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School education should go above and beyond its general tendencies to attempt to produce good grades. A proper school should contain fine educators, ones who find that nurturing and nourishing the students are the top priority. While this may be different from climbing the higher statistics -- an inevitable goal due to the sole purpose of budgets -- one can still argue that the statistics will follow if the basis has been set for a better standard to begin with. Why not put "better passing rates" and "higher grades" as a secondary mission, and "proper education" a top priority?
To be able to define a "school education," one must look at the separate definitions of "school" and "education" as well as "teacher" and "educator." A good school might not necessarily mean a great education, and a good teacher does not make a great educator; the same can be said for…
In fact, the No Child Left Behind Act, and other standardized test-based programs are "increasing incentives for school administrators to allow [poorly performing] students to quietly exit the school system ("Negative Implications," 2008). Being a high school drop out in today's society is not easy for these students, many of whom may already be disadvantaged in a variety of means. When they are simply allowed and encouraged to drop out of school because of a teacher or administrator's desire to look better, the students enter a perpetual cycle of hopelessness where their lack of preparation during the crucial public school years will most likely keep them from succeeding as they continue to move through life.
In addition to the consequences of the No Child Left Behind Act's use of high-stakes-based tests, teachers and school culture play a large role in leaving some students abandoned by the public education system. While…
"Negative Implications Of No Child Left Behind: As Graduation Rates Go Down, School
Ratings Go Up. (2008, Feb. 16). Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Science Daily. Web Site: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080214080530.htm .
Innovative Practices in Public School Education and Administration
America has been one of the leading countries of prospects for disenfranchised individuals and, simultaneously, a country of the utmost economic stratification amid the comfort of the wealthiest and the miserable conditions of the poorest. However, the American public schools have been victim to a number of diseases that need to be rectified. A lot of educators in classrooms of the public schools feel that they have become pawns in the reformers' and policy makers' misinformation game that maintains that there is a single best way to modify the system of American schools. This paper highlights the key problems faced by the public school administration and teachers and presents innovative ideas to improve the present standards of the public schools.
The state of affairs in American Public schools is gloomy. Since preceding federal-education laws have had merely a momentary effect on…
Alfie Kohn. (1999) The Schools Our Children Deserve. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Carl D. Glickman. (1998). Revolutionizing America's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Chris Gallagher. (2000). A Seat at the Table: Teachers Reclaiming Assessment Through Rethinking Accountability. Phi Delta Kappan, pp. 502-7.
E.D. Hirsch, Jr. (1996). The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. New York: Doubleday.
Public school education in 1850 enabled the spread of learning writing, reading and arithmetic for a population that had previously been skilled and semiskilled workers. History at one point in educational history became a required course to help encourage ideas such as patriotism (Henretta). Among the other subjects emphasized during the 1800's were likely topics such as loyalty oaths and obedience in an effort to discipline children enrolled in public schools and increase American feelings of democracy and freedom. Of relevance to our studies are the population demographics of public schools during 1850. A pattern is very apparent related to the number of students actually enrolled in public schools during this time compared with total population. his pattern is reflective of the geographical and social setting of the states during 1850.
Massachusetts, Maine, Pennsylvania, Ohio and New York had the highest percentage of pupils enrolled in public schools during 1850…
The Henretta text often refers to this time in American history as somewhat romanticized. Many writers became well-known, their stories a means for citizens to escape a mundane life. The expanding country was becoming slowly more urbanized and industrialized, but it was evidently a pattern that was occurring from the top down, and from east to west. The southern states would slowly catch up to the New England States, as would the West slowly become as populous and crowded as the East Coast. But during 1850 at least, the gap existed between a more urban setting and the still more rural south, which likely acted as the largest contributor to the population demographics of public schools during 1850. Likewise, the population of students enrolled in public schools would increase in the west as America expanded and spread its wings.
Primary Source: Henretta, James. "America, a Concise History." 2nd Edition, Bedford: St. Martins Press
Historical Census Data for 1850 http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/cgi-local/censusbin/census/cen.pl?year=850 http://www.ekkane.org/sawin/raisng1.htm
No Child Left Behind
The educational philosophy inherent in the No Child Left Behind program is a combination of the philosophy of Adler and of Holt, even though both are opposing. Adler's educational philosophy hold that public schools should serve the democratic ideal by implementing a uniform curriculum for all children, and this is evident in the No Child Left Behind standards adopted by public schools. At the same time, the philosophy of Holt is evident in the idea that each child is an individual and deserves special attention if struggling to ensure that the child's needs are being met and that a unique and individualized approach is taken for at risk students (Koonce, 2016, p. 23). Thus, No Child Left Behind takes both philosophies and attempts to make them work together as a single philosophical unit.
My stance on the issue is that No Child Left Behind does not…
Knight, G. (2008). Issues and alternatives in educational philosophy (4th
ed.). Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press. Retrieved from http://universitypress.andrews.edu
Koonce. G. (2016) (Ed.). Taking sides: Clashing views on educational issues expanded
(18 Ed.). McGraw Hill Publishers.
Schools in the 21st century are very different from the one-room schoolhouses that once dotted the American landscape. Today a single school can house thousands of students at various grade levels and many schools integrate the latest technologies into their curriculums. With this being understood, it will be interesting to see how school curriculum will change in the future. The purpose of this discussion is to examine how schools will change in the future as it pertains to technology. The discussion will also focus on the introduction of schools as social anchors, that are both moral and purposeful.
Schools of the future
Indeed technology will continue to play a large role in schools of the future. Educators will continue to incorporate technology into the curriculum. According to Caldwell and Hayward (1998) "schooling at the upper secondary level will become more complex and diverse, with multiple providers; combined with advances made…
Briefing paper on Emerging Issues and Best Practices -- Introduction. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.arc.org/gripp/publicEducation/grippPublicEducPg06.html
Florida Virtual School: The Future of Learning? A Forum Brief -- October 18, 2002. American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.aypf.org/forumbriefs/2002/fb101802.htm
Caldwell, B.J., & Hayward, D.K. (1998). The Future of Schools: Lessons from the Reform of Public Education. London: Falmer Press.
Huskey, B.L., & Wiley, R. (1993, August). Using Public Education Campaigns to Build Community Partnerships. Corrections Today, 55, 154+.
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…
Wake County Public Schools/Middle School Curriculum/Raleigh, NC/
New York State Education
Students who are bussed to a larger school can use the time to be productive; reading, homework, etc.
1.5-2 hours per day of commuting is unacceptable for students and will eat into their family and work time.
A larger school will provide greater opportunity for social networks, sports, music, drama, and more extracurricular activities.
Loss of community will make the younger students uncomfortable as well.
A larger school will provide greater academic opportunities for the HS students in preparation for university; there are more resources available.
The student to teach ratio will change and the students will be part of just another large classroom.
Thus, the question really comes down to potential. Neither side can equivocally state that the future of the students will be better or worse; there are arguments for both as well as the possibility that the solution will be quite positive for some,…
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. New York: Sage.
Groves, R. a. (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books.
Hatton, J. (1996). Science and Its Ways of Knowing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Benjamin Cummings Publishers.
There are specific daily steps that students in these working class schools must take, and in math, for example, the teacher "told them what the procedure was for each problem, rarely asking them to conceptualize or explain it themselves" (Anyon 528). And so the emphasis was on memorizing the steps, not on understanding how or why they are taken. Language arts class was much the same (copy the teacher's notes from the board). In the middle-class school, it was all about "getting the right answers." In social studies, it was the old-fashioned routine of reading the chapter and answering questions, and the same was true in language arts. "Creativity is not often requested in social studies and science projects..." Anyon writes (532).
Things were different in the affluent professional school and fathers' careers included corporate lawyer, cardiologist, engineer; difficult assignments required specific projects like film-making and script-writing; children wrote essays…
Clayton, Victoria. "Public vs. Private School - which is best for kids?" MSNBC.com.
Retrieved April 1 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8743221/print/1/displaymode/1098/
Colombo, Gary; Cullen, Robert; & Lisle, Bonnie. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1992.
Mendez, Teresa. "Public Schools: Do they outperform private ones?" The Christian Science
As you do this you should distance yourself from career barriers such as apathy, motivation, laziness which we term as personal barriers and those like family pressure such as expectation to run family business, avoidance of career that are below your stature and finally peer pressure.
Now on long-term career planning which involves a window of about five years or more with a wider set of guidelines and of cause preparation. As we all know that thing do change that is right from businesses to career through to workplace and whatever skills you have acquired today may not be of much help in years to come hence in long-term career planning it is a matter of developing core skills that will be always valued by employers (with identifying being your major doing verb).once these is done then your journey goes on, now with exact career examination and recognition that will…
Randell S. Hanson, Developing a strategic vision for your career, 2008
Tony Jacowski, Overcoming your job limitations and enjoy a rewarding career,2008
Wynelle Burn, Will our level of Education Affect out future,2010
The idea of developmentally appropriate practices was made popular by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) when the published their Position Statement on Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Early Childhood Programs in 1987. NAEYC developed this position statement in order to support its early childhood program accreditation system, which recognizes and sanctions programs that offer appropriate early childhood practices. Because of this system, early childhood educators can have a clear idea of suitable early childhood practices. This way they might not use inappropriate developmental and academic expectations to prepare children for public school kindergarten programs (Houser and Osborne, n.d.).
Having regulations such as the CA State licensing egulations, Title 22, helps to make sure that all of the fundamental elements of DAP and NAYEC are in place and are supporting the early childhood programs philosophies. These regulations are needed in order to make sure that quality…
Accreditation of Programs for Young Children. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2010, from NAEYC
Web site: http://www.naeyc.org/academy/
Bolen, Ed. (2008). Analysis of Title 22 and Title 5 Regulations Affecting Preschool Programs.
Retrieved May 12, 2010, from Web site:
education and the teacher-learner relationship from a Christian-informed philosophical perspective. It begins with an explanation of the author's personal worldview, and then explores the various philosophical schools of education. Combining the two, the author explains how they have helped shape the author's approach to education. ather than relying on a single educational philosophy, the author intends to combine multiple philosophies in the classroom environment.
Describing the purpose of education is an interesting prospect because education is a cultural construct, and, as a result, what constitutes an education is dependent upon the surrounding culture. In a broad sense, an education is the instruction and learning that a person receives, in both formal and informal environments, which is aimed at preparing that person to live as an adult within the surrounding culture. When one views education as a means of adapting the individual to adult life in his or her own culture,…
Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, Th., & Brok, P. den. (2002). Teacher experience and the teacher-
student relationship in the classroom environment. In S.C. Goh & M.S. Khine (Eds.),
Studies in educational learning environments: an international perspective
(pp.73-99). Singapore: World Scientific.
ather than forming the one, who happens to live in America, into a citizen of this nation, the objective of the 21st century is to make him a citizen of the world. And it is arguable, too, whether the focus is on knowledge as power as it was in Mann's days; focus may have changed to knowledge of technology and business as per power as evidenced by the increasing number of dropouts and increasing stress of corporations and need to make money. Individualism was rubbed into conformism in the attempt to make one patriotic American citizen. It is thought that today we are more individualistic, but the reality may be that Adam Smith may merely have taken center place today, and contemporary conformism centers around money.
Other differences include the shift from nation to individual. In Mann's days the individual existed for the purpose of a common end, and, accordingly,…
Spring, J. The American School
Feminists, like Christine Pizan, who stressed the importance of female education and some of her male feminist contemporaries would mainly remain on the fringes as the classical form of education was reaffirmed as the standard.
In the 1970s, much of the challenge to female education was answered as the tradition of educating all people was accepted early in the development of the U.S. educations system, though it was not an easy transition and according to most inequalities still existed even in the late modern era. In fact there was no official federal department of education until 1979, yet this did not stop the progress of education.
Stallings 677) the marked entrance of women into higher education is thought by most people to be the beginning of the end for male exclusive education but pre-secondary education was available for women from the early part of the foundation of education as a…
Brown-Grant, Rosalind. Christine de Pizan and the Moral Defence of Women: Reading beyond Gender. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Clark, Donald Lemen. John Milton at St. Paul's School: A Study of Ancient Rhetoric in English Renaissance Education. New York: Columbia University Press, 1948.
Clinton, Catherine, and Christine Lunardini. The Columbia Guide to American Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Furniss, W. Todd, and Patricia Albjerg Graham, eds. Women in Higher Education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education, 1974.
His intention is to use an experimental approach by using statistical tools to quantify and assess program effectiveness by comparing school effectiveness ratings before implementation of the program with schools effectiveness ratings following the implementation of the program.
5. Is there anything in the procedures for collecting the information or in the instruments themselves that could bias the results or weaken the study?
The author does not describe the source of his schools merely stating the inclusive and exclusive criteria that they satisfied. The schools, all in Milwaukee, had to satisfy three main criteria: firstly that the program under study was introduced during a period when rating were available, secondly, that the number of schools introducing the program must be sufficient for statistical results, and thirdly, that there should be sufficient and adequate comparison groups. His research seems immune to bias.
The author does, however, mention the possibility of bias…
Thompson, B. (2006). Evaluating Three Programs Using a School Effectiveness Model: Direct Instruction, Target Teach, and Class Size Reduction, Third Education Group Review, 2, 1-10.
school uniforms within a school system. Ideas such as school discipline, student behavior, and academic achievement are discussed along with examples of why different schools have implemented student use of uniforms. Various viewpoints are presented, along with proponents and opponents concerns for the actual implementation of uniforms.
IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ITHIN A SCHOOL SYSTEM: AFFECTS ON DISCIPLINE AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Many schools across the United States have adopted school uniforms to meet the needs for a mandatory dress code. There are many opposing arguments on the issue of whether public school students in the United States should be required to wear uniforms or obey dress codes. Improvement of discipline and academic performance, reduction of fashion competition among students are a few of the reasons given in support of implementing school uniforms. However, the opposing viewpoints maintain that requiring school uniforms are a violation of students' First Amendment right to…
Brunsma, David. "Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use and Academic Achievement." Journal of Educational Research 92 (1998) 53-63.
Clinton, William J. Text of Presidential Memo to Secretary of Education on School Uniforms Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
Clinton, William J. Transcript of Presidential Radio Address to the Nation.
Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622
Stern, S.B., Smith, C.A., & Jang, S.J. (1999). Urban Families and Adolescent Mental Health. Social Work Research, 23(1), 15. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228
Sternberg, R.J., & Dennis, M.J. (1997). Elaborating Cognitive Psychology through Linkages to Psychology as a Helping Profession. Teaching of Psychology, 24(3), 246-249. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
Stock, M.R., Morse, E.V., Simon, P.M., Zeanah, P.D., Pratt, J.M., & Sterne, S. (1997). Barriers to School-Based Health Care Programs. Health and Social Work, 22(4), 274+. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
The students will test you during these first few days. Without steadfast rules and well outlined disciplinary procedures, the students will not respect you.
In order to create a positive atmosphere of expectations, procedures and routines, it is also important to clearly outline to the class what is expected of them. However, in order to empower the classroom students, one beneficial strategy is to allow the students to help develop the classroom rules, procedures and expectations. y bringing the group together and making the classroom environment one in which they assisted in creating, the students will be more likely to both respect it and work with it.
Although there are numerous steps a teacher must take to create a successful learning environment in a full-inclusion classroom, taking firm and clear actions the first days of school are the most important. The purpose is to let the students know what the…
Gore, M.C. (2003): Successful Inclusion Strategies for Secondary and Middle School Teachers: Keys to Help Struggling Learners Access the Curriculum. SAGE Publications.
Hardmand, Michael L. (2007): Human Exceptionality: School, Community and Family. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Male, Mary. (2002): Technology for Inclusion: Meeting the Special Needs of All Students. Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Nowicki, Stephen and Marshall P. Duke. (1992): Helping the Child Who Doesn't Fit in. Peachtree Publishers.
Measurement of Crime and Crime Theories
Crime is perhaps one of the most widespread problems in society today. It can take any form, and range in violence, which is what, perhaps, adds to the danger aspect. However, crime not only affects the victim, but also the perpetrator. In order to truly understand how one views crime, one must not only understand how crime is seen by society, but also how it impacts and how it is impacted by the perpetrators and those mixed within it. This paper will thus analyze research that has assessed the effects of crime and especially of juvenile involvement in the justice system during high school education, and the outcomes of this involvement, in order to see how crime can affect a population, how it can be measured, and what theories can be drawn from the research about crime and criminal activities.
According to the…
Sweeten thus wants his study to take these into account, which is why he decides to draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey, which is administered by the Bureau of Labor Statistic. According to Sweeten, the purpose of this is to minimize weaknesses and oversampling of disadvantaged youth. Sweeten also makes sure to measure various sample populations in order to minimize weaknesses. One such example is that Sweeten utilized a "sampling weight," which was utilized in all analysis to ensure there is no bias. In this method, youths were asked a number of questions that ranged from what kind of delinquent involvement they were involved in, and how they grew up.
Sweeten's documentation of his study, as well as the tables presenting his findings only strengthen the focus of the study and place it as one of the foremost authorities on the topic. Furthermore, his study focuses strongly on data without bias, which is only reinforcing of his strategies, and of completing the lack of data availability in the topic.
Source: Sweeten, G. (2006). "Who Will Graduate? Disruption of High School Graduation by Arrest and Court Involvement." Justice Quarterly 23(4), pp. 1-20.
Social Promotion on Young Students With Learning Disabilities
Public school systems in the United States have been damaged by policies adopted by the Department of Education in recent years. For instance, "The No Child Left Behind Act" (NCLB) has been responsible for moving the school system away from allowing teachers to teach (and by extension allowing children to learn and possibly discover their hidden talents, gifts, and greatest potentials). The No Child Left Behind Act has been in effect since 2001 and what it has instituted is a teach-for-the-test mentality, as so many schools are dependent upon funding that is tied to testing performance rather than to quality of education. In addition, teachers are held accountable when students do not meet adequate yearly progress (AYP) in terms of meeting grade proficiency levels. Students who are not promoted may be psychologically/emotionally damaged as a result. This study intends to scientifically investigate…
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
Education: Social Foundation
Brown v. The Board of Education (1954) was a landmark ruling that not only marked the beginning of the era of desegregation in the school environment, but also served as a frontal attack on the practice and doctrine of white supremacy in the overall society. Many viewed it as a reprieve for the Black-American community, but as Justice William Douglas revealed in 1971, the de jure segregation ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was more than just a mere reprieve for blacks; it was a direct effort towards integrating the philosophies, policies, and cultures of different communities to make public education accessible to American Indians, Latinos, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans just as it was to whites. As it turns out, however, desegregation of public schools did not even come close to being the one-fits-all solution that many thought would address all the inequality concerns of minorities --…
Benton, M.A. (2001). Challenges African-Americans Face at Predominantly White Institutions. Colorado State University. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/SAHE/JOURNAL2/2001/Challenges.htm
Boland, P. (2013). Catholic Education in the 21st Century. Journal of Catholic Education, 3(4), 508-520.
India Country Today Media Network. (2011). Foundation Helps Native American Students Overcome Education Challenges. India Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/11/30/foundation-helps-native-american-students-overcome-education-challenges-65093
Krogstad, J.M. (2012). One in four Native Americans and Alaska Natives are Living in Poverty. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/13/1-in-4-native-americans-and-alaska-natives-are-living-in-poverty/
Schools and Education
Over the last several years, the field of education has been facing tremendous challenges. This is because of shifts in how they address a host of issues and there are changing demographics of students. These are all signs of broader social implications which are having an effect on individual performance and their ability to adapt with a variety of situations. (Rury, 2013)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Rury (2013) who said, "e live in a time of considerable social and political turmoil, marked by economic uncertainty that has directly touched the lives of millions of Americans. Deep divisions and critical problems, as a range of issues are debated fervently, extending from economic policy, to poverty and inequality. If there is anything everyone seems to agree upon it the growing importance of education for the future. ithout expanding our present knowledge and abilities, it…
Ballantine, Jeanne. 2012. Schools and Society. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Hendrix, L. (2013). Education and Society. (Educational Autobiography).
Morris, Edward. 2012. Learning the Hard Way. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Rury, John. 2013. Education and Social Change. New York: Routledge.
Education Literature eview
Whenever the disturbing news of yet another school shooting shatters the adolescence of innocent teenagers, the national media, concerned parents and strained educators alike once again focus their collective attention on the epidemic of bullying which is crippling American schools. In the wake of the Columbine High School massacre which claimed 13 lives and the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings that killed 32 students and faculty, recent tragedies like that which occurred at Sandy Hook elementary bring the consequences of rampant bullying in schools back to the forefront of the national consciousness. Although the loss of life associated with these terrible incidents, and the erosion of self-confidence that results from unchecked bullying, are tragedies that cause society to collectively mourn, it is possible that the diminished safety of our nation's schools has also reduced the ability of modern students to achieve academic excellence. While a causal link between…
Cuero, K.K., & Crim, C.L. (2008). You Wish It Could Speak for Itself. Issues in Teacher
Education, 17, 117-140. Retrieved from www.eric.edu.gov.
Eipstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, R. (2008). Reducing Behavior
Problems in the Elementary School Classroom. IES Practice Guide. What Works
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…
Baker, F.J. (1999). Multicultural vs. global education: Why not two sides of the same coin? Retrieved from http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1999/baker.pdf
Cooper, G. (1995). Freire and theology. Studies in the Education of Adults, 27(1), 66.
Global education. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.glob-edu.net/en/global-education/
Global education guidelines. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/ge/GE-Guidelines/GEguidelines-web.pdf
The United Kingdom (and Northern Ireland) used to provide free higher education to all native Brits, but contemporary economic realities have forced UK and Northern Ireland colleges and universities to charge up to the approximate equivalent of $6,000 annually to offset the enormous cost of education. Unlike Canada, Britain provides higher education at the same price for students from Continental European nations but charges students from other nations more than the maximum allowed to be charged to UK students (Ciccone & Peri, 2006). Unlike in the U.S., there are few opportunities to earn scholarships to UK colleges and universities. Similarly, higher education in Southern Ireland costs only the approximate equivalent of $2,000 in the form of registration and related fees for students from Ireland and the European Union.
France provides (essentially) free education that is paid for by public funds and only imposes a nominal annual enrollment fee that is…
Ciccone, A. And Peri, G. "Identifying human-capital externalities: Theory with applications."
Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 73, No. 2; (2006): 381-412.
Dur, R. And Glazer, A. "Subsidizing enjoyable education" Labour Economics, Vol 15, No.
5; (2008): 1023-1039.
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…
Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,
Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
" (Chan, East, Ali and Neophytou, 2002; p.6)
III. POST-WWII ENGLAND SCHOOLS
The work entitled: "Doing Comparative Education: Three Decades of Collaboration" relates the fact that the post-World War II world in England "left a series of emergencies for which immediate answers had to be found. There were shortages of staff, equipment and building..." (Eckstein, 1960) Eckstein additionally states: "Post-war legislation has generally been characterized by radical thinking and optimism. However, the euphoria brought by the end of a war is so often soon dissipated in the exhausting battle of the peace. At such a time, the ambitiously optimistic spirit of reconstruction may also be lessened. A more cautious planned expansion replaces the scheme for extensive reconstruction, ideas of reform have once again to vie with practices which are entrenched in the typical ways of thinking of a people. The educational legislation of the last five years or so has…
Chan, Sui-Mee; East, Pat, Ali, Sabia; and Neophytou, Maria (2002) Primary and Secondary Education in England and Wales: From 1944 to the Present Day - 8th Edition. August 2002.
Lopez-Muniz, Jose Luis Martinez; De Groof, Jan; and Lauwers, Gracienne (2006) Religious Education and Collective Worship in State Schools: England and Wales" published in the Religious Education in Public Schools: Study of Comparative Law - Yearbook of the Association for Education and Policy (2006)
M.A. Eckstein, "Present Trends in Public Secondary Education in Western Europe," the High School Journal, 44 (October, 1960): 8-19. Reprinted by permission of the University of North Carolina Press.
Riddell S. & Salisbury J., (2000) ' Introductions: educational reforms and equal opportunities programmes', in Salisbury J & Riddell S., (eds.) Gender, Policy & Educational Change: shifting agendas in the UK and Europe, London, Routledge
Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education
In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).
Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…
21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/documents/21st_century_skills_education_and_competitiveness_gui
Bouchard, P. (n.d.). Human Capital and the Knowledge Economy. Retreived from http://doe.concordia.ca/Downloads/PDF/Colloquium_PBouchard.pdf
Checchi, Daniele. (2006). The Economics of Education: Human Capital, Family Background
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
Need for Study
Roles and Responsibilities of Assistant Principals
Historical Perspective of Assistant Principal Roles
Prior and Current Research Studies of Assistant Principal Roles
Assistant Principals and Use of Instructional Leadership
Transforming Assistant Principals into Instructional Leaders: Key Obstacles
General consensus indicates that the role of the assistant principals should move beyond its traditional clerical and disciplinary heritage to evolve to instructional leaders that deal with curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation. Yet, historical and current research shows that there has been little change in the assistant principal occupation since its origin in 1920. This paper uncovers research that tries to reconcile why the role change that practically everyone seems to want to happen hasn't been that quick to occur. As these reasons are better identified and understood, perhaps the twenty first century will see a positive transformation in the role of…
Anderson, L., & Pigford, A. (1987). Removing administrative impediments to instructional improvement efforts. Theory Into Practice, 26(1), 67-71.
Calabrese, Raymond (1987). A comparative analysis of alienation among secondary school administrators. Planning and Changing, 18(2), 90-97.
Chell, J. (1994) Introducing principals to the role of instructional leadership. SSTA Research Centre Report 95(14), 1-73.
Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.
Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…
CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.
Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.
Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.
Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
Every school board now offers school-to-work (STW) programs, which are designed to meet the needs of a large portion of today's students - those who are work-bound as soon as they graduate high school. Many of these programs allow students to enroll as apprentices and accumulate hours and experience towards a qualifying certificate in a specific profession while earning credits towards their high school graduation diploma, as well.
While advocates of such programs argue that they give additional relevance and meaning to the educational process as a whole and give students real opportunities to make connections between theory and actual practice, opponents believe that these types of programs are pervasive and prevent students from receiving a thorough and valuable education.
This paper supports the opposing viewpoint of school-to-work programs, arguing that education that concentrates on job training results in graduates who are less adaptable and less able to…
Brandeis University. (1992). Future options education: Careers and middle school youth. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University.
Cook, Mary. (June, 2001). Do School-to-work Programs Help or Hinder Education? Ingram's Education Edition.
Starr, Linda. (1998). STW Programs. Education World. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.education-world.com/a_admin/admin081.shtml.
The 21st Century Education Foundation, (2001). U.S. Department of Education. School to Work Initiative. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.buildbridges.net/businesses/schooltowork.htm.
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
The therapist will read the passage aloud to Jonathan, and ask him comprehension questions orally. This process will be repeated during Week 3. Week 3 will also feature a passage and comprehension questions. This time, however, Jonathan will be asked to read the passage aloud to the therapist and answer the subsequent comprehension questions. This week will include a writing exercise, with fairly simple instructions that relate to Jonathan's passion for athletics.
During Week 4, the complexity level of the reading will be increased to Level 2, with writing instruction still remaining fairly simple. Jonathan will also be asked to learn a number of similar word pairs for a brief spelling test. For Week 5, both reading and writing will be presented at a Level 2 complexity level. This will continue up to Week 8, when the sessions will finish. During the subsequent week, the post-tests will be administered to…
' Standardized test preparation also takes time away from creative activities that can really engage students with learning, and may even better reinforce skills needed in business, like critical thinking, writing, and working with others. Often teachers know better than administrators or managerial professionals what is needed in their classroom. One of the problems with education is that although schools superficially seem to be structured on a hierarchy similar to a corporation with a board of directors, not all managerial principles apply to schools. Schools are not factories and students are not end products. A teacher may know better what a classroom needs than a principal, a principal may know better the challenges of his or her school than someone comparing the school's results to a very different institution in another county. Finally, slashing costs is not the ultimate goal of the Board of Directors, as it is in a…
With Kim's help, I saw that I had a knack for helping people. I was able not just to be supportive of others, but I could really connect with people and help them. I also had a great knowledge of course planning for almost every major at UConn, because I liked to read through the course booklet and see what kinds of classes were out there and see the different majors and what the requisites were for each. Also, I realized that I often helped my friends with their course selections and major planning before they went to their own advisors. Therefore, I decided to major in Human Services, where my concentration was in academic advising.
Thus, in my own way, I was able to travel through each of the seven vectors identified by Chickering and elucidated by eisser, ultimately arriving at the final point: the development of purpose in…
Chickering, a.W. Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.
Straub, C. And Roberts, R.F. "An Exploration of Chickering's Theory and Women's
Development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1986, 27, pp. 216-224.
Reisser, L. "Revisiting the Seven Vectors." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1995, 36, pp.
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
An Analysis of the book "Life in Schools" by Peter McLaren
Peter McLaren is a well-known proponent for enforcing social reform and teaching and discussing about new issues in education and critical theory, which is the critical pedagogy and multicultural education. His extensive works regarding the study of critical pedagogy has already made him popular and well received by students, scholars, and readers who are in line of thinking with Paulo Freire, one of the most famous educational thinkers who revolutionized the way scholars treat the problem of education in the contemporary American society. The book "Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundation of Education," (4th edition), published by Allyn & Bacon, is a reflection of McLaren's belief about the radical change the educational system needed, and the social reform the educational system needs in order relieve the poor, 'oppressed' people from suffering the commercialization…
Nature of Probable Research
The South Bronx section of New York is among the poorest and most diverse school districts in America. Crime and teenage pregnancy have plagued the primarily Hispanic and Afro-American Bronx community for decades. However, in recent years there has been a concerted effort to curb the dire social conditions and education system. For the purposes of our research we will focus on the efforts to improve the educational system through before school and after school programs.
The probable research will involve studying the effects of before school and after school programs on a low performing middle school in the South Bronx section of New York City. The research will examine the manner in which these programs have been implemented and the students that benefit from the programs. The investigation will also discuss the conditions present in some of the middle schools in the South Bronx…
Worth, Robert. (1999) Guess Who Saved the South Bronx? Big Government. Washington Monthly. Volume: 31. Issue: 4. Page Number: 26.
Zinsmeister, Karl (2002) The insufferable wonder. The American Enterprise. Volume:
13. Issue: 4. Page Number: 4+.
est Virginia's State education department has established English Language Proficiency ELP standards. A student is classified as an English Language Learner if their English proficiency is limited. In est Virginia a limited English proficient (LEP) is classified as such in accordance with the federal government definition as established by section Public Law 107-110, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
In addition once a student has been identified as an English Language Learner, they are assessed each year using the est Virginia Test for English Language Learners (ESTELL). These assessment measures the progress that the student has made during the school year. Students who score high enough can be identified as English Language Proficient (ELP). ESTELL is the tool that schools in est Virginia use to monitor ELL over time.
How are teachers informed of ELLs language proficiency status? hat accommodations do teachers make in daily assessments to ensure…
Assessment. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvconnections.k12.wv.us/assessment.html
e-learning for educators. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvde.state.wv.us/pd/elearning/docs/eLearning_Course_Catalog.pdf
Programs of Study for Limited English Proficient Students. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvconnections.k12.wv.us/elpstandards.html
S. is a worthwhile goal, but the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is a poorly conceived approach whose deficiencies may actually do more to undermine many aspects of education than any meaningful improvement inspired by its programs.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
Forgary, . (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Hendrie, C. (2002) Taking a Chance on Choice; Education Week, Oct 23, 2002. etrieved September 8, 2008, from www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=08choice.h22
Murray, C. (2006) Acid Tests: No Child Left Behind…
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
Denying certain individuals access to education at all, in a society that privileges literacy, also creates a societal imbalance and social inequality, as manifested in the examples of Frederick Douglass in America (Gutek, 2005).
Consider in our own contemporary public schools, how even simple actions taken for granted like pledging allegiance to the flag affirms the value of citizenship, how demarcating winter break as a time of rest reinforces the importance of Judeo-Christian holidays, and the content of the textbooks used determines what the child will later consider 'American history' or 'Great Literature.' Editing out certain authors or entire groups of people from the body of knowledge transmitted in a nation's schools creates an exclusionary message of what is intellectually valuable that the child will carry within his or her set of core assumptions, possibly forever.
Cahn, Steven M. 1997. Classic and contemporary readings in the philosophy of…
Cahn, Steven M. 1997. Classic and contemporary readings in the philosophy of education. New York: McGraw-Hill
Gutek, Gerald L. 2005. Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A biographical introduction. 4th ed. Merrill/Prentice Hall.
13. I also think that field experiences in the community are extremely necessary for success.
14. I don't think enough teachers complete their practicum or student teach in minority schools, and I think this area is underserved and not supported enough by administration and community in many areas.
15. I don't think many teachers would want immersion, living and teaching in a minority community, and I think this is far underserved in the educational community.
16. The group-setting model is very prevalent, and it does make for more challenge and support throughout college.
Almost all of these elements are extremely relevant to the 21st century learner, teacher, and total school environment. As classrooms become more diversified and unique, today's teachers must make more attempts to understand the different blends of students and cultures that fill their classroom, and educational curriculum is key to this basic understanding. Classrooms are not going…
Coballes-Vega, C. (1992). Considerations in teaching culturally diverse children. Retrieved from the Eric Digests Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/1992-4/diverse.htm31 Aug. 2007.
Willis, a.I. (2000). Critical issue: Addressing literacy needs in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. Retrieved from the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Web site: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li400.htm31 Aug. 2007.
Zeichner. (1993). 16 key elements of effective teacher education for diversity. Retrieved from the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Web site: http://ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/presrvce/pe3lk5.htm31 Aug. 2007.
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
From the school staff perspective, the identification badges would be a useful instrument to recognize who is a student and who is a teacher. Additionally, somewhat related to the identification purpose, as well as to the security perspective that one parent has mentioned, the staff can easily recognize who is actually meant to be on school grounds and who isn't. If we consider the global terrorist threat, this is a highly important argument.
On the other hand, as the parent has mentioned, security and safety measures on school premises need to have a limit somewhere, otherwise we risk having a reminder of concentration camps, where number identification tags were used. As the parent has asked, where can we draw the line?
From the parents' perspective, wearing a badge may be an additional form of security and safety on school grounds, but it also may be considered a measure that will…
1. Parents, students protest school ID badges. November 2004. On the Internet at http://edition.cnn.com/2004/EDUCATION/11/02/school.badges.ap/index.html
Parents, students protest school ID badges. November 2004. On the Internet at http://edition.cnn.com/2004/EDUCATION/11/02/school.badges.ap/index.html
My favorite years in school were when I was too young to realize that I was actually in school: the early elementary years. hen my teachers treated me as if I were special, when art, music, physical education, and reading were all wrapped up in the same class in the same day: those were the days that school was most enjoyable. In early elementary schools, teachers employ the perfect combination of teaching styles. Students learn the basics: the three Rs. Art and music are also integral to the curriculum, and students socialize in innocent ways. Physical education was fun: competitive without being cutthroat. Similarly, our academic tests were competitive but not high-pressure. During this phase of learning, teachers seemed more enthusiastic about their jobs than they did when we were older.
Images of schooling vary from fun and games to the exact opposite: detention halls and uncomfortable situations. I…
Department for Education and Skills. (2005). Online at .
United States Department of Education. 2005. Online at .
Education in the Community
A major issue currently effecting culture, population, and demographics is that of wealth inequality. As the global economic downturn continues throughout the world, wealth disparity is increasing rapidly. This affects culture, population, and overall demographics in a litany of ways. First, due primarily to lower wages, families are postponing child birth. The uncertainty surrounding the future creates an atmosphere of fear. Families are now waiting until the economic climate becomes more certain before they have their children. Furthermore, the median income for middle class families has plummeted within the last 3 years. The median income for the average American household was roughly $51,000 in 2008. Now the median income is roughly $48,000. This creates problems as families are less apt to spend money are discretionary activities that form the basis of their culture. Holiday spending, for example has yet to reach its 2007 heights. Families are…
1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .
2) Rice Culture of China." China.org.cn - China News, Weather, Business, Travel & Language Courses. Web. 14 July 2011. .
3) "History of American Agriculture - Farm Machinery and Technology." Inventors. Web. 14 July 2011. .
4) Breaden, M.C. (2008, Feb 6), "Teacher-Quality Gap Examined Worldwide," Education Week, Feb. 6, 2008. Education Trust,
School Personnel Functions
Personnel functions and their relationship to moving an instructional agenda forward
Ultimately, a school's reputation lies in the hands of its teachers. Hiring, training, and retaining highly effective personnel to give instruction in the classroom must be the cornerstone of any effort to improve education at a school. Without good teachers to impart instruction, the best textbooks, goals, and procedures will not be meaningful. Teaching, however, is a skill as well as a gift, and the administration can strive to support teachers with specific programming efforts.
Hiring and assignments
The first step in creating a more effective educational environment is hiring new teachers that support the mission and values of the school. Given that teachers are likely to be a part of the educational environment for some time, it is essential that teachers are 'on board' with the principal's agenda. ecruiting top candidates from high-quality colleges and…
Crowther, F. (1997). Teachers as leaders - an exploratory framework. The International Journal
of Educational Management, 11(1), 6-13. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229204018?accountid=10901
Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., & Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying effective teachers using performance on the job. The Hamilton Project Policy Brief no. 2006-01. Brookings Institution. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/62008957?accountid=10901 ;
Olsen, B., & Sexton, D. (2009). Threat rigidity, school reform, and how teachers view their work inside current education policy contexts. American Educational Research Journal, 46(1),
It raises the need for both written and verbal communication skills to reach an optimum level that can persuade and cajole.
It is believed by many experts that this economic role will become more important in future years and that in order to achieve the status of superintendent, a candidate will have to display some experience or education in that field to ensure board members that he or she is capable of representing the district well (Thomas, 2002).
With Administrators, Staff and Teachers
School superintendents face a new level of issues when dealing with these three groups of employees, and it is very important how the man or woman in that position communicates layoffs, curriculum changes, school closures, firings, or an order to re-apply for their jobs, as has been done now in a significant number of districts around the country.
One of the superintendent's first priorities is to get…
Board perceptions. (2007, December). Retrieved May 28, 2009, from School Administrator Journal - GALE database (A172251160): .
Glass, T.E., Bjork, L., & Brunner, C. (2000). A study of the American school superintendency. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from eric.ed.gov (ED440475): http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/16/2d/e9.pdf
Hopper, J. (2005, December). Communication essentials: What superintendents need to know and want to share about communicating. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Michigan edusource: http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:PvTiyj6oFJsJ:www.michiganedusource.org/PublicRelations/Supt_Communication_Essentials.doc+school+superintendents+communication+methods&cd=11&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
McAdams, D.R. (2009, February). Top 10 'guarantees' for a great relationship. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from EBSCO data base (AN 36326105): http://ezproxy.ppld.org:2054/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=99164b10-d3d2-43 AD-b5be-a37ac1448272%40sessionmgr7&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=tfh&AN=36326105
Apart from increasing subject matter retention, active learning promotes intellectual curiosity, flexibility, and confidence, in effect, teaching students how to reason and think for themselves.
Unfortunately, current indications suggest strongly that the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is retarding progress in the direction of better education, precisely because it emphasizes rote memorization and drilling in two or three subjects at the relative exclusion of other academic subjects and to the establishment of an effective learning environment for students (Sonnenblick, 2008). That is because the most essential function of modern education is to teach thinking.
Huber, .A., Moore, C.J. (2001). "A Model for Extending Hands-on Science to Be Inquiry Based." School Science and Mathematics, 101(1), 32. Sonnenblick, J. (2008). "Killing Me Softly: No Child Left Behind" School Library Journal, May 1, 2008, etrieved January 7,…
Huber, R.A., Moore, C.J. (2001). "A Model for Extending Hands-on Science to Be Inquiry Based." School Science and Mathematics, 101(1), 32. Sonnenblick, J. (2008). "Killing Me Softly: No Child Left Behind" School Library Journal, May 1, 2008, Retrieved January 7, 2009, at http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA6555540.html
Granted, she was fortunate that Goldenberg is a noted school change advocate and author. However, if he had not been at the school, she may have been able to find someone else well versed in reform. The important element is collaboration with others who have a knowledge base.
The other important aspect of this article was the example of how the teachers were involved and the results that came from this change. Based on the increased scores of the students, it is easily recognized that there was a fundamental change in the teachers' instruction. Lastly, this article showed that not all changes end in "happy ever after" results. Unfortunately, the changes were not continued from one generation of teachers to the next.
There are a few elements that are missing in this article. The first is what happened to Sullivan and her involvement with this school change. Did she leave,…
Tinsley, R. (2006) Successful School Change. Catholic Education 10(1), 115-117
The NCLB Act (2002) stresses the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics of performance. The Open Group (2003) in defining the need for integration says that the data captured in SIF "are subsequently moved through state information systems to be used.
Federal, state and local dependence on the quality and availability of education data to inform decision-making has never been higher as funding to the school level based on NCLB benchmarks and measure adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements" (Open Group 2003).
All of these many requirements for reporting the performance of learning programs upward through district, municipal, and state and federal levels is to benchmark the effectiveness of teaching programs, adherence to and compliance with NCLB measures of success, and ultimately to define which schools will continue to receive state and federal funding for their programs, or conversely, those schools that will be audited as a result of…
NCLB (2002) - the White House Fact Sheet: No Child Left Behind Act. White House press announcement. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020108.html
Open Group (2003) - White paper titled, "The SIF Plan: Advance Education through Interoperability." Published November, 2002. Updated April, 2003. San Francisco, CA. Accessed from the Internet on August 11, 2007 from location: http://www.opengroup.org/comm/case-studies/SIF-casestudy.pdf
SIF Architecture (2007) - Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) Association. Presentation of the architectural elements of the SIF standard. Titled "SIF NCLB State Architecture and Community of Practice" accessed on August 12, 2007 from location: http://sif.edreform.net/download/102/1-6%20SIF%20NCLB%20State%20CoP.ppt
SIF (2007) - Why Interoperability. Description of the Zone integration server in the SIF networking topology. Schools Interoperability Framework Association website content. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location:
" Having said man's very nature to associate himself with other people all the more gives but rational explanation to why it is very important for the children, even during their elementary years in school, to develop their interpersonal skills. In different settings, excellent interpersonal skills have always led to excellent dyadic relationships and team dynamics, and therefore generating excellent outputs. As Hogan (2004) also articulated, our personalities determine how we can be leaders in our own right within the teams we belong to.
The elementary students - because of their young minds and fresh ideas - may need to be instructed how to deal with their personal needs as well as the needs of the people around them. they must learn how to interact people in a positive way. They must learn to understand the value of giving and sharing in the same way that they should learn how…
Aristotle. 2006. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-arist.html
Barry, David. (1991). Managing the Bossless Team: Lessons in Distributed Leadership. http://www.geocities.com/drdavidbarry/DistributedLeadership.doc
Butler, Timothy and James Waldroop. (2004). Leveraging Your Team's Interpersonal Skills. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/4187.html
Dewey, J. (1897). My pedagogic creed. The School Journal (65), 3.
Children who possess this curiosity will become adults that are more fully engaged in their world, and that examine their environment for better alternatives; this is the kind of adult that I would like to see eventually emerging form my continued educational practice.
While I see educators more as guides than as authoritarian figures, there does need to be a clear hierarchy established between the teacher and the learner. This does not have to be strictly and explicitly defined, but rather should come more easily from the tone with which the classroom is run and how conflicts are handled when they arise (Gordon & Burch 2003). Simply guiding rather than directly instructing works until it doesn't, in other words, and once that point is reached instructions need to be followed. Even such instances are part of the educational process when it comes to building critical thinkers and careful…
Applebaum, P. (2002). Multicultural and diversity education Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Davis-Seaver, J. & Davis, E. (2000). Critical thinking in young children. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.
Gordon, T. & Nurch, N. (2003). Teacher effectiveness training. New York: Random House.
Winch, C. (2006). Education, autonomy and critical thinking. New York: Routledge.
For school retention, the major reason for support of this was academic achievement. If the child does not meet the set benchmarks for performance, the decision-making panel simply agreed to retention of the student. There was no formal assessment system for this decision process.
These results were supported by the result of the study conducted by Hong and audenbush (2006)
who found that student achievement were used in state and district schools to decide social promotion vs. school retention instead of formal systems of assessment of student performance. According to these findings, the schools that used academic achievement as the main criterion for social promotion did not bother to understand how the decision affected the student for who the decision was being made and the other students in general. The findings of these authors showed that these were very important aspects in the general performance of the school itself and…
Bali, V.A., Anagnostopoulos, D., & Roberts, R. (2005). Toward a Political Explanation of Grade Retention. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(2), 133-155. doi: 10.2307/3699523
Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2005). Effects of Kindergarten Retention Policy on Children's Cognitive Growth in Reading and Mathematics. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(3), 205-224. doi: 10.2307/3699569
Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2006). Evaluating Kindergarten Retention Policy: A Case Study of Causal Inference for Multilevel Observational Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 101(475), 901-910. doi: 10.2307/27590770
Jacob, B.A., & Lefgren, L. (2009). The Effect of Grade Retention on High School Completion. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1(3), 33-58. doi: 10.2307/25760170
As the educational system continues to come unde inceasing amounts of scutiny, the teache is ultimately at the fulcum of pessue. They ae equied to digest new educational theoy and sot out the wheat fom the chaff. They ae asked to manage inceasing levels of divesity in the classoom, and students who come to class acoss a widening spectum of pepaedness. At the same time, they ae expected to be a students fiend, motivato, and at times suogate paent. Technological advances in the maketplace have made it necessay fo teaches to adapt to inceasing amounts of technology in the classoom. All of these issues ae coming at a time when fedeal mandates in the No Child Left Behind act ae demanding impoved pefomance, in some cased damatically impoved pefomance.
In light of the inceased levels of demands placed on teaches and the continuing decline of academic pefomance, it is…
references for ways and means of communicating and sharing information
The pedagogy takes into account the e-learning styles of different students, 4) Learners have no option other than to "hack" their way through a lesson, picking up tips and tricks as they stumble across them The pedagogy encourages the development of team communication skills, in order to reduce information overload, and leverage team learning and improve group practices and performance.
Adapted from C. Willet (2002) "eRoom for Power Users, http://www.akgroup.com/solutions/eRoom_powerusers.pdf
Part Seven: Miscellaneous.
The final section of this book contain a collection of essays that address larger cultural issues in the framework of the classroom. Equality in races, between black, white, Hispanic, and others is still a hotly debated topic. Some want to measure equality by equality of outcome. However, in an increasing diverse culture, this measuring stick often does not contain the correct units to make a valid evaluation. Schools cannot guarantee equality of outcome between students, because the outcome is a function of the input the student applies. The equality of opportunity is the cry which must be heard in educational institutions. Whether a student is male of female, white or colored, upper middle class or urban poor, schools need to provide equal access, and equal opportunity. The results, ultimately, are up to the child to take advantage of the opportunity, and become an educated person.
Even if a student has low grades, if they want to attend college, they should have the opportunity. Many students do better in college because they are more interested in their courses and in learning, and so, even if they had lower grades in high school they should have the opportunity to attend college.
Higher education prepares the students for the "real" world of work and family, but it can make a true difference in a person's life, as well. Just two examples of many that exist are Oprah Winfrey and Barack Obama. Winfrey grew up poor, was shuttled between relatives, and was molested by members of her family when she was young. She managed to attend college, and it prepared her for her career in broadcasting, which began when she was 17. "She attended Tennessee State University, where she majored in Speech Communications and Performing Arts" (Editors). She began…
Archibald, Robert B., and David H. Feldman. "Explaining Increases in Higher Education Costs." Journal of Higher Education 79.3 (2008): 268+.
Clausen, Christopher. "The New Ivory Tower: America's Higher Education Complex Is a Behemoth of Mass Production. But What, Exactly, Is Coming off the Assembly Line? A Veteran Professor and Administrator Looks Inside the New Ivory Tower." The Wilson Quarterly Autumn 2006: 31+.
Editors. "Oprah Winfrey Biography." Academy of Achievement. 2009. 9 March 2009. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/win0bio-1 .