUDI ARABIA
ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN SAUDI ARABIA AND OBSTACLES TO ACHIEVE EFFICIENCY IN RESEARCH RODUCTIVITY
Having abundance in natural resources is not the only assets a country have. Real assets are the people of a country. Investing on people would generate higher returns in the future. The Saudi government is keen to invest on its people, since it is predicted that the country would lose its oil resources within a time spam of few years (Onsman, 2011). Apart from primary and secondary education, the higher education/university education contributes a lot in the development of a country. Universities are places which provide multilateral services to the people. Along with providing education and incentives for research, it also plays its role in providing guidelines to the individuals (Al-Gindan,…
Pappas, J., & Eckart, C.M. (1997). Strategies for the Future: Continuing Higher Education and Economic Development. New Directions of Higher Education, 97(3).
Sampson, D. (2003). Remarks for the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. New Orleans, LA.
Wallsten, S. (2004). Regulation and Internet Use in Developing Countries. AEI- Brookings Joint Center, USA.
Lack of accountability, transparency and integrity, ineffectiveness, inefficiency and unresponsiveness to human development remain problematic (UNDP).
Poverty remains endemic in most Gulf States with health care and opportunities for quality education poor or unavailable, degraded habitats including urban pollution and poor soil conditions from inappropriate farming practices. Social safety nets are also entirely inadequate and all form part of the nexus of poverty that is widely prevalent in Gulf countries. While economic growth is not a sufficient condition for eliminating income poverty, it is certainly necessary in the overall scheme of things. Knowledge remains a cornerstone of development and knowledge absorption involves providing the capacity to use knowledge through education. One significant question remains relative to human development issues in Gulf States because the region has significantly outperformed all developmental regions with the exception of Latin America and the Caribbean. Taken as a group, Gulf countries spend a higher percentage…
Ahmed, Q. (2008). In the Land of Invisible Women: A Female Doctor's Journey in the Saudi Kingdom. Sourcebooks.
Al-Abdulwahab, S. And S. Al-Gain. (2003). "Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Healthcare Professionals Towards People with Physical Disabilities." Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal. 14(1): 63-70. Cited in: http://www.aifo.it/english/resources/online/apdrj/apdrj103/attitudes-professionals.pdf
Al-Ahmadi, H. And M. Roland. (2005). "Quality of Primary Healthcare in Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive Review." International Journal for Quality in Health Care. 17(4): 331-46. Cited in: http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/17/4/331
Al-Akija, W., et.al. (1994). "Continuing Medical Education in Primary Health Care in Saudi Arabia." Journal of Egyptian Public Health Association. 69(1994): 469-79.
nursing education and specifically that completed in Saudi Arabia. The review will what the level of education is in Saudi Arabia now and historically, what efficacy critical thinking has as a component of nursing education and how that component can be enhanced among Saudi Arabian nurses.
Nursing Education in Saudi Arabia
History of Nursing Education
The roots of medical care on the Arabian peninsula can be traced to a single individual, ufaida Al-Asalmiya, who was engaged by the prophet Mohammed care for soldiers during the holy wars (Aldossary & Barriball, 2008). The women already had significant experience in the medical profession as many of them were traditional healers and were skilled as the nurturing heads of families (Aldossary & Barriball, 2008). There is significant documentation of this period which shows how the practice of nursing was carried out by ufaida and others, but after that period a history of nursing…
Aldossary, A., & Barriball, L. (2008). Healthcare and nursing in Saudi Arabia. International Nursing Review, 55, 125-128.
Almalki, M., Fitzgerald, G., & Clark, M. (2011). The nursing profession in Saudi Arabia: An overview. International Nursing Review, 58, 304-311.
Brown, G. (2006). International nursing department: An up close and personal look at Saudi Arabia (Jeddah and Riyadh) history, culture, and healthcare. ABNF Journal, 16(4), 83-88.
Maneval, R.E., Filburn, M.J., Deringer, S.O., & Lum, G.D. (2011). Concept mapping: Does it improve critical thinking ability in practical nursing students? Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(4), 229-233.
Education Budget in Saudi Arabia and Iraq:
Saudi's Education Budget
Iraq's Education Budget
Differences in the Education Budgets of Saudi Arabia and Iraq
b) Student Mobility
Education budget varies from country to country depending on the government's focus and the situation of a particular country. During the annual national budget, each country allocates a specific amount to various ministries including the education ministry in order to develop the country. The education budgets of both Saudi Arabia and Iraq are different because of the government's focus and the situation of the country. Considering the fact that Iraq is slowly regaining stability after the recent years of war, the country's education budget is far from that of Saudi Arabia. To further understand the differences in the education budget of the two countries, it's important to have an overview of the countries' education budgets.
Saudi's Education Budget:
At the end of August 2010,…
Ameinfo.com (2010), Saudi Arabia's Record Budget for FY 2010 includes Focus on Education,
Ameinfo.com, viewed 12 November 2010,
England, A (2010), Education Mirrors Iraq's Steep Learning Curve, Ft.com, viewed 12
In all this growth, the equity market was registering an intensifying activity, an enhanced diversification of the shares traded, as well as an increasing number of equity issuers and borrowers.
The direct result was the emergence of the Saudi Arabian equity market as the largest stock market in the Gulf Cooperation Council region, a formation founded in 1981 between Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain, by which the countries lifted their trade barriers, and worked to support each other and to achieve common goals. eturning however to the Saudi Arabian equity market, by 2007, it had come to be the largest such market in the GCC region. With a total value of 1.11 trillion iyals (SA), or an estimated $295.75 billion, the equity market of Saudi Arabia accounts for 30% of the entire equity market in the Gulf Cooperation Council (Mahmood, 2007).
In spite of…
Abraham, A., Seyyed, F.J., 2005, Informational Transmission between the Gulf Equity Markets of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, Research in International Business and Finance, Vol. 20, No. 3
Mahmood, F., 2007, Saudi Equity Market Is Starting to Look Attractive, Arab News, http://www.arabnews.com/?page=6§ion=0&article=99096&d=30&m=7&y=2007 last accessed on December 17, 2009
2009, Market Analysis -- Saudi Arabia, Global Investor, http://www.isfmagazine.com/Article/2226144/AssetServicing/26303/Market-analysis-Saudi-Arabia.html last accessed on December 17, 2009
2009, Saudi Equity Market Cap Reaches SR 124 trillion in November, A1Saudi Arabia, http://www.a1saudiarabia.com/Saudi-equity-market-cap-reaches-SR124-trillion-in-November / last accessed on December 18, 2009
Saudi Arabia and France
Saudi Arabia and France are two entirely different cultures that have many cultural barriers between them; most notably language. Saudi culture has a less rigid concept of time and schedule compared to the est and meetings are often loosely scheduled around set prayer times; it is common for them to be interrupted; sometimes, there may be multiple people in the same office discussing multiple business matters (Li). Saudi businessmen do not discuss hard details of business deals immediately in a meeting; instead, they first chitchat and inquire about the each other's welfare.
Life and business as an important aspect of life are governed by the prescriptive tenets of a religion which forms the backdrop to society. Nothing happens which has not been willed by God (orld Business Culture). To do business with a Saudi businessman, trust must first be established; it may be a…
Inter-Cultural Communications. "French business culture and etiquette." N.d. Inter-Cultural Communications. Online. 15 February 2014.
Jones, M. "International Business Times." 10 November 2011. Doing Business in France: 8 Cultural Cues That Make (or Break) a Deal. Online. 15 February 2014.
Li, H. "Business in Saudi Arabia: Culture Differences to Watch for." 6 February 2012. IB Times. Online. 15 February 2014.
The Hofstede Centre. "What about Saudi Arabia?" N.d. The Hofstede Centre. Online. 15 February 2014.
Saudi Arabia is one of the largest military spenders across the globe at a time when worldwide military spending has continued to stabilize. Based on recent statistics, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia spends a quarter of its national budget (25%) on its military. The high military expenditure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has become a major issue of concern given that it’s twice as much as expenditures on health and social development. The increased spending on military is attributable to Saudi Arabia’s recent engagement in a war in Yemen and joining forces with Turkey against President Bashar Assad of Syria (Moshinsky & Martin, 2016). Additionally, the huge expenditures on the military are geared towards enhancing artillery and capacities of the kingdom’s forces. While enhancing military capacity and artillery is not a bad thing, the huge military expenditures raises huge concerns since they are carried out at the expense of…
Even, S. & Guzansky, Y. (2016, May 6). Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030: Reducing the Dependency on Oil. Retrieved October 23, 2017, from http://www.inss.org.il/publication/saudi-arabias-vision-2030-reducing-the-dependency-on-oil/
Moshinsky, B. & Martin, W. (2016, February 19). Saudi Arabia Spends £56 Billion a Year on its Insane Military – Here’s What that Kind of Money Buys. Business Insider. Retrieved October 23, 2017, from http://uk.businessinsider.com/saudi-arabia-spends-80-billion-on-its-military-2016-2?IR=T
Norton-Taylor, R. (2016, February 22). Saudi Arabia Leads Surge in Arms Imports by Middle East States. The Guardian. Retrieved October 23, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/22/saudi-arabia-surge-arms-imports-middle-east
Reuters. (2016, December 22). Saudi Arabia to Raise Military Spending 6 pct – Budget. Reuters. Retrieved October 23, 2017, from https://www.reuters.com/article/saudi-economy-budget-military/saudi-arabia-to-raise-military-spending-6-pct-budget-idUSL5N1EH3CU
Tian et al. (2017, April). Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2017, from https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/Trends-world-military-expenditure-2016.pdf
' Purchasing agents can place orders, gather information, and communicate with different organizations from any place at any time" (Martin & Hafer, p. 41). Following the introduction of the Internet, many purchasing departments and purchasing representatives were better able to engage in direct communications, order taking and fulfillment as well as the provision of technical support with their business counterparts abroad (Martin & Hafer, 2002). These authors add that, "The Internet permits immediate and virtually free (to the user) two-way communications with as many or as few others as needed. In addition to text information (e-mail), it now permits audio (voice-mail) and video (video-mail) communications as well" (Martin & Hafer, 2002, p. 42).
Based on the meteoric growth of Internet for marketing purposes in recent years, though, these authors also expect that the use of electronic purchasing to facilitate B2B commerce will continue to grow in exponential ways in the…
Bhuian, S., Abdulmuhmin, a., and Kim, D. (2001, March/April). Business education and its influence on attitudes to business, consumerism, and government Saudi Arabia. Journal of Education for Business, 76(4), 226-230.
Callister, T.A., Jr. & Burbules, N.C. (2004). Just give it to me straight: A case against filtering the Internet. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(9), 648.
Cordesman, a.H. (2003). Saudi Arabia enters the twenty-first century: The political, foreign policy, economic, and energy dimensions. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Daly, F. (2005, October). Stocks and shares take off Saudi Arabia: The Saudi Arabian stock market is growing fast, spurred on by a public who have caught the trading bug in a big way, especially women traders. The Middle East, 360, 44.
estern Imperialisim and Orientalsim in Saudi Arabia
Is estern Imperialism more prevailing than Orientalism in Saudi Arabia?
From ancient times in Saudi Arabia and other regions of the globe, civilization has seen the rise and fall of Empires. This spectrum of Empires in relation to Saudi Arabia concentrates on royal families. The government of this country has been under the rule of the monarch family for a long time. Their rule, therefore, has influenced the political layout of the country, social process in the state and countries cultural aspects (Chua 1- 16). Over the years, western imperialism has influenced opinions and strategies. This transformation has been the result of the country's political class entering into various contacts. Contacts with the outside populations have then led to the development of new cultures, economic transformation and local cultures (Chadha and Kavoori 3-17). Although, western imperialism has not taken place largely in the…
Ang, Ian. 'Desperately Guarding Borders: Media Globalization, Cultural Imperialism and the Rise of Asia', in Y. Souchou (ed) House of Glass: Culture, Modernity and the State in Southeast Asia, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.2001.Print
Baber, Zander. CyberAsia: The Internet and Society in Asia, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.2005.Print
Butcher'. Transnational Television, Cultural Identity and Change: When STAR Came to India, New Delhi: Sage.2003.Print.
Carruthers, Anderson. 'Cute Logics of the Multicultural and the Consumption of the Vietnamese Exotic in Japan', Positions, 12.2 (2004): 401-29.Print.
Advertising in a Conservative Society
Advertising has been a powerful marketing tool for very long. However, it can only be effective if the message is allowed to be conveyed without many legal restrictions. In societies where marketing has to be subtle because of religious or cultural restrictions, it is difficult to get the message across to the consumers in the least. Moreover advertising may not have the desired impact because of the subtlety that has to be practiced. As a result, organizations may have to turn to other means or count less on advertising as a means to selling their products. This paper discusses the culture and society of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and how they influence media especially advertising.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is located in the southwest of Asia. The Kingdom has a high dependence on its oil-generated revenues, which has brought the Kingdom, its riches. Saudi…
Cuddihy, Kathy. Saudi Customs and Etiquette. Riyadh: AlFarazdak Printing Press: 1990.
Wiley, James. Saudi Arabia Land Of Contrasts: Some Keys to (Understanding) the Kingdom. Focus: 01-15-1999, Vol. 45
Schneider, Howard. When Islam Meets the Modern Economy; Saudi Arabia's Efforts to Grow and Diversify Are Hampered by Religious Restrictions. The Washington Post: 05-23-2001, pp A22
Powell, Eileen. Beyond the veil: Women going to work in Saudi Arabia. Associated Press: 07-12-1998
Pan-African Cratonization (about 800 to 680 Ma)
Nehlig et al. (2002) conducted a study to review the Pan-African evolution of the Arabian Shield on the premise that new perspectives on the geologic history and structural evolution on the Arabian Shield had emerged. These new perspectives were brought by the extensive fieldwork as well as synthesis and review of structural, aeromagnetic, geochemical, geologic, and geochronological data. The geologic evolution of the Arabian Shield took place between 900 to 550 Ma. This period was also characterized by the “formation, amalgamation, and final Pan-African cratonization of several tectonostratigraphic terranes” (Nehlig et al., 2002, p.103). These terranes were separated by key NW-trending faults and various oriented suture zones covered by ophiolites i.e. serpentinized ultramafic rocks.
Pan-African cratonization between 800 and 680 Ma incorporated the final cratonization of the terranes. The final cratonization of the terranes, which took place between 680 and 610 Ma, generated…
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia: How the Social Media Affect the E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia
SOCIAL COMMECE IN SAUDI AABIA
Conceptual Framework Model
Psychological Aspect and Theories
Digital Divide in Saudi Arabia
Ethos, eligious conviction, and Government in E-commerce Adoption
The ise of the P Industry in Saudi Arabia
Conceptual Model and esearch Hypothesis (Drawing)
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia
Modern Saudi Arabia today actually represents an exceptional and convergent mixture of social conservatism and technological ability, a wonderful alteration from a remote, desert land that it was just something like 50 years ago. As social media is turning out to be increasingly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, online marketers are starting capitalizing in methods that service social media and include online customers. In Saudi Arabia Online marketers' adoption of new online marking trends is being prompted by discoveries that show individuals are spending great amounts…
Anderson, M. (2013). Turning "like" to "Buy" Social Media Emerges as a Commerce Channel. Booz & Company, 23-56.
Assad, S.W. (2009). The rise of consumerism in saudi arabian society. International Journal of Commerce & Management,, 73-104.
Bahaddad, A.A. (2013). Attracting customer in saudi arabia to buy from your business online. . International Journal of Business and Management, 65-81.
Brock, C. (2014). F-COMMERCE AND THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF TRUST. Online Communities and Digital Collaborations, 1-11.
There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.
Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…
Abraham, S. & Nordsieck, M. (1960). Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health 75: 263-273.
Alghamdi, K.M. (2010). The use of topical bleaching agents among women: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24(10): 1214-1219.
Al-Qahtani, D.A., Imtiaz, M.L., Saad, O.S., & Hussein, N.M. (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi adult females using two definitions. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 4(3): 204-214.
Al Qauhiz, N.M. (2010). Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85(1-2):45-59.
The Majlis al-Shura is appointed every four years while the Majlis al-Ummah members are elected every four years. The Majlis al-Shura serves in a monarch while the Majlis al-Ummah serves in a democracy. The running of Majlis al-Shura requires expertise in various fields.The council members are therefore some of the most educated people in the country. On the contrary, Majlis al-Ummah deals with issues that are mubar and do not necessarily need experts to make conclusions. These decisions by the Majlis al-Ummah are referred to as 'mashura'.The opinion of the majority are taken as the binding opinion since mubah issue have no wrong or rights. The other difference that exits between Majlis al-Shura and Majlis al-Ummah is that Majlis al-Shura has more members (150 members) when compared to Majlis al-Ummah (60 members). Majlis al-Shura also appears to be more of a political council that is mandated to run the country's…
Baaklini, AI.,Denoeux, G .,Springborg R (1999)Legislative politics in the Arab world: the resurgence of democratic institutions. Lynne Rienner Publishers
British Broadcasting Corporation (2011).Women in Saudi Arabia to vote and run in elections
Heydemann, S (2006).In the Shadow of Democracy: Review Article. Middle East Journal. 60 (1) Winter, 2006.).The Council of Ummah (Majlis ul-Ummah)
Premarital Examination in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The premarital examination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been in effect since the Saudi Royal Cabinet issued the Saudi Royal Decree No. 3 dated 11-7-1424 (El-Hazmi, 2006). However, while participants in the program have shown awareness of the need for the program, the fact that the participants are not bound by the results but may go ahead with the marriage in spite of the risk of passing on hereditary diseases associated with endogamous marriage limits the effectiveness of the program. Al Sulaiman, Suliman, Al Mishari, Al Sawadi & Owaidah (2008) have shown that “genetic screening is an important tool to control, minimize, and prevent genetic disorders” (p. 531) and for that reason a better understanding of how to effectively implement this program in order to reduce the number of hereditary diseases that are passed on is important. While approximately 60% of…
Country Analysis - Jordan & Saudi Arabia
Country Analysis: Jordan
Labor -- Jordan suffers from chronic high rates of unemployment, poverty, and a huge budget deficit. Since 1999, significant economic reforms have been implemented, included a trade regime, elimination of fuel subsidies, and the privatization of state-owned companies. This has resulted in job creation and has attracted some foreign investment. Jordan's labor force was estimated at 1.719 million in 2010, distributed across services (77.4%), industry (20%), and agriculture 2.7% (2007 estimate).
LANGUAGES - Arabic (official), English (widely understood by upper/middle classes)
Capital -- GDP (purchasing power parity) was estimated at $33.79 billion in 2010. Jordan's GDP is depressed because of the global economic slowdown. The budget deficit is at 5-6% of GDP. The financial deficit requires foreign assistance in 2011. The global financial crisis had a limited effect because of low exposure to overseas capital markets.
natural resources -- Jordan's…
Edit Research Premarital Screening
Evaluating Premarital Screening Knowledge in Saudi Students
The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of premarital screening (PMS) in Saudi Arabia. The use of PMS as a means to identify and approach both and infectious and hereditary disease was investigated in order to determine the impact of this practical approach.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jazan University from January to June 2014 to perform this research. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 Jazan University Students, both males and females. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts. The first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.
The vast majority of the participants (922; 94%) believed that a PMS program was a preventive measure. More than two thirds of…
The Effect of Keratoconus Disease on the Education Levels among Students at Different Ages to Determine the Locations of Their Spread in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Keratoconus disease is a disorder in the curvature of the eyes. Keratoconus occurs when the cornea becomes thin and bulges like a cone, altering the focus of light rays, blurring and distorting the person’s vision, and making it difficult to do daily tasks such as reading. The disease is believed to be genetic and typical onset begins in the teens or early 20s and gradually worsens over a period of 10 to 20 years.
Purpose of the Study
As keratoconus is thought to be hereditary, the study of its prevalence in among endogamous marriage groups could be beneficial in developing a better understanding of how this disease is spread. Among certain regions and groups in Saudi Arabia as well as throughout the…
The best way to stop ISIS is to cut off their funding. Countries like Saudi Arabia and Turkey are known to be doing business with ISIS's oil trade. Therefore, one economic solution to the problem of ISIS and their terror network throughout the world is to sanction countries that do business with the terrorist group. Even if these countries are our allies, the stopping of the bombings and mass killings that this group is responsible for is far more important than the geopolitical reasons that we have to be allies with these nations. Economic sanctions have, in fact, worked in the past. e have used them against Iran and Russia. It brought both to the negotiating table in recent years. e worked with Iran over a nuclear deal and essentially received everything we wanted in terms of assurance that nonproliferation would remain in place. Iran also received what…
Durden, Tyler. "Obama Responds To Saudi Threat To Dump Treasuries If Its Role In Sept 11 Is Probed." ZeroHedge, 18 April 2016. Web. 18 April 2016.
Night hat Made Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
When studying the history of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia there will be always some disputes about some of the stories and about the formation of the country and all the conspiracies that are related to it. Some of the controversy arises from gossip, some we witnessed, and some will occur in the future, as history has shown. here is a story in particular that is continuously discussed. his story is about the night King Abdulaziz who took over Riyadh city, which is the capital of Saudi Arabia now. here are two stories to that night which illustrate extremity different scenarios.
he first story starts after Bin Jalai's army defeated king Abdulaziz for the first time trying to takeover Riyadh city. He asked for the permission of his father to go on a mission of starting the third Saudi Kingdom. At that time,…
The other story does not show king Abdulaziz as a hero, but it shows that he took over Riyadh by deceit. In this version, King Abdulaziz and his 40 men went to Riyadh at night and a spy opened one of the forts gates without the guards notice. King Abdulaziz and his men walked through the city quietly until they reached Bin Jalawi's house, where they jumped and killed him and his guards. Following these events, they announced that King Abdulaziz is the new king.
Both of these stories are discussed, but the first one seems to be the plausible one. It is well know that the first, second, and third Saudi Kingdoms were established with only one purpose, which was to unite these diverse and disputed areas under Islam. This noble goal contradicts the means that were used to conquer Riyadh in the second story. Also, lack of documentation of the second story decreases its plausibility. There is no book in history that documents the second story or any fact related to it, which might indicate that this story might be just a fable.
The history of Saudi Arabia contains many different perspectives and conflicting stories. Many of these stories have two sides and there are no enough facts to support either side. The future of Saudi Arabia, just like any other country, will continue to develop more stories that conflicting accounts. History will keep record of these stories and people will ultimately have to choose which side to believe. Until there are solid facts to eliminate one side, many elements continue to be unknown similar to the story about the death of King Faisal in 1975 in which people are still in dispute regarding the real killer.
Therefore, Americans seeking to do business with Saudi nationals would be well advised to research their prospective Saudi counterparts thoroughly but to make preparations to travel to Saudi Arabia first before actually initiating contact with Saudi business people. Doing so and calling after arriving in Saudi Arabia instead of initiating contact from abroad demonstrates awareness of and respect for Saudi business customs right off the bat and in a way that should be noticed by Saudis, especially those who might be familiar with the fact that the norm in the U.S. is simply to call first or email to arrange the first meeting.
Saudis seeking to do business with American firms should understand that in the U.S., it might be inappropriate to travel to the location of a business first and then make initial contact expecting that the meeting will necessarily be planned during their stay. That is because in…
Harris, P., Moran, R. (2007). Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership
Strategies for the 21st Century
Hughes, R., Chesters, G. (2003). Living and Working in Gulf States & Saudi Arabia.
Survival Books: London
As noted, the international operations will be controlled locally. The local partner will have significant input. Even when Solar Solutions has controlling interest, it is likely that a Saudi from the joint venture partner will run the subsidiary. The U.S. office is likely only to provide oversight. It is expected, however, that the U.S. will lend control techniques to the Saudi operation. The United States has robust accounting, auditing and control management techniques that can add value to the organization. In particular, managerial accounting techniques such as budgets and variance analysis will be utilized as control mechanisms for the subsidiary in Saudi Arabia.
The company will need to develop a cross-national ethics and social responsibility code. These are values that will transcend borders and be an integral part of the culture of Solar Solutions. Thus, they need to apply to all of the company's operations. There is the risk that…
Al-Mulhim, a. (2013). Saudi youth, the issue of unemployment and work ethic. Arab News. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://www.arabnews.com/columns/saudi-youth-issue-unemployment-and-work-ethic
Anderlini, J. (2013). Starbucks buys out northern Chinese operator. South China Morning Post. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://www.scmp.com/node/568949
CIA World Factbook. (2013). Saudi Arabia. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from
" (Manibo, 1) It seems reasonable to deduce that the improved access to services resulting from more permeating penetration of e-portals will result in greater connectivity between the government and its publics.
ith respect to the claim that this will also result in improved user statisfaction, Al-Fakhri et al. (2008) point out that at present, "Many of the Saudi government agencies have their own web sites; however, most are ineffective." (p. 59) The Yesser (Yussr) program is aimed at improving the standards of effectiveness and usability reflected in such companion websites.
E-governing and accountability
The preferred method of research is a user-survey. The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv of participating e-government websites requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern…
Al-Fakhri, M.; Cropf, R.A.; Kelly, P. & Higgs, G. (2008). E-government in Saudi Arabia: Between Promise and Reality. International Journal of Electronic Government Research, 4(2), 59-85.
Alsheha, B.A. (2007). The e-government program of Saudi Arabia: Advantages and Challenges. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.
Manibo, M. (2007). Saudi Arabia to Launch e-government project 'Yussr' by end of 2010. AME Info.
Family and Authority in Saudi Arabia: A Prototypical Example of the GCC Countries
Understanding the attitudes towards authority and the importance of familial responsibilities in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is essential to developing a comprehensive and effective understanding of how individuals and businesses in the companies do business. There are certain signs that these attitudes and responsibilities might be shifting, however, which complicates the study of such issues. A brief examination of Saudi Arabia, which can be seen as a typical example of GCC countries and cultures, will demonstrate the current cultural understandings and the complex changes that may be occurring.
Attitudes towards authority in Saudi Arabia have been largely proscribed by religion -- specifically, by the interpretation of Islamic religious law by the Saudi Arabian royalty and government (Moaddel & Karabenik 2008). There are signs that many youths are beginning to turn away…
Al-Ahmadi, H. (2011). Challenges facing women leaders in Saudi Arabia Human Resource Development International. Human Resource Development International 14(2): 149-66.
Ali, A. (1993). Decision-Making Style, Individualism, and Attitudes toward Risk of Arab Executives. International Studies of Management & Organization 23(3): 53-73.
CIA. (2011). Saudi Arabia. Accessed 13 May 2011.
It is through interviews and analysis; we will see how these individuals feel about the new cultures and regulations around them. Living in a new place, these individuals can very easily let go of the limitations they were under before. Therefore, their answers will give a sound idea of what sort of struggle they are experiencing with the new culture and how to retain their self and identity.
This study was only carried out on eight students and that is the major limitation of this research project. As stated before, half of the sample size is directly from Saudi Arabia and the other half has lived in countries such as well. Despite these differences, there are other factors such as economic class, religious sect, education and family structure that make each of these individuals different one from another. Due to these differences, the generalization created from this sample set…
Balbo, Marcello. "Social and spatial inclusion of international migrants: local responses to a global process." (2009): Print.
Giddens, Anthony. Modernity and self-identity. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991. Print.
Goffman, Erving. The presentation of self in everyday life. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 1973. Print.
Islam101.com. "The Utility of Islamic Imagery in the West." 1960. Web. 17 May 2013. .
Saudi Arabian Community: Problems and Solutions
The Saudi Arabian Community: Current Issues and Proposed Solutions
There are many problems affecting the Saudi Arabian community today. The said problems could be political, cultural, economic, or even environmental. This text concerns itself with a problem of an environmental nature. Two of the animals currently under threat of extinction in Saudi Arabia are the Arabian Oryx and the Saudi gazelle. ecently, pictures posted on the internet depicting slayed gazelles caused an outrage with most commentators branding the act irresponsible and intolerable (Toumi, 2013). If nothing is done to save the Arabian Oryx and the Saudi gazelle, the ecosystem could suffer great (and perhaps irreversible) damage.
I personally believe that we all have a role to play as we seek to save these two endangered species. It is for this reason that I have in the past shown great interest in this particular subject.…
Toumi, H. (2013). Saudis Lash Out at Gazelle Poachers. Gulfnews. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/saudi-arabia/saudis-lash-out-at-gazelle-poachers-1.1226358
Vincent, P. (2008). Saudi Arabia: An Environmental Overview. AK Leiden: Taylor and Francis.
Saudi Arabian Airlines Flight 163 departed iyadh's King Khalid International Airport after a flight from Karachi, Pakistan ("Wikipedia," 2004). There were 287 passengers and 14 crewmembers aboard the L1011 aircraft that was bound for Jiddah. The aircraft was climbing through 15,000 feet, approximately seven minutes into the flight when both aural and visual indicators alerted the crew that there was smoke in the aft cargo compartment of the plane (Kilroy, 2004). Despite a safe landing, due to the lack of leadership and prudent actions by the Captain, all aboard perished due to poisoning from the noxious smoke.
Saudi Arabian Airlines Flight 163
Just before 10:00 P.M., on August 19, 1980, Saudi Arabian Airlines Flight 163 departed iyadh's King Khalid International Airport after a flight from Karachi, Pakistan ("Wikipedia," 2004). There were 287 passengers and 14 crewmembers aboard the L1011 aircraft that was bound for Jiddah. The aircraft was climbing through…
Review of the cockpit voice recorder determined that a break down in leadership, communication and cockpit resource management lead to the preventable tragedy. From the first warning indicators, crew coordination began to fall apart. The Captain insisted on not only flying the aircraft, but also investigating the problem and how to fix it. The First Officer was not experienced on the L1011, and therefore was not able to assist the Captain fly the plane, nor did he monitor communications or the systems. The Flight Engineer searched the aircraft manual trying to find the smoke alert procedure (Kilroy, 2004).
To make matters worse, the Captain did not warn the flight attendants to prepare for an emergency evacuation, to the contrary he ordered the flight crew to remain on the plane. After the aircraft had come to a complete stop, one last transmission was received indicating that an emergency evacuation was going to take place. However, the crew and passengers of Flight 163 did not have a chance to conduct that evacuation. By that time, the fire had spread so rapidly forward that every person on the plane had become trapped (Kilroy, 2004).
It seems almost unfathomable that a plane could land safely with all aboard alive, yet no one escaped. From the beginning the Captain appears to not want to take the situation as serious as it truly was. When told that there is smoke first
Saudi Arabian pharmaceutical market is one of the largest in the Middle East. Within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), Saudi Arabia represents 65%, or $1.7 billion, of the pharmaceutical market (EPSICOM, 2011). This work will analyze the unique opportunities within the Saudi pharmaceutical industry along with challenges, such as heavily regulated price controls and the barriers to access faced by international pharmaceutical companies. Through a better understanding of these factors, a more complete picture of the market can be obtained.
Saudi Arabia is a unique pharmaceutical market. It is the largest consumer in the GCC, with more than 82% of the medicines utilized being imported (aines, 2009). Also, the GCC is unique from nearly every other global region in that patients favor brand products over generics. This is despite that generics are the vast majority of the drugs produced in the Kingdom and the GCC. One study estimates the market…
Bains, E. (2009). Pharmaceuticals: Bringing in the Global Leaders. Middle East Econ. Dig. 53(33).
EPSICOM. (2011). The Pharmaceutical Market: Saudi Arabia. Last Modified 31 Oct 2011. URL: Http://www.espicom.com/prodcat2.nsf/Product_ID_Lookup/00000367?
3) Information Technology
4.3 Data collection method
I will distribute the following surveys to the employees and employers in my sample population. I will give them two weeks to complete the surveys, after which I will collect them and analyze them.
4.4 Sample size and sampling method
The sample size will be between 40-50 people. The sampling method include surveys as well as direct conversations. The employee surveys will gauge satisfaction with salary, job security, work environment, feedback, training, and other factors relating to job satisfaction. The employer surveys will ask employers to rate Saudi employees in areas such as work ethic, ability, attitude, and skills, especially as compared to workers of other nationalities.
4.5 Method of Data Analysis
The surveys should yield a set of simple, definite answers which be compared on the same criteria. The open-ended interviews should yield a deeper, more diverse set…
Maslow, Abraham. 1962. Towards a Psychology of Being, Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand
Maslow, Abraham. 1970. Motivation and Personality, 3rd ed. (1954) Chapter 6: Unmotivated Behavior. New York: Longman.
Cziksentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1990. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper.
Saudi women entrepreneurship
Saudi women of the 21st century have progressed in marked ways compared to women of a decade ago. Nonetheless, female entrepreneurs are saddled with quite a few difficulties that prevent them from progressing and impede their social and personal life as well as making their vocational progress extremely challenging. The research will investigate Saudi women entrepreneurs social role in developing Saudi economy and challenges facing them.
Women are faced with tremendous difficulties. Barriers include lack of market studies, lack of governmental support, lack of coordination among government departments, lack of support from the community, society restrictions and oligopolistic attitude of the investors (Asad Sadi, & Al-Ghazali, 2010). To overcome all of this and proceed with one's dreams, one must be remarkably stubborn and the women must be extremely resilient to overcome these difficulties. That they are motived by self-actualization is one matter. But entrepreneurs in this position…
Asad Sadi, M. & Al-Ghazali, BM (2010). Doing business with impudence: A focus on women
entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia, African Journal of Business Management 4(1), 001-011,
Cohoon, J. et al. (2010) Are Successful Women Entrepreneurs Different From Men? Kaufman
Though this research will not provide all necessary data for such a project to be undertaken, it will explore the issue form a side and perspective not often utilized, shedding light on an essential yet often-overlooked aspect of the foreign trade relationship.
Qualitative research is perhaps not the first thing thought of when conducting a trade analysis, but its importance to a proper understanding of the trade relationship cannot be overstated. Such research and analysis requires that the situation be examined in its human terms in addition to the numeric values and inferences drawn from quantitative research and analysis. In determining the perceived motivations and barriers to direct investment, this research will essentially be attempting to analyze and predict responses to changing business situations, and such research almost necessarily takes on a qualitative form (Bavdaz 2009). The predictive value of the proposed qualitative research is, in this instance,…
Bavdaz, M. (2009). "Conducting research on the response process in business surveys." Statistical Journal of the IAOS 26(1/2), pp. 1-14.
Diefenbach, T. (2009). "Are case studies more than sophisticated storytelling?: Methodological problems of qualitative empirical research mainly based on semi-structured interviews." Quality & Quantity, 43(6), pp. 875-894.
MOFA. (2003). "Saudi-British Relations." Ministry of foreign affairs. Accessed 6 March 2010. http://www.mofa.gov.sa/Detail.asp?InSectionID=2306&InNewsItemID=28862
Lavery, B. (2005). "World Business Briefing | Europe: Britain: Saudi Prince Buys the Savoy." NY Times 20 January, pp. 6.
These measures have helped the banking system to remain profitable and well-capitalized" ("2009 Article IV," IMF, 2009). This indicates that Saudi Arabia views low levels of speculation to be salutary for its own financial status, which is dependant upon economic growth and a high, steady worldwide demand for oil.
The main area of contention between Saudi Arabia and the IMF has been its undervaluation of its currency, the riyal, which it only recently agreed to peg to the U.S. dollar. This is also keeping with the IMF's policy on a free flow of capital: "The IMF has also generally opposed capital controls, which can help governments stem the loss of reserves, currency crashes, and other problems associated with large capital outflows" (eisbrot 2009, p.1).
Another criticism of the IMF is how its proportion of voting shares are allocated: the U.S. currently has 16.5%, while high oil producing nations, including Saudi…
"2009 Article IV Consultation with Saudi Arabia." International Monetary Fund.
Public Information Notice (PIN) No. 09/109. August 17, 2009.
December 2, 2009 http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pn/2009/pn09109.htm
Weisbrot, Mark, Jose Cordero & Luis Sandoval. IMF Reform. CEPR. April 2009.
This situation, combined with the fact that countries from the former Soviet Union produced less oil, made the Western countries to consider Saudi Arabia their main oil supplier.
Saudi Arabia responded to the increased interest showed by the West by expanding its capacity plan for the oil industry. As a consequence, the largest Saudi Arabian companies in the industry increased their domestic crude oil capacity. These companies also invested in quality, not just in quantity. Although the country's economic relationships with the West significantly intensified, Saudi Arabia improved its regional trade sector by addressing markets like Iran, Central Asia, South Asia, and Kuwait.
However, the country was significantly affected by the Persian Gulf War. As a result of the war, the country's government finances were reduced. Not even the substantial revenues from oil could sustain the cost of the war. The country was forced to borrow money from international organizations…
1. The Economy (2010). U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from http://countrystudies.us/saudi-arabia/34.htm .
Historical evolution of functional responsibilities of SAMA
History of SAMA (Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency)
The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) was established on October 4th, 1952 and is headquartered at iyadh, Saudi Arabia. SAMA operates as the central bank of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Before setting up the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, KSA utilized the service of Saudi Hollandi Bank as the central agency to keep the governments gold reserves. The idea of setting up SAMA as the central government operated agency was materialized by Abdallah Sulaiman, the then finance minister of KSA. The currency that SAMA regulates and prints is the Saudi iyal, the official currency of KSA. The establishment of SAMA was decreed by King Abdul Aziz on 25/7/1371H, 20th of March, 1952 (SAMA, 2013).
SAMA is currently the official agency charged with management of financial system. With the evolution and development of…
Ramady, M.A. (2010). The Saudi Arabian economy: policies, achievements, and challenges. Springer.
SAMA. (2013). Historical Preview. Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. Retrieved from: [ http://www.sama.gov.sa/sites/samaen/AboutSAMA/Pages/SAMAHistory.aspx ]
I am very impressed with a company that goes the extra few miles to educate people about healthy foods, and to provide Saudi girls with the training -- for free -- to learn to cook and to be creative in the kitchen.
In fact, how could a person not be very impressed when a company like Goody trains one thousand young girls in the art of creative, healthy cooking and baking? The program that was launched in 2009, not only helped young girls to prepare a number of very innovative and healthy dishes, desserts and juices, but it had ripple effects because when young people learn skills that lead to community wellness, everyone in the community benefits.
What are my qualifications to be hired by Goody in their marketing division in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia?
I am a native Saudi and I have watched Goody become a household name for quality…
Saudi Women's Role in Respect of Raising Family Within the Male-Dominated Culture
The present study reports an interview with a Saudi woman on the changing role of women in the Saudi society in regards to raising a family within the male-dominated culture that characterizes the Saudi society. Attached to this study are an informed consent form as well as the interview transcript marked Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. This study will review the narrative contained in the interview to this study and will conduct an analysis and interpretation of the interview findings answering the question of what areas of inquiry can this personal story lead to and as to the types of theories that explain the situation faced by Mrs. K.
The first question in the interview with Mrs. 'K' asks about the daily routine of the interviewee as a Saudi woman 'right now'. Mrs. K stated…
The nation also has an estimated budget surplus of over one-hundred billion dollars, making a continued expansion of infrastructure spending as well as stimulus money -- if needed -- and the provision of incentives to future domestic and foreign business development in the country highly likely (Siddiqi 2008). Oil money, though not the sole source of Saudi Arabia's significant wealth and stability, has played a major part in the country's ability to ride out this economic storm largely unscathed, with hardly a misstep in their march of progress (Siddiqi 2008).
A repetition of a similar analysis at the end of 2009 shows that the country has in fact taken a hit form the global economic downturn, which could hardly be avoided, but the picture is far from dire for Saudi Arabia (Siddiqi 2009). Infrastructure investment is still taking place, and a more in-depth analysis of Saudi Arabia's long-term spending and…
Bushnak, A. (2001). "Investment Needs and Privatization of Water Services in Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Water Resources Development (17(2), pp. 257-60.
Siddiqi, M. (2005). "The rise and rise of an equity culture." Middle East (361), pp. 44-9.
Siddiqi, M. (2008). "Saudi Arabia: Bucking the global trend?" Middle East (392), pp. 44-8.
Siddiqi, M. (2009). "Responding to international crisis.." Middle East (401), pp. 46-50.
Vision to Address the Challenges facing Higher Education in Saudi Arabia in the light of Leadership and Excellence Approach
It is generally agreed that higher education is the main tool to solve leadership and human resources problems. Unfortunately, mass production of graduates from Saudi higher education fails to meet the required specializations and quality of private sectors. Many Saudi graduates lack the practical knowledge that can assist them meeting rigorous demand of the labor market. Moreover, Saudi higher education is characterized by the rigid theoretical standards, and constraint of curriculum making the implementation of an enriched experimental learning technique to be extremely difficult.
In the last 10 years, higher education in Saudi Arabia has witnessed a quantitative and qualitative transformation. The investment in the Saudi educational development has been attributed to the country's strategic importance for the human resources and leadership development. Investment in education has also been…
AlGamdi, M.A. and Samarji, A. (2015). Perceived Barriers towards e-Learning by Faculty Members at a Recently Established University in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Information and Education Technology. 6 (1):23-28.
Ahmed, M.A.H. Siddiek, A.G. (2012). Strategic Quality Management in the Arab Higher Education Institutes: A Descriptive & Analytical Study. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 3(24): 90-103.
Alexander, N.H. (2011). Teaching Leadership to Female Students in Saudi Arabia. Advancing Women in Leadership. 31:199-212.
Amani, H. (2013). An Exploration into "Private" Higher Education in Saudi Arabia: Improving Quality and Accessibility? The ACPET Journal for Private Higher Education. 2(2): 33-44.
(1996). In this study, weight, height, and dietary patterns were obtained from 540 adolescent girls aged 12 to 18 years. These researchers used the body mass index of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANESI) as their reference for adolescence (Madani et al., 1996). The respective prevalence rates among this sample was found to be 14.7% underweight (85th percentiles). Based on these findings, Madani and his associates posited that the dietary practices of Saudi adolescents were comparable to their peers in other developed countries in the West and may reflect a tendency on the part of Saudi youth to adopt more Western-like lifestyles.
Al-Abbad (1995) assessed the prevalence of obesity and a number of the condition's associated risk factors following the same criteria used in the Madani et al. (1996) study. In Al-Abbad's analysis, 700 randomly selected students from six female intermediate and high schools in Al-Khobar city ranging…
Al-Abbar, F.A. (1995). Prevalence of obesity and risk factors among single female intermediate and high school students in Al-Khobar, Eastern Province Saudi Arabia. College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, King Faisal University, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia, 1995 (unpublished fellowship dissertation).
Al-Nuaim a, Bamgboye E, Al-Herbish a. (1996). The pattern of growth and obesity in Saudi
Arabian male school children. International Journal of Obesity, 20, 1000-1005.
CS in Saudi Arabian Banking
Social esponsibility: Attitudes, Actualities, and Possible Areas of Advancement in Saudi Arabian Banking
The global financial system has become increasingly smaller and more complex, with individual countries and their financial and banking infrastructures more intertwined and mutually dependent on each other. Because of this, understanding the role that banking systems and entities play in the social and political spheres is essential for policy makers and for individuals working in the banking sector. Of special importance are the social responsibilities that are borne by banks and the banking industry, which can vary greatly from country to country, based on a multitude of factors. The research described and proposed herein will yield a greater understanding of how these responsibilities are viewed by bankers in Saudi Arabia.
Scholarship on Saudi Arabia's banking industry has focused almost entirely on the financial implications for the country and the globe of…
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Middle East/ Africa Security Issue
The ends, ways and means strategy is a method of understanding what the objective is for a particular issue (ends), how that objective will be achieved (ways) and what resources will be required to make this happen (means). This methodology is commonly applied in military or international relations, where the issues can be complex, as this method simplifies strategy by focusing on the desired ends (Eikmeier, 2007).
Background on the Issue
There are several issues in the Middle East worthy of attention, one of which is the ongoing conflict in Yemen. While Yemen has commonly been engaged in conflict, this issue has become more pressing in recent months. Houthi rebels were engaged in conflict in the region near the Saudi border, drawing Saudi Arabia into the conflict. This became a front in the Saudi-Iran proxy war, as the Houthi rebels are predominantly Shia. Western…
Leadership and otational Development Program for Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA)
Leadership development and rotational programs are crucial for building the potential, skills, and capabilities of new and existing employees. They provide employees with ongoing mentorship, in-depth experiences, as well as training across various functions within the organisation (Columbia University Centre for Career Education, 2016). Organisations rely on these programs to recruit and develop individuals for leadership responsibilities. This paper provides important guidelines for the design of a leadership development and rotational program for the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA). The program is aimed at fresh graduates with less than two years working experience.
Designing the Program
The first step in designing the leadership development and rotational program is to define the objective of the program (Donnelly, 2016). It is indeed a critical step. The objective should resonate with the overall objective of the organisation. It should clearly…
Columbia University Centre for Career Education (2016). Leadership development and rotational programs. Retrieved from: https://www.careereducation.columbia.edu/resources/leadership-development-programs
Donnelly, T. (2016). How to create a leadership development program. Retrieved from: http://www.inc.com/guides/2010/07/how-to-create-a-leadership-development-program.html
Gurdjian, P., Halbeisen, T., & Lane, K. (2014). Why leadership development programs fail. Retrieved from: http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/leadership/why-leadership-development-programs-fail
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Gender Equality in the Gulf
Historically, there has been a marked dearth of gender equality and women’s empowerment in the countries compromising the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which include Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. There are a number of reasons responsible for this situation. Firstly, these countries are all predominantly Muslim. Traditional gender roles (and stereotypes) largely exist in Islam and in countries which adhere to this faith as their national religion. Women are supposed to remain covered up in their raiment and relegated to domestic roles. The problem is that women account for approximately 50 percent of the population in the GCC countries, yet only constitute approximately 25 percent of the labor force in those countries (World Bank). Therefore, these countries are disadvantageously affected in certain aspects of economics and society because of the lack of female contributions in both of…
King Khalid University Hospital implemented a new system called The Electronic System for integrated Health Information or E-SIHI. The results from the data for clinical documentation before the implementation of E-SIHI revealed the most documentation when it came to 'physical examinations' in relation to ICU and OB/BYN. However, in Medicine and Surgery, there were low percentages for clinical documentation with Medicine at 35% and Surgery at 43%. The data revealed across the board both Medicine and Surgery had low clinical documentation with the lowest standing at 18% for Surgery in the 'assessment' area.
A 2013 update review demonstrated hospitals had little clinical documentation for complications associated with esophagectomy. Meaning assessment of complications, reactions to medicine, length of stay, and postoperative quality of life were not performed. This had to with a lack of a standard system for monitoring and documentation. The review recommended newer assessment tools to allow better monitoring…
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Boonstra, A., Versluis, A., & Vos, J. (2014). Implementing electronic health records in hospitals: a systematic literature review. BMC Health Services Research, 14(1), 370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-14-370
Chandra, H., Pandey, R., Sarkar, A., Naik, S., & Aggarwal, R. (2016). Introducing the Computer Aided Information Technology -- An Administrative Experience in Government Tertiary Care Hospital (An Innovation for Effective, Efficient and Healthy Practices by E-Governance). Indian Journal of Medical Informatics, 1(2), 68-81. Retrieved from http://www.ijmi.org/index.php/ijmi/article/view/327
Hilligoss, B. & Zheng, K. (2013). Chart biopsy: an emerging medical practice enabled by electronic health records and its impacts on emergency department -- inpatient admission handoffs. Journal of The American Medical Informatics Association, 20(2), 260-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001065
For most of its existence, Saudi Arabia's economy has been driven by revenues from its massive oil fields. While this has allowed the country to have a healthy balance sheet, it has also discouraged investment in other areas. Other countries in the region have begun to realize that having an oil-dependent economy is not sustainable in the long run. Nations with burgeoning populations and limited resources tend to be unsustainable. That lack of sustainability can be seen today in milder forms, such as high unemployment among youth, social problems like abuse and deviant behaviour and stunted economic growth.
The facts concerning the Saudi economy reflect the structural issues in the Saudi economy. The country has a population of roughly 27 million, a third of whom are non-citizen immigrants. Nearly 50% of these are under the age of 25 and the median age is 26.4 years. This means that the…
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Alshahrani, S. & Alsadiq, A. (2014) Economic growth and government spending in Saudi Arabia: An empirical investigation. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved August 13, 2014 from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2014/wp1403.pdf
CIA World Factbook. (2014). Saudi Arabia. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved August 13, 2014 from
Consequently, his observations concerning the business climate in Saudi Arabia with respect to the significance of religion in the Kingdom can be considered authentic. According to Indris, with respect to the perception of performance and contractual obligations among Saudis, "It should be noted that the issue is not with the belief itself but rather with people's misguided interpretations of the belief and Islam teachings. While Islam teaches that ultimate control is in the hands of God, it also teaches that people should exert their utmost efforts to better their lives" (p. 38). These issues have special salience for foreign direct investors who may experience disputes based on such misinterpretations that cannot be predicted but must be expected. In this regard, Idris concludes that, "Misguided interpretations have a strong impact on the business environment and the commitment to setting and meeting goals and targets in the kingdom. Accountability in running businesses…
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During the study a number of factors were considered for the evaluation of the fact that females unlike males in Saudi Arabia constitute a larger proportion.
Lifestyle and dietary
Adolescent boys and girls were studied for at least two weeks on their feeding habits, for this period, females were observed to consume more snacks than male in that males could only consume snacks once a fortnight unlike their female counterparts who for the 14 days averagely took snacks at least 12 days. For the consumption of rice, bread, nuts and fish the percentage of females consuming this surpassed that of men i.e. 54.8 to 50.5%, this shows that females consumes more food products that are energy giving than males in Saudi Arabia leading to deposition of more calories in the body triggering obesity as it is supposed that the body can not convert the whole chunk of calories. More…
Al-Gelban, K.S. (2008). Diatery Habits and Exercise Practices among the Students of a Saudi
Teachers Training College. Saudi Med J, 29 (5), 754-759.
Al-Rukban, M. (2003). Obesity among Saudi Male Adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med Journal, 34, 27-33.
Al-Shammari, S., Khoja, T., & Al-Subaie, A. (1994). Trans-cultural Attitude Towards Being
In this case, the researcher will engage open-ended questionnaires for participants who will be far away from the researchers. For the samples within the vicinity of the researcher, unstructured interviews will be effective (Leverett, 2010).
This study will follow the below timeline:
Preparation of research proposal
eading numerous literature
Deciding the final objectives
Drafting the literature review
Secondary data collection data analysis
Development of research approach
Developing research methodology
Organize the survey
Conduct the survey
Compile and verify the research paper
Submit the research paper
evision of the draft after feedback
Printing and binding the research paper
Submit the final research paper
To ensure the validity of the research, it is crucial to take consideration of ethics for the matter.…
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Review of Saudi Arabia
Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.
These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western…