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Public School Prayer: Is it Constitutional and Moral?
Proponents of allowing public school prayer cite both legal and moral reasons to allow prayer in public schools. On a legal basis they state that banning prayer in public schools is a violation of our First Amendment right of Free Exercise. From a moral standpoint they cite the so-called degeneration of the public school system and the so-called declining quality of public education along with an overall decline in American society as a result of the public schools no longer teaching morals. This lack of moral instruction is linked to the ban on prayer in public schools. However, proponents of public school prayer have overlooked the big picture and are the victims of biased reasoning. By not allowing prayer and the exercise of religious ceremonies in public schools the Supreme Court has protected our First Amendment rights and at the same time…
Barton, C.D. (1994). America: To pray or not to pray (Fifth Edition). Aledo TX: Wallbuilder Press.
Barton, C.D. (March 30, 2009). A guide to the school prayer debate. Retrieved September, 22, 2011, from http://www.famguardian.org/Subjects/Education/Articles/SchoolPrayer.htm#BM_ EXAM PLES.
Bergel, G. (May, 1988). Banning prayer in public schools has led to America's demise. In The Forerunner. Retrieved September, 22, 2011, from http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0098_Ban_on_school_prayer.html .
Cousins, N. (1988). The Republic of reason: The personal philosophies of the Founding Fathers. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026476147
Beran, T.N., Tutty, L. & Steinrath, G. (2004). An evaluation of a bullying prevention program for elementary schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Vol. 19, Iss. 1/2, p. 99
116 . Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1188387401&Fmt=4&clientId=9269&RQT=30
The U.S. Supreme Court has supported school cooperation in regards to the establishment of religion. They have done this because they respect the religious nature of people and feel that people should be able to accommodate their spiritual needs (hat are the pros and cons of prayer in school, n.d.)?
On the other side of the debate, those who are against putting prayer back into the public schools often argue that school prayer violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment because it says that the government shall not make laws in regards to the establishment of religion. Due to the fact that public schools are financed by the government, prayer that is led by school officials or included in any school program can be seen as government-established religion. Proponents to school prayer feel that school prayer ignores the division of church and state. Traditionally public schools are thought to…
"Prayer in Public School - Overview of Governing Constitutional Principles." 2003. Viewed 23
June, 2010. < http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/prayer-in-public-school.htm >
"What are the pros and cons of prayer in school?" n.d. Viewed 23 June, 2010, <
Religious Symbols be worn in Schools?
Many parents and students were confused, when a school district in Nebraska stopped a 12 years old girl, Elizabeth Carey from wearing a necklace because it resembled a rosary. Rev. Joseph Taphorn said to press that "One ought to be able to figure out whether she's trying to promote a gang," he added. "If she's not, why would she be punished for her right of religious freedom and religious expression? (Haynes)"
Symbols are the powerful source of meaning and ideas. They have different meanings in different religions and are considered very important by the religious individuals and communities. The religious symbols also have a very close connection with the identity of a religion. The individuals believe their identity to be strongly connected with the symbols; therefore preserving these symbols is very important in their daily lives (Renteln 1575). Unfortunately, the United States of America,…
Ash. The Ban on Religious Symbols in Public Schools. Darkness Embraced. 2007. Published Aug 3,
2007. Retrieved Dec 10, 2012.
Clark, Matthew. Victories: Students can wear religious symbols to School. American Centre for Law and Justice. 2011. Published Dec 16, 2011. Retrieved Dec 10, 2012.
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Given the limitations mentioned above, researchers studying intercessory prayer are also banging their heads against reality because they are claiming to make discoveries that are "incompatible with current views of the physical universe and consciousness" (Sloan, p. 504). That having been said, if IP studies are held to the "standards of science" and if "more precise hypotheses are tested" then a "scientific revolution" is not beyond imagination (Sloan, p. 513).
Using personal prayer for health reasons. An article published in 2004 reports on a national survey that was conducted in 1998; in that survey researchers found that 35% of participants used prayer for "health reasons" (McCaffrey, et al., 2004, p. 858). Of those respondents, 75% prayed for "wellness" and 22% prayed for "specific medical conditions" (McCaffrey, p. 858). Of the 22% who prayed for specific medical conditions 69% "found prayer very helpful,' McCaffrey reports on page 858. This research…
Benson, Herbert, Dusek, Jeffery a., Sherwood, Jane B., Lam, Peter, Bethea, Charles F.,
Carpenter, William, Levitsky, Sidney, Hill, Peter C., Clem, Donald W., Jain, Manoj K.,
Drumel, David, Lopecky, Stephen L., Mueller, Paul S., Marek, Dean, Rollins, Sue, and Hibberd, Patricia L. (2006). Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer
(STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: A multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty and certainty of receiving intercessory prayer. American Heart Journal, 151(4), 934-942.
Instead, holiness is attained through right-mindedness and a right heart. You say that the body affects the mind -- and indeed it does. But no longer is an obsession with bodily attributes, such as food, drink, and adherence to the laws of Leviticus (including circumcision) that connects us to God.
"Again Jesus called the crowd to him and said, 'Listen to me, everyone, and understand this. Nothing outside a man can make him 'unclean' by going into him. Rather, it is what comes out of a man that makes him 'unclean.'" (Mark 7:14-15). I do indeed agree that religiosity cannot be found in rote prayers, learned in childhood, or be encompassed by a vague sense of spirituality that does not take into consideration Christ's sacrifice. On the subject of prayer, I can only say that I pray daily -- both in the conventional manner in which you seem to think…
BibleGateway.com. October 26, 2010. http://www.biblegateway.com/
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
Lord's Prayer as the Model for Christian Prayer
The Lord's Prayer is the principal Christian prayer that Jesus Christ taught his followers, saying, "Pray then in this way." The prayer appears in Matthew 6: 9-13 and Luke 11: 2-4, and summarizes Jesus' teaching and stresses the concern of honoring God before that of meeting one's own needs and also reveals Christ's sense of a filial relationship with God (Columbia Pp). After the Second Vatican Council, the Roman Catholic Church added a version of the doxology, 'For thine is the kingdom ..., ' to prayer when used in the Mass (Columbia Pp). The doxology was already current in Protestant liturgies, and is also present in some manuscripts of Matthew (Columbia Pp). The prayer is called Paternoster in Latin, it also occurs in the Didache, and the first three phrases of the prayer parallel the opening words of the ancient, Jewish Kaddish…
"Lord's Prayer." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 4/22/2004; Pp.
Remsen, Jim. "Parishioners take at fresh look at the Lord's Prayer.
Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service. 8/7/2002; Pp.
Christian, Graham. "The Prayer of Fire: Experiencing the Lord's Prayer."
eligion and health have long been linked, and continue to be so in most cultures around the world. In fact, both mental and physical health problems were once believed to have supernatural or spiritual origins, a belief which persists until this day in spite of empirical evidence showcasing the biological and chemical causes of illnesses (Koenig, 2000). egardless of whether or not religion is a worthwhile social institution, religion, spirituality, and practices like prayer remain central to the lives of most people. eligion can be inextricably linked with personal and cultural identity, and can greatly inform both medical decisions and health practices including lifestyle choices. There is also a notable link between religiosity and a number of health outcomes including morbidity and mortality rates, proven in empirical studies. The literature tends to support a strong connection between prayer and stress relief in particular, as prayer and religion are widely believed…
Bearon, L.B. & Koenig, H.G. (1990). Religious cognitions and use of prayer in health and illness. The Gerontologist 30(2): 249-253.
Davis, L.I. & Owens, C. (2013). The impact of religion on health practices. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Retrieved online: http://www.aacp.org/governance/SIGS/hdcc/Documents/Webinar%20Materials/Impact%20of%20Religion%20Webinar.pdf
Koenig, H.G. (2000). Religion and medicine I. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 30(4): 385-398.
Koenig, H., King, D. & Carson, V.B. (2012). Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford University Press.
Scottish Covenanter Party
We are inclined to of revolutions as being historical events that disrupt the order of the world, eras that rewrite the history of their times and transform the cultures of the places. And of course the great revolutions of the world do indeed do all of these things. But simply because the historical effect of revolutions is such a radical transformation of the world, we should not therefore be lured into seeing revolutions as arising from disjunctures in the social fabric. Revolutions are not like a meteor crashing into the body politic and changing the way in which things are done in an abrupt and external fashion. he English Civil War, like other revolutionary battles, was fought along long-standing cultural, economic and religious faultlines.
Rather, revolutions are like earthquakes: While they may seem to come out of nowhere and while they certainly shake the world, they arise…
The Book of Common Prayer represents an attempt by Thomas Cranmer to introduce church reform in England. Cranmer had risen to prominence by suggesting means to implement Henry VIII's much-desired divorce from Catherine of Aragorn. A grateful Henry made Cranmer his aide in carrying out the divorce and in 1533 made Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury. Though Cranmer did not participate in some of Henry's more zealous anticlerical acts, he held very profound beliefs about the direction the church should take.
Though Cranmer was hampered during Henry's lifetime from carrying out many of his own reforms, the old king's death in 1547 put the archbishop in a position to carry out a program of religious reform. In 1549 he put forward his major work, The Book of Common Prayer. This handbook for liturgical practice combined in one volume Cranmer's own versions of the Catholic Breviary, Missal, Pontifical, and Ritual. In the Book and the revised version that followed in 1552 Cranmer laid down the language and practice that should guide the Anglican church in England. Adherence to the practices outlined in the Book of Common Prayer was made compulsory under law in the Act of Uniformity of 1549. http://www.courts.fsnet.co.uk/SChamber.htm
eligion is not a code of conduct that is imposed; rather it is code of conduct that you practice and in case if the individual shares affiliation with minority, the values are definitely in volatile state under young age.
Young individual is shares different believes and culture, definitely find it to be difficult in assimilating into the society, and for the sake of doing so compromise has to be accorded with the dominant social forces. The compromise can be accorded either by isolating yourself, or by intermingling. In case of a young individual, isolation is more like social curse, and it has major impact on the grooming and growth. The young individual is therefore found willing to compromise and mingle up with the society; this is because that is the psychological requirement of an individual. In some of the cases, perhaps isolation is preferred rather than intermingling with the society,…
SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES No. 02-1624 ELK GROVE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT AND DAVID W. GORDON, SUPERINTENDENT, PETITIONERS v. MICHAEL A. NEWDOW ET AL. On writ of certiorari to the United States Court of appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law: ELK GROVE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT V. NEWDOW.
Matthew (EDT) Spalding, Edwin Meese. The Heritage Guide to Constitution.
Peter K. Rofes. The Religion Guarantees: A Reference Guide to the United States Constitution
education is struggling to uncover the reasons for continuing levels of academic achievements, and recover its place of world class leadership which it once held. While academic levels in public schools have suffered to the greatest extent over the years, the same cannot be said regarding religious education, in particular catholic schools. These schools continue to produce higher levels of academic achievement, and more students who continue on to college that similar public schools. This research is an initial investigation into possible reasons for this phenomenon.
Educational difficulties across the nation have been receiving increasing amounts of attention. Despite the attention of teachers, researchers, and rhetoricians, the academic performance in public schools is not making appreciable improvements. The classroom is becoming more diverse, and multicultural. While this perceived shift is understood as a positive adaptation to he different needs of the individual student, the results is that the teacher is…
Batson, D.C., Schoenrade, P., & Ventis, L.W. (1993). Religion and the Individual: A Social-Psychological Perspective. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
Baumol, W., and R. Highsmith. (1988). "Variables affecting success in economic education: Preliminary findings from a new data base." American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 78 (May): 257-62.
Bryk, A.S., Lee, V.E., & Holland, P.B. (1993). Catholic Schools and the Common Good. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Power, E. (1996) Religion and the Public Schools in 19th Century America: The Contribution of Orestes A. Brownson. Paulist Press.
8). Under such circumstances, the theme of tragic love in the seventeenth century is rife with passionate rebellion against such marital arrangements. Moreover, Arnolphe's view of wifedom is base: "And there are four things only she must know: to say her prayers, love me, spin, and sew" (I.1). Women are to remain austere peasants, obedient to their masters, and kept free from emulating flirtations wives upon threat of Hell (III.2). With such a view of women, it is not surprising he is afraid of their challenge and seeks to inoculate himself through rational schemes.
Arnolphe's tyrannical grip is broken through fate. As with all forms of tyrannical insulation, it could not last. The plight of Agnes is softened in two ways: by chance and through her own skillful rebellion against ignorance. y chance, first, and despite Arnolphe's best efforts to keep Agnes ignorant and secluded from worldly corruption, fate brings…
Moliere, Jean Baptiste Poquelin. The School for Wives: Comedy in Five Acts, 1662. Translated by Richard Wilbur. New York: Harvest/HBJ, 1971.
Public school culture is fairly similar even amidst ethnically and geographically diverse schools. For example, there is prohibition of classroom prayer. Students and school staff must maintain a professional and platonic relationship at all times. Any student or school staff engaging in illegal behaviors must be reported. These are just some things that every public school must do or else face potential legal problems. That being said, the culture in the school can be split up into subcultures where the differences can clearly be seen.
Cultural context has always been an important area to examine. Organizations often have their own sub-culture demonstrated by the ones working there. An example is corporate culture. Each company has its own corporate culture and corporate cultures often develop as an ethos generated and maintained by images, ritual, symbols, and social processes. "ituals are often embedded in the formal structure of the organization, as in…
Mavrofides, T., Kameas, A., Papageorgiou, D., & Los, A. (2011). On the Entropy of Social Systems: A Revision of the Concepts of Entropy and Energy in the Social Context. Syst. Res., 28(4), 353-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sres.1084
Mele, C., Pels, J., & Polese, F. (2010). A Brief Review of Systems Theories and Their Managerial Applications. Service Science, 2(1-2), 126-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/serv.2.1_2.126
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organization (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.
Structuralsim vs. Functionalism
The structuralist/functionalist debate in the field of psychology focuses on the framework that psychological approaches should take. In the pioneer days of psychology, scholars argued whether one should take a structuralist or a functionalist approach to interpreting how the mind works. The essence of structuralism was promoted by Wilhelm Wundt in Germany and his pupil, Edward Titchener, is the man who gave the approach its name when he brought its school to America. In competition with Titchener's "structuralism," however, was "functionalism," which grew out of the American response to the German ideas. Functionalism was rooted in the ideas of Darwin and William James, the American philosopher.
The debates between the two schools were heated in spite of calls for a reconciliation between the two, as some saw them as both dealing primarily with the same problem: the conscious self (Chalkins, 1906). The advocates of the two schools,…
Calkins, M.W. (1906). A reconciliation between structural and functional psychology. Psychological Review, 13: 61-81.
Fancher, R.E. (1996). Pioneers of Psychology. New York: Norton.
James, W. (1904) The Chicago School. Psychological Bulletin, 1: 1-5.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. IN: St. Augustine's Press.
eligion Colonial Education
eligion as a Driving Force
The impact of religion on the human psyche is both important and worthy of investigation. The spiritual aspects that drive the human soul to its desires is a powerful, but often ignored power that can be used to help create a learning environment and teach us about the true capacity of the human mind. The importance of religion and the freedom to pursue one's own spiritual path is embedded in the values of this country as noted in the Bill of ights of the United States Constitution. This essay will explore how this religious freedom has impacted higher education in the history of this nation, and how these forces are still impacting the environment today.
The colonial movement away from England was revolutionary in many ways. Freedom loving individuals who had the courage to step away from harmful circumstances and create a…
Axtell, J. (1976). The school upon a hill: Education and society in colonial New England. Norton.
Bonomi, P.U. (2003). Under the cope of heaven: Religion, society, and politics in Colonial America. Oxford University Press.
Stout, H.S. (1977). Religion, communications, and the ideological origins of the American revolution. The William and Mary Quarterly: A Magazine of Early American History, 519-541.
Wisniewski, M. (2011). Religion, and controversy, always part of U.S. education. Reuters, 9 Jun 2011. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/09/us-usa-religion-schools-idUSTRE75829R20110609
evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.
Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.
At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…
Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.
Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
Legal Aspects and Considerations
"Coaches should pursue opportunities for professional development to keep abreast of best practices, safety, and legal issues within their chosen sport(s)" (Schaefer, 2008, isk Management Tips Section, ¶ 5).
Challenges for Coaches
During 2006, Bill Baker, a Sahuarita High School football coach in Chandler, Arizona resigned from his coaching position following a 2005 post-game incident which involved him and a player the previous fall. In the newspaper account, "Coach quits over legal dispute: Sahuarita's Baker facing charges involving player," Pedersen (2006) reports that Baker, 53, who cited a lack of support from the Sahuarita Unified School District, also resigned his position as golf coach; however, continued teaching character-education class at the school. The school's district reported that because its liability insurance applied only to civil claims, it could not legally represent employees in criminal cases. Baker denied charges against him that he threw punches at a…
Engelhorn, R. (2011). Legal and Ethical Responsibilities of a Coach Iowa State University. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://www.iahsaa.org/RichEngelhorn.html
Fitzgerald, T.B. (2005). The "inherent Risk" Doctrine, Amateur Coaching Negligence and the Goal of Loss Avoidance. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2), 889+. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036474220
Football Coaches Push N.J. School Prayer Case at U.S. Supreme Court. (2008, December). Church & State, 61, 16+. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036476157
Pedersen, B.J. (2006). Coach quits over legal dispute: Sahuarita's Baker facing charges involving player. AZ Daily Star. Landmark Media Enterprises, LLC. Retrieved March 23, 2011 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-149015601.html
Denying this flexibility denies the children the right they have to a challenging and ultimately productive education, which consists not only of the material learned but the life-lessons absorbed by the process of learning itself.
Specific tools I would implement to ensure compliance with the legal and ethical requirements of teaching would be a utilization of student-led activities, and at the same time many independent projects. he group work would be structured such that everyone had a chance to be a leader of some sort; to find the way that they work best in and with a group, and to learn the responsibility of having others to work with. his will also promote interaction among diverse social groups. his latter effect would also be the purpose of the independent projects, which not only would allow each student to adapt the assignment to their own learning style and pace, but also…
The most major impacts court rulings have had in the classroom over the past twenty years have all been in the arena of civil rights and civic duties. Brown V. The board of Education occurred in 1954, the first major decision on the road to desegregation. Subsequent rulings have dealt with school prayer, inter-district bussing to achieve racially and economically diverse populations in schools, and the redistribution of funds from districts higher tax earnings to those with greater financial need. All of these decisions have in one way or another dealt with the equality of the learning process, and with the need to maintain a balance in classrooms between individual attention and equal treatment, encouragement, and opportunity for all students.
The rights in regards to students are broadly defined by Massachusetts Teacher Standard D, which states teachers must work to promote achievement in all students, and that students must believe effort is key to achievement. I believe this means that children need to be given the opportunity to work at their level, but encouraged to keep up with the class, regardless of racial or socio-economic issues. This is just as important for children who are brighter than average; if they are not challenged, both they and others will see that effort is not always key to success; expectations need room for manipulation on a case-by-case basis. Denying this flexibility denies the children the right they have to a challenging and ultimately productive education, which consists not only of the material learned but the life-lessons absorbed by the process of learning itself.
Specific tools I would implement to ensure compliance with the legal and ethical requirements of teaching would be a utilization of student-led activities, and at the same time many independent projects. The group work would be structured such that everyone had a chance to be a leader of some sort; to find the way that they work best in and with a group, and to learn the responsibility of having others to work with. This will also promote interaction among diverse social groups. This latter effect would also be the purpose of the independent projects, which not only would allow each student to adapt the assignment to their own learning style and pace, but also to share something about their lives as a way to expose the class to a diversity of backgrounds. I believe these methods would be effective in meeting the Massachusetts Teacher Standard and, more importantly, in helping an increasingly diverse population of students to learn.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
upreme Court Case-- Engel v. Vitale. Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.. 421 (1962) [Establishment of Religion - Prayer in Public chools].
Year of the Case -- 1962.
Author of the majority opinion - Justice Hugo Black
Members of the Court at the time of the decision:
Felix Frankfurter, Byron White, Potter tewart, William O. Douglas, William Brennan, Jr., John M. Harlan, Hugo Black, Tom Campbell Clark (Members of the upreme Court of the United tates).
The parties to the case
The parties in the case include the William J. Butler, who argued the cause for petitioners, with him on the briefs was tanley Geller. The petitioner was teven Engel and four other parents from the earington Elementary chool in the Herricks school district in New York (DeWan).
Bertram B. Daiker argued the cause for respondents. With him on the briefs was Wilford E. Neier. These attorneys…
School Prayer: A Community at War. "Important School Prayer Rulings." 1984 - Equal Access Act. 1999. Log in Productions 2 June 2003. http://www.schoolprayer.com/courts/rulings.html.
Supreme Court of the United States. Engel Et Al. V. Vitale Et Al. 3 June 2003. http://www.nationalcenter.org/cc7252.htm .
Supreme Court of the United States. " Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962) (USSC+)." Syllabus.
If the teacher and the majority of the class were engaged in prayer, that student will undoubtedly be receiving the message that his or her beliefs are inferior and not as important. Schools are the primary institutions of forming social and political identities, and it is for this reason that they must be kept religiously neutral.
Allowing religion into public schools will only increase feelings of separatism and inequality in this country. It is not only Constitutionally forbidden, but it is also ethically and morally prohibited. Whether or not the religion is permitted to directly influence the workings of the class, members of non-dominant religions or who are not at all religious will necessarily feel inferior to the rest of the class. The protection of their rights in the face of other's actions is the primary concern of the Constitution.
I. Freedom of religion is a founding principle.…
God Bless America
(or is it still all right to say that?)
The Limitation of Judeo-Christian Beliefs
by Liberal Interpretations of the Law
In the interests of preserving the civil rights of all Americans, legislation over the past few decades has mandated a conspicuous absence of Christian or Jewish symbols, prayers or teachings from public places: the classroom, the sports arena, the courts, public buildings of all sorts. Yet followers of these faiths make up the majority of Americans. In the wake of the tragedy of September 11, and the previous shocking incidences of student violence at Columbine and other schools, Americans feel the need for increased, rather than decreased, emphasis on religion in the classroom and everywhere their children go. What can be done to protect the rights of these citizens to observe the dictates of their beliefs in their daily walk of life outside of their homes…
Rep. Ernest J. Istook, Jr. (1999). The Religious Freedom Amendment. http://religiousfreedom.house.gov/
Anti-Defamation League Annual Report (1998). Protecting Civil Rights. http://www.adl.org/annual_report/1998
Americans United for Separation of Church and State (1999). Rep. Istook Reintroduces Constitutional Amendment on School Prayer. http://www.au.org/press
Boston, R. (1998, July). Istook Amendment Defeated. Church and State, 51, pg. 8-10
women are better listeners than men.
Women only know women's issues
Men and women are different
How do you prove women are better listeners?
Men can listen too
Most men do not care about listening
Capital punishment is no deterrent to crime.
Public enjoys executions
Crime still exists where death penalty is in effect
Criminals don't think they will be caught
Turns people into martyrs
Death penalty takes too long to impose
Death is always a deterrent
More publicized more deterrent
Do it more quickly, less appeals
Death penalty is historical
Brings about closure
Hard sciences such as math are more difficult than soft sciences like sociology.
Hard science has concrete answers
Hard science uses formulas and numbers
Hard science are less abstract
Hard science is provable
Hard science involves reality
1. Soft sciences…
History Of Theory Behind Curriculum Development
The evolution of curriculum theory by and large reflects the current of thought found in the academic-political landscape. The essence of the ancient maxim cuius regio, eius religio applies here: who reigns, his religion. In this case, who reigns, his curriculum. This has been true throughout all the centuries where education was deemed important by a group of individuals or a State. For example, in the West, the ancient Greeks (most notably Plato and Aristotle) devised a curriculum with the purpose of attaining knowledge and/or achieving "soundness" in the mind. Curricula are ever-tied to an aim -- and the objective of a curriculum may be ascertained by a review of what it contains or what its teachers hope to achieve. Therefore, the evolution of curriculum theory is related to the evolution of individual and societal objectives. Historically speaking, these objectives are manifest in every…
Adrian, J. (1999). Mere or More?: Classical Rhetoric and Today's Classroom.
University of North Carolina SITES, 131: 11-21.
Aquinas, T. (1942). Summa Theologica. [Fathers of the English Dominican Province
Trans.]. Retrieved from http://www.ccel.org/a/aquinas/summa/FP/FP068.html
First Amendment Cases
There are several provisions in the First Amendment to the United States' constitution, all of which have been implemented in various court cases. In Engels v. Vitale, which centered around the legality of a mandated school prayer in New York state, many would perceive the issue as one of a "freedom of religion." More specifically, however, this case involved the First Amendment's clause that, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion," which was applied to state governments by the Fourteenth Amendment. This is known as the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, and is quite distinct from the provision allowing the free exercise of religion.
In Oregon v Smith, it was determined that a state employee could indeed be terminated and denied unemployment benefits for the use of an illegal substance (in this case peyote) even when its use was part of a religious…
One of his more dramatic example was the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960's. To oth those who elieved in the Civil Rights movement and those who opposed the movement, God was frequently invoked. The Civil Rights movement had strong roots in religion, with its leaders and followers often meeting in churches. The movement's most prominent leader, Martin Luther King, was an ordained minister. Meacham descries the famous confrontation at the ridge leading into Selma, Alaama, where Civil Rights marchers were faced with a small army of Alaama State Troopers, who insisted that the marchers had two minutes to "return to their church" (p. 193). The marchers could not move forward, and they could not retreat, so they knelt and egan to pray. The police moved in and viciously eat the praying demonstrators. It was a visual image flashed around the world, and eight days later, President Lyndon Johnson took…
bibliography. Because of this, any reader of the book can check his sources to see if any kind of personal bias has distorted his views. This makes American Gospel a significantly honest look at religion and politics in the United States.
Meacham, Jon. American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the Making of an American Nation. 2006: Random House, New York.
The issue remains debatable, but a case can be made that the mainstream judgment was terribly wrong in a cultural sense" (right 17).
Schools and educational institutes play a vital role in teaching religious traditions and imparting knowledge regarding religion. The most important aspect of teaching religion is to adopt proper method of teaching. Avoiding controversial and extremist point-of-views and including positive elements from religious teachings from various religions could help in developing tolerance in the generation that growing in the era when religious violence is at its peak.
Other School of Thought
The other school of thought makes the case against religion when it comes to controlling violence. They argue that it is the religion that encourages violence simple on the basis of religious differences. People belonging to one religion consider them superior to others. Examples of all major religions including Christianity can be given when these religions induced…
Wright, Elliott a. 'Religion in American Education'. Phi Delta Kappan. 81.1. (1999): 17.
Volf, Miroslav. 'More Religion, Less Violence'. The Christian Century. 119. 8. (April 10, 2002): 32.
Bennett, Gary L 'Preventing School Violence: Is Religion the Answer'. Free Inquiry. 19. 4. (Fall 1999): 28.
Vernon, Glenn M. Sociology of Religion. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.
Religion does not necessarily need to be considered to be something spiritual, as it can also teach people in relation to moral values and about how they can distinguish between good and bad.
A modern school system needs to be fair towards everyone and this can only be made possible by school authorities allowing children to express themselves without restraint. Parents should have the right to decide what their children will learn in school. Religion is generally beneficial for opening people's minds and for preparing them to behave properly in the contemporary society.
1. lanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Perry lanzer's article presents readers with solid arguments regarding to why the teaching of religion in schools must not be regarded as something immoral. Also, the paper brings support to religion and reveals the reasons for which it…
Glanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Wright, Elliot a. (1999). "Religion in American Education." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 81.
Brewster, Karin L. & Cooksey, Elizabeth C. & Guilkey, David K. & Rindfuss, Ronald R. (1998). "The Changing Impact of Religion on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior of Adolescent Women in the United States." Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 60, No. 2.
America a Christian Nation?
During the founding of the new Republic, soon to be the United States of America, the idea of Christianity and the power of God to represent the best will of the people was part of the Founding Fathers' notions. It was inconceivable to them, in fact, to separate the idea of being religious and being political; and the notion of religion was tied with Christianity. The social view of the time was different than it is now, and there was a difference between the cultural heritage of religion and Biblical Christianity. There are examples from both sides of the argument that show America as one founded on the basic principles of Christianity -- the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution being, for their time period, quite egalitarian. In the Declaration of Independence, for instance, there is a clear reference to the "Laws of Nature and of…
S. Congress' prohibition of the practice and the Court's refusal to allow the practice, conflicted with the rights of individuals engaged in such practice. The actions of a religious group which are normally protected under the First Amendment and the laws of states like Utah that might wish to turn a blind eye to the practice were not allowed.
The states claim the social contract has been broken because the U.S. government has infringed upon individuals' liberty to marry more than one person and the states' rights to regulate matters not specifically delineated in the Bill of Rights. However, if this were the case that a state could secede every time the federal government disagreed with a state's definition of individual liberties. Virtually every constitutional dispute in the history of the nation, regarding the Bill of Rights, from abortion, to affirmative action, to gay marriage, to free speech, could justify…
For fundamentalists, law and authority come from God.
This is true not only in formally theocratic societies, like Iran, but can also be seen expressed in the views of fundamentalist U.S. Christians, who have an obsession with having the Ten Commandments displayed outside of secular buildings, advocate school prayer and the need for laws to be justified by Judeo-Christian values.
Female sexuality must be contained; boundaries must be established between men and women.
The female body is an obsession: hence the obsession with women staying home and not working in fundamentalist Christian circles, as well as the extreme control of women by the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Sexual behavior is a major concern of all fundamentalists
Opposing gay marriage, abortion rights, sexual education unite almost all fundamentalist groups.
Fundamentalism and nationalism converge.
"The moral life according to the will of God can only be fully lived in a society of fellow-practitioners…
My erections are at a healthier state from using VolumePills™, as from before to now they are a lot stronger and healthier."
HY THIS IS a FALLACY: This is begging the question because the writer (assuming a real person actually wrote that testimonial) is expecting the reader to accept on faith that this is true, without any way to check its validity. It is also an appeal to ignorance because very few men in the general population have any scientific or medical knowledge about penis enlargement, sperm enhancement, etc.
FALLACY #4 (a): The Ku Klux Klan KKK (on its eb site) asserts that the U.S. should "Abolish all anti-gun laws and encourage every adult to own a weapon." Further, the KKK asserts that, "The cure for crime in America is not take guns off the streets but to put more guns on the streets."
HY THIS IS a FALLACY: This…
All About Penis Enlargement. (2007). Myths Shattered. Truth Revealed. Retrieved August 12, 2007, at http://www.allabout-penis-enlargement.com/semen_pills_testimonials.htm
Atheist Alliance. (2007) Why an Atheist Alliance? Retrieved August 11, 2007, at http://www.atheistalliance.org/aai/index.php#who .
Ku Klux Klan. (2007). Abolish all anti-gun laws/We support a national law against the practice of homosexuality. The Knights Party: Platform. Retrieved August 12, 2007 From: http://www.kkk.bz/program.htm .
Limbaugh, Rush. (2007). Liberalism Has Failed Inner Cities. The Rush Limbaugh Show.
Partisan differences of support and disapproval of our two most recent presidents are quite clear, with the personal popularity of President Bush among Democrats lower than was President Clinton's among Republicans while his impeachment proceedings were under way. The ongoing
Iraqi war is especially indicative, with diametrically opposite opinions on whether the conflict is going well or has improved national security.
In a purely logical sense it would seem that Jimmy Carter's presidency would have been anything but a galvanizing force for America's right-wind Christian conservatives. Ironically, though, that was not the case. For example, Joy Porter examines the ironically ground-breaking, unintended political effects of Jimmy Carter's Presidency, i.e., the impacts (or, as Porter actually argues, a lack of them) of the former President's non-right-wing; relatively liberal Evangelism, on future religiously-based American political discourse. As Porter argues, during Carter's 1976 and 1980 campaigns especially, Carter's faith-based but also distinctly liberal…
The Cold War of the communist and the capitalist countries gay way to spying worldwide, together with the political and military meddling in the inside matters of the poor countries. Some of these developments led to a negative consequence which called for much of the distrust and uncertainty towards the government that came after the cold war. Examples of these outcomes are the serious reaction of the Soviet Union towards the famous uprising against communism, which included the Hungarian evolution of 1965, also the invasion in 1961 of the Cuban Bay of Pigs by the U.S. And the Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968. The lie of Dwight D. Eisenhower, president of the U.S. In 1960, about the extent of the U2 episode led to an even greater distrust amongst the public against the government (Eisenstadt, 1956).
The establishment in the U.S. was disintegrated into political and military framework after…
Bellah, Robert. "New Religious Consciousness and the Crisis of Modernity." In The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles dock and Robert Wuthnow, 1976.
Braungart, Margaret M. And Richard C. Braungart. "The Life-Course Development of Left- and Right-Wing Youth Activist Leaders from the 1960s." Political Psychology, 1990, 11:243-82.
DeMartini, Joseph R. "Social Movement Participation, Political Socialization, Generational Consciousness, and Lasting Effects." 1983, Youth atul Society 15:195-223.
Dunham, Charlotte Chorn, and Vern L. Bengtson, "The Long-Term Effects of Political. Activism on Intergenerational Relations." Youth and Society, 1992, 24:31-51.
Witchcraft in the 16th & 17 Centuries: Response to Literature
At first glance, a logical 21st Century explanation for the "witch craze" (also known as a witch-hunt) during the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe was based largely upon human ignorance. That is to say, the belief that a sub-culture of the general population performed witchcraft (and other magic-related phenomena), and ate the flesh of children, helped the unenlightened explain the unexplainable, and helped the ignorant deal with the darkness. Witchcraft seemingly established a reason that a person had that bad luck and it explained illnesses, and probably it helped explain natural calamities such as tornadoes, seismic catastrophes and sudden killer bolts of lightning or sheets of rain turned into disastrous flooding. Or it could even explain a stillborn child and a puppy with a broken leg. Somebody put a spell on that poor dog. Mysterious events that had no…
Behringer, Wolfgang (1997) Witchcraft Persecutions in Bavaria: Popular magic, religious zealotry and reason of state in early modern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Breslaw, G., Elaine (2000) Witches of the Atlantic World: A Historical Reader & Primary Sourcebook. New York, New York University Press.
Cohn, Norman (1975) Europe's Inner Demons: An Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch-Hunt. New York, Basic Books.
Coudert, Allison P. (1989) The Myth of the Improved Status of Protestant Women: The Case of the Witchcraze. In: Brink, Jean, R., & Coudert, Allison P. ed. The Politics of gender in Early Modern Europe. Kirksville, MO, Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers.
"THERE WAS NO DATE," Owen said. I wanted to cry -- not because I believed a single thing about his stupid "vision," but because it was the first time he had lied to me" (397). In this quotation, Owen's point-of-view about his death and the nature of his relationship with John is revealed. He does not want to tell John the date on the tombstone he envisioned, because he wants to protect John and keep him from worrying about his impending death. This quote shows how selfless Owen's point-of-view regarding his friendship with John is.
"IF KENNEDY CAN RATIONALIZE ADULTERY, WHATELSE CAN HE RATIONALIZE?" Owen asked me…! IF CATHOLICS CAN CONFESS ANYTHING, THEY CAN FORGIVE THEMSELVES ANYTHING, TOO!" (301). This quotation is highly demonstrative of Meany's point-of-view regarding Catholicism, which is contrasted with the Christianity which he inspires within the narrator. Meany continually disparages Catholic practices within the novel, particularly…
Trees take in carbon dioxide (which includes pollution in the air) and give off oxygen so we can all breathe, and so God's plan can be carried through. The teaching of values, morals, and discipline must be part of the program for a Catholic teacher, and also the involvement of parents brings the school, the Church, the children and the families together in a fellowship of learning and praying.
As was mentioned earlier in this section, involving parents in their children's learning activities is a powerful way to keep our faith strong and growing in the context of education and Christianity. This is particularly poignant because on page 9 of the "Our Catholic Schools" one of the major issues facing Catholic education is the "…inadequate home and parish involvement with schools," and we can mitigate this problem by working closely with children to get them inspired enough so they want…
Dall, Mary Doerfler. (2000). Children Discover the Mass. Notre Dame, in: Ave Maria Press.
Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations.
Ontario's Catholic Schools. (2007). Our Catholic Schools 2006-2007 / Summary Report.
Therefore the commerce under analysis is not a mere relation of exchange, but is a relation in which two forces become actively involved. Since it is man who initiates the process then it results that man is free to act as he wishes and not determined in his actions. The fact that this process is initiated in times of hardship demonstrate the fact that will and freedom are not enough in order to find the path towards the truth, freedom and serenity, and that god is needed in order to achieve this goal. If the exchange relationship is the mechanism through which god ad man communicate and unite, then prayer is the instrument which the process needs for its fulfilment.
Prayer is considered to be the active manifestation of religion, its incarnation. That is why the author argues that it is "real religion" as opposed to moral senses (the ethic…
Hegel, G.W.F. Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, trans., E.B. Speirs and J. Burdon Sanderson. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, Ltd., 1895
Renard, J. The Handy Religion Answer Book . Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 2002
Sabatier, a. Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion. New York: George H. Doran Company, 1897
Archbishop of Sydney, Cardinal Pell (2005), admits, "the teaching of religion has become more difficult through the past decades," (p. 4). Because of the various impediments and challenges to maintaining a religious foundation, educators and administrators are working extra hard to deliver a quality curriculum that infuses the young mind with spirituality and devotion to God. The goals of a religious education are clearly outlined by the Archdiocese of Sydney in its curriculum guide. Goals include an enhanced understanding of scripture, the cultivation of faith, and the development of habits such as prayer that foster a religious lifestyle and attitude. The Diocese of Paramatta echoes these same goals. On its website, the Diocese of Paramata ("eligious Education," n.d.) states the definition of religious education as, "more than formal instruction; it is a conscious pathway to the development of the whole person as a model of Christ and permeates all facets…
Archdiocese of Sydney (2005). Religious Education Curriculum. Primary: Year 3 to 6.
Baum, W. (1988). The religious dimension of education in a Catholic school: Guidelines for reflection and renewal. Retrieved online: http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccatheduc/documents/rc_con_ccatheduc_doc_19880407_catholic-school_en.html
Catholic Education Office of Sydney (2013). Religious education. Retrieved online: http://www.ceosyd.catholic.edu.au/Parents/Religion/RE/Pages/Home.aspx
Diocese of Broken Bay (2006). Curriculum. Retrieved online: http://www.cso.brokenbay.catholic.edu.au/learning/curriculum.html
Turning the Tide: Chapter Reviews and Summaries
"the Rising Tide"
In Chapter 1 of Turning the Tide, author Charles Stanley writes about what he considers the main problems of America, namely a lack of civic engagement and religious family values. The first subtitle of the chapter is "The Story of Our Storm." Stanley makes an explicit analogy between the swelling of the ocean from an unexpected storm and the various crises that are occurring in America. Unlike the natural ebbs and flows of the ocean, Stanley states that the difficulties America is currently facing are man-made.
Stanley identifies a wide variety of troubles currently afflicting America, only some of which are explicitly religious in nature. These include the rising bankruptcy and mortgage default rate; the escalating divorce rate; challenges to traditional values; even the rise of actual storms and extreme weather. Stanley also fingers more explicitly religious problems, such as…
New International Version (NIV). Bible Gateway.
< http://www.biblegateway.com/ versions/New-International-Version-NIV-Bible/>
[28 Jan 2013]
Stanley, Charles E. Turning the Tide. Kindle Edition. Howard Books, 2011.
Rather than preaching or even attempting to define what the righteous path is, simply living the righteous path is better and more righteous. Silence, in other words, is a major source of righteousness itself, and the calmness of silence is its own reward.
Perhaps the most direct, simple and yet profound way in which the various elements of Dhammapada's statement can be approached is through Haught's concept of action. Especially prevalent in Western religions, according to Haught, this is the concept that direct action must be used in accordance with and to bring about religious principles and beliefs. Good action, according to Dhammapada's statement, leads to good living, with joy the natural result of righteousness. This has not always been seen as a cycle that reaches completion in this world in the Judeo-Christian religions or in many Eastern traditions, but through re-birth, ascension to heaven in the afterlife, or even…
students coming from secular families, their first introduction to religion comes from an unexpected venue: in the midst of the otherwise innocuous school requirement, the pledge of allegiance. Though by no means a prayer in the typical sense of the word, the pledge (which includes the lines "I pledge allegiance to the flag/of the United States of America/and to the republic for which it stands/one nation, under God" [emphasis mine]) toes the line between acknowledging America's Judeo-Christian history and, in a society that has growing numbers of atheists, agnostics, and polytheists, raising a subject matter that is irrelevant (or possibly even counterproductive) to having a welcoming educational environment.
The chief objection to the presence of theism in schools is not purely an ideological one. Rather, it is the consequential lack of open debate or discussion of the topic that results in theism's strange, duplicitous nature as both a constitutionally unmentionable…
speech of a public institution's faculty member to be protected under the Pickering/Connickline of cases, what criteria must be satisfied? Do these criteria suitably balance the interests of faculty members and the institution in the higher education context?
There are really two key principles that must be satisfied. The first is that the court determines whether the speech in question hinges on a matter of public concern. If it does, the court takes further criteria into consideration such as:
Whether the statement impairs discipline in school or harmony amongst superiors or amongst cookers.
Whether the statement has a negative impact on close working relationships
Whether the speech interferes with the way the operator usually conducts his business,
Yes, these criteria take the interests of faculty members and school into consideration.
Specifically, what was the fatal flaw in the instructor's speech? Was it the profanity itself? Or was it the belittling…
Key Stakeholders Influencing eligious Education
A basic assumption underlying Catholic education in primary schools is that children are already believers, with God and Jesus already familiar figures (yan 1999). Oddly, the Church itself is less a major player in the development of curricula because this underlying belief already exists (or is perceived to exist). Instead, the major stakeholders that influence the development of religious education includes parents, administrators, and more local representatives of the Church rather than the central powers of the Church (yan 1999; Buchanan 2003). In the modern era, educational and Catholic theorists have gained greater influence over the development of curricula, giving basic religious concepts a more prominent place in education and allowing for greater critical investigation with reduced initial assumptions (Buchanan 2003). The role of Jesus in Catholic education has become less doctrinal and more accessible as a way of improving the level of engagement of…
Brisbane Catholic Education. (2003). Religious Education Years 1-10 learning outcomes.
Buchanan, M. (2003). Survey of current writing on trends in Religious Education. Journal of Religious Education 51(4), 22-30.
Moran, G. (?) Understanding religion and being religious.
Ryan, M. (1999). The classroom religion program in Catholic schools: three rival conceptions of curriculum. Journal of Religious Education 47(3), 19-26.
Historical Issues In Modern Education
There are numerous issues seeded in a Greek civilization, rooting down to the contemporary world; for instance Gender Equity, home schooling, Pledge of allegiance, Unions and collective bargaining just to name a few. Each of the issues would be addressed in due course.
Most notably gender bias as practiced by the Greeks is the major parasitical issue in all avenues of education. A study commissioned by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in 1991 claims that girl don't receive as much attention and are not put into challenging situations like complex and abstract questioning, as compared to boys, in an average school (Woodward, 1998). Moreover, countable school books portray "stereotypical" image of women. These books are void of any acknowledgements of the abilities and achievements of women altogether. This has also been hinted by Cahill in the chapter Warrior: how to fight and also…
Reference and Research Book News, August 2005, Kids and Violence, the invisible school experience.
Gender bias in education means treating boys and girls differently at school. (Woodward, 1998)
Ability to Reflect
Social media and instant communication do pose obstacles to reflection and serious thinking because they cultivate an atmosphere of instant gratification and response, whereas reflection, meditation and serious thought require time, effort, and work. There is nothing instantaneous about reflection or spending time thinking about things. Thus, the usage of social media poses a danger for college students who hope to practice serious reflection in their academic journey.
One way students can avoid this pitfall is to cut back on their usage of social media and to adopt/cultivate different habits -- ones that help the student to strengthen his mental muscle. Reading good books is one such way that this can be achieved. Reading books challenges the mind to focus on a single item, a story, a narrative, a plot, an idea, and to engage with it over an extended period of time. The mind learns to…
Haythornthwaite, C. "Strong, Weak, and Latent Ties and the Impact of New
Media." The Information Society: An International Journal, vol. 18, no. 5 (2002): 385-401.
Suler, J. (2004). "The Online Disinhibition Effect." CyberPsychology and Behavior, vol. 7, no. 3 (2004): 321-326.
The ruling stated that, since the moment of silence was for the purpose of advancing religion, it was unconstitutional. This was evidently a case-specific ruling however, and the fact is that the Court has not ruled that this moment of silence may always be unconstitutional. There are multiple court rulings in other jurisdictions that have ruled the moment of silence allowable if it passes the test of not advancing religion.
Can a student say a prayer at a school graduation ceremony? The Supreme Court has not ruled that student-led non-sectarian prayer is not allowed at public school graduation ceremonies.
The question remains open and has been decided on a case-by-case basis. It cannot be encouraged by school officials, and prayers delivered by clergy have been ruled unconstitutional.
However, prayers at public school baccalaureate services are constitutional as long as the ceremony is distinct and separated from the graduation ceremony and…
ADL. (2009). Religion in public schools: Evolution vs. creationism. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Anti-defamation league (ADL): http://www.adl.org/religion_ps_2004/evolution.asp
Boston, R. (2009, November). Prayers, preaching and public schools. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Americans united for separation of church and state: http://www.au.org/media/church-and-state/archives/2009/11/prayers-preaching-public.html
Calefati, J. (2009, January 22). Religion in schools debate heats up. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from U.S. News and World Report: http://www.usnews.com/blogs/on-education/2009/01/22/religion-in-schools-debate-heats-up.html
Facing history and ourselves: Religion. (2009). Retrieved November 16, 2009, from facinghistory.org: http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/facingtoday/43?tid=26&tid_1=2
.. solemnity is impermissible when, in actuality, it constitutes prayer sponsored by the school" and in considering that the school regularly provided student-led prayer, this represents "school sponsorship of a religious message" which is "impermissible because it sends the ancillary message to members of the audience who are non-adherents" of the denomination on which the prayer was based, i.e., Baptist/Evangelical beliefs. Also, since the school was part of a government entity, it was viewed as constitutionally inappropriate for the school to sponsor and support one denomination over another ("Santa Fe Independent," 2007, Internet).
EASONING: Clearly, the U.S. Supreme Court was justified in its final decision in this case which found that the Santa Fe Independent School District did indeed violate the Establishment clause of the First Amendment. The majority based this decision on a previous lawsuit known as Lynch v. Donnelly; thus, the court found that the delivery of a…
Santa Fe Independent School District v. Jane Doe." (2007). FindLaw. Internet. Retrieved at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgibin/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&navby=case&vol=
The Baby Boomer Revival assumed shapes and forms different than the former ones with programs Charismatic movement, the East Timor Indonesian Revivals, the 'Jesus People', the Asbury College Revival; and the Saskatoon Revival representing the spirits of the times in order to woo people to the mission movement and get them interested in the Church. At oen time, the church would have prohibited these charismatic programs and many, indeed, were controversial when they first appeared and still are today. Nonetheless, their impression and effects have been enduring and in a time when traditional programs were falling flat with the church losing members per day, innovative programs were the only ones that succeeded.
What I have learned
Sometimes, dramatic changes -- a shift in perspective and a change of habits -- are necessary for end-goals and objective to be reached.
The Pre-Reformation Revival, 1300-1500
Corruption of the church lowered…
Town of Greece v. Galloway
The Town of Greece County Commission desires to have a clergy-led prayer at the beginning of each meeting and has requested that the managing attorney and legal counsel for the county commission provide her views on the wisdom of opening each monthly meeting with a prayer and whether such prayers are permitted within the realms of the U.S. Constitution. The managing attorney has requested a written analysis of the Supreme Court case Town of Greece v. Galloway.
Facts of the Case
The county commission meetings are similar to the town meetings in the Town of Greece including such as award presentations and ceremonial events at the beginning of the meeting. However, the county commission also has frequent hearings in which citizens speak advocating for certain positions and occasionally experts and citizens given sworn testimony during the meeting. The county is predominantly Christian and Protestant but…
Majority Opinion of Justice Kennedy (2014) Town of Greece, New York Petitioner v. Susan Galloway, et al. 572 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
Dissenting Opinion of Justice Breyer (2014) Town of Greece, New York Petitioner v. Susan Galloway, et al. 572 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
Concurring Opinion of Justice Alito (2014) Town of Greece, New York Petitioner v. Susan Galloway, et al. Supreme Court of the United States. No. 12-696.
Dissenting Opinion of Justice Kagan. (2014) Town of Greece, New York Petitioner v. Susan Galloway, et al. Supreme Court of the United States. No. 12-696.
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…
Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.
Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.
Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
They study the book of Jafaar al-Saadaq. They also believe Ali is the purpose of life and the divine knowledge of the prophet Mohammed, which actually rises him above the Prophet in their eyes. The religion is also very secretive, and they do not publish their texts or share them with other sects.
The Alawites recognize the Five Pillars of Islam, but do not believe that anyone can practice them because no soul is pure enough to practice them. They also do not believe in a back door entrance to heaven.
The evolution of political Islam actually began during the age of Imperialism, when there was widespread corruption and oppression in the Muslim world. The politicization of Islam was a result of Muslim fundamentalists and Islamic revolutionary movements rising up in protest over this treatment, along with protests against corrupt Muslim regimes in the region. These revolutionaries hoped to create…
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…
Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.
Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386
Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192
Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
Can one be funny, and still be sincere? Hendra, although convinced of the wrongness now of adultery, took refuge instead in insincerity. His crime was no longer of passion, although he committed many extramarital sexual transgressions. His main crime was more of a lack of passion or love for God's world, and the good and believable things of God's world. As noted by Abraham Herschel in the book Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity on the subject of prayer, the "beginning of prayer is praise," while in Hendra's humor, the beginning of his wit was subversion and a lack of praise and prayerful attitude towards all things of the world, not simply the bad things. hen Abraham Herschel notes, "the power of worship is song. To worship is to join the cosmos in praising God," Hendra only raised his voice in song to parody, not to express anything positive, only to…
Hendra, Tony. Father Joe. New York: Random House, 2004.
Hershel, Abraham & Susanna. Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity.
Dark Age and the Archaic Age
Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…
To combat subjectivity, he called for interpretation to be subject to church authority, which was the voice of reason. Reardon (1981) echoes this interpretation: "Hooker sets out to refute the puritan contention that in religion holy scripture affords the sole and absolute authority and rule" (p. 280). Hooker shows that the narrow principle of sola scriptura "disregards the larger context of the divine law in creation within which even the scriptural revelation must be placed if we are to understand its proper scope and purpose" (Reardon, 1981, p. 280). Not far from the Reformers, they upheld the idea that the directly inspired written word contains supernatural revelation. There is perhaps less emphasis on preaching and proclamation in the Anglicans than in the Reformers.
hat is the status of the creeds and traditions? In Anglicanism, the Nicene, the Athanasius, and the Apostle's creeds are stressed as true because they are taken…
Aland, K. (Ed.). (2004). Martin Luther's 95 theses. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.
Avis, P. (2007). The identity of Anglicanism: essentials of Anglican ecclesiology. London and New York: T & T. Clark.
Bayer, Oswald. (2008). Martin Luther's theology: a contemporary interpretation (Trans T.H. Trapp). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Beckwith, R.T. (1988). "Anglicanism." In New dictionary of theology (S. B. Ferguson & D.F. Wright, Eds.), pp. 21-23. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
There are exceptions, where legal ramifications are employed and individuals are held to account for their inaction. For most people, including myself the idea that faith is the only solution to medical concerns, and especially emergent ones is unfathomable. Medical care is congruent with faith, as even for the most ardent believer in God if God had not meant for children to be cured of preventable a treatable disease he would not have developed treatments to do so. For the broader population this is a reasonable tenet and most people report taking themselves and their children to a doctor or hospital when they feel it is necessary. It is also clear that modern people are even more involved in their own wellness and may even be able to treat some injuries and illnesses at home, without medical intervention. Furthermore most know when they need to seek care for themselves and…
Barnes L.L. & Sered, S.S. (2005). Religion and Healing in America. New York: Oxford University Press
Hamer, D. (2004).The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired Into our Genes.
Koenig, H.G. (2005). Medicine, Religion, and Health: Where Science and Spirituality Meet. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
Nord, W.A. (1999). Science, Religion and Education. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(1), 28.
Richards, Reverend, former member of the senior staff of the Episcopal Bishop, also expressed concerns regarding Nouwen. Richards questioned whether Nouwen as the "wounded healer" encouraged "a kind of displayed vulnerability and a disincentive to growth that does not serve the priest or the church well."
In the final years of his life, Nouwen, admitted publically that he was a homosexual and "ministered" to others, not out of his strengths, but out of his own wounds.
In the essay, he co-authored with Donald P. McNeill and Douglas a. Morrison, Compassion: A Reflection on Christian Life, Nouwen wrote that compassionate people go directly to those who are suffering most and lives with them there. Compassion, Nouwen stressed, does not comprise a "bending toward the under privileged from a privileged position; & #8230;not a reaching out from on high to those… less fortunate below; & #8230; not a gesture of sympathy…
"About Henri Nouwen." HenriNouwen.org. Available at, ?
Cloud, David. "Henri Nouwen," Available at, http://www.wayoflife.org/files/54e57520d9bdb070befbdd992cbae139-313.html . Internet. Accessed 27 February 2010.
LaNoue, Deirdre. The spiritual legacy of Henri Nouwen. New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. 2000.
Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.
Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…
Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm
Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/femalerabbi.html
The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html
Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm