413 results for “School Shooting”.
The facilitator spoke directly to individuals, as well as the group therefore extrapolating the true meaning behind some of the participant's comments. For the most part, the facilitator kept the personal bias out and asked tailored and appropriate questions.
Surveys and Focus Groups
Focus groups are interesting, yet hard to deal with. On the one hand, they allow the public the chance to speak, thus portraying the abstract symbolism and concentrations that drive the actions of individuals on a daily basis. Yet, on the other hand, findings can often be hard too read or inconclusive based on this high level of abstract concepts that derive from such sessions. The strengths of focus groups rest in the ability to test out certain theories, illustrate the major connections between concepts, and to test how the public reacts to certain concepts (Brophy, 2005). It is a crucial step in understanding very complex and abstract…
Anderson, Don. (2009). Public Policy Praxis: A Case for Understanding Policy and Analysis. 2nd Ed. Pearson Publishing.
Brophy, Joseph F. (2005). Focus groups: You can't afford not to use them. State Bar of Texas. Web. http://www.bishoplondon.com/documents/focus-groups-you-can-not-afford-not-to-use-them_paper.pdf
Cooper, Michael & Sussman, Dalia. (2013). Massacre at school sways public in way earlier shootings didn't. New York Times. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/18/us/poll-shows-school-shooting-sways-views-on-guns.html?_r=0
Huesman, L. Rowell. (2007). The impact of media violence: Scientific theory and research. Journal of Adolescent Health, 4(1), 6-13.
School Shootings by Adults or Juveniles
The increased number of school shooting incidents in America during the last two decades has gained public attention. Authorities are very much concerned regarding how to control these tragic incidents in the schools of different states. These shootings in schools conducted by adults or juveniles; have created an impression that schools are not a safe place for students.
However, in reality the situation is not that dangerous as perceived by public and most of the schools have been greatly successful in keeping their students safe. In contrast, many of the schools do face serious problems due to school shootings; which need to follow the effective evidence-based strategies in order to keep their schools safe and free from violence.
Why will an adult or juvenile bring a weapon to school or open fire on his colleagues and teachers? Are these adults and juveniles angry or have any…
American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force. (2008). Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools? An evidentiary review and recommendations. American Psychologist, 63, 852 -- 862.
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010) Fact Sheet. Understanding School Violence, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
Dinkes, C. And Kelly, W. (2007). Indicators of school crime and safety: Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1994 -- 2000). Uniform crime reports: Crime in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office
School Shootings as a Natural Escalation of Less Lethal, Juvenile Violence
The issue of youth violence is one very much in the news since the Columbine High School shootings and the other incidents of schoolyard violence that have occurred with grisly regularity over the last several years. But while such shooting sprees are perhaps the most striking example of people under the age of 18 intentionally committing violent acts against other people, Columbine and other school shootings are in fact only a very small element of the overall picture of juvenile violence. Indeed, both these school shootings and other, more common acts violence by young people can be seen as merely the natural development of other kinds of less lethal juvenile violence.
Whenever we hear on the news about another crime committed by another juvenile - often a child who seems barely old enough to make their own after-school snacks -- it…
Earls, F.J. (1994, Winter). Violence and today's youth. Future of Children 4 (3): 4-23.
Grisso, T. (1996, June). Society's retributive response to juvenile violence: A developmental perspective. Law and Human Behavior 20 (3): 229-47. http://184.108.40.206/LegisGame/g7/issues/A10.htm http://classic.sacbee.com http://www.ardemgaz.com/prev/jonesboro/aiother29.html http://www.cya.ca.gov/
Kellerman, J. (1999). Savage spawn. New York: Ballantine Books.
Wodarski, J. (1997). Juvenile violence: The high risk factors, current interventions, and implications for social work factors. Journal of Applied Social Sciences 22 (1): 3-14.
Violence in schools is a complex problem whose causes are difficult to pinpoint. Statistics gathered on school violence do not follow the norms of society as a whole. A National Crime Victimization Survey compiled and maintained by the U.S. Department of Justice, shows that overall crime rates in U.S. society have fallen. Simultaneously, school-based studies reveal that many violent behaviors have increased among children and adolescents ("Causes of School Violence").
Public schools reporting violent incidents increased from 71 to 81% over a recent five-year period according to a joint study by the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Justice. Furthermore, that same study found that the percentage of students who reported gang presence at school increased from 21% to 24%. Although no direct connection between gang activity and school violence has been established gang activity in neighborhoods and schools often coincides with increased violence reports.
"Causes of School Violence." Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2011). 1 December 2011.
Dedman, Bill. "10 Myths about School Shootings." MSNBC.com. 10 October 2007. 1 December 2011. < http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15111438/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/t/myths-about-school-shootings/ >
Freydis. "The School Shootings Report." Holology. August 2011. 1 December 2011.
old fairy tale which has been called various things such as "Chicken Little" or "The Sky is Falling, The Sky is Falling" but whatever it is called the moral of the story remains the same: mistaken beliefs repeatedly said do not make the belief true. Throughout the ages, society has had to adjust to situations where scams, rumors, and mistaken beliefs have had to be handled in an appropriate way. The examples where society has not necessarily handled these circumstances are numerous. The Salem witch trials, Hitler's attack on the Jews in Nazi Germany, and even Orson Welles infamous radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds," are all examples of how society reacted irrationally and inappropriately to reports and information. In each of these incidents, the media, in various forms, played a significant role and, as society becomes more media savvy and dependent, media's role and influence has…
Burns, R. And Charles Crawford. (1999). School shootings, the media, and public fear: Ingredients for a moral panic. Crime, Law and Social Change, 147-168.
Cohen, S. (1980). Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers (New Edition). Oxford, UK: Martin Robertson.
Goode, E. And Nachman Ben-Yehuda. (1994). Moral Panics: Culture, Politics, and Social Construction. In E. Goode, Moral Panics (pp. 149-171). Oxford, UK: Blackwells.
Goode, E. (2009). Moral Panics: the social construction of deviance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Improving School Safety Measures to Address the Problem of School Shootings
School shootings are a problem that, unfortunately, is not going away. Every year there seems to be another one, and by now the list is far too long for any civilized society to continue to view itself as civilized. What is at the heart of the problem of school shootings? Is it guns? Is it a lack of school security? Or is it something else? This paper will examine some of the most deadly school shootings before discussing the Uvalde elementary school shooting of 2022. Then it will examine the possible gun control measures and school safety measures that could resolve the problem. It will conclude with a suggestion that American society take a closer look at the mental health of school shooters.
The recent shooting at Robb Elementary School in Uvalde, Texas, left 19 children and two teachers dead. …
Works Cited / Bibliography
Sandy Hook School Shooting
On December 14th, 2012, Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut was the site of a mass murder (Scinto, 2012). Twenty children and six adults were killed by 20-year-old Adam Lanza (Scinto, 2012). Before he drove to the school he shot and killed his mother in their home, and after the shooting took place he committed suicide by shooting himself in the head (Scinto, 2012). He was dead shortly after police arrived on the scene. This particular event was selected because it was an extremely tragic event in U.S. history and the second deadliest mass shooting in American history committed by a single person. The shootings renewed the debate about gun control in the country, and new legislation was proposed because of it. Because of the seriousness and magnitude of the shooting, it is now a part of history and will forever be remembered. While it would…
Apuzzo, M., & Eaton-Robb, P. (2012). Adam Lanza, Newtown gunman, had hundreds of rounds of ammunition. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/16/adam-lanza-newtown-gunman-rounds-of-ammuniiton_n_2313017.html
Scinto, R. (2012). Sandy Hook Elementary: Newtown, Connecticut shooting timeline. The Oakland Press.
Barron, J. (2012). Children were all shot multiple times with a semiautomatic, officials say. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/16/nyregion/gunman-kills-20-children-at-school-in-connecticut-28-dead-in-all.html?pagewanted=all
As a result, both handguns and long guns are available in many states, with more than half of American households owning one or more firearms.
This perpetual access to deadly weapons is the primary reason that completely eliminating school shootings may be impossible. Schoolyard bullying, low self-esteem, dysfunctional families and troubled teens who fantasize about lashing out violently will always be factors in the educational institution environment, despite continual efforts to address them. Access to firearms in combination with these contributing elements is the deadly mix that will likely continue to enable disaffected individuals to act out violent urges that would otherwise be manifested in less serious ways.
Publicity and the Copycat Phenomenon:
One of the well-known disadvantages of ratings-based media sensationalism is that certain individuals will emulate the violence they publicize, which has been documented in more than a few written testimonials of school shooting perpetrators as well as in interviews…
Schwartz, Emma. The Right to Bear Arms; U.S. News & World Report (March 17, 2008) pp. 38-43.
USSS & USDOE (2002) Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates. Washington, DC. Retrieved April 11, 2008 at http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/i/msnbc/Sections/NEWS/PDFs/061002_School_Threat_Assessment.pdf
Should Guns Be Permitted on College Campuses?
The continued spate of school shootings indicates that more needs to be done to help protect people on campuses. While there is always a chorus of voices who proclaim that guns should be banned, the fact that the Constitution guarantees people the right to bear arms is one that has to be acknowledged. Considering that this right is important to many Americans, one solution is that teachers be allowed to carry guns so long as they pass background checks or have military training. This paper will show why guns should be permitted on college campuses, primarily for teachers who undergo thorough background checks or who have military backgrounds.
Arming teachers is not a novel idea or an unheard of one. In fact, as Shah points out, teachers are already being armed in several parts of the country in response to the escalated through of school…
Why Teachers Should Not be Armed
Often in recent years, school shootings have been followed by public, political debates about guns. One of the arguments from the pro-gun side is that teachers should be armed, in order to help prevent school shootings. Their argument is essentially that teachers are in position already, there in the school, and that they will have opportunities to stop a school shooter long before law enforcement can arrive on the scene and do the same. Their arguments, on the surface, do not sound unreasonable, but when examined more carefully, there are issues with these arguments. Arguments both for and against arming teachers have been examined, and the conclusion is that teachers should not be armed.
The Case for Arming Teachers
The case for arming teachers typically rests on the logic that teachers are in position in the schools, and therefore are a de facto first responder in the…
There is a lot of talk about school shootings and how to prevent them—especially in the wake of the most recent shooting in Florida, where 17 individuals lost their lives. Some say that guns should be banned (Ingraham). Others say the age limit should be raised (Epstein, Dopp) and that teachers should be armed (Rucker). Others view gun ownership as an unalienable right protected by the Constitution (Peck). And while guns themselves receive a lot of attention after such incidents, they are not the only factor. Family life, drug usage, and even other elements—such as the inability of federal and local law enforcement agents to act on tips to prevent a situation from worsening (Benner, Mazzei, Goldman; Brown). The fact of the matter is that there are many variables and factors involved in every school shooting, and no two cases are alike—so establishing a plan to prevent them is much…
Parkland, Florida Shooting – Rampant Gun Violence in the Nation’s Schools
What started as a normal day for the teachers and students at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida on February 14, 2018, soon transformed into a scene of grisly mass murders and injuries perpetrated by 19-year-old high school student Nikolas Cruz. Unfortunately, this national tragedy was just another in a seemingly unending series of similar massacres of students and teachers in the nation’s schools in recent years and it galvanized the American public attention to the need for stricter gun control laws. Indeed, even as this paper was being written, two more students were shot to death at Central Michigan University by another 19-year-old, James Eric Davis Jr. who remains at large (Chicago-area teen suspected of fatally shooting two people at Central Michigan University, 2018). To determine the facts about the Parkland shootings, this paper reviews the relevant…
Several areas, if poorly designed, can lead to violent and criminal behavior, including parking lots, isolated spots on campus, locker rooms, and corridors. Often, violent behavior occurs in these areas when adults are not present (Astor, Meyer, and Behre, 1999, p. 3). Designing schools with more open areas, more planned classrooms, and a more defined perimeter can create a safer, less violent campus by creating a more functional and enjoyable educational experience. Thus, older, poorly designed schools often attract more violent behavior.
Location can also be a risk factor in certain schools, although that is not always the case. Another researcher notes, "Some urban schools are located [...] in slum neighborhoods where drug sellers routinely kill one another, as well as innocent bystanders, on the streets surrounding the school" (Toby, 1994, p.169). Children growing up in violence prone neighborhoods such as these may simply accept violence as a way of…
Astor, R.A. Meyer, H.A. And Behre, W.J. (1999). Unowned places and times: Maps and interviews about violence in high schools. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1, 3-42.
Crowe, T.D. (1990). Designing safer schools. School Safety. 43-47.
Jenkins, P.H.(1997). School delinquency and the school social bond. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 34 No. 3, 337-367.
May, D.C. (September 1999). Scared kids, unattached kids, or peer pressure: Why do students carry firearms to school? Youth & Society, Vol. 31 No. 1, 100-127.
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to describe ways terms relating to bullying…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026476147
Beran, T.N., Tutty, L. & Steinrath, G. (2004). An evaluation of a bullying prevention program for elementary schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Vol. 19, Iss. 1/2, p. 99
116 . Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1188387401&Fmt=4&clientId=9269&RQT=30
The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers…
'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: http://blog.tcp.gov.tr/?p=2632 .
"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.
Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
Metal Detectors in Schools
When confronted with a frightening phenomena, people often tend only to look at the symptom, rather than the underlying cause, and in turn they end up making the problem worse, as in the case of installing metal detectors in schools in an attempt to stop violence. Although at first glance installing a metal detector might seem like an obvious choice towards making schools safer, this kind of thinking only makes the problem worse by wasting time and energy on a "solution" that ignores the larger problem, is not actually effective, and harms the very people it is meant to protect. Examining these three faults in greater detail will reveal how the use of metal detectors is born out an ignorant, careless approach to safety that harms the public while making money for a few self-interested parties.
The first problem with using metal detectors in schools is that they…
DeAngelis, K, Brent, B & Ianni, D. (2011). The hidden cost of school security. Journal of Education Finance, 36(3), 312-337.
Hartnett, S. (2008). The annihilating public policies of the prison-industrial complex; or, crime, violence, and punishment in an age of neoliberalism. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 11(3),
Mawson, A, Lapsley, P, Hoffman, A & Guignard, J. (2002). Preventing lethal violence in schools:
The Aurora theater shooting incident is the largest shooting incident in the history of the U.S. in terms of the number of casualties. Perpetrated by one James Eagan Holmes, the 20th July 2017 incident left 12 people dead and 58 people critically injured. Overall, response to the incident was commendable, with the police and fire personnel arriving within five minutes after the shooting. The Aurora Police Department, the Aurora Fire Department, hospital-based emergency departments, and Emergency Management Services (EMS) worked together to manage the crisis. The agencies collaborated in evacuating victims, apprehending the suspect, searching the theater building, providing emergency medical care, transporting victims to hospitals, and assisting families of victims. Nonetheless, similar to other previous incidents, inter-agency coordination and communication difficulties were experienced. These difficulties provide crucial lessons for leadership within the field of emergency management.
Background/Summary of the Incident
The 20th of July 2017 was a sad day for the…
violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. hile the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.
One such recommendation is school uniforms,…
Access Control & Security Systems Integration Facility Systems Staff. "Devising an effective school security plan." Access Control & Security Systems Integration (1 July 2000).
Bowman, Darcia Harris. "Federal Study Stresses Warning Signs of School Violence."
Education Week 21(15)(12 Dec 2001), 12.
Clinton, Bill. "Memorandum on the School Uniforms Manual." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (March 4, 1996), 368-369.
Obama endorsed an Illinois handgun ban while he was serving in the Illinois state legislature and also supports a ban on semi-automatic weapons. However, the current President professed his support for the Second Amendment, stating that he supports restrictions to keep guns out of the wrong hands, not a full prohibition. In Illinois he co-sponsored a 2000 to limit consumer purchases of firearms to one gun per month -- although he also supported 'conceal carry' laws for retired police officers ("Gun control," on the Issues, 2008).
The spike in gun sales has more to do with political posturing than reality: gun owners wish to demonstrate their opposition to Obama's system of values, as conceptualized in the red-blue divide that currently exists in the United States. In this polarized media positioning, Obama represents urban elitism and government control, despite his actual policies. The NRA and the gun industry has used this…
"Gun control." On the issues. 2008. June 5, 2010.
Kinzie, Susan. "GWU adds ethical focus to business school." The Washington Post.
September 15, 2008. June 5, 2010.
Internet: Privacy for High School Students
An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today
In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of privacy, followed…
Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.
Albanes, R., Armitay, O., Fischer, B., & Warner, J. (1998). Marijuana, Juveniles, and the Police: What High-School Students Believe about Detection and Enforcement.
Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(4), 401-20.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
police protection at schools in light of the sniper attacks as well as the school shootings that have occurred over the years. The paper presents a study proposal and a critique of literature about the public's desire and willingness to support police protection being placed in elementary and middle schools on a daily basis. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
One of the things that Americans pride themselves on is the freedom that is afforded by living here. That freedom includes the refusal to become a police state or anything that represents a police state. Currently the nation is at a crossroads however, when it comes to the students in schools. For the last several years students have been shooting students, strangers have been shooting students and most recently the DC sniper has targeted students. Parents are becoming less and less sure of the school's abilities to…
Colavecchio, Shannon (2001). OFFICERS GET SCHOOLING IN PREVENTING CAMPUS VIOLENCE., The Palm Beach Post, pp 1A.
____(1998). HOUSE PASSES MALONEY SCHOOL COPS BILL., States News Service,.
Gold, Maria (2002). Police Presence in Schools Is An Asset, Report Says; Resource Officers Handle Mostly Minor Incidents., The Washington Post, pp T04.
____(2002). MORELLA ANNOUNCES FEDERAL COPS IN SCHOOLS GRANT FOR MONTGOMERY COUNTY., Capitol Hill Press Releases,.
Threat ssessments and Crisis Interventions in the Public Schools
llen, M. & Burt, K. (2002). School counselors' preparation for and participation in crisis intervention. Professional School Counseling, 6(2), 96-101.
uthors cite the increasing number of crisis situations being experienced in the nation's public schools and describe the trauma, cognitive dissonance and loss of a sense of security that can adversely affect all students and teachers who experience these types of events, even when they are resolved safely. While the list of crisis situation types is virtually infinite in public school settings, some of the more common types of crises that have been experienced in the public schools in the past include natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and earthquakes) as well as anthropogenic sources including school shootings, suicide, student or teacher deaths, sexual and physical abuse, and gang-related activities. Fires in the schools may be either natural or manmade. Prioritizing these…
A number of states implemented crisis response planning requirements following the shootings at Colorado's Columbine High School in April 1999. Authors note, though, that notwithstanding the increase in high-profile crisis situations in the nation's public schools such as school shooting, teachers will be more likely to have to respond to crisis situations that involve child abuse and neglect, emotional abuse or bullying on a more frequent basis. Likewise, even events that occur outside the school doors such as the death or injury of a family member, the divorce of parents or an abusive home environment can have an adverse effect on students while they are in school. Finally, for schools that do not already have a crisis intervention plan in place, authors recommend forming a task force to develop one at the earliest opportunity.
Pascopella, A. (2008, January). Threat assessment plans: Every district needs an action plan for averting violence. District Administration, 44(1), 34-37.
Authors cites the ongoing need for assessing threats in the nation's public school districts and recommends that all district administrators secure a copy of the guide to managing threat situations and creating safe school environments published collaboratively by the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Secret Service. In fact, the guide is based on the U.S. Secret Service's plans for protecting the President of the United States from various threats. Although every school district is unique, the types of threats that can occur share some commonalities that make threat assessment an overarching priority. While all public school districts are required to have emergency management plans in place in the event of natural disasters, there is no corresponding requirement for having threat assessment plans in place. Therefore, district administrators must take the lead in creating an organizational culture that places a high priority on threat assessment in order to ensure that all stakeholders are aware of the problem and understand how to respond when threats materialize.
Gun violence in America doesn’t appear to be going anywhere soon, and deadly rampages have seemed to squeeze their way in the experience of American life. What was once a monstrosity and a horror have all becomes episodes that citizens of this country have all resignedly become accustomed to. Many sociologists have noted that a bizarre desensitization has swept over Americans along with a certain helplessness. Perhaps of all the school shootings of the last ten years, none of them have felt as tragic as Sandy Hook. Sandy Hook’s shooter took the lives of over 25 children, all between the ages of six and seven—truly the most innocent lives and an act that would devastate their parents for years to come, perhaps even for the rest of their lives. When acts of violence hurt so many people, many ask what can be done and what should be done. Arming teachers…
Reasonable suspicion -- A carefully considered presumption, based on specific facts and circumstances, that a person is probably involved in criminal activity. efore an officer can act on this level of suspicion, he must have enough knowledge to lead any reasonably cautious person to conclude that a crime has been (or is about to be) committed by the suspect.
The 4th amendment dictates that all people are guaranteed against unreasonable searches or seizures of their person or personal effects. Still though a student has less of this right due to court's giving more leeway to schools in the name of student safety and well-being.
Is this an invasion of the student's privacy?
Student privacy or lack of privacy in school, how much privacy should the students have or need? "The main drawback to locker searches is the loss of privacy that students may feel. A locker is the only place in school that…
American Civil Liberties Union of Utah. (2010). Search and seizure. Retrieved on April 9, 2010
from http://www.acluutah.org/SKYR4.html .
Davis, K, Kelsey, J, Langellier, D, Mapes, M, & Rosenthal, J. (2003) Surveillance in School
Safety vs. Personal Privacy. Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from http://students.ed.uiuc.edu/jkelsey/surveillance/locker.htm
intern in the administration of an inner city school. Learning the "ropes" in terms of what administration staff does in a school environment requires the ability to research, it calls for good listening skills, and the ability to closely observe what skilled, experienced professionals are doing. It also becomes clear from the beginning that asking questions is a vital component of the learning process as an intern.
The underlying value of the internship -- personal experiences and observations: It would not be possible to place a specific value on the experience I had in participating with the administration, but there were lessons and achievements that certainly added value to my resume and to my brain's database of positive school-related experiences.
Overall I was pleased to have a chance to participate as a liaison with parents, and to learn about and participate with the parent educational program. Part of the school vision…
Second mendment to the Constitution of the United States can often be as prevalent and potentially divisive as the First mendment, which covers freedom of speech, freedom of the press and the establishment caused which has come to justify the perceived separation of church and state. While there are practical and common-sense applications for gun ownership and rights, there are some weapons that probably shouldn't be in the hands of normal civilians and some people should not be allowed to own guns period due to things like felonious history, mental health issues and other similar conditions.
There has always been a butting of heads regarding what the Second mendment refers to and what it does not. To be precise, the ratified version of the Bill of Rights that was signed by Thomas Jefferson stated it "a well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the…
A map that shows where concealed carry is allowed and which states allow reciprocity with others.
Washburn, Michael. "Our Favorite Weapon." The New York Times. The New York Times, 28 Jan. 2012. Web. 9 May 2014. .
A profile of prolific gun maker Glock and their ubiquity in the United States gun culture and the homes of owners.
school known as St. Martin de Porras. There were two portions to the case study…a part "A" and a part "B." The two parts were very much a "before" and "after" of a school that was in very rough shape and in every measurable way. This report will have a brief literature view, a methodology section, a study section and an analysis section. The literature review and methodology section are fairly self-explanatory. The study section asks the author of this report to identify the problems, goals and concerns of the stakeholders as well as the problems or critical issues that existed prior to the revolution that later occurred at the school. The analysis section asks the author of this report to compare the findings of the study to the findings in the literature review as well as some identification and analysis of alternative solutions. While some may shy away…
Chiao-Ling, H., Shu Ching, Y. & An-Sing, C. (2015). The relationships among students'
achievement goals, willingness to report academic dishonestly and engaging in academic dishonesty. Social Behavior & Personality: An International
Journal, 43(1), 27-37. doi:10.2224/sbp.2015.43.1.27
Savage-Austin, A., & Honeycutt, A. (2015). Servant leadership: A phenomenological study of practices, experiences, organizational effectiveness and barriers.
shooting of Arizona congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, writers Michael Grunwald and Jay Newton-Small asked an important question: How could Jared Loughner, the shooter, be considered too dangerous to attend community college but not too dangerous to buy a gun? Grunwald and Newton-Small (2011) point out that gun control continues to be a hot topic in the United States, despite the fact that the Arizona shooting occurred after the horrors of Columbine and Virginia Tech. Many people thought the attention to gun control after those mass killings would have resulted in significant changes but that has not happened. There continue to be very strong feelings on both sides of the gun control debate.
Gun control is an important factor in any discussion of school or workplace violence but it is not the only one that deserves our attention. Loughner bought a gun, but so do millions of law-abiding citizens. What happened in…
Grunwald, M., & Newton-Small, J. (2011). Fire away. Time 177 (3), pp. 36-39.
Hauser, C. (2007). Virginia Tech shooting leaves 33 dead. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/us/16cnd-shooting.html
How Virginia Tech notified students of shooting. (2007). The Washington Post online.
What Methods Can Schools in the United States Implement to Prevent Violence in Schools?
Statement of the problem
The recent upswing in high-profile violent incidents in the United States has focused increasing attention on the causes of this public health threat and what types of response are most appropriate. The debate over the most appropriate responses to increased violence in American society has also extended to the nation’s schools. Although it has always been present to some extent, violence has become a major problem in the nation’s schools in recent years (Kelly, 2010; Killam & Roland, 2014). While the potential for enhanced awareness of the problem and improved reporting mechanisms may account for some of the reported increase in school violence in recent years (Blosnich & Bossarte, 2011), the research that follows will clearly show that any level of violence in the schools can be enormously harmful to students and staff alike…
Dawson College shooting occurred on September 13, 2006 at Dawson College located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was reported that the shooter was Kimveer Gill and he shot a total of nineteen people. Out of a total of nineteen people, one person died whereas others were injured. Out of the injuries, a total of eight students were critical and six of the people required surgery. Subsequent to the shootings, the shooter shot him in the head and committed suicide. It was reported that the gunman also had a bullet in the arm which was due to the police when the person was shot. (CBS) The victims that were hurt were treated at the Montreal General Hospital when the shooting occurred.
Pathway to Violence explained.
Before we get in the details of how the shooting unfolded, it is crucial to explain the path to violence as presented by Calhoun and Weston in 2003.…
Buncombe, A. (2006) College Gunman Revealed Obsession with Columbine Killings on Internet . The Independent (London, England), [online] September 15. Available at: http://www.questia.com/library/1P2-2057765/college-gunman-revealed-obsession-with-columbine-killings [Accessed: 8th January 2013].
Canada.com (2012) Who Was Kimveer Gill? (Part 2). [online] Available at: http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/story.html?id=d1933b65-8a0c-454f-bff0-9e072f8918b5 [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
Cbc.ca (2006) Montreal gunman called himself 'angel of death' - Canada - CBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2006/09/14/gunman-shooting.html [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
Cbc.ca (2006) Montreal gunman killed himself: autopsy - Canada - CBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2006/09/14/qc-dawsoninvestigation.html [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels of crime in…
Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610
Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Center for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 2, 2009, at http://www.cjcp.org.za/
mass shooting could have been prevented. The key to knowing what to do in the future is to understand how to recognize signs of mental illness and stability. In this case, the gunman "had been expelled, possibly for behavioral problems." It is clear the school understood that this student had problems. Yet even after the expulsion, the school did not do enough to ensure Goh's mental stability. The issue was not necessarily bullying, as the headline suggests. Students might have been teasing Goh in a good-natured way. After all, a large number of Americans speak English as a second language and it would be odd for someone to get maliciously teased for it. Goh reacted in an extreme way because he was mentally unstable. He had suffered trauma (after the unresolved death of his brother) and had a history of behavioral problems. Students like him need monitoring, counseling and…
"Japan tsunami reconstruction money 'misspent'," (2012). BBC. Oct 31, 2012 Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-20150364
"Oikos University Shooting: Suspect In Deadly Attack Was Upset About Being Teased Over Poor English Skills, Police Say." Huffington Post. April 4, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/03/oikos-university-shooting-teased-english-skills_n_1399680.html
Schools have more esponsibility to Prevent School Violence than ever before
Issues related to school violence have become an increasingly salient issue in modern society. This issue affects schools on many levels. On one level, there rise in the number of tragedies such as mass shootings have increased and these incidents clearly illustrate the need for safer educational environments for children and adolescents. However, there are also more subtle examples of violence that can occur in school environments such as bullying. The evidence that bullying is severe physical and psychological detriment to students has become increasingly clear. Furthermore, technology has also offered new platforms in which violence can occur between students. For example, there have been many cases of online bullying that have occurred on social networks. This analysis will provide a brief overview of different types of violence that can occur in schools as well as a discussion about…
Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2002). Building Comprehensive, Multifaceted, and Integrated Approaches to Address Barriers to Student Learning. . Childhood Education, 261-268.
Beccerra, S., Munoz, F., & Riquelme, E. (2015). School violence and school coexistence management: unresolved challenges. Procedia, 156-163.
Crews, G. (2014). School Violence Perpetrators Speak: An Examination of Perpetrators Views on School Violence Offenses. Jouranl of the Institute of Justice and International Studies, 41-62.
Bernie Goetz is a vigilante that shot 4 black male youths in 1984. The victims asked Goetz for five dollars to play video games and Goetz accepted. He stated he would give them each five dollars and proceeded to shoot all four, leaving one paralyzed for life. Goetz was eventually caught and later went on trial, receiving 1 year of prison and serving eight months. He lost a civil case against him by one of the victims, but failed to pay a 'single penny' after filing for bankruptcy even when the judge stated he had to pay. W
Regarding how society viewed him at the time. There were three camps. The first supported his actions, believing he was in danger of being beaten and robbed. The second believed the victims, thinking they just wanted to panhandle to play video games. The third believed Goetz, but saw his actions as extreme. The…
Essay 2: In what collegiate extracurriculars did you engage? (400 characters)
As Vice President of Phi Kappa Sigma, I co-managed the annual $30k budget, participated in 100+ hours of community service, volunteered for the Rutgers Dance Marathon, raised funds for the Embrace the Kids Foundation, and organized the annual Phi-Esta fundraiser for the Eric Legrand’s Foundation with several other fraternities. I also volunteered for the Leukemia Lymphoma Society.
Essay 3: Did you work for compensation during college during the year or the summer? (300 Word limit)
Yes, every summer I worked full-time. During the summers of my undergraduate career, I worked at Selco Associates, a distribution and warehousing company. There I coordinated with management personnel to provide high quality customer service. I also managed apparel and footwear inventory for major companies and assisted in opening new accounts. This experience helped me to develop communication, organization, and problem-solving skills that I expect to be…
Choice of Schooling
I think it is important to have a choice of schooling especially, as Bill Moyers points out, the nation lurches towards an oligarchy in which the country’s wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few, while decisions are shaped and made by a small handful of powerful elites. If these people control everything, their agenda will very likely inform the type of schooling that is provided to young people. If parents do not want their children to be educated according to the agenda of the oligarchy, they should have the option of providing alternative schooling, such as homeschooling, charter schools, and so on.
I would personally favor homeschooling because I like to be in control of education myself, but having time for it can be difficult if you are already working full time, so charter schools would be another option. Finding a school that is safe where the…
Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools?
The purpose of this 2009 mixed method study by Cecelia Obeng was to ascertain the need for teaching gun safety to students in pre-K to grade 6. Additionally, the researchers hoped to determine who teachers felt were most qualified to teach children about gun safety and to determine if gun safety were to be, taught the most appropriate grade level. In 2005 there were 3,006 firearms related deaths in among children aged 15 and younger. Of these 822 (27%) were children that committed suicide with a gun, 1,972 (66%) were gun related homicides, and 212 (7%) were a result of accidental death related to firearms. Approximately one-third of U.S. homes with children have firearms. esearch indicates that levels of firearm deaths among children are closely related to the availability of guns in the home.
This study was conducted in two counties in a single Midwestern…
Obeng, C. (2010, August). Should schoool safety be taught in schools? Perspectives of teachers. Journal of School Heatlh. Vol. 80, No. 8. 394-398.
The Intolerance of Zero Tolerance
Zero Tolerance Policies in Public Schools
One has only to turn on the television, log onto the Internet, or glance at a newspaper to see that violence is everywhere in our society. The nightly news is dominated by one act of depravity after another: murders, rapes, and violent assaults, among others. Hate crimes send shockwaves through seemingly peaceful communities. A cross is burned in a field, a Jewish cemetery is ransacked, the tombstones broken and covered with swastikas, a gay college student is crucified on a fence, left to die by his homophobic classmates, and a Black man is dragged behind a speeding car. Such horrific incidents seem almost commonplace. Mutual intolerance of one group for another breeds hatred and cruelty. People today appear quick to anger and even quicker to react...violently. Stabbings and shootings and bloody assaults are as frequent as fights on the playground. Young…
Bauder, David. (14 October 1999). The Washington Post.
Fagan, Patrick. (1998). "The Breakdown of the Family: The Consequences for Children and American Society." Issues '98: The Candidate's Briefing Book, 6, 11. The Heritage Foundation.
Garbarino, James, PhD. (January 2001). "Where Do We Point the Finger of Blame?" Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155. The American Medical Association.
Kemp, Dawn; and Center, David. (2000, August) "Troubled Children Grown Up: Antisocial Behavior in Young Criminals." Education and Treatment of Children, 23, 3. Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University, 223-238.
Gun Control Legislation
The availability of and access to firearms which is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution by the Second Amendment has created a multitude of consequences for modern Americans. The impacts of a loosely regulated gun market include the highest per capita rate of gun-related deaths in the world, major metropolitan areas like Detroit and Chicago struggling with unprecedented murder rates, and toddlers routinely finding their parent's weapons and dying after accidental discharge. Several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the U.S. is by far the world's leader in both gun ownership and gun-related fatalities, and in fact, America's rate of 10.2 gun-related deaths per 100,000 citizens is more than double the rate of any other developed nation. The Congress has historically been averse to the passage of restrictive gun control legislation, as a powerful firearm lobby led by the National ifle Association has successfully kept the advances of gun…
Boodman, S.G. (2006, May 16). Gifted and tormented academic stars often bullied -- and more likely to suffer emotionally as a result. The Washington Post, p. F1. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp - dyn/content/article/2006/05/15/AR2006051501103 .html
Cooper, A., & Smith, E.L.U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011).
Homicide trends in the United States, 1980-2008: Annual rates for 2009 and 2010 (NCJ-
236018). Retrieved from Government Printing Office website:
If they face the full extent of the penalties, hopefully those students will find the positive aspects to their experience and help them focus on what in life matters most to them.
If I were in the situation of adjudicating their expulsion hearings, I would likely pose the same questions and present the same information as in the preceding paragraphs. I would make it clear, on the record that these students knew better, but brought the fake guns to school regardless. If I had the power to make the decision, I would expel those students. What does it look like if the students do not get expelled? It looks like all the concern for students and safety in schools, as well as issues of pervasive gun violence in American culture was all for show and insubstantial. It makes it look like zero tolerance policies are just as fake as the…
American Psychological Association. (2008). Are Zero Tolerance Policies Effective in the Schools? American Psychologist, 63(9), 852 -- 862.
Rice, S. (2009). Education for Toleration in an Era of Zero Tolerance School Policies: A Deweyan Analysis. Educational Studies, 45, 556 -- 571.
Teske, JD, S.C. (2011). A Study of Zero Tolerance Policies in Schools: A Multi-Integrated Systems Approach to Improve Outcomes for Adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 24, 88 -- 97.
There must a connection between the teacher and the student beyond the traditional system of work. As stated by Ozer, there are several levels for implementation ranging from class/teacher level to the community level (2006); more precisely, a particular system of teaching must be set in place because preventing school crimes is a complex issue which takes into account both the school environment and the community one.
Research analyses have shown that results in these programs vary. On the one hand, several programs which included the development of a violent prevention curricula registered positive results in the sense that there was a clear reduction in the use of violence in hypothetical conflict situations, "frequency of use of violence in the past thirty days, and frequency of physical fights in the past thirty days" (Scheckner, 2002). More importantly however, the research conducted showed that the conflict resolution programs were more effective…
Gottfredson, D., G. Gottfredson. (2002) "Quality of School-Based Prevention Programs:Results From a National Survey." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. Vol. 39, no. 1.
Ozer, E. (2006) "Contextual Effects in School-Based Violence Prevention Programs: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Review" the Journal of Primary Prevention. Vol. 27, no. 3.
Scheckner, S. (2002) "School violence in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of current interventions." Journal of School Violence.
Sherman, W. et al. (1998) "Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising." U.S. Dept. Of Justice.
The author of this response is asked to answer to five major questions and requirements in this assignment relative to the school shootings and focus group research done within the Clemons and McBeth text. The author is asked to look at the content analysis/problem definition, critique the facilitator, survey/focus group analysis, symbols and metaphors and answer the question of "what's next." The author will do answer to these in the order listed in the assignment.
As for the content analysis and the overall description of the problem, the case study does better than most salacious and over-dramatic media reports about events like Columbine and the like but there is still a tinge of that element present and it's not tamped down at all later on. ather than focus on the root cuases and the best ways to do deal with school shootings and the like (e.g. help parents be better…
Clemons, R.S., & McBeth, M.K. (2009). Public policy praxis: a case approach for understanding policy and analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Pearson / Longman.
validity, and for school administrators Goldstein's points should be discussed and debated. Goldstein suggests that without violating students' privacy rights, instructors / teachers nationwide need to be far more alert to weirdness, aggressiveness, "creepiness," Nazi-related hatefulness, "Fierce racism" and homophobia.
Students that have obsessive video game habits -- with a daily dose of violent games like "Grand Theft Auto" -- are potentially antisocial individuals that need to be watched (hiteman, 2013). There is ample evidence in the literature that impressionable young men and boys that play the most violent video games are living in a violent world of their own (Jaslow, 2013). Those working towards the prevention of homicidal violence in Germany's schools have employed anti-bullying programs and the "Leaking Project," which mirrors what Goldstein proposals; this should be studied by American school leaders (Leuschner, 2011). Also, those troubled students, known to be suffering from depression -- such as the…
Harwood, V. (2011). Connecting the Dots: Threat Assessment, Depression and the Troubled
Student. Curriculum Inquiry, 41(5), 586-593.
Klebold, S. (2009). "I Will Never Know Why." The Oprah Magazine. Retrieved January
24, 2014, from http://www.oprah.com.
Education Literature eview
Whenever the disturbing news of yet another school shooting shatters the adolescence of innocent teenagers, the national media, concerned parents and strained educators alike once again focus their collective attention on the epidemic of bullying which is crippling American schools. In the wake of the Columbine High School massacre which claimed 13 lives and the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings that killed 32 students and faculty, recent tragedies like that which occurred at Sandy Hook elementary bring the consequences of rampant bullying in schools back to the forefront of the national consciousness. Although the loss of life associated with these terrible incidents, and the erosion of self-confidence that results from unchecked bullying, are tragedies that cause society to collectively mourn, it is possible that the diminished safety of our nation's schools has also reduced the ability of modern students to achieve academic excellence. While a causal link between the…
Cuero, K.K., & Crim, C.L. (2008). You Wish It Could Speak for Itself. Issues in Teacher
Education, 17, 117-140. Retrieved from www.eric.edu.gov.
Eipstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, R. (2008). Reducing Behavior
Problems in the Elementary School Classroom. IES Practice Guide. What Works
A study published in 2007 suggested that "The ASCA National Model can help school counselors think proactively about how they can best serve the students in their schools, and it contains ideas and tools for developing comprehensive school counseling programs that use the current best practices in the field" (Dimmit, Carey, 2007, p. 227).This study will attempt to discern whether those standards have been met. If they have not, then perhaps modifications can be made. If they have then the study will have at least verified that the program was successful.
The perception in the 1980's as compared to the 1960's could be said that there were plenty of individuals during that particular time that felt that counselors had little, if anything to do with solving school education problems. Comparing this laisse faire attitude towards counselors then, with the far more intense attitude currently shown towards education in general, and counselors…
ACES-ASCA Committee on the Elementary School Guidance Counselor (1966), Preliminary statement. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 44, 659-661.
American School Counselor Association (2003) the ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs, Professional School Counseling, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 165-169
American School Counselor Association. (2005). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA
ASCA. (2006). School Shooting Resources, American School Counselor Association, Retrieved November 14, 2007: http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=524
The U.S. Supreme Court has supported school cooperation in regards to the establishment of religion. They have done this because they respect the religious nature of people and feel that people should be able to accommodate their spiritual needs (hat are the pros and cons of prayer in school, n.d.)?
On the other side of the debate, those who are against putting prayer back into the public schools often argue that school prayer violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment because it says that the government shall not make laws in regards to the establishment of religion. Due to the fact that public schools are financed by the government, prayer that is led by school officials or included in any school program can be seen as government-established religion. Proponents to school prayer feel that school prayer ignores the division of church and state. Traditionally public schools are thought to…
"Prayer in Public School - Overview of Governing Constitutional Principles." 2003. Viewed 23
June, 2010. < http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/prayer-in-public-school.htm >
"What are the pros and cons of prayer in school?" n.d. Viewed 23 June, 2010, <
PTSD Effects on Mass Shooting SurvivorsIntroductionPost traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among soldiers returning from active duty overseas, where they encountered combat, shelling, intense encounters with the enemy and so on (Thomas et al., 2010). Symptoms of PTSD can range from anger, hostility, and aggression, to depression and suicidal ideation (Jakupcak et al., 2007). While it is understandable that combat veterans might experience PTSD, what is less frequently appreciated is the fact that survivors of mass shootings can also experience PTSD (Cimolai et al., 2021). This is important because PTSD, if undiagnosed and untreated, can wreak havoc on a persons personal and professional life or on a persons development if the individual is still a child when the traumatic event occurs (Bardeen et al., 2013). Moreover, it is also important because mass shooting events have occurred with more frequency in recent years: there was the Las Vegas shooting in…
ReferencesBardeen, J. R., Kumpula, M. J., & Orcutt, H. K. (2013). Emotion regulation difficulties as a prospective predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms following a mass shooting. Journal of anxiety disorders, 27(2), 188-196.Cimolai, V., Schmitz, J., & Sood, A. B. (2021). Effects of mass shootings on the mental health of children and adolescents. Current psychiatry reports, 23(3), 1-10.Kearney, D. J., McDermott, K., Malte, C., Martinez, M., & Simpson, T. L. (2012). Association of participation in a mindfulness program with measures of PTSD, depression and quality of life in a veteran sample. Journal of clinical psychology, 68(1), 101-116.Knight, C. (2013). Indirect trauma: Implications for self-care, supervision, the organization, and the academic institution. The Clinical Supervisor, 32(2), 224-243.Littleton, H., Axsom, D., & Grills-Taquechel, A. E. (2011). Longitudinal evaluation of the relationship between maladaptive trauma coping and distress: Examination following the mass shooting at Virginia Tech. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 24(3), 273-290.Lowe, S. R., & Galea, S. (2017). The mental health consequences of mass shootings. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18(1), 62-82.North, C. S., Smith, E. M., & Spitznagel, E. L. (1997). One-year follow-up of survivors of a mass shooting. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(12), 1696-1702.North, C. S., McCutcheon, V., Spitznagel, E. L., & Smith, E. M. (2002). Three-year follow-up of survivors of a mass shooting episode. Journal of Urban Health, 79(3), 383-391.Thomas, J. L., Wilk, J. E., Riviere, L. A., McGurk, D., Castro, C. A., & Hoge, C. W. (2010). Prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component and National Guard soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq. Archives of general psychiatry, 67(6), 614-623.
Since juvenile records are sealed
during ongoing investigations, the authors used multiple sources from
available national press reports, each of which was identified by more than
one source, to create a list of possible causal factors. Bender,
McLauchlin, & Shubert (2001) then outlined some of the potential causes for
shootings as reported by multiple sources in the media. The data reveal
several conclusions of concern:
1) Even though none of the perpetrators was identified as special
need student, each demonstrated some indicators to peers of quite
serious emotional problems and each demonstrated a low regard for human
2) The perpetrators were usually completely alienated from their
family and friends. Each had "warned" others in advance of the violence
that may occur by talking about killing in some context.
3) Each of the perpetrators was a White male.
4) The perpetrators seemed to have an average or above average
5) The perpetrators seemed to be very deliberate in the violent
actions on the day of the…
The article specifically listed school shootings as one connection! One thing I noticed as I read through results was that animal abuse before the age of ten seems to be a very definite indicator of adult violence. I did not find anything on Los Angeles laws, but I was ready to look at the various cases of random violence.
I searched on this term in all the same places and came up with nothing useful until I added the word "schools." Even then, the results showed far too much. In fact, random violence is far more prevalent than I thought, so my topic narrows again to random school violence. However, these results were very difficult to find. So I tried searching on Columbine and Dawson College in hopes to get more. There is lots written on these, though Dawson is so recent that these are mostly news articles. Most of…
Hoffman, Frank L. 2006. SHOOTING OURSELVES IN THE FOOT
The Sanitizing of Violence in Our Society
PetAbuse. Cruelty Connections. 2006. http://www.pet-abuse.com/pages/abuse_connection.php
Bender, William N.; Shubert, Terresa H.; McLaughlin, Phillip J.
difficult buy a gun, a U.S. citizens amendment 8-10 pages length, double spaced, font 12 times roman. MLA standards 8-12 sources, 12-20 citations.
hy the U.S. should not ban gun control
There is presently much controversy regarding the U.S. And its position concerning gun control. ith recent events such as the Newtown, Connecticut (a mass shooting involving 29 persons shot dead) dominating media devices, the public has become agitated concerning gun laws. The fact that these legislations provided an environment where guns can be used by a series of controversial individuals triggered alarm and influenced the masses to lobby with regard to reform. Even though gun control is especially important when considering conditions in the contemporary U.S., it is also significant for the authorities to acknowledge that guns are an active part of society and that people who meet a series of requirements associated with gun ownership need to have access…
Daily Mail Reporter, "Father of boy killed in Newtown school shooting heckled during legislative hearing as he begs for stricter gun control," Retrieved April 18, 2013, from the Daily Mail Website: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2269910/Parents-children-slain-Newtown-school-shooting-beg-legislators-stricter-gun-control.html
Gerber, Larry, "The Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms," (The Rosen Publishing Group, 15.01.2011)
Gould, Andrew R. "The Hidden Second Amendment Framework within District of Columbia V. Heller," Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 5
Hatt, Kyle, "Gun-Shy Originalism: The Second Amendment's Original Purpose in District of Columbia V. Heller," Suffolk University Law Review, Vol. 44, No. 2
ADR -- Facilitating Conflict Between Children: Peer (School) mediation programs
Perspective of Media Source: CNN
Before the shootings at Columbine High School, many parents simply thought of childhood and adolescent bullying as simply a rite of passage, a natural part of growing up, rather than something to be alarmed at. However, according to the popular online media source, CNN.com, an informational news website, President Clinton echoed teachers and therapists that although "we don't know all the facts about what happened in Littleton, but one of the things that have come out of this that's really made an impression on me is that the young men who were involved in this horrible act apparently felt that they were subject to ridicule and ostracism and they were kind of social outcasts at the school. But their reaction to it was to find someone else to look down on." (CNN.com, 1999)
The media source stresses mediation…
CNN.com. (April 22, 1999) "Clinton addressses school shooting." Retrived on October 2, 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/04/22/clinton.shooting/index.html
'Evaluation of the first 3 years of the fast track prevention trial with children at high risk for adolescent conduct problems." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Feb, 2002. Retrived on October 2, 2004 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0902/is_1_30/ai_84341829/pg_4
causes of teen violence, "Missing the Mark" by Jackson Katz and Sur Jhally, and "Stop Blaming Kids and TV" by Mike Males. Katz and Jhally argue that teen violence is a male-centric occurrence caused by socialization that promotes violent masculinity. Males provide a gender-neutral view of teen violence that he believes is caused by parents who engage in domestic violence.
Because of the obvious differences in these theories, it's tempting to try to advocate one premises over the other, but further thought shows that these two theories are complimentary because the family plays such a large part in the male socialization process.
Both articles deal with the subject of teenage violence and avoid placing blame on teens for their troubled behavior. Instead, these articles present the idea of imitation as a cause of teen violence, but they differ on who the kids are imitating. Males states that teens are copying the…
By providing more time for children to be in school, the program takes away dangerous time that students will be on the streets making negative alliances. Additionally, by increasing home-school interactions and providing greater access to teachers, the program may offset some of the negative conditions caused by single parent homes.
Because studies have suggested that juvenile alliances and socioeconomic status, as well as other social conditions, are some of the causes for juvenile delinquency, addressing those causes has become an important method to avoiding juvenile offenders, victims, and witnesses of violent crimes. ith schools being a major part of children's lives during childhood and adolescence, teachers and administrators, with programs like KIPP, must take on the burden of preventing or counterbalancing these social conditions that lead to juvenile delinquency. Although the process of doing so may seem difficult to teachers who have been educated primarily in instructing and only…
Abdul-Adil, Jaleel. K. And Farmer, David Alan. "Inner-City African-American Parental
Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting Beyond Urban Legends of Apathy." (NEED to PROVIDE REST of CITATION. WAS NOT PROVIDED to RESEARCHER.)
Boehnke, Klaus and Bergs-Winkles, Dagmar. "Juvenile Delinquency Under the Conditions of Rapid Social Change." Sociological Forum. 17.1 (2002): 57-79.
Bowling for Columbine. Michael Moore. DVD. a-Film. 2002.
Zero Tolerance Policies in America's Public School System: Beneficial or Another Hassle?
My reason for selecting zero tolerance as my subject matter is a direct correlation to my experiences in the public school system. Having transferred from a small parochial school where the rules were clear, the nuns were ever present, and to commit a school related infraction was to commit a sin, I was used to a certain level of order. Who wanted to have to go to confession with Father John and admit to some wrongdoing? Even though I was not Catholic, I certainly didn't want to have a one-on-one with Father John. When I transferred to the public school for my high school years, it was like night and day. There was no longer the governance of faith and the fear of sinful implication that guided the behavior of the student body. Even then, the sort of things…
American Psychological Association ZeroTolerance Task Force. "Are Zero
Tolerance Policies Effective in the Schools? An Evidentiary Review and Recommendations." American Psychologist 63.9 (2008): 852 -- 62. Print.
"Archives." Zero Intelligence. n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2011.
Browne-Dianis, Judith. "Stepping Back from Zero Tolerance." Educational Leadership
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent games does…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
Laws & regulations not adequate enough:
egistration & Licensing
National ifle Association (NA):
Sandy Hook and Colorado:
No need for assault rifles:
Government and Private protection:
Political and Social pressure:
Counter Argument & ebuttal:
Public will not be able to protect itself:
Hand guns and law enforcement enough for public protection:
The possession of guns is considered as a matter of tradition and heritage of the society. However the usage of automatic guns in violent crimes has initiated a concern for society to urge government for imposition of strict gun control laws. The previous laws should be changed to restrict automatic rifles possession and sales. The high powered weapons should also avoided by the public to evade unnecessary violence. United States is country that allowed its citizen to possess fire arms for their protection. The rights to keep guns are also protected under the federal constitution. The guns kept by citizens…
Bright, J.C. (2010). Violent Felonies under the Residual Clause of the Armed Career Criminal Act: Whether Carrying a Concealed Handgun without a Permit Should is considered a Violent Felony. Duq. L. Rev., 48, 601.
Carter, G.L. (2006). Gun control in the United States: A reference handbook. USA: Abc-clio, LLC.
Cook, P.J., Ludwig, J., Venkatesh, S., & Braga, A.A. (2007). Underground Gun Markets*. The Economic Journal, 117(524), F588-F618.
Kellner, D. (2008). Guys and guns amok: Domestic terrorism and school shootings from the Oklahoma City bombing to the Virginia Tech massacre. USA: Paradigm Pub.
Mental Illness and Crime
Virginia Tech is a prestigious private university on the east coast of America that might forever be associated with the skewed actions of one man. Seung-Hui Cho was a fourth year student at Virginia Tech and was responsible for the deadliest rampage this university has ever seen. Born in South Korea in 1984, it was eight years later that Cho received permanent residency in the United States. In the wake of such extreme violence and tragedy, people can't help but ask themselves if something could have been done instead to prevent this act of violence or if these actions could have been predicted in some manner. This is particularly true given the fact that Cho was ordered by a judge to receive mental health care in 2005. This paper will take a look at the relationship between mental illness and serious crimes.
• How often are mentally ill…
Apa.org, (2014, April 21) "Mental Illness Not Usually Linked to Crime, Research Finds."
Retrieved from: apa.org, http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2014/04/mental-illness-crime.aspx
" (in Carr, 2005) Violation of privacy issues is a concern and Epstein (2002) makes the suggestion that incoming students be asked to sign a release enabling administrators to initiate actions should their behavior cause concern or seem erratic.
The work of anyard (2008) entitled: "Measurement and correlates of prosocial bystander behavior: The case of interpersonal violence" reports a study that examined the effects of gender and specific personality characteristics on bystander attitudes and behaviors. Findings of the study are stated to have been "…consistent with previous findings in that prosocial behaviors were higher among individuals with greater knowledge of sexual violence. Those who perceived higher effectiveness as a bystander were more willing to practice prosocial behaviors, and reported a greater number of actual behaviors." (anyard, 2008)
The work of Alan D. erkowitz entitled: "The Social Norms Approach to Violence Prevention" states that social norms research "…suggests that most males are mistaken…
Bibliography. Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Online available at: www.edc.org/hec/socialnorms/.
Berkowitz, a (2003B). Applications of Social Norms Theory to Other Health and Social Justice Issues. Chapter 16 in HW Perkins (Ed). The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, Clinicians, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass
Fabiano, P, Perkins, HW, Berkowitz, a, J Linkenbach & C. Stark. (2003) Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence Against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach. Journal of American College Health, 52(3):105-111.
Gottfried, MGS (2002). Perceptions of Others' Masculinity Beliefs: Conforming to a False Norm? Presented at the 110th Conference of the American Psychological Association, August 22-25, Chicago. Kilmartin, CT, Conway, a, Friedberg, a, McQuiod, T, Tschan, P & Norbet, T. (1999) Using the Social Norms Model to Encourage Male College Students to Challenge Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Male Peers. Paper Presented at the Virginia Psychological Association Spring Conference, Virginia Beach, VA.
Perkins, HW. (2003). The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, Clinicians, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
HR Plan: Philips Academy Andover
The Human Resources (HR) department of any organization is the spine of the entity. This is where the integrity of the company needs to reside, and where the team members can be protected from potential abuses of power. Abuses of power are more common than most people care to admit, and are one of the reasons that HR was born in the first place. As history has demonstrated without a doubt, where there are human beings there will always be abuses of power, as power as the tendency to corrupt others. However, aside from the corruption of authority, the HR department is there to make sure that members of the team are getting their needs meet and are being protected as they build their careers. This plan will imitate the mentality of many other companies and have the HR department view the employees as important as…
If these perspectives can be successfully reinforced with programming such as F wrestling, are already aligned with violent behavior (McLellan, 2002). The television shows are reinforcing their need to reinforce and actualize this world view and mind set. These perspectives, if the children who play video games for hours every day could also be seeking out those video games in an attempt to actualize their violent thoughts and feelings. Demographics evidence would also agree with this statement, since those who are not at a high risk to commit violent crimes are likely not seeking out the violent television programming and video games.
Attention Deficit Disorder and Television
Some studies show a strong correlation between the amount of television a child watches and the likelihood that they will suffer from ADD later in life (Schmidt and Vandewater, 2008). Other studies show no correlation between them at all. Television has the unique ability…
Dudley, William. "Media Violence Causes Youth Violence. "Opposing Viewpoints: Mass Media. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. CUNY - Central Office. 1 Dec. 2009.
Jensen, Elizabeth. "Study Finds Test Scores Not Lowered By Television. " The New York Times. (Feb 27, 2006): C6(L). New York State Newspapers. Gale. CUNY - Central Office. 4 Dec. 2009.
McLellan, Faith. The Lancet. London: Feb 9, 2002. Vol. 359, Iss. 9305, p. 502 (1 pp.)
Schmidt, Marie Evans, and Vandewater, Elizabeth A. "Media and Attention, Cognition, and School Achievement." Future of Children. Spring 2008. Vol. 18, Iss.1. (2008).
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Education - Social Issues
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Medical / Medicine
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Law - Constitutional Law
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Education Literature eview Whenever the disturbing news of yet another school shooting shatters the adolescence of innocent teenagers, the national media, concerned parents and strained educators alike once again focus…Read Full Paper ❯
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Mythology - Religion
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The article specifically listed school shootings as one connection! One thing I noticed as I read through results was that animal abuse before the age of ten seems…Read Full Paper ❯
Law - Constitutional Law
difficult buy a gun, a U.S. citizens amendment 8-10 pages length, double spaced, font 12 times roman. MLA standards 8-12 sources, 12-20 citations. hy the U.S. should not ban…Read Full Paper ❯
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causes of teen violence, "Missing the Mark" by Jackson Katz and Sur Jhally, and "Stop Blaming Kids and TV" by Mike Males. Katz and Jhally argue that teen…Read Full Paper ❯
By providing more time for children to be in school, the program takes away dangerous time that students will be on the streets making negative alliances. Additionally, by…Read Full Paper ❯
Zero-Tolerance Zero Tolerance Policies in America's Public School System: Beneficial or Another Hassle? Motivation My reason for selecting zero tolerance as my subject matter is a direct correlation to my experiences in…Read Full Paper ❯
Computer Games esearch When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there…Read Full Paper ❯
Law - Constitutional Law
Gun Control Laws & regulations not adequate enough: Constitutional ight: egistration & Licensing Background Checks: Federal egistration: Lobbying: National ifle Association (NA): Politicians: Gun violence: Gun crimes: Massacres: Sandy Hook and Colorado: Black Market: No need for assault rifles: Government and Private protection: Hunting Laws: Political…Read Full Paper ❯
Mental Illness and Crime Virginia Tech is a prestigious private university on the east coast of America that might forever be associated with the skewed actions of one man. Seung-Hui…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
" (in Carr, 2005) Violation of privacy issues is a concern and Epstein (2002) makes the suggestion that incoming students be asked to sign a release enabling administrators to…Read Full Paper ❯
HR Plan: Philips Academy Andover Introduction The Human Resources (HR) department of any organization is the spine of the entity. This is where the integrity of the company needs to reside,…Read Full Paper ❯
If these perspectives can be successfully reinforced with programming such as F wrestling, are already aligned with violent behavior (McLellan, 2002). The television shows are reinforcing their need…Read Full Paper ❯