School Vouchers Essays Examples

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School Choice Debate The Writer

Words: 3777 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17616519

The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.

Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program, ruling that the use of tax dollars to pay for children to attend religious schools offends the First Amendment's Establishment Clause (Vitteritti, 2002). Judge Oliver halted the acceptance of new students to the program while the case was being appealed. Soon thereafter, a sharply divided (5-4) U.S. Supreme Court took…… [Read More]

Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002

Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
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Implementing of School Uniform Policies

Words: 1884 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72323029

School Uniforms

Perhaps the biggest debate of public education over the past decade besides school vouchers has been the debate over whether or not it is legal to require students to wear a uniform to school. Increased crime, gang violence, poor academic performance in public schools has sparked the movement towards mandatory school uniforms. While school uniforms may seem the perfect solution to the problem, to some its as good as putting a band-aid on a three-inch deep wound. There are many arguments for and against school uniforms in public schools; the main concern has to do with the legality of making uniforms compulsory for public school students. The focus of this paper will be to discuss the issues presented by those both for and against school uniforms. Additionally, the legality of such a policy if implemented will also be presented. Finally, facts and figures on those schools that have implemented school uniform policies will be revealed.

The Issue

In certain areas of California certain colors convey that the person wearing it is a member of a gang. Sadly, even those who wear these colors who are not members of the gang often become victims of the gangs mindless violence…… [Read More]

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Reforming Urban Schools

Words: 13440 Length: 49 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79283099

School Choice Program

This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.

Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.

The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.

To begin, I conducted structured interviews with teacher educators and other providers of professional development, and district and school administrators in each school. Through these interviews, parental involvement, student achievement, knowledge of African-American culture, and degree of cultural awareness of students was determined. I interviewed teachers from each of the participating schools.

The purpose of…… [Read More]

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School Choice and the Dropout

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28364127

Her point is to get support for her views, and she did, because three months after she wrote this piece there was a rally at the State Capitol in Austin where 5,000 people called for school choice in front of the Capitol building. Therefore, her words helped people make up their minds and seek action from their legislators. However, she failed to convince the legislators, who did not even address school choice during the 2007 legislative session (Editors). Either this means that the legislators are not listening to the will of the people, or that her rhetoric failed to gain their support.

The media has certainly picked up this issue, and it is an issue all around the country, not just in Texas. The Milwaukee school district has had a voucher system like this for over sixteen years, and it has proven to be a money saving plan for taxpayers, and their dropout rates have decreased. However, some parents complain they have little recourse when they choose a school they are not happy with, so vouchers are not the only answer to public education, dropout rates, and other issues plaguing schools today. Jamie Story has an interesting theory, but her…… [Read More]

Editors. "School Choice Legislation." 2008. 4 May 2009.

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School Finance Its Economics and Politics

Words: 4783 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94298009

School Finance: Its Economics and Politics

School financing in America

Revenue sources for federal and state governments

Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality

School-based decision making

Family choice of schooling

Reform of schooling-finance

Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The public school system in the initial stages heavily depended on local funding. In the 21st century the issue concerning school finance system is how to improve the learning for all students, which is the fundamental purpose of education. How the performance of schools is affected as a result of the…… [Read More]

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Voucher System Voucher System Is

Words: 418 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50316828

Schools operating in rich areas will ask more than the basic voucher price, while schools operating in the most difficult circumstances, dealing with socially excluded groups will be restricted to the basic voucher amount. Funds should be targeted to schools that need them, not schools who are already succeeding.

Another disadvantage is that education cannot be a market. Supply cannot adjust fast enough to changing demand so some pupils will always end up stuck in dying, under-funded schools because over-subscribed schools cannot expand fast enough.

The major drawback of a voucher system is that by funding non-government schools on the same basis as state schools, it makes them vulnerable to the same level of government regulation. The success and popularity of non-government schools is arguably due to their greater autonomy and independence.


Backingham, J. (n.d). The Case for School Choice and How to Fund it. Retrieved May 5, 2005, from Policy Web site:

Monroe, S. (2005). Education Vouchers. Retrieved May 5, 2005, from IDEA

Web site: choice for Public Education Reform. (n.d). Retrieved May 5, 2005, from Web site:… [Read More]

Backingham, J. (n.d). The Case for School Choice and How to Fund it. Retrieved May 5, 2005, from Policy Web site:

Monroe, S. (2005). Education Vouchers. Retrieved May 5, 2005, from IDEA
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Private vs Public Schools Many Parents Find

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9977176

Private vs. Public Schools

Many parents find themselves caught in a dilemma when trying to decide on which choice of education to take for their children. They ask themselves whether to take their children to private schools or public schools. For a parent to choose the ideal school for their children they always have to take into consideration all the available options. They consider things like the cost of the school, how much time they will invest as a parent, the social impact that the school have on their children based on the specific need of their children as well as the family.

Private schools offer the best option for the parent who is in need of better and quality education for their children. Private schools have a nearly perfect graduation rates which market them a great deal. Their performance is better as compared to the public schools. This is evident in SAT scores used by CAPE in 2003 in demonstrating the positive impact that the private schools have. The average for private schools SAT verbal nationally was 507, and math was 519, while for public schools the average verbal was 504 and math 516. When it was broken down…… [Read More]

Mary Elizabeth, (2012). "Public Schools vs. Private Schools."Accessed May 10, 2012 from -- private-schools.html

Parents For Better Education America (2011). "What Every Parent Should Know About Private Schools vs. Public Schools," ASIN: B004R9QKL8. Binding: Kindle Edition. Accessed May 10, 2012 from
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Educational Vouchers

Words: 3125 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34155545

Educational Vouchers: Multiple Issues and Contradictory Results

The Merriman-Webster online dictionary offers three definitions for "voucher": "...a documentary record of a business transaction; a written affidavit or authorization; a form or check indicating a credit against future purchases or expenditures." None of the three even approaches the emotionally charged version of the term "voucher" when it comes to the current debate swirling around public vs. private schools. This paper digs into the "vouchers" - or "scholarships," or "subsidies," if you prefer - provided to families in several cities and states, to move their children from less desirable, academically troubled public schools to more desirable, for-profit private, mainly religious schools.

Long before there was any discussion about vouchers, Horace Mann of Massachusetts - the "Father of American public school education" - was in the vanguard of the movement (1837) to solidify support for quality public education, excellence in teacher training, and free libraries (North Carolina State University, 2003). As the first Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education, Mann won financial support for public schools and doubled the wages of teachers. Later, his influence extended well beyond his home state. His "Common School Journal" (1841-1848) advocated - successfully, in most…… [Read More]

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Public and Private Schools Co-Exist

Words: 5461 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65299900

Statement of the Problem

In the business world, when a small company manages to bring a superior product to market in a more cost-effective fashion than their larger counterparts, analysts sit up and take notice. Likewise, according to Wilensky (2002), "With the decline of K- 12 quality in most public schools in the United States since 1970, the average quality of parochial and public schools has converged" (p. 76). Because resources are by definition scarce, and the costs associated with the American public school system are truly enormous, it just makes good business sense to identify best practices and determine what works best under what conditions and private schools typically spend far less than their public school counterparts (Coleman). Nevertheless, the nation's schools are not factories and its pupils and students are not so many widgets to be churned out according to a standard cookbook approach to academic development. As Lavy (2007) emphasizes, "In the private sector, market mechanisms discipline firms into providing products that consumers value, but public schools lack market discipline. Schooling is compulsory and public, and students are simply assigned to attend their neighborhood school. Parents and students who are unhappy with what their schools offer generally…… [Read More]

Berliner, D.C. & Biddle, B.J. (1995). The manufactured crisis: Myths, fraud, and the attack on America's public schools. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Coleman, J.S. (1990). Equality and achievement in education. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
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Attend Public or Private Schools

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33171379

Only one respondent had strong views regarding the difference between private and parochial school funding, stating that it was dangerous to fund schools with religious affiliations, because of the potential favoritism this could generate, and citing the need for a separation from church and state. Most of the respondents said that it did not matter whether parochial or secular private schools received funding, and they were more concerned about the justice of the funding than any religious issues at stake. Regarding support for special needs children whose needs were not being met by the conventional school system, almost all of the respondents agreed that this was a necessary instance of public funding for private education except for one, who stated that too many students were being diagnosed with learning disabilities and he was not sure the money would be spent wisely.

Support for charter schools (which are not private schools, but public schools that receive federal funds but are exempt from many regulations regarding admissions, accountability, and standardized assessments) tended to depend upon the respondent's position on private school funding. Supports of private school vouchers tended to support charter schools as a way of extending more individualized attention to students…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Charter schools: pro and con. (2011). National Convention of State Legislatures.

Retrieved August 28, 2011 at
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Funding Public School Disparities

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36300140

Public School Funding

With reports on the lower standardized test scores among the nation's students, policy makers are once again turning their attention to the issue of education reform. For many educators, one of the culprits behind this is not only the dearth of money spent on public education. Rather, the available funding is disbursed unequally, benefiting the already more affluent school districts.

This paper examines the inequity that exists in funding public school education.

The first part of this paper looks at examples of this unequal funding throughout the country. The next part of the paper then looks at the various reasons for these disparities, from the government level to the lack of public support.

In the conclusion, this paper argues that there remains a strong need to increase public support for education funding, and to re-work the current formula used by states to determine how school funds are disbursed. After all, whether one is wealthy or poor, it is in everyone's interests to ensure that the succeeding generation of Americans is both skilled and educated.


In 2001, Congress agreed to re-write the long-standing Elementary and Secondary Education Act. This alone was a contentious step, since agreeing to…… [Read More]

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Effects of Student Body Size on School Costs and Academic Performance in Mississippi High Schools

Words: 5735 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20064788

Student Body Size on School Costs and Academic Performance in Mississippi High Schools

One of the most heated point of contention within school districts currently is the variable effects of school size, school funding and student performance. There are costs and benefits associated with school size and especially class size and those issues effect school funding, as it is largely accepted that less schools, therefore larger schools equals less cost overall. Yet, the concern in any district is the trade off associated with increasing the size of the student body and therefore almost assuredly increasing the class size and the student to teacher ratio.

The decade of the 1980s saw a massive effort on the part of state governments to reform their educational systems. Although most efforts such as decreasing student-teacher ratios or increasing teacher salaries had little impact on student performance, three variables that are under the control of state education agencies are related to performance - compulsory education laws, school size, and long-term educational funding.

Smith and Meier)

The education system within the United States has been is driven by the economy as tax revenue is the major source of school funding. "To some degree the picture will…… [Read More]

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Private School Is a Much

Words: 485 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7184704

Private schools also do not have to give students testing like is required in public schools, so children may or may not be getting a better education -- there is no way to compare. Certain rules and regulations in private schools may make it difficult for kids to follow, and therefore they do not do as well in private schools but are more able to express themselves in the environment of a public school. Public schools also by law must be standardized in their provision of programs and services, and private schools are not.

Private and public schools both have their own benefits and problems. I still feel that when you take into account the fact that the price is reasonable, the education more focused and the teacher attention more individual, it is important that whenever possible, children be allowed to attend a private school.

No author listed: What Price Private Education. TimesOnline. Jan 7, 2007. Accessed on the internet at

David Boaz and R. Morris Barrett. What Would a School Voucher Buy?

The Real Cost of Private Schools. March, 1996. Accessed online at

Thorp, Victoria & James, Jessie. Private vs. Public Schools: What's the Difference? Great Schools.…… [Read More]

David Boaz and R. Morris Barrett. What Would a School Voucher Buy?

The Real Cost of Private Schools. March, 1996. Accessed online at 

Thorp, Victoria & James, Jessie. Private vs. Public Schools: What's the Difference? Great Schools. Accessed on the Internet at -- t/
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Year-Round Schools

Words: 2902 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30159947

Stop Learning:

One hears a great deal today about the poor quality of education. While some children do well, others cannot seem to learn even the basics. Reading, writing, and arithmetic -- the famous four R's -- have garnered a great deal of attention in one educational initiative after another. Presidents, governors, mayors, and school district superintendents have all taken up the battle cry. Numerous ideas have been proposed, but so far none have been adopted universally, perhaps because none have been proven fool-proof. Clearly, we must look closely at the problem at hand; determine precisely what it is that our children are lacking; what our goals are, and how these goals can best be achieved. Among the many proposals that have been floated is the idea of Year Round Schooling. A marked break with tradition, Year Round Schooling would seem to offer various advantages. The lack of extended breaks would seem to work against the disruption of the learning process, eliminating the need for so much review and repetition. A Year Round School System could also help cash-strapped school districts to educate more children with limited resources -- children could attend different school sessions. The lack of resources also…… [Read More]

1) 2001 Summer Arts Directory. (2001, February). School Arts, 100, 52.

2) Chrispeels, J.H. (2002). EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS - the California Center for Effective Schools: The Oxnard School District Partnership. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(5), 382.
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Voucher System Individuals With Disabilities

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69139235

With 6,153,000 covered under the IDEA, schools are eligible to receive $18.01 billion federal funds. Regrettably, schools are just receiving a paltry $7.5 billon. (National Education Association: IDEA Funding Coalition Offers Proposal -Plan would make funding mandatory)

To look at it in another way schools are at present receiving just approximately 17% rather than the federal commitment of 40% of APPE. Even though that is a considerable amount, schools will make expenditure in excess of $102 billion on those students. Apart from that, there are additional components within IDEA that are financed individually and cater extra purposes. There are many ways by which federal shortfall hurts the school districts. Whereas a lot of interest has been generated to mounting federal expenses meant for special education since previous few years, new federal funding has not kept pace with the mounting costs at the regional levels. Indeed, special education costs meant for local school districts are going considerably faster compared to new federal funding.

Even with the latest rises in federal special education funding since the past few years, the monetary load has risen from 39% of total spending to 45% during the same period. It is important to know how fully…… [Read More]

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Educational System School Improvement the

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32804940

6% total attendance) while dropout rates decreased by amazing percentiles (300% decrease from 8 to 1.9%). This is not only in Maryland's schools but in others as well.

III. Outcomes Reported in National Reports

The work entitled "Engendering School Improvement Through Strung Instructional Leadership" a study of the Sale Elementary School and Columbus Municipal School District in Columbus, Mississippi, by author Gregory E. Woods states that "effective schooling research identified schooling practices and characteristics were the focus of "the outcomes of measured practices in the classroom in relation to the achievement of and improvement in leadership in the instructional prices of the teachers. Through District-wide effort the school, with a 51.2% African-American population and 48 percentage of other the 5,840 students enrolled passed a 17 million bond for funding reorganization in the district and through efforts such as the school librarian, Virginia Lindsey, who gained a grant for the school for the purchase of two computers and the Macmillan reading program. That in combination with other reading programs such as STARS (Students readings silently) there was a 72% increase of STA reading scores in the percentage in 1992 and 1993 was witness to the spot of the top 75 percentile…… [Read More]

Shaughnessy, Joan M. (2001) Preparing High school Students for the World of Work in a Tech Prep Program - St. Mary's County Public Schools "school Improvement Research Series (SIRS) Online available at5

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Education Policy

Words: 1320 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52340094

School Voucher System


Proponents - believe voucher systems increase parent choice regarding school attendance for their children. (AFT, accessed 2002b).

Opponents - voucher systems do not give parents full choice - they are limited by size of tuition and fact that private and parochial schools can choose their students and may not admit the child in question

AFT Position - Supports the right to use private schools; opposes the use of public funds to help pay for it.

Reasons (AFT, accessed 2002b):

That money could go to public schools that are available to all children

That public school is essential to democracy

That public schools are more accountable to taxpayers than private or parochial ones

That private and parochial schools often pick their students in biased ways

That voucher systems do not improve student education

D. What research shows improves educational outcomes (AFT, accessed 2002b)

reducing class size

using best practices to teach


A. This bill endorses the idea of parental choice for parents regarding how they raise their children, including the choice of educational setting for them.

B. The bill argues that parents with limited financial means by definition…… [Read More]

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Home Schooling Since Public Schools Have Become

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84449863

Home Schooling

"Since public schools have become over crowded, guns and violence are a daily occurrence, and private schools are so over priced for the average family, home schooling has become an excellent alternative."

Education all the while has been a burning issue, it has been talked about in political fraternities, in the media and expectantly, in the households of America. Schools are encountering plummeting test results, aggressive behavior and other difficulties and it evidently appears that there is an urgency to assess various options for imparting education to the children of America. A lot of alternatives are available; however, home school, private schools and public schools are among the three types of schools which are extremely widespread and adored by all. (Evaluating schooling alternatives)

Nowadays, public schools possess several limitations, like they had all through the previous century, like they will be all the while, as they are a venture of people. Nearly, all the limitations in our schools can be rooted to economic deprivation -- particularly patches of economic deprivation. Contemporary studies on mathematics and science underscores several years of research revealing that economically disadvantaged students are directed into low and middle-path classes, get teachers having the minimum…… [Read More]

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Charter Schools Learning Styles

Words: 3861 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84671574

Charter Schools and Minorities

An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Charter School Concept to Date

The nation's public schools are struggling to meet the challenges presented by the No Child Left Behind mandates, and charter schools have been suggested as one approach that holds the promise of providing public schools with the tools they need to succeed. According to one authority, "The Charter School concept has the potential to utterly transform public education" (n.p.). Unfortunately, this potential has not been realized to any appreciable degree in many such charter schools to date (Schmerler, 2002). To this end, this paper will provide a review of the relevant and peer-reviewed literature to determine how well charter schools are actually serving and meeting the needs of urban students of color. A comparison of the performance of the charter schools with the performance of public schools in educating students of color will be followed by an examination of the opportunities and barriers that exist to implementing best practices in a given charter school; a summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Background and Overview. In sum, a charter school provides a framework in which a group of…… [Read More]

Anderson, L., Adelman, N, Finnigan, K., Cotton, L., Donnelly, M.B., & Price, T. (2002). A

decade of public charter schools: Evaluation of the public charter schools program:
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Public Schools vs Private Schools - Culturally

Words: 3395 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22654516

Public Schools vs. Private Schools - Culturally appropriate education

Review of the literature

Education and culture

Teaching dispositions

Outmoded educational model

Would vo-tech be a better public school goal?

Developing the person instead of the mind

Opposition to change in public schools

Alternatives to public and private school

School reform has been a constant theme of public debate for much of the past two decades. Standardized testing, which was supposed to solve the problem of poorly prepared students graduating from high schools is not accepted as the panacea it was first supposed to be. In fact, it appears that a new model of education is needed, and some people have suggested home-schooling as a good substitute for public schools. However, not all parents are qualified to homeschool their children, nor are most able to afford private schools, which have a better reputation for properly preparing graduates for what lies ahead of them. There must be a solution, however, and in this project, several possibilities will be proposed and discussed.

Chapter I. Introduction (Statement of the Problem)

There are two, or possibly even three, co-existent educational systems in the United States. The largest of these is the public education system, followed…… [Read More]

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Public School System in America

Words: 3272 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70099434

However a poll take in 1994 by the Wall Street Journal found that 28% of Americans would prefer to have their own children homeschooled (Houston & Toma 2003).

The authors further explain that the increased number of children being home schooled has created issues associated with truancy laws and in some cases been the catalyst for the passing of new laws. In fact 35 states have created new legislation related to home schooling. For instance, in some states there are hybrid forms of public-home enrollment. In addition the state of Idaho permits dual enrollment, and in California there is a district that gives parents a $1,000 voucher to home-schooled children so that they can purchase textbooks that are approved by the district. Although states have been effective in formulating and implementing laws related to home schooling, the federal government has been less effective in creating such legislation (Robertson 1994; (Houston & Toma 2003).

In addition (Ryan & Stull 2000) report that the substantial growth in homeschooling is the cause of significant change in the legal status of homeschooling.

These legal changes occurred primarily as a result of court decisions in which advocates for homeschooling challenged state compulsory education laws (Ryan…… [Read More]

Homeschooling. (2000, October). World and I, 15, 14.

Houston, R.G., & Toma, E.F. (2003). Home Schooling: An Alternative School Choice. Southern Economic Journal, 69(4), 920+.
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Public Schools vs Private Schools

Words: 4609 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72012833

Inconsistent evaluation methods between public, private, and charter schools, as well as the ever-present problems with whether or not achievement is actually measured accurately by standardized test scores, are two issues that must be taken into account when evaluating the findings of this report.

Despite all of this negative press for charter schools, some studies do appear to show that these schools may be a positive learning atmosphere for students and that academic achievement may be comparable to public schools. Caroline M. Hoxby (2004), with Harvard University and the National Bureau of Economic Research, compares the reading and mathematics proficiency of charter students vs. public school students. An important aspect of Hoxby's study is that ninety-nine percent of charter students are included in this study. This is especially important because less than two percent of all students are enrolled in charter schools, which means that not including any measurable portion of the charter school students in the study will significantly skew the results of the study. Another recent charter school study only took three percent of Charter students into consideration when determining the results; that sample represents a total of four students in the fourth grade in Connecticut schools, only…… [Read More]

The Art and Science Group. (2004, July 21) Study Reveals That Boarding School is Springboard for Success; New Research Challenges Stereotypes, Shows Difference in Outcomes for Boarding, Public and Private Day Students. PR Newswire.

Bauer, a.M. (1997, May) a mother's education: Classical Academy seemed almost too good to be true. It was. MPLS-St. Paul Magazine, 25.5, 62(11).
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Public & Private Schools the

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78887972


Costs for private schools for elementary, middle school and high school students range from a few hundred dollars a month to over $1,000 per month per child in the more exclusive private schools. The U.S. Government, during the latter part of the 20th century, enacted voucher programs hoping to create a more equitable approach to gaining private education in those regions of cities where there was significant chasms between those who could and could not afford private school (Ward, Clark, 1991). Given the wide variation in costs between private schools and given the fact that public school is free leads nearly all monitories to choose the latter alternative for their children. The debate continues as to whether the high cost of private schools is a form of discrimination or not (Kemerer, Martinez, Godwin, 1996).


Comparing the benefits of public vs. private schools illustrates one fundamental fact, and that is the role of parents in ensuring their children get an excellent education. The role of parents is actually just as significant as the quality of the instructors in private schools. Comparing just costs and the mistaken beliefs that private schools will always have smaller classes, more focused instructors is…… [Read More]

Kemerer, F., Martinez, V., Godwin, K., & North Texas Univ., D. (1996, January 1). Comparing Public and Private Schools: Teacher Survey Results. North Texas University Press.

Ward, T., & Clark, H. (1991, January 1). A Reexamination of Public- versus Private-School Achievement: The Case for Missing Data. Journal of Educational Research, 84(3), 153-63.
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Recruitment Problem for My School Is Predominantly

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25091806

recruitment problem for my school is predominantly the poverty levels that are quite high hence making many children not to be able to attend school. With the voucher system, there has been an upsurge of application for recruitments so as to take advantage of the benefits that come with the voucher. This then presents a new problem of overpopulating the school such that the teacher-student ratio will not be manageable.

The main aim of the school now is to ensure that the enrolment rates go higher and that more students get the chance to join high school to get education. The school is also focused on ensuring the voucher system works out to the benefit of the students and that the system attracts the maximum possible number of students to the school. The quality of education is also another fundamental consideration in light of the fact that the middle class school that is our competitor does have strong academic records, in order for our school to attract and retain students, there is need to strengthen our academic levels.

Our school should start recruitment based on the academic performance and the talent availability. This will enable our academic standards to go…… [Read More]

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Economic Issues in Non-Public Schools

Words: 2673 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91050370

Economics Issues in Non-Public Schools

This paper is a literature review of economic issues in non-public schools and it will mainly use information obtained from nine sources of economic literatures so highlighted in the work cited section. To begin with, this section will look at an overview of the economic subject from a general perspective, followed also by an overview of the non-public educational sector in general; the purpose of this is to give the research more in depth in terms of information about the topic of discussion.

The economic issues in non-public schools that will be discussed include the issue of economies of scale and the issues of demand and supply in non-public schools. The issues will be presented in a manner stemming from the literatures that will be reviewed for this research.


Aristides (2002, 253-263) in his studies described economics as the study of how man tries to utilize the scares resources he has in order to satisfy his unlimited want and there by getting great benefit from limited resources. Resources here is used to mean anything that can be used to satisfy human wants or desire for various things, these resources can be natural resources or…… [Read More]

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Educational Theory and Philosophy in

Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21973033

Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly achieved by isolating what was practiced from its related theme, which was believed by many researchers to be the only efficient way that a sense of unbiased logic could be developed in an individual. One of the important things to note is that the application of the "movements" theory also…… [Read More]

Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
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Federal and State Governments Effect

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73141438

As a result, private schools will teach above and beyond the minimum state standards. Where, students will learn the basic subjects and then specialized skills that they can use later on in life. (Messerli, 2009)

The school vouchers program has its fair share of drawbacks the most notable would include: they are a violation of the separation of church and state. Because the majority of private schools are religious orientated, means that any kind of public funding that is used in these schools is a violation of this principal. This affects the overall education that students are receiving, because of the increased amounts of influence that religion will play in their education. (Messerli, 2009)

A second criticism that many opponents make about the school voucher program is: there is a lack of regulation for these types of schools. The public school system is highly regulated; this means that all standards for education are set by the state, to ensure that everyone is receiving a good education. At a private school, these standards do not apply. This means, that the overall quality of education could be worse, because there is no effective regulation of these schools. Once this takes place, an…… [Read More]

Messerli, J. (2009, May 24). Should Government Vouchers Be Given to Pay for Private Schools. Retrieved March 13,

2010 from Balanced Politics website:
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Extinction or Survival Implications for

Words: 3413 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96945138

Early Education Shows No Benefit (HSLDA 2007)

This article argues for the viewpoint that Head-Start-type early education is not only non-productive, but can actually lead to detriments to children's development as they enter formal school. The article begins by citing the results of a recent study of 35,000 students by Durham University, which found that there was no benefit to pre-school education programs for children. The article points to a series of earlier studies, reaching back to the 1960's, which demonstrate that there are no lasting benefits: it is clear from these studies that summer pre-school programs show no short-term or long-term gains, while all-year pre-schools offer some advantages only in the first year or two of formal schooling. The article also argues that children who go to pre-schools too young suffer from being away from their parents, and may have behavioral difficulties later. One could expect that those who back home schooling would also back the importance of constant parent presence, particularly for young children. The article could have been strengthened by the findings of Jean Piaget and Maria Montessori, who established a strong correlation between stage of development and ability to learn.


Dawkins' Arguments for the Selfish…… [Read More]

Bethell, T. "Against Sociobiology." First Things. 2001. (Accessed November 20, 2007).

CER. "Education Programs Constitutional; Growth Steady." EdReform. com. July 26, 2007. (Accessed November 20, 2007).
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Education Report to Congress Person

Words: 3813 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2919614

Hernando County and NCLB: Mandate for Drastic Change

The Hon. Ginny Brown-Waite

North Main Street


Hernando County's Current NCLB Situation

The Hernando County Situation in a Larger Context

National Commentary on NCLB

2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report -District Level, Hernando

1004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report, Hernando

FCAT Grades and AYP Status, Hernando County Schools

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act has stamped modern American education with the mark of mediocrity. In mandating that all school districts in the nation live up to a set of standards or lose important Title 1 funding for their disadvantaged schools, and by imposing sanctions that are draconian in their effects, the federal government is imposing the will of Congress on the choices of parents. In addition, the dissonant requirement that states set their own standards creates disparity of a magnitude unimaginable before the federal government decided to intrude into this most important, not to say intimate, local issue between children, parents and those who are entrusted to educate those children. The effect of the NCLB act is, so far, to encourage a lowering of standards -- a march toward educational mediocrity -- in the service of satisfying federal demands that…… [Read More]

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Bob Herbert Believes America Social Economic Political

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19456050

Bob Herbert believes America social, economic political issues require discussion change. Select issues Herbert discusses, essay 500 words, explain issue discuss agree diagree Herbert America handle issue.

In his essay "A Fire in the Basement," Bob Herbert talks about his frustrations with the state of the country today. He illuminates particularly that "public schools [are] swarming with students but starved of books and supplies" (qtd. In Graff, Birkenstein, and Durst 396). Herbert's assertion that public education in America is in trouble is correct: The resources are too taxed, the school systems too apathetic, and the students lack motivation. The best way to solve this problem is to take a closer look at how schooling is structured and make drastic reforms both on a commercial and philosophical level.

As it stands now, public education, with all of its downfalls, is still prized by Americans. In a 1999 poll, "more than 70% of those queried…favor improving the public schools over seeking an alternative system" (Rose 1999). There is still potential for the system which so many have faith in to be resurrected. People must stop looking to private schools, charter schools, and school vouchers to provide answers and work to solve the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Freeman, Robert. "Competing Models for Public Education: Which Model Is

Best?" Our Schools, Our Selves Summer 2005: 38. Questia. Web. 22 Mar. 2011.
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American Nation Today Is That of Its

Words: 1169 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10071618

American nation today is that of its failing school systems. It is a favorite rhetorical trope of politicians that education is an investment in our nation's future. However, few politicians are truly interested in remedying the situation in real, constructive ways. Two ways politicians have recently attempted to improve the nation's education system were through introducing an expanded school voucher system and raising state standards for children's education via increased standardized testing. These solutions are attractive to voters because they do not cause much of a drain upon taxpayer's funds. But ultimately the only real solution to that will result in a real and long-lasting improvement in the education that all American children receive is increased funding for schools. The is particularly true of increased funding for failing schools so they may fund special programs for students experiencing difficulty in mastering basic skills, such as math and language education.

Vouchers may seem, on the surface, an attractive short-term solution for school improvement. Recently, the Supreme Court passed a decision allowing parents to use publicly funded vouchers to supplement the tuition towards religious, private schools. This decision met with approval from President Bush, who called the decision "historic." (Bumiller, 2001, "Bush…… [Read More]

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Free Market Approach to America's

Words: 2619 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91025407

" (Snell, 2005)

Presently, there are approximately 1 million students nationwide enrolled in Charter schools and over 3,400 contracts between charter schools and their government authorizers..." resulting in Charter schools being the "most common example of school choice." (Snell, 2005) Charter schools in both the profit and nonprofit sector charter schools are growing and stated specifically is: "In 2005 there were at least 500 public schools being operated by 51 for-profit management companies in 28 states. There has also been substantially more specialization and branding of nonprofit charter schools. There are well-known national nonprofit brands, such as KIPP Academies, and there are scores of for-profit and nonprofit charters that operate a handful of schools each focusing on the Montessori method, or math and science, or the performing arts." (Snell, 2005) Snell also relates that the nonprofit schools have succeeded in branding as some of the nonprofit charter schools are well-known. Snell states that in order that schools d experience "substantial growth, school choice programs need students with substantial purchasing power, and they need to be open to a larger student population." (Snell, 2005) Stated as the greatest obstacle to more choices in schools is "the implicit acceptance of our archaic…… [Read More]

Coulson, Andres J. (2004) Academic Performance of Market vs. Monopoly Schooling (2004) Cato Institute Market Research: A Quick Guide to Scholarly Literature on School Choice. Online available at;
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Interest Groups and How Their Influence on

Words: 2287 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27418829

Interest Groups and How Their Influence on Public Policy

Interest Groups and their influence on public Policy

Interest groups are clusters of people that come into existent to make stresses on government. The leading interest groups that are located in the United States are financial or occupational, but a range of other clusters -- philosophical, public interest, foreign policy, government itself, and ethnic, religious, and cultural -- have memberships that cut across the big economic groupings; thus, their influence is both reduced and stabilized. Actions of great amounts of individuals who are irritated with government strategies have continuously been with us in the United States. People such as women, Native Americans, Blacks, and those that are considered the economic underdogs have, at numerous times, prearranged themselves into certain types of movements. With that said, this paper will discuss the influence that interest groups have on politics.

What are interest groups?

Interest groups are considered to be nonprofit, nonviolent relations of people or other organizations that are autonomous of governments that combine interests and vaccinate them into the policy procedure. Every interest group has to be able to struggle with the 'reason of collective charge' (Hastie, 2009). All of this is…… [Read More]

Burstein, P. & . (2002). The impact of political parties, interest groups, and social movement organizations on public policy: Some recent evidence and theoretical concerns. Social Forces, 23(7), 381-408.

Hastie, R.E. (2009). Tobacco control interest groups and their influence on parliamentary committees in canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 100(5), 370-5.
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For-Profit Education vs Non-Profit Education

Words: 17404 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85288713

NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (Breneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).

The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JBL Associates (2004).

Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He assessed and studied the National Longitudinal Study of the H.S. Class of 1972 (NLSY-72) under the OLS regression model and highlighted the income-earning patterns of the non-profit post-secondary graduates and also concluded that there was no significant profits gained by the non-profit institutions for their long-term earnings. In his study,…… [Read More]

Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
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Red Pencil the Author Theodore

Words: 1710 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9860270

Apart from being an uncommon book about schooling written by an eager intellect, it is as in a debate neither expediently right nor left that regularly breaks down (Rotherham, 2005).

Furthermore, the book isn't just a litany of complaints as whenever Sizer writes about education; it has always been worth paying attention (Rotherham, 2005). Thus, from numerous vantage points Sizer is considered plenty of sausage making in the field of American education and written significantly about it.

Sizer's has always believed and taken schools as the center of control, merging well with permissiveness along with conservative political philosophy. Therefore, despite of Sizer's disdain for No Child Left Behind, the National Education Association will not be quoting this book as a road map for modification or transformation in education (Rotherham, 2005). Thus, this political tension between left and right is what makes this book "The Red Pencil" appealing and exciting more (Rotherham, 2005).

Works Cited

Publishers Weekly. The Red Pencil by Theodore R. Sizer.


Yale University Press. The Red Pencil.


Barnes & Noble. The Red Pencil by Theodore R. Sizer.


Rotherham, Andrew. The Latest on Education: Middle Man. Book Review. New York Post.

Book Report… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Publishers Weekly. The Red Pencil by Theodore R. Sizer.

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Christian Coalition in the Rise of the Religious Right Ralph Reed Pat Robertson

Words: 787 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25887484

Christian Coalition in the Religious Right

Explaining the Role of the Christian Coalition

The role of the Christian Coalition (CC) during the latter half of the 20th century was to rebuild the Religious Right (RR) movement into a permanent grass roots political organization that would support policies and candidates favored by the Religious Right at all levels, especially at the local level. Under the leadership of Ralph Reed, the CC adopted political pragmatism and professionalism giving the RR more political influence than it had in the past.

At the time the Christian Coalition was created, the Moral Majority (which played an important role in the election of Ronald Reagan in1980) was closing, and the Americans for Robertson (the successor of the Freedom Council created for Pat Robertson's campaign for the Republican nomination for president in 1988) was drifting (Martin 1996, 300-301, 304, 308). The RR was without an effective and enduring political organization.

The CC started by re-engaging people that had been organized and mobilized by the Freedom Council and Americans for Robertson. The organization grew with new recruits, trained cadres in political and leadership skills, and networked with other conservative organizations at the local level (Martin 1996, 303, 305-307).…… [Read More]


Martin, W. 1996. With God on Our Side. The Rise of the Religious Right in America. New York,

NY: Broadway Books.
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NCLB Influences Involved in the

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77133694

For example, superintendents used to be given some leeway in hiring and firing of relevant personnel. Now, if the "relevant school staff when schools fail to make annual yearly progress for four consecutive years" they must be fired (Peterson & Young 2004:1). "Similarly, a significant downturn in student achievement and K-12 education's need to seek larger percentages of ever shrinking state budgets, motivated twenty-three states to pass laws authorizing state or city takeovers of districts perceived to be in crisis," taking many traditional roles and responsibilities away from school superintendents (Peterson & Young 2004:1). NCLB federal funding guidelines have essentially, in some state legislator's eyes, forced their hands to take control over locally supervised districts.

Interventions to influence the interrelationships

To better improve district performance, superintendents can work with teachers to create enrichment programs and test-centered supplements to the curriculum at 'at risk' schools. There is limited federal funding available for school leadership enrichment programs, and promoting individuals to leadership positions who come from the district and understand the unique needs of the student population is recommended. For school districts that widely vary in their performance, superintendents can consult teachers and principles with winning strategies, and encourage these educators to…… [Read More]

Peterson, George & Michelle Young. (2004, Jul). No Child Left Behind Act and its

Influence on Current and Future District Leaders. Journal of Law and Education. Retrieved 28 Aug 2007 at (
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Ideology in Education Over the

Words: 837 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23572664

Those who continue to trend lower in their results must engage in a number of actions to include:

Offering free tutoring and additional services to struggling students in the third year.

Changing the staff, curriculum, the administration and introducing other sweeping reforms during year four.

Turing the facility into a charter school, having the state takeover or hiring a private company to run the institution in the fifth year.

These different elements are showing how the No Child Left Behind Act is focusing on using testing and market forces to deal with the problems inside the education system. ("No Child Left Behind Act," 2004)

Analyze and discuss how the No Child Left Behind Act provides illustration of the connection between ideology and educational philosophy

The market-based ideology is working in conjunction with the No Child Left Behind Act. The way that this is occurring is through having measurable standards (which are higher). Then, they are using various tests to determine the progress and quality of education that is provided by different schools. ("No Child Left Behind Act," 2004)

This is used to decide if a facility needs to make dramatic changes. At first this is taking place, by offering more…… [Read More]

Investing in Our Future. (2012). White House. Retrieved from:

No Child Left Behind Act. (2004). Education Week. Retrieved from: 
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National Education Association American Government

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10590720

National Education Association

Group Identity

The National Education Association (NEA) was formed in 1857 and is dedicated to championing the rights of both educators and children. It has been a part of integration, the Civil Rights movement, equal opportunity education, and the rights of teachers for over 150 years. After 1966 the National Education Association and American Teachers Association merged to form a more cohesive and powerful body. Each state has a branch of the NEA that regularly does lobby work to legislators for the resources schools need and to push for higher standards in the teaching profession. The NEA's programs and services may be accessed at There are currently five forms of membership, from Students to Retired. Anyone actively involved in the American Education System, as well as several distance and online institutions, may join the NEA, although professional certification is required for certain membership tiers.


The NEA sees itself as the voice for education professionals with the values and trust provided by members to represent a fundamental necessity for the nation. The vision is simple: a great public school for every student. The NEA does this by advocating educational professionals to unite with one voice to…… [Read More]

National Education Association. (2012). Main Website. Retrieved from: /home/1594.htm
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American History and Culture Contributes

Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36047997

Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.

Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons seeking a religious education for their children could not be denied this use of tax funds if indeed the government was willing to pay for a non-religious form of education.

Numerous groups have advanced these arguments in one fashion or another. For many the argument comes down to a belief…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.

Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.
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Friedman Is Considered to Be One of

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88816011

Friedman is considered to be one of the more influential thinkers of his time and "Milton Friedman on Economics: Selected Papers," is a collection of much of his work. Many of the enclosed papers were originally published in the Journal of Political Economy. The work opens up with his 1977 Nobel Lecture and then spans a great part of his life and career. There were some works in the collection from as early as 1948 through 1990. Because he was so influential over the course of his career, this series of letters and works provides a great opportunity to not only get an introduction into his line of reasoning, it also provides a historic blueprint of detailed economic thought. Milton Friedman offers clues about the twentieth-century's economics and political policies.

Milton Friedman is considered to have been one of the great economic thinkers of our time and he was obviously greatly respected because of it. As both an economist and an intellectual, he literally became the front and mouthpiece of an economic movement. His views were both raw and at times controversial as economics crossed over into politics because of his deep seated laissez-faire policies and thinking. His Nobel Prize…… [Read More]

Friedman, Milton, 1977. "Nobel Lecture: Inflation and Unemployment." Journal of Political Economy. 85, pp. 451-472.

Friedman, Milton. (2008). "Milton Friedman on Economics: Selected Papers." Chicago: University of Chicago Press Journals. (February 1, 2008)
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American Politics

Words: 1787 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48969749

American citizenry is somewhat in the position of the unfortunate citizens of some third-world countries who try to stay out of the cross-fire while Maoist guerrillas and right-wing death squads shoot at each other. Reports of a culture war are mostly wishful thinking and useful fund-raising strategies on the part of culture-war guerrillas, abetted by a media driven by the need to make the dull and everyday appear exciting and unprecedented.

At the time of every election, both the Democrat and Republican presidential candidates begin spouting their strong political platform. Somewhere along the line of American history, and perhaps it was once true, there arose the belief that a major difference exists between the two parties' beliefs. In their book Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America, Morris P. Fiorina of Stanford University, Samuel J. Abrams of Harvard University, and Jeremy C. Pope of Stanford University combine polling data with a corresponding historical background to negate the common myth that Americans are deeply divided in their fundamental views. When comparing the platforms of today's candidates, they may not be far from the truth.

The term "cultural war" stems back to a speech made by Christian rightwing Pat Buchanan who…… [Read More]

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Are Uniforms a Good Way to Improve Student Discipline and Motivation

Words: 1668 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92915503

School Uniforms

The topic of school uniforms has been a debated issue for many years. Proponents of school uniforms argue that they are necessary because they encourage children to focus more on their education and less on what they are wearing (Brunsma, 2004). On the other hand opponents of school uniforms argue that school uniforms stifle creativity and discourage individuality (Brunsma, 2004). The purpose of this discussion is to confirm that school uniforms are an effective way to improve student discipline, increase student focus, and increase student motivation.

School Uniforms Lead to Improved Student Discipline

Student discipline is a crucial component in the development of a school environment that is conducive to learning. Uniforms create a sense of conformity and establish for students that school is a place that is designed to encourage learning.

Less fighting over controversial clothing

Non-uniform clothing often leads to students wearing offensive articles of clothing that may cause conflict among students. This issue is of special significance at schools that are located in cities that have problems with gang related violence (Randel, 2006). According to Gentile & Imberman, (2010) school uniforms may be responsible for providing significant improvements in school safety because they ensure that…… [Read More]

Brunsma, D. (2004). The school uniform movement and what it tells us about American education: a symbolic crusade. Lanham: Scarecrow Education

Craik, J. (2005). Uniforms exposed: from conformity to transgression. New York: Berg.
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Graffiti and Possible Solutions Graffiti

Words: 2441 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75436524

The video cameras would be donated as an in-kind contribution from a local business or corporation. If there are no video cameras available through donation, a fundraiser must be held to raise the money to buy the cameras.

Trained technicians -- advanced students from a nearby university -- would put the technology together; they would receive credits toward their degrees though the building of and maintenance of this system of surveillance. When taggers are recorded doing their graffiti on video cameras, the police department then steps in and makes the arrests. Signs are put up all around the school and other places where taggers make their marks that offer $500 for information leading to the arrest and conviction of vandals painting graffiti on buildings. Right next to every sign that offers the reward is another sign that reports the new ordinance enacted by the city council or county supervisors: first-time arrestees receive one year in county jail, or for those underage, one year of juvenile justice incarceration. Second time for those already arrested means up to 2 years in county jail or juvenile justice facilities.

A Second Potential Solution

This solution involves several components. As they do in Suffolk County,…… [Read More]

Anti-Defamation League (ADL) (2009). Hate Crimes Laws. Retrieved April 9, 2011, from

Dedel, Kelly. (2005). School Vandalism and Break-Ins / Guide No. 35. Center for Problem-
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Public Education and the Public

Words: 1766 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80790287

society that the public may claim a greater intellectual stake in than public education. Not only is the process of educating the next generation (at least in public schools) undertaken at the expense of most residents, but it also concerns us in a cultural way as well - we will all have to live in the world that these children will inhabit and help to shape, regardless of whether we ourselves are parents.

And yet, despite the legitimacy of the claim that members of the general public may make to their own engagement in the process of public education, relatively few people who are not themselves parents of public-school children do become deeply involved (and relatively few of these). This does not mean, of course, that people do not have strongly held opinions about matters of educational policy.

This literature review examines two related, indeed often intermingled, sets of subjects. The first of these is an examination of those subjects that might in some objective sense be said to be of most concern for public education at the beginning of the 21st century, particularly in terms of public education in the state of Pennsylvania. The second set of issues that…… [Read More]

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Greek Mythological Master Piece Sailing

Words: 1363 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69414991

Historical Issues In Modern Education

There are numerous issues seeded in a Greek civilization, rooting down to the contemporary world; for instance Gender Equity, home schooling, Pledge of allegiance, Unions and collective bargaining just to name a few. Each of the issues would be addressed in due course.

Most notably gender bias as practiced by the Greeks is the major parasitical issue in all avenues of education. A study commissioned by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in 1991 claims that girl don't receive as much attention and are not put into challenging situations like complex and abstract questioning, as compared to boys, in an average school (Woodward, 1998). Moreover, countable school books portray "stereotypical" image of women. These books are void of any acknowledgements of the abilities and achievements of women altogether. This has also been hinted by Cahill in the chapter Warrior: how to fight and also in numerous other instances, in course of his narration, emphasizing the insignificance and inability of women. Second big issue is insensitivity towards students with disabilities. Formerly, teachers were reluctant and even hostile on the issue of including slow learners and disables to the mainstream classroom contents. Teachers primarily, chose to…… [Read More]

A. Woodward, 1998, Gender bias in Education, Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence." V." Yeager, Elizabeth A, Spring 2003, Secondary history teachers and inclusion of students with disabilities: An exploratory study, Journal of Social Studies Research.

Reference and Research Book News, August 2005, Kids and Violence, the invisible school experience.

Gender bias in education means treating boys and girls differently at school. (Woodward, 1998)
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Purpose of Vocational Education and Its Oppressive Nature

Words: 2425 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92636908

Vocational Education

Purpose of Vocational Education and Its Oppressive Nature: Inequality in Education as Japanese Woman (A Reflection of Oppressive Outside World).

Education is often viewed as the panacea to social marginalization; it is a tool members of society can use to obtain better wages, acquire social recognition and become socially mobile. Unfortunately, education can also be a tool used for subjugation. It is a tool that aids in continuing the support of ongoing oppression and the systemic continuance of marginalization. This problem, often thought the fault of individuals, is the fault of social and cultural influences (Mullaly, 2007). Also at fault are structural factors that invite communities to continue class patterns where persons who are already on top to remain there, while those on the bottom seek a systemic pattern where they can only continue what they do to survive (Mullaly, 2007).

When oppression exists, teachers seek similar outcomes as students when they provide an education that perpetuates suppression. Thus, common denominators exist between teachers and students, the primary driving force behind education. Education is often viewed as a means to an end, or a solution to a higher standard of living. Ultimately however, education is nothing more than…… [Read More]

Apple, M.W. (2008). Can Schooling Contribute To A More Just Society? Education, Citizenship,

And Social Justice, 3(3), 239-261.
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Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana

Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27822679

" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply that private events do not necessarily mediate drug-produced reinforcement, because some reports of private events (e.g., feels like speed) correlate better with the nonverbal operant studied than do those that are assumed to mediate reinforcement (e.g., drug liking). Although this is an interesting speculation, their subjects provided these self-reports in…… [Read More]

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
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Richard Dawkins' the Selfish Gene

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36443466

As a result, many children were schooled at home. The modern home schooling movement is a recalling of these earlier days, modernized with home schooling curricula, Internet access and activities for children, such as sports, which bring them together for social activities. Although teachers' unions insist that parents are not professionally-trained teachers, the results of home schooling are incontrovertible. Home-schooled students perform much better on standardized tests than government-schooled children, have higher college admission rates, and report greater satisfaction than those in public schools (Williams, 2007). A recent Gallup poll found that 75% of Americans favor public schooling. A similar Gallup poll, taken in 1985, found that 75% were against home schooling. In the intervening years, the continued decline of the public school paradigm has changed American minds.

Charter, Magnet and Other Schools modified way to introduce vouchers, or school choice, is to create charter and magnet schools. The founding idea is to create a school to which parents will want to send their children. These specialized schools can offer specific focus, such as music or science, or can be backed by a religious denomination (although not necessarily be a religiously-affiliated school). Public school systems can also create magnet schools.…… [Read More]

Chaddock, G. (2006, June 21). U.S. high school dropout rate: high, but how high? Christian Science Monitor, p. n.p.

Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. In R. Dawkins, the Selfish Gene (p. Chapter 11 "memes"). New York: Oxford University Press.