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Class Size vs. School Vouchers on the Achievement of Minority Students
The continuous achievement gap between African-American students and their white peers is a major problem in American education. The gap in fourth-grade reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) diminished in the 1970s, but since the early 1980s it has remained unchanged.
Evidence from many studies suggests that African-American students may benefit more than other students from improvement in educational quality. For example, class size effects have been greatest for African-American children.
This paper focuses on the effects of two programs -- voucher program and programs that reduce class size -- on the achievement of African-American children, and relative studies on both minority and non-minority students. Evidence for effects of both programs is presented. In many studies in many locations, both voucher programs class size reduction has been found to significantly increase student performance. The policy…
Krueger, A. And Whitman, D. (March, 2001). Would Smaller Classes Help Close the Black-White Achievement G. Industrial Relations.
Krueger, A. And Whitmore, D. (April, 1999). The effect of attending a small class in the early grades on college attendance plans.
McGarvey, J. (2001). Vouchers Vs. Small Class Size: Comparing Effects, Costs, and Public Support. American Federation of Teachers.
Metcalf, K. (January 15, 2004). Study: voucher students perform same as public school peers. Washington Update.
Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.
Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…
CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.
Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.
Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.
Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
These issues of professionalism and innovation seem to be a major problem in many public schools in America. In recent years these issues have come to light as teachers have been disciplined and even fired for their interactions with students that have been unprofessional and even criminal at times. Teachers have an ethical responsibility to act professionally and when they fell to do so the ability of students to excel academically is also compromised.
The aforementioned authors also mention the lack of innovation that often occurs as a result of using democratic methods. One of the reasons why school choice is even an issue is because the curriculums that have been implemented in public schools lack variety. Part of the reason for this lack of innovation has to do with bureaucracy and government mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act. This particular act stifles innovation because many teachers…
Cullen, J.B. Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt (2005) The impact of school choice on student outcomes: an analysis of the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of Public Economics. 89 (5-6):729-760
Hastings, Justine S. Thomas J. Kane Douglas Staiger (2005) Parental Preferences and School Competition: Evidence from a Public School Choice Program .Yale Economic Applications and Policy Discussion Paper No. 10
Moe, Terry. 2001. Schools, Vouchers and the American Public. Washington: Brookings Institution Press
Sikkink, D., Emerson M.O. (2008) School choice and racial segregation in U.S. schools: The role of parents' education. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(2): 267-293
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Perhaps the biggest debate of public education over the past decade besides school vouchers has been the debate over whether or not it is legal to require students to wear a uniform to school. Increased crime, gang violence, poor academic performance in public schools has sparked the movement towards mandatory school uniforms. hile school uniforms may seem the perfect solution to the problem, to some its as good as putting a band-aid on a three-inch deep wound. There are many arguments for and against school uniforms in public schools; the main concern has to do with the legality of making uniforms compulsory for public school students. The focus of this paper will be to discuss the issues presented by those both for and against school uniforms. Additionally, the legality of such a policy if implemented will also be presented. Finally, facts and figures on those schools that have…
Brunsma, David and Kerry A. Rockquemore. "The Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement." 92(1): 53-62. The Journal of Educational Research (1998).
Court Orders School to Enroll Honors Student Who Protested Mandatory Uniform Policy. Retrieved on November 17, 2002 from web site http://www.aclu.org/StudentsRights/StudentsRights.cfm?ID=8077&c=156
Emert Suggests Mandatory School Uniforms. Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from web site http://www.morningsun.net/stories/092099/kan_0920990017.shtml
Holmquist, Micah. "Uniformed Public Schools." Retrieved on November 15, 2002 from web site http://www.stormpages.com/micahth/youth/su.html
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
Her point is to get support for her views, and she did, because three months after she wrote this piece there was a rally at the State Capitol in Austin where 5,000 people called for school choice in front of the Capitol building. Therefore, her words helped people make up their minds and seek action from their legislators. However, she failed to convince the legislators, who did not even address school choice during the 2007 legislative session (Editors). Either this means that the legislators are not listening to the will of the people, or that her rhetoric failed to gain their support.
The media has certainly picked up this issue, and it is an issue all around the country, not just in Texas. The Milwaukee school district has had a voucher system like this for over sixteen years, and it has proven to be a money saving plan for taxpayers,…
Editors. "School Choice Legislation." CEOAustin.org. 2008. 4 May 2009.
Storey, Jamie. "The Dropout Drain: How Dropouts -- Not School Choice -- Take Money From Public Schools." Texas Public Policy Foundation. 2007. 4 May 2009.
School Finance: Its Economics and Politics
School financing in America
Revenue sources for federal and state governments
Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality
School-based decision making
Family choice of schooling
Reform of schooling-finance
Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…
Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)
Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.
Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)
National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
Schools operating in rich areas will ask more than the basic voucher price, while schools operating in the most difficult circumstances, dealing with socially excluded groups will be restricted to the basic voucher amount. Funds should be targeted to schools that need them, not schools who are already succeeding.
Another disadvantage is that education cannot be a market. Supply cannot adjust fast enough to changing demand so some pupils will always end up stuck in dying, under-funded schools because over-subscribed schools cannot expand fast enough.
The major drawback of a voucher system is that by funding non-government schools on the same basis as state schools, it makes them vulnerable to the same level of government regulation. The success and popularity of non-government schools is arguably due to their greater autonomy and independence.
Backingham, J. (n.d). The Case for School Choice and How to Fund it. etrieved May 5, 2005,…
Backingham, J. (n.d). The Case for School Choice and How to Fund it. Retrieved May 5, 2005, from Policy Web site: http://www.cis.org.au/policy/Spring01/PolicySpring01_4.html
Monroe, S. (2005). Education Vouchers. Retrieved May 5, 2005, from IDEA
Web site: http://www.debatabase.org/details.asp?topicID=180 choice for Public Education Reform. (n.d). Retrieved May 5, 2005, from Uh.edu Web site: http://www.uh.edu/~lnielsen/pdf_files/mkted2.pdf
Private vs. Public Schools
Many parents find themselves caught in a dilemma when trying to decide on which choice of education to take for their children. They ask themselves whether to take their children to private schools or public schools. For a parent to choose the ideal school for their children they always have to take into consideration all the available options. They consider things like the cost of the school, how much time they will invest as a parent, the social impact that the school have on their children based on the specific need of their children as well as the family.
Private schools offer the best option for the parent who is in need of better and quality education for their children. Private schools have a nearly perfect graduation rates which market them a great deal. Their performance is better as compared to the public schools. This is…
Mary Elizabeth, (2012). "Public Schools vs. Private Schools."Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.educationbug.org/a/public-schools-vs . -- private-schools.html
Parents For Better Education America (2011). "What Every Parent Should Know About Private Schools vs. Public Schools," ASIN: B004R9QKL8. Binding: Kindle Edition. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://education.mitrasites.com/public-education-vs.-private-education.html
The Council for American Private Education. (2010). Private School Facts. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/facts.html
The Council for American Private Education. (2003). Academic Performance 2003. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/Outlook/Out9-03.html#Story5
Educational Vouchers: Multiple Issues and Contradictory esults
The Merriman-Webster online dictionary offers three definitions for "voucher": "...a documentary record of a business transaction; a written affidavit or authorization; a form or check indicating a credit against future purchases or expenditures." None of the three even approaches the emotionally charged version of the term "voucher" when it comes to the current debate swirling around public vs. private schools. This paper digs into the "vouchers" - or "scholarships," or "subsidies," if you prefer - provided to families in several cities and states, to move their children from less desirable, academically troubled public schools to more desirable, for-profit private, mainly religious schools.
Long before there was any discussion about vouchers, Horace Mann of Massachusetts - the "Father of American public school education" - was in the vanguard of the movement (1837) to solidify support for quality public education, excellence in teacher training, and…
ABC News (June 27, 2002). [Online] "Divided Court: Voucher Program Victory http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/scotus_vouchers020627.html .
American Federation of Teachers (2002). [Online] "Report Reveals Right-Wing Backers of BAEO" "Milwaukee Vouchers Cost Twice the Tuition Amount Charged Non-Voucher Students http://www.aft.org/research/vouchers/ .
Friedman Foundation (2002). [Online] "School Choice Works http://www.friedmanfoundation.org/schoolchoiceworks/schoolchoiceresearch.html.
Greene, Jay P. (2002). [Online] "Vouchers in Charlotte" Education Next Magazine http://www.educationnext.org/20012/46greene.html .
Public School Funding
ith reports on the lower standardized test scores among the nation's students, policy makers are once again turning their attention to the issue of education reform. For many educators, one of the culprits behind this is not only the dearth of money spent on public education. Rather, the available funding is disbursed unequally, benefiting the already more affluent school districts.
This paper examines the inequity that exists in funding public school education.
The first part of this paper looks at examples of this unequal funding throughout the country. The next part of the paper then looks at the various reasons for these disparities, from the government level to the lack of public support.
In the conclusion, this paper argues that there remains a strong need to increase public support for education funding, and to re-work the current formula used by states to determine how school funds are…
Brooks, Charles. 2002. "Poor and minority districts get thousands less per student." New York Amsterdam News. August 15.
Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips. 1998. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
McDermott, Kathryn. 1999. Controlling Public Education: Localism vs. Equity. Lawrenc: University Press of Kansas.
Reed, Douglas. 2001. "Not in My Schoolyard: Localism and Public Opposition to Funding Schools Equally." Social Science Quarterly. March.
With 6,153,000 covered under the IDEA, schools are eligible to receive $18.01 billion federal funds. Regrettably, schools are just receiving a paltry $7.5 billon. (National Education Association: IDEA Funding Coalition Offers Proposal -Plan would make funding mandatory)
To look at it in another way schools are at present receiving just approximately 17% rather than the federal commitment of 40% of APPE. Even though that is a considerable amount, schools will make expenditure in excess of $102 billion on those students. Apart from that, there are additional components within IDEA that are financed individually and cater extra purposes. There are many ways by which federal shortfall hurts the school districts. Whereas a lot of interest has been generated to mounting federal expenses meant for special education since previous few years, new federal funding has not kept pace with the mounting costs at the regional levels. Indeed, special education costs meant for…
recruitment problem for my school is predominantly the poverty levels that are quite high hence making many children not to be able to attend school. With the voucher system, there has been an upsurge of application for recruitments so as to take advantage of the benefits that come with the voucher. This then presents a new problem of overpopulating the school such that the teacher-student ratio will not be manageable.
The main aim of the school now is to ensure that the enrolment rates go higher and that more students get the chance to join high school to get education. The school is also focused on ensuring the voucher system works out to the benefit of the students and that the system attracts the maximum possible number of students to the school. The quality of education is also another fundamental consideration in light of the fact that the middle class…
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
As a result, private schools will teach above and beyond the minimum state standards. Where, students will learn the basic subjects and then specialized skills that they can use later on in life. (Messerli, 2009)
The school vouchers program has its fair share of drawbacks the most notable would include: they are a violation of the separation of church and state. ecause the majority of private schools are religious orientated, means that any kind of public funding that is used in these schools is a violation of this principal. This affects the overall education that students are receiving, because of the increased amounts of influence that religion will play in their education. (Messerli, 2009)
A second criticism that many opponents make about the school voucher program is: there is a lack of regulation for these types of schools. The public school system is highly regulated; this means that all standards…
Messerli, J. (2009, May 24). Should Government Vouchers Be Given to Pay for Private Schools. Retrieved March 13,
2010 from Balanced Politics website: http://www.balancedpolitics.org/school_vouchers.htm
Hernando County and NCLB: Mandate for Drastic Change
The Hon. Ginny Brown-Waite
North Main Street
Hernando County's Current NCLB Situation
The Hernando County Situation in a Larger Context
National Commentary on NCLB
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) eport -District Level, Hernando
1004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) eport, Hernando
FCAT Grades and AYP Status, Hernando County Schools
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act has stamped modern American education with the mark of mediocrity. In mandating that all school districts in the nation live up to a set of standards or lose important Title 1 funding for their disadvantaged schools, and by imposing sanctions that are draconian in their effects, the federal government is imposing the will of Congress on the choices of parents. In addition, the dissonant requirement that states set their own standards creates disparity of a magnitude unimaginable before the federal government decided to intrude into this…
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report-District Level, Hernando. Retrieved June 18, 2004, from Florida Department of Education Web site: http://web.fldoe.org/NCLB/default.cfm
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report. Retrieved June 18, 2004 from Florida Department of Education Web site: http://web.fldoe.org/NCLB/default.cfm?action=report2&level=District&district=27 tough law deserves tough questions; Four Maryland elementary teachers examine the new "No Child Left Behind Act" and tell NEA Today exactly what they think. (April 2002) NEA Today, 20 (7), p. 14+. Retrieved June 18, 2004: www.questia.com.
Bacon, Deborah. (June 15, 2004) Seven county schools win A grades. Hernando Today. Retrieved June 18, 2004:
Bob Herbert believes America social, economic political issues require discussion change. Select issues Herbert discusses, essay 500 words, explain issue discuss agree diagree Herbert America handle issue.
In his essay "A Fire in the Basement," Bob Herbert talks about his frustrations with the state of the country today. He illuminates particularly that "public schools [are] swarming with students but starved of books and supplies" (qtd. In Graff, Birkenstein, and Durst 396). Herbert's assertion that public education in America is in trouble is correct: The resources are too taxed, the school systems too apathetic, and the students lack motivation. The best way to solve this problem is to take a closer look at how schooling is structured and make drastic reforms both on a commercial and philosophical level.
As it stands now, public education, with all of its downfalls, is still prized by Americans. In a 1999 poll, "more than 70%…
Freeman, Robert. "Competing Models for Public Education: Which Model Is
Best?" Our Schools, Our Selves Summer 2005: 38. Questia. Web. 22 Mar. 2011.
Graff, Gerald, Cathy Birkenstein, and Russel K. Durst. "They Say/I Say": The
Moves that Matter in Academic Writing: with Readings. New York: W.W. Norton, 2009.
American nation today is that of its failing school systems. It is a favorite rhetorical trope of politicians that education is an investment in our nation's future. However, few politicians are truly interested in remedying the situation in real, constructive ways. Two ways politicians have recently attempted to improve the nation's education system were through introducing an expanded school voucher system and raising state standards for children's education via increased standardized testing. These solutions are attractive to voters because they do not cause much of a drain upon taxpayer's funds. ut ultimately the only real solution to that will result in a real and long-lasting improvement in the education that all American children receive is increased funding for schools. The is particularly true of increased funding for failing schools so they may fund special programs for students experiencing difficulty in mastering basic skills, such as math and language education.
Bumiller, Elizabeth. (July 1, 2002). "Bush Calls Ruling About Vouchers an 'Historic' Move." The New York Times. http://partners.nytimes.com/2002/07/02/politics/02BUSH.html . Retrieved July10, 2002.
Rothstein, Richard. (July 10, 2002). "Raising School Standards and Cutting Budgets: huh?" The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/10/education/10LESS.html Retrieved July 10, 2002.
The history of the educational system ironically has not been changed as much as one might think since the colonial era. Of course the content being studied may be completely different and they had no IPods in the early days of America, but the idea of education is still the same. According to American Education: The American evolution, it boils down to four questions: who will be educated; who controls the overall system; who pays for it; and who gets more education then others, rich and poor, have and have not so to speak. In other words, these issues have been the foundation of the American educational system since the 1700's and they still cause too many problems. So the complaints we hear today about vouchers, testing and rich school district vs. A poor one is simply a matter of history repeating itself, over and over again. This…
Education Bug. (2009). "School Vouchers." Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://www.educationbug.org/a/school-vouchers.html .
Hooper, Don W. (2002). "Reading Success Where No Child Slips." School Administrator, Vol. 59. January.
Did not have Text information
NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).
The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).
Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…
Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.
Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
Apart from being an uncommon book about schooling written by an eager intellect, it is as in a debate neither expediently right nor left that regularly breaks down (Rotherham, 2005).
Furthermore, the book isn't just a litany of complaints as whenever Sizer writes about education; it has always been worth paying attention (Rotherham, 2005). Thus, from numerous vantage points Sizer is considered plenty of sausage making in the field of American education and written significantly about it.
Sizer's has always believed and taken schools as the center of control, merging well with permissiveness along with conservative political philosophy. Therefore, despite of Sizer's disdain for No Child Left Behind, the National Education Association will not be quoting this book as a road map for modification or transformation in education (Rotherham, 2005). Thus, this political tension between left and right is what makes this book "The Red Pencil" appealing and exciting more…
Publishers Weekly. The Red Pencil by Theodore R. Sizer.
Yale University Press. The Red Pencil.
Christian Coalition in the eligious ight
Explaining the ole of the Christian Coalition
The role of the Christian Coalition (CC) during the latter half of the 20th century was to rebuild the eligious ight () movement into a permanent grass roots political organization that would support policies and candidates favored by the eligious ight at all levels, especially at the local level. Under the leadership of alph eed, the CC adopted political pragmatism and professionalism giving the more political influence than it had in the past.
At the time the Christian Coalition was created, the Moral Majority (which played an important role in the election of onald eagan in1980) was closing, and the Americans for obertson (the successor of the Freedom Council created for Pat obertson's campaign for the epublican nomination for president in 1988) was drifting (Martin 1996, 300-301, 304, 308). The was without an effective and enduring political…
Martin, W. 1996. With God on Our Side. The Rise of the Religious Right in America. New York,
NY: Broadway Books.
For example, superintendents used to be given some leeway in hiring and firing of relevant personnel. Now, if the "relevant school staff when schools fail to make annual yearly progress for four consecutive years" they must be fired (Peterson & Young 2004:1). "Similarly, a significant downturn in student achievement and K-12 education's need to seek larger percentages of ever shrinking state budgets, motivated twenty-three states to pass laws authorizing state or city takeovers of districts perceived to be in crisis," taking many traditional roles and responsibilities away from school superintendents (Peterson & Young 2004:1). NCLB federal funding guidelines have essentially, in some state legislator's eyes, forced their hands to take control over locally supervised districts.
Interventions to influence the interrelationships
To better improve district performance, superintendents can work with teachers to create enrichment programs and test-centered supplements to the curriculum at 'at risk' schools. There is limited federal funding available…
Peterson, George & Michelle Young. (2004, Jul). No Child Left Behind Act and its
Influence on Current and Future District Leaders. Journal of Law and Education. Retrieved 28 Aug 2007 at ( http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3994/is_200407/ai_n9442100 )
Those who continue to trend lower in their results must engage in a number of actions to include:
Offering free tutoring and additional services to struggling students in the third year.
Changing the staff, curriculum, the administration and introducing other sweeping reforms during year four.
Turing the facility into a charter school, having the state takeover or hiring a private company to run the institution in the fifth year.
These different elements are showing how the No Child Left Behind Act is focusing on using testing and market forces to deal with the problems inside the education system. ("No Child Left Behind Act," 2004)
Analyze and discuss how the No Child Left Behind Act provides illustration of the connection between ideology and educational philosophy
The market-based ideology is working in conjunction with the No Child Left Behind Act. The way that this is occurring is through having measurable standards (which…
Investing in Our Future. (2012). White House. Retrieved from: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/Investing_in_Our_Future_Report.pdf
No Child Left Behind Act. (2004). Education Week. Retrieved from: http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/no-child-left-behind/
Smith, K. (2012). The Ideology of Education. Binghamton, NY: SUNY Press.
National Education Association
The National Education Association (NEA) was formed in 1857 and is dedicated to championing the rights of both educators and children. It has been a part of integration, the Civil ights movement, equal opportunity education, and the rights of teachers for over 150 years. After 1966 the National Education Association and American Teachers Association merged to form a more cohesive and powerful body. Each state has a branch of the NEA that regularly does lobby work to legislators for the resources schools need and to push for higher standards in the teaching profession. The NEA's programs and services may be accessed at http://www.nea.org. There are currently five forms of membership, from Students to etired. Anyone actively involved in the American Education System, as well as several distance and online institutions, may join the NEA, although professional certification is required for certain membership tiers.
National Education Association. (2012). Main Website. Retrieved from:
Moe, T. (2011). Special Interest -- Teachers Unions and America's Public Schools. Retrieved From: Brookings Institution Press. http://www.brookings.edu/press/Books/2011/specialinterest.aspx
Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.
Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons…
Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.
Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.
Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "American Prosperity and the "Race to the Bottom: " Why Won't the Media Ask the Right Questions?" Journal of Economic Issues 42.1 (2008): 133+.
Milner, Murray. Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Friedman is considered to be one of the more influential thinkers of his time and "Milton Friedman on Economics: Selected Papers," is a collection of much of his work. Many of the enclosed papers were originally published in the Journal of Political Economy. The work opens up with his 1977 Nobel Lecture and then spans a great part of his life and career. There were some works in the collection from as early as 1948 through 1990. Because he was so influential over the course of his career, this series of letters and works provides a great opportunity to not only get an introduction into his line of reasoning, it also provides a historic blueprint of detailed economic thought. Milton Friedman offers clues about the twentieth-century's economics and political policies.
Milton Friedman is considered to have been one of the great economic thinkers of our time and he was obviously…
Friedman, Milton, 1977. "Nobel Lecture: Inflation and Unemployment." Journal of Political Economy. 85, pp. 451-472.
Friedman, Milton. (2008). "Milton Friedman on Economics: Selected Papers." Chicago: University of Chicago Press Journals. (February 1, 2008)
American citizenry is somewhat in the position of the unfortunate citizens of some third-world countries who try to stay out of the cross-fire while Maoist guerrillas and right-wing death squads shoot at each other. eports of a culture war are mostly wishful thinking and useful fund-raising strategies on the part of culture-war guerrillas, abetted by a media driven by the need to make the dull and everyday appear exciting and unprecedented.
At the time of every election, both the Democrat and epublican presidential candidates begin spouting their strong political platform. Somewhere along the line of American history, and perhaps it was once true, there arose the belief that a major difference exists between the two parties' beliefs. In their book Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America, Morris P. Fiorina of Stanford University, Samuel J. Abrams of Harvard University, and Jeremy C. Pope of Stanford University combine polling data…
Fiorina, Morris et al. Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America.
Upper Saddle Ridge, NJ: Pearson Education, 2004.
Historical Issues In Modern Education
There are numerous issues seeded in a Greek civilization, rooting down to the contemporary world; for instance Gender Equity, home schooling, Pledge of allegiance, Unions and collective bargaining just to name a few. Each of the issues would be addressed in due course.
Most notably gender bias as practiced by the Greeks is the major parasitical issue in all avenues of education. A study commissioned by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in 1991 claims that girl don't receive as much attention and are not put into challenging situations like complex and abstract questioning, as compared to boys, in an average school (Woodward, 1998). Moreover, countable school books portray "stereotypical" image of women. These books are void of any acknowledgements of the abilities and achievements of women altogether. This has also been hinted by Cahill in the chapter Warrior: how to fight and also…
Reference and Research Book News, August 2005, Kids and Violence, the invisible school experience.
Gender bias in education means treating boys and girls differently at school. (Woodward, 1998)
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
As a result, many children were schooled at home. The modern home schooling movement is a recalling of these earlier days, modernized with home schooling curricula, Internet access and activities for children, such as sports, which bring them together for social activities. Although teachers' unions insist that parents are not professionally-trained teachers, the results of home schooling are incontrovertible. Home-schooled students perform much better on standardized tests than government-schooled children, have higher college admission rates, and report greater satisfaction than those in public schools (Williams, 2007). A recent Gallup poll found that 75% of Americans favor public schooling. A similar Gallup poll, taken in 1985, found that 75% were against home schooling. In the intervening years, the continued decline of the public school paradigm has changed American minds.
Charter, Magnet and Other Schools modified way to introduce vouchers, or school choice, is to create charter and magnet schools. The founding…
Chaddock, G. (2006, June 21). U.S. high school dropout rate: high, but how high? Christian Science Monitor, p. n.p.
Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. In R. Dawkins, the Selfish Gene (p. Chapter 11 "memes"). New York: Oxford University Press.
Dobbs, M. (2005, April 21). NEA, States Challenge 'No Child' Program. Washington Post.
Ehrich, R. (2007). The Impact of School Size. Retrieved December 9, 2007, from Virginia Tech: http://delta.cs.vt.edu/edu/size.html
he issues pertaining to the substandard education imparted by the public schools require continuous monitoring i.e. he evaluation is performed on periodic basis to ascertain the success on the account of each transition. It is recommended that the public schooling system shall hibernate and emerge after undergoing the sequences of assimilation, adjustment, access and achievement. he focus of the public school shall be to serve the social and psychological needs of the children, and their abilities and interests shall be evaluated on periodic basis. It has been observed that in the contemporary standards, such practices are either discouraged or ignored by the teachers due to the lack of enthusiasm. he public schools are under liability to offer better access to education, and the programs offered by the schools shall specifically serve the needs and requirements of the diversified population. he services of the public schools shall be of equal standards…
The NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND (NCLB) ACT of 2001 is the federal law aimed at the improvement of the education for the students, irrespective of their social, cultural, economic and demographic affiliation. The law has been approved to offer flexibility and choices to the parents; the law accounts the school responsible for the performance of the students, and ensures the promotion of the effective and efficient teaching methodologies. The law has approved the funding towards the incorporation of the provisions aimed at improving the teaching and learning for the students, in particular those affiliated with the economically disadvantaged communities.
The above study has brought us to the conclusion that the values required for the understanding of the democratic society by the students can be achieved provided that enough focus is maintained towards the students, and the quality of the education imparted is as per standard. In this regard the allocation of the funds, and the different policies are positive step, the voucher scheme has although affected the operations of the public schools, but it has strengthen the overall educational standard on national level, similarly the principles of the democratic society has been practiced, where the majority and minority groups have been provided with independent options to avail education for the their children from any other school beside public schools. Similarly, the performance of the public school has been monitored, and the previously deteriorated conditions of the public schools have been controlled, and the damage has been repaired. The teachers of the public schools have been offered financial perks in exchange for good resulted of the students, and the involvement of the parents in the entire process has been signified. The principles of the democratic society are expected to be achieved through democratic practices.
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.
Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.
The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…
In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.
Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.
For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
Evolution of RTI and Its Purpose
The response to intervention (RTI) initiative is a multi-tiered program that is designed to facilitate the early identification of students with special educational and behavioral needs (What is RTI?, 2016). The purpose of the RTI initiative is two-fold, with the first being the provision of high-quality educational services and the second being the screening of all young learners in general education classrooms (What is RTI?, 2016). The evolution of the RTI initiative was based on early experiences with differentiated instruction as an alternative to conventional practices. In this regard, Fisher and Frey (2010) report that, "In many schools, instruction and time are constant -- they do not vary on a student-by-student basis. RTI was designed as a way to encourage teachers to vary instruction and time to create a constant level of learning" (2010, p. 15). The RTI program also includes the key assumption…
This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to introduce a competitor into the marketplace, said charter school supporters." (O'Donoghue, 2010)
Summary and Conclusion
It is very likely that laws will be changed and policy reformed relating to charter schools in the state of Virginia as to do otherwise means to miss the $350 million in funding opportunity for Virginia's school system and it appears highly unlikely that in the present state of the economy that Virginia will be willing to shun this much in educational funding.
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam . (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
raunlich, Christian (2009)…
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam B. (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
Braunlich, Christian (2009) Virginia Needs More Public Schools. Bacon's Rebellion. 18 Jan 2009. Online available at: http://baconsrebellion.com/2009/01/18/virginia-needs-more-charter-schools/
Grimes, Cathy (2010) Virginia Seeks $350 Million in Federal Race to the Top Education Funds. Daily Press.21 Jan 2010. Online available at http://www.dailypress.com/news/dp-local_racetothetop_0122jan22,0,5686858.story
What are the principles of democratic education? How are these principles and values in tension/contradiction with our social construction of children and youth? For example, what assumptions do we make about teaching, learning and youth that democratic schools challenge? How does "one size fits all" centralized curriculum contribute to what Apple called the "de-skilling of teachers"? What is lost when this approach is adapted, especially when it is combined with the "intensification" of teaching? Explore the contradictions between what we say we want our students to be when they are finished their schooling (engaged, critical thinkers, active contributors and problem solvers) and how we are often educating young people. How does democratic education address this? What are some of the challenges educators who want to introduce democratic principles into their schools face? What are some of the potential rewards? How does democratic education address the notion…
IDEN International Democratic education Network. (2010). Retrieved October 2012, from http://www.idenetwork.org/idec/idec-english.htm
Apple, M.W., & Swalwell, K. (2011). Reviewing Policy: Starting the Wrong Conversations: The Public School Crisis and "Waiting for Superman." Educational Policy, 368-381.
Ayers, W. (1992). The Shifting Grounds of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice . Taylor & Francis, 259-263.
Ayers, W. (1994). Can City Schools be Saved? Educational Leadership, 60.
The authors use everyday examples, such as "investment in a newly formed small business" to make their economic processes more understandable to anyone who understands modern business, and this is one of the things that makes this book so readable, and so fascinating, even for someone who might not be that interested in economic theory and practice.
The Friedman's support many ideas that would reduce the authority of government in many economic areas, including the "negative income tax, the volunteer army, an improved method of auctioning Treasury securities, the monetary rule for achieving price stability; the voucher system for education, the flat tax, and flexible exchange rates" (Jordan et al. 199). It is quite amazing to see just how many of these Friedman ideas have made their way into our business and political world, including the volunteer army, the educational voucher system, and flexible exchange rates, to name a few.…
Economist of the Century." The Washington Times 3 Aug. 2002: A11.
Friedman, Milton and Rose. Free to Choose: A Personal Statement. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 1990.
Jordan, Jerry L., et al. "Milton, Money, and Mischief: Symposium and Articles in Honor of Milton Friedman's 80th Birthday." Economic Inquiry XXXI.2 (1993): 197-212.
Oi, Walter Y. "Milton Friedman, Starting His Ninth Decade." Economic Inquiry XXXI.2 (1993): 194-196.
The ruling stated that, since the moment of silence was for the purpose of advancing religion, it was unconstitutional. This was evidently a case-specific ruling however, and the fact is that the Court has not ruled that this moment of silence may always be unconstitutional. There are multiple court rulings in other jurisdictions that have ruled the moment of silence allowable if it passes the test of not advancing religion.
Can a student say a prayer at a school graduation ceremony? The Supreme Court has not ruled that student-led non-sectarian prayer is not allowed at public school graduation ceremonies.
The question remains open and has been decided on a case-by-case basis. It cannot be encouraged by school officials, and prayers delivered by clergy have been ruled unconstitutional.
However, prayers at public school baccalaureate services are constitutional as long as the ceremony is distinct and separated from the graduation ceremony and…
ADL. (2009). Religion in public schools: Evolution vs. creationism. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Anti-defamation league (ADL): http://www.adl.org/religion_ps_2004/evolution.asp
Boston, R. (2009, November). Prayers, preaching and public schools. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Americans united for separation of church and state: http://www.au.org/media/church-and-state/archives/2009/11/prayers-preaching-public.html
Calefati, J. (2009, January 22). Religion in schools debate heats up. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from U.S. News and World Report: http://www.usnews.com/blogs/on-education/2009/01/22/religion-in-schools-debate-heats-up.html
Facing history and ourselves: Religion. (2009). Retrieved November 16, 2009, from facinghistory.org: http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/facingtoday/43?tid=26&tid_1=2
' Standardized test preparation also takes time away from creative activities that can really engage students with learning, and may even better reinforce skills needed in business, like critical thinking, writing, and working with others. Often teachers know better than administrators or managerial professionals what is needed in their classroom. One of the problems with education is that although schools superficially seem to be structured on a hierarchy similar to a corporation with a board of directors, not all managerial principles apply to schools. Schools are not factories and students are not end products. A teacher may know better what a classroom needs than a principal, a principal may know better the challenges of his or her school than someone comparing the school's results to a very different institution in another county. Finally, slashing costs is not the ultimate goal of the Board of Directors, as it is in a…
"Oh, brave new world indeed," she concludes (11).
Improving Online Education Programs
The growth of "distance education" offerings, also called online education, has been dramatic over the past few years. "Online education has experienced tremendous growth" as colleges and universities -- and private companies that offer training services -- convert "face-to-face classes to online courses" (Revere, et al., 2011, p. 114). riting in the Quarterly Review of Distance Education, the authors review the advantages of learning online, especially for adults and for students employed full time that cannot attend classes. Also, the authors note that online courses can be boring and even tedious when existing eb-based technologies are not put to use (Revere, 117).
"Because communication within online text-based systems does not always flow as naturally as in face-to-face settings," there is a need to embrace technologies to make the class work more interesting and vital (Revere, 120). The authors…
Aragon, Janni. (2007). Technologies and Pedagogy: How YouTubing, Social Networking, and Other Web Sources complement the Classroom. Feminist Collections, 28(4), 45.
Chmielewski, Dawn C. (2012). YouTube's Robert Kyncl charts Internet video's meteoric rise.
Los Angeles Times Business. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com .
Farnan, Jeanne M., Paro, John A.M., Higa, Jennifer, Edelson, Jay, and Arora, Vineet M.
Vygotsky and Mission Statement
One of the keys to a successful pedagogical experience is the ability to translate new materials into the minds of the learner. We have certainly come a long way from the days in which we thought every student should sit straight, learn the same way, and behave identically. One of the most important theories to arise in the 20th century was the idea of constructivism in education. This view is a theory that argues that humans generate and retain knowledge by way of experience. Social constructivism views each student as having unique and special needs, backgrounds, and modes of expression.
My Vision Statement -- The idea of positive and proactive constructivism encourages students to come to their own conclusions about knowledge based on their own worldview, past experience, and the nature of their instruction. The responsibility, however, of actual learning resides with the student -- the…
IES National Center for Education. (2010, March). Statistical Reports. Retrieved from IES Center: http://nces.ed.gov/
Johnson-Laird, P. (2009). How We Reason. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mooney, C. (2005). Constructivism and Education. New York: Cambridge University Press.
alzer / Dewey / Education
Michael alzer's position on school busing in Spheres of Justice is rather ingenious. Before we look more closely at it, though, I'd like to recall the context for his argument in favor of what used to be called "forced busing" (a derogatory term which alzer distances himself from). The issue of using school busing to help to remedy the effects of racial segregation was the subject of two controversial Supreme Court rulings issued during the Nixon presidency: these were Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) and Milliken v. Bradley (1974). In Swann the Supreme Court found that it was constitutional to use busing for the purposes of overcoming the effects of poverty and housing inequality which led to racially homogenous populations within certain school disticts. The revisitation of the same topic in Milliken only three years later reflects the Supreme Court's establishment of a…
Walzer, Michael. Spheres of Justice. New York: Basic Books, 1983. Print.
Vending Machine Businsess Plan
Maketing business plan
Location, envionment and taget maket
Value poposition and competitive edge
Maketing and sales stategy
Online maketing technique
H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending -- Healthy Seven Vending
Location, envionment and taget maket
Ameica's obesity epidemic has been spialing out of contol in the past two decades, and will continue to gow unless dastic measues ae taken to change Ameican eating habits. It is of paticula concen that the ate of childhood and adolescent obesity is gowing so apidly. H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending (Healthy Seven Vending) believes that it is essential that food copoations pai with local municipalities, educational institutions, and othe oganizations that play a vital ole in young people's lives. "Moe than half of U.S. middle and high schools still offe suga dinks and less healthy foods fo puchase. Students have access to suga dinks and less healthy foods at school thoughout the…
references even when they are not eating from vending machines.
A growing problem. (2013). Overweight and obesity. Centers for Disease Control. (CDC).
Not even public health experts entirely agree why the obesity rate has skyrocketed in recent decades. This website provides an overview of some of the leading proposed causes, including the popularity of marketing junk food to teens.
H.U.M.A.N. Healthy vending machines. (2013). http://www.healthyvending.com/machines
In the U.S. The conflict between progressive and traditional education has been going on for over 100 years, and E.D. Hirsch and John Dewey are polar opposites in this pedagogical and philosophical conflict. Dewey was indeed a support of the Left in politics who wanted the U.S. To become a social democracy and move away from more traditional conservative ideas. He thought that democratic socialism would be the wave of the future in urban, industrial society, and that the traditional education system was not preparing students to participate as active citizens in this new society. It was rigid, authoritarian and hierarchical, with teachers acting like dictators in the classroom and often dispensing plenty of corporal punishment. ather than follow a rigid, old-fashioned curriculum, the teacher had to allow students to participate in designing lessons that were relevant to their lives and experiences. Only this way could the public schools…
Dworkin, M.S. (1961). Dewey on Education. Classics in Education No.3.
Dewey, J. (1938/1997). Experience and Education. Macmillan.
Hirsch. E.D. (1996). The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. Doubleday.
Fernandez, R. (2003). Mappers of Society: The Lives, Times and Legacies of Great Sociologists. Praeger.
Public Program Quality Evaluation
Overview of the Program and the Program ationale
In 2011, approximately 23% of all children in the United States were children of immigrants. Many of these children have come from countries where the educational systems have not prepared them with competitive skills that will support a good standard of living. Various policies to address this issue have been proposed. Of the feasible options, the policy most likely to achieve popular approval is the provision of preschool education to all low-immigrant children. In part, the basis for this support is the historical national approval of programs such as Head Start. ecently, the nation has seen an upswing in state-funded pre-K programs that focus on preparing low-income 4-year-old children for kindergarten and elementary school. Head Start programs continue in a parallel manner, and necessarily so, as only a handful of states offer pubic school-based pre-K programs to all…
Haskins, R. & Tienda, M. (2011). The future of immigrant children. The Future of Children. Princeton University and the Brookings Institution.
Lawrence L. Martin, L.L. & Kettner, P.M. (1996). Measuring the performance of human service programs. Sage Publications.
Neuman, W.L. (2012). Basics of social research: qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed.).
Puma, M. Bell, S., Cook, R., & Heid, C. (2010, January). Head Start Impact Study Final Report, Executive Summary. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. Washington, DC.
Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue by improved tracking of prescriptions for controlled substances, including the practice of "doctor shopping" sometimes used to obtain legal prescriptions for controlled substances with the intention of distributing them illegally for profit (USONDCP, 2004).
III. Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic asis of the Drug Trade: The third major component of the President's drug policy incorporates law enforcement and prosecution in a manner designed to address the economic basis of the drug trade. Specifically, the policy authorizes both increased funding as well as tactical reorganization of various elements of the criminal justice system with respect to the illegal drug trade. In that regard, the policy emphasizes a priority targeting initiative designed to identify and prosecute specific criminal organizations and enterprises involved…
Farwell, S. Man Who Sells Tips on How to Avoid Arrest Is Running for Congress; the Dallas Morning News (Mar. 3/08)
Macionis, J. (2003) Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
USONDCP (2004) the President's National Drug Control Strategy. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs04/index.html
They should not expect taxpayers to carry religious as well as general education. Quality of education is another concern altogether. Everybody has the right to a high quality of education. But specific education such as religious instruction should not rest on the shoulders of the public.
It is true that everybody has the right to instruct their children according to the religious choices available. Providing public funding for this however entails a fundamental problem relating to tolerance. The American public is made up of a wide variety of groups in terms of religion, race and ethnicity. Funding for education is carried by taxpayers, regardless of creed or religious choice. Allowing such funding to be used for possible discriminatory choices is thus discriminatory in itself, although it is not seen as such by the Court.
The decision of the Court is explained by the exact argument of freedom of choice. The…
Cline, Austin. (2004). "Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris (2002): Supreme Court Decisions on Religious Liberty." About, Inc. http://www.about.com
standardized, national testing is implemented for students in elementary schools and secondary schools, the United States government will be making a statement that American students will leave their elementary and secondary schools having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, history, and geography. In route to this, it will be shown that every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy. One of the methods that the government has adopted with hopes of assistance in reaching these goals is to apply, nationally throughout the school system, standardized assessments of each student's progress, which can subsequently offer some statistical proof on how well plans of education reform have worked.
This is an important matter, cause although the intentions of using standardized testing seem to be…
Bennett, William J. In Education, Character As Important As Skills. USA Today, http://www.empoweramerica.org/stories/storyReader$237?print-friendly=true.1997 .
Most recently, the Red Sox' Kurt Schilling wore his World Series regalia at many a Bush-Cheney press conference, and many Hollywood stars joined forces with the Kerry-Edwards campaign. As of late, policy has become confrontational across the public sphere, and even the lives of high school seniors are not spared. As a direct result, beginning at a personal level, high school seniors are easily receptive to and can understand the making of public policy.
Talking to high school seniors, it is first important to reach out to them in ways that the empower themselves with an understanding of the role public policy plays in their every day lives and communities. Through news coverage, they can engage each other in issues that matter to them. Asking, "what public policies are currently being discussed that you know about?" Finding a topic with some heat, but not a vast amount of moral debate,…
Ethical caring's great contribution is to guide action long enough for natural caring to be restored and for people once again to interact with mutual and spontaneous regard" (Noddings 1998: 187).
Noddings believes that rather than ethics shaping moral behavior, our moral, spontaneous caring is what is more important and must come first. This impulse is sometimes interfered with, which is why we need ethical systems, but caring comes before the creation of ethical systems.
Statement: "All human communities are founded upon specific shared information, and the basic goal of education in a human community is acculturation - the transmission to children of the specific information shared by the adults of the group or polis" (Hirsch cited by Coppola 2011).
Comment: This reflects Hirsch's belief in the need for a common curriculum, or shared values that must be transmitted to all students to create a more homogeneous and cohesive society.…
An interview with Bill Ayers. (2006). Revolution Newspaper. Retrieved:
Coppola, Jen. (2011). The Educational theory of E.D. Hirsch. New Foundations. Retrieved:
Education is an essential component of having a successful and prosperous life. However, in many cases students drop out of high school and never receive the diplomas that they need to better their lives. Fortunately there are programs that will provide these individuals with GED's which are equivalent to high school diplomas. The need to acquire a GED is of particular importance to the African-American male. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the research pertaining to the success of this population in such programs. We will also review which programs are the most successful and what element of the programs work the best. We will conclude by discussion the funding that is available for such programs.
What do we know about this population's performance in such programs?
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, approximately 830,000 individual took the GED in 2000. There were 719,000…
Venezky, Richard L., Page S. Bristow, and John P. Sabatini. "Measuring Change in Adult Literacy Programs: Enduring Issues and a Few Answers." Educational Assessment 2.2 (1994): 101-132.
Weirauch, Drucie, and Gary Kuhne. "Satisfying the Itch: Addressing Problems in Adult Literacy Programs with Action Research." Adult Learning 11.3 (2000): 9.
attend XXXX University to further my professional career goals, and use my nternational skills to further my current career in accounting. wish to enroll in XXXX and complete a dual degree MBA concentration in Finance and nternational Business. believe learning the concepts of nternational Business will aid my career in the long-term, and believe XXXX is the best school to help me reach my goals. My short-term goal is to attend XXXX for a few years in the part time PMBA program, to gain knowledge of all the skills and techniques need to obtain my PMBA degree. My long-term goals are to work for a global corporation such as Dupont and eventually obtain a higher-level management job. hope when the opportunity arises, will go to China and become a branch manager oversea using the skills and instruction realized at XXXX.
A received my BS in Accounting in 2003 from Goldey-Beacom…
I have been working in the accounting field since 2001, and I find it both challenging and interesting. I have completed a variety of different accounting tasks during my varying employment, and feel that my background in accounting will help me with the financial and business concepts I will be learning as I complete my graduate work.
I have chosen XXXX University for a variety of reasons, but foremost is the University's national and international reputation. The LeBow School of Business was recently ranked among the top Executive MBA programs - 30th in the nation and 56th worldwide, and I would be proud to attend such a highly ranked school. I feel XXXX and its reputation would add another dimension to my educational experience, and certainly aid my career goals for the future.
A realize that accomplishing my goals will be a challenge, but I look forward to completing my education at XXXX, and continuing on with my chosen career path. My outside interests vary, and I am currently a member of the International Business Association in anticipation of my graduate work. I look forward to attending XXXX, and to completing my educational goals in the XXXX MBA program.
ecruiting and etention Strategies of Office Temporary Employees
An in-depth analysis of the temporary office employee industry as it pertains to recruiting and retention of those employees.
This paper presents a detailed proposal for the recruiting and retention of temporary office workers. The writer is employed as a full time on site recruiter of temporary office workers at one of Wall Street's top financial firms. The majority of the temporary help the writer recruits are administrative assistants and other entry level finance positions. The positions range from a couple of days to several months in time. The writer is charged with recruiting and retaining temporary workers who have the necessary skill sets and experience to perform the jobs. The writer analyzes the industry, the company history regarding temporary employees and future trends to propose methods for the purpose of recruiting and retention of those workers.
FLOW OF INFOMATION
Workforce, July 2002, pp. 74-77 -- Subscribe Now!
Offering Insurance Is the Key To Healthy Profits and Retention
Three Ways to Build Recruiter Relationships
Ultimately, these issues results in hunger and famine, where these inhabitants become deprived of the basic facilities that they are entitled to, as being a citizen of the country (World Hunger Education Service, 2012).
3. Impacts of Hunger and Famine in U.S.
The standard of living means to have a healthy, vigorous and active life. Keeping in mind, the standard of living, the hunger crisis in the U.S. is calculated and determined when its residents are not able to meet the nutritional needs to live a dynamic life. This indicates the fact that the people have lack of access to the nutritious, healthy and safe food. As a consequence, the inhabitants (especially of the low-income groups) tend to opt for foods that are less expensive with usually low nutrients, so that they can meet up to the financial components. Moreover, it has also been observed that meals are also dropped…
Anonymous. "Hunger in the U.S. -- Families in Crisis." The Hunger Site, 2012. Web. 29 Dec 2012
This website has discussed how hunger has become one of the harsh realities of the United States, even though it is a land of abundant resources. The impact of hunger upon the individuals, society and eventually on the nation has been argued by the author. Solving the hunger problem has also been articulated in the study. I have used this website with the prime motive to surface the impact of this enormity upon various bodies.
Austin, Michael. Reading the World Ideas That Matter. 2nd Edition. New York, USA: W.W. Norton & Company, 2012. Print.
This book is about the contemporary readings and classic texts that are particularly based on the diversity of views on ideas. This diversity helps an individual in exploring the development of ideas in different cultures and at various occasions.
The Impact of Distance Learning in Accounting Higher Education
This paper is intended as an Introduction to a research study in to the impact of distance learning on the teaching of accounting in higher education. The context of the research will first be introduced i.e., the background to the research. The research to be undertaken will then be introduced, as will the specific questions and sub-questions to be addressed. The significance of this study will then be analyzed, and the people who are expected to benefit from this research will also be outlined. The research methodology and the practical design of this research methodology will be discussed, and the primary and secondary sources to be used will be introduced, and a list of preliminary resources will be given in the ibliography.
Distance learning has grown in popularity amongst students over recent years, for many reasons, one of which has…
Anne Nicholls, Flexible study opens doors., Independent on Sunday, 01-14-1996, pp 12.
Serwatka, Judy A, Improving student performance in distance learning courses., THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 04-01-2002, pp 46.
Mariola, Eleni; Manley, John, Teaching finance concepts in a distance learning environment -- a personal note., Journal of Education for Business, 01-01-2002, pp 177
By praising a child every time they do something correctly instead of reprimanding him every single time he does something wrong, can better his self-esteem and show him that he is in control of his actions and feelings. A program that gives rewards for every accomplishment in form of tokens or tickets which can then be redeemed for things such as movie tickets or restaurant vouchers (something that is practical and useful) can be a motivator in children with mood disorders. A goal of a certain number or tickets could be set so that the child is often motivated to behave appropriately in order to attain the desired prize. Tickets or tokens should never be taken away or revoked since previous desired behavior has already earned them the current number of tokens or tickets, but not giving the redeemable tickets or tokens will be a better option. Ignoring his attention…
Perry, S.E., Hockenberry, M.J., Lowdermilk, D.L., & Wilson, D. (2009).
Maternal Child Nursing Care. Mosby. 4th Edition.
kbarlowe. (2010, July 7). 5- to 12-year-old, mood disorder NOS...help! Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation. Retrieved on May 30, 2011 from http://www.bpkids.org/connect/forums/general-discussion/5-yr-old-mood disorder-noshelp
Flanagan, Dr., Samantha, Psy. D. (2011) University of Maryland. Department of Psychology.
Different routes of cocaine administration can produce different adverse effects. egularly snorting cocaine, for example, can lead to loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and an overall irritation of the nasal septum, which can lead to a chronically inflamed, runny nose. Ingested cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene, due to reduced blood flow. Persons who inject cocaine have puncture marks and tracks, most commonly in their forearms. Intravenous cocaine users may also experience an allergic reaction, either to the drug, or to some additive in street cocaine, which can result, in severe cases, in death. Because cocaine has a tendency to decrease food intake, many chronic cocaine users lose their appetites and can experience significant weight loss and malnourishment. The human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, which intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects 3. The mixture of cocaine and alcohol is the…
1. Quaglio G, Lugoboni F, Pajusco B, Fornasiero a, Mezzelani P, Lechi a. [Clinical manifestations of cocaine abuse]. Ann Ital Med Int. Oct-Dec 2004;19(4):291-301; quiz 302-293.
2. White SM, Lambe CJ. The pathophysiology of cocaine abuse. J Clin Forensic Med. Mar 2003;10(1):27-39.
3. Velasquez EM, Anand RC, Newman WP, 3rd, Richard SS, Glancy DL. Cardiovascular complications associated with cocaine use. J La State Med Soc. Nov-Dec 2004;156(6):302-310; quiz 311.
4. Sofuoglu M, Kosten TR. Novel approaches to the treatment of cocaine addiction. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(1):13-25.
President Clinton's And Obama's Health Care Policies:
Since the 1960's, universal health care has continued to be a major aspect of social reform to an extent that the right to health care for all Americans has been a central issue in political debates. The debate regarding universal health care was particularly fueled by the enactment of the Social Security Act in 1965 that guaranteed care services for the poor and elderly through Medicare and Medicaid. Despite of these attempts to provide health care to the poor and elderly, universal health care has remained a lurking legislative fiasco for more than four decades. During the 1990's, the then presidential candidate, Bill Clinton, propelled this issue to the vanguard of his campaigns as the focus shifted to health care reform. However, his administration failed to enact a health care bill because of a stubborn Democratic Congress. Universal health care was also a…
Klein, J. (2012, December 17). Obamacare vs. Medicare. Time, 180(25).
Levin, Y. & Ponnuru, R. (2012, February 6). Romney vs. Obamacare: What the Presumptive
Nominee Should Say, National Review, 34-35.
Santana, A. (2012). Obama vs. Clinton on Health Care. Slope Media Group.
The kind of product the company will offer
Coffee Time Comprises of the following Sub-Brands
Coffee Time - Fresh & Ground
Coffee Time-- Vending
Coffee Time - Xpress
Coffee Time-- Exports
Coffee Time - Perfect
Coffee Time presently has and runs 213 coffee shops in all significant cities in India. It belongs of India's biggest coffee corporation called Coffee Time, s. 200 crore ISO 9002 licensed business. Coffee Time's a lot of distinct facet is that it expands the coffee it serves.
Identification of its primary characteristics
Leaders of the Cafe Idea in India with the its first Cafe at Brigade oadway, Bangalore in 1996. This Cafe was opened as a Cyber Cafe (initially of its kind) however later on, with the burst of cyber coffee shops it went back to its core proficiency ... Coffee.
Basically a young people oriented brand name with bulk of…
Mckeown, M. (2012). The Strategy Book, FT Prentice Hall.
Pinson, L. (2004). Anatomy of a Business Plan: A Step-by-Step Guide to Building a Business and Securing Your Company's Future (6th Edition). Dearborn Trade: Chicago, USA.