School Vouchers Essays (Examples)

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School Choice Throughout the Nation the American

Words: 1252 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56936251

School Choice

Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.

Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…… [Read More]

References

CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.

Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.

Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.

Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
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School Choice Has Been a

Words: 2363 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33009890

These issues of professionalism and innovation seem to be a major problem in many public schools in America. In recent years these issues have come to light as teachers have been disciplined and even fired for their interactions with students that have been unprofessional and even criminal at times. Teachers have an ethical responsibility to act professionally and when they fell to do so the ability of students to excel academically is also compromised.

The aforementioned authors also mention the lack of innovation that often occurs as a result of using democratic methods. One of the reasons why school choice is even an issue is because the curriculums that have been implemented in public schools lack variety. Part of the reason for this lack of innovation has to do with bureaucracy and government mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act. This particular act stifles innovation because many teachers…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cullen, J.B. Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt (2005) The impact of school choice on student outcomes: an analysis of the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of Public Economics. 89 (5-6):729-760

Hastings, Justine S. Thomas J. Kane Douglas Staiger (2005) Parental Preferences and School Competition: Evidence from a Public School Choice Program .Yale Economic Applications and Policy Discussion Paper No. 10

Moe, Terry. 2001. Schools, Vouchers and the American Public. Washington: Brookings Institution Press

Sikkink, D., Emerson M.O. (2008) School choice and racial segregation in U.S. schools: The role of parents' education. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(2): 267-293
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School Choice Debate The Writer

Words: 3777 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17616519



The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.

Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…… [Read More]

References

Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002

Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris

Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)

First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
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Implementing of School Uniform Policies

Words: 1884 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72323029

School Uniforms

Perhaps the biggest debate of public education over the past decade besides school vouchers has been the debate over whether or not it is legal to require students to wear a uniform to school. Increased crime, gang violence, poor academic performance in public schools has sparked the movement towards mandatory school uniforms. While school uniforms may seem the perfect solution to the problem, to some its as good as putting a band-aid on a three-inch deep wound. There are many arguments for and against school uniforms in public schools; the main concern has to do with the legality of making uniforms compulsory for public school students. The focus of this paper will be to discuss the issues presented by those both for and against school uniforms. Additionally, the legality of such a policy if implemented will also be presented. Finally, facts and figures on those schools that have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brunsma, David and Kerry A. Rockquemore. "The Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement." 92(1): 53-62. The Journal of Educational Research (1998).

Court Orders School to Enroll Honors Student Who Protested Mandatory Uniform Policy. Retrieved on November 17, 2002 from web site http://www.aclu.org/StudentsRights/StudentsRights.cfm?ID=8077&c=156

Emert Suggests Mandatory School Uniforms. Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from web site http://www.morningsun.net/stories/092099/kan_0920990017.shtml

Holmquist, Micah. "Uniformed Public Schools." Retrieved on November 15, 2002 from web site http://www.stormpages.com/micahth/youth/su.html
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Reforming Urban Schools

Words: 13440 Length: 49 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79283099

School Choice Program

This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.

Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.

The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.

To begin, I conducted structured…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.

Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.

Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.

Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
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School Choice and the Dropout

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28364127

Her point is to get support for her views, and she did, because three months after she wrote this piece there was a rally at the State Capitol in Austin where 5,000 people called for school choice in front of the Capitol building. Therefore, her words helped people make up their minds and seek action from their legislators. However, she failed to convince the legislators, who did not even address school choice during the 2007 legislative session (Editors). Either this means that the legislators are not listening to the will of the people, or that her rhetoric failed to gain their support.

The media has certainly picked up this issue, and it is an issue all around the country, not just in Texas. The Milwaukee school district has had a voucher system like this for over sixteen years, and it has proven to be a money saving plan for taxpayers,…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "School Choice Legislation." CEOAustin.org. 2008. 4 May 2009.



Storey, Jamie. "The Dropout Drain: How Dropouts -- Not School Choice -- Take Money From Public Schools." Texas Public Policy Foundation. 2007. 4 May 2009.

http://www.texaspolicy.com/commentaries_single.php?report_id=1271 >.
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School Finance Its Economics and Politics

Words: 4783 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94298009

School Finance: Its Economics and Politics

School financing in America

Revenue sources for federal and state governments

Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality

School-based decision making

Family choice of schooling

Reform of schooling-finance

Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)

Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.

Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)

National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
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Voucher System Voucher System Is

Words: 418 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50316828

Schools operating in rich areas will ask more than the basic voucher price, while schools operating in the most difficult circumstances, dealing with socially excluded groups will be restricted to the basic voucher amount. Funds should be targeted to schools that need them, not schools who are already succeeding.

Another disadvantage is that education cannot be a market. Supply cannot adjust fast enough to changing demand so some pupils will always end up stuck in dying, under-funded schools because over-subscribed schools cannot expand fast enough.

The major drawback of a voucher system is that by funding non-government schools on the same basis as state schools, it makes them vulnerable to the same level of government regulation. The success and popularity of non-government schools is arguably due to their greater autonomy and independence.… [Read More]

References

Backingham, J. (n.d). The Case for School Choice and How to Fund it. Retrieved May 5, 2005, from Policy Web site: http://www.cis.org.au/policy/Spring01/PolicySpring01_4.html

Monroe, S. (2005). Education Vouchers. Retrieved May 5, 2005, from IDEA

Web site:  http://www.debatabase.org/details.asp?topicID=180  choice for Public Education Reform. (n.d). Retrieved May 5, 2005, from Uh.edu Web site: http://www.uh.edu/~lnielsen/pdf_files/mkted2.pdf
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Private vs Public Schools Many Parents Find

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9977176

Private vs. Public Schools

Many parents find themselves caught in a dilemma when trying to decide on which choice of education to take for their children. They ask themselves whether to take their children to private schools or public schools. For a parent to choose the ideal school for their children they always have to take into consideration all the available options. They consider things like the cost of the school, how much time they will invest as a parent, the social impact that the school have on their children based on the specific need of their children as well as the family.

Private schools offer the best option for the parent who is in need of better and quality education for their children. Private schools have a nearly perfect graduation rates which market them a great deal. Their performance is better as compared to the public schools. This is…… [Read More]

References

Mary Elizabeth, (2012). "Public Schools vs. Private Schools."Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.educationbug.org/a/public-schools-vs. -- private-schools.html

Parents For Better Education America (2011). "What Every Parent Should Know About Private Schools vs. Public Schools," ASIN: B004R9QKL8. Binding: Kindle Edition. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://education.mitrasites.com/public-education-vs.-private-education.html

The Council for American Private Education. (2010). Private School Facts. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/facts.html

The Council for American Private Education. (2003). Academic Performance 2003. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/Outlook/Out9-03.html#Story5
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Educational Vouchers

Words: 3125 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34155545

Educational Vouchers: Multiple Issues and Contradictory Results

The Merriman-Webster online dictionary offers three definitions for "voucher": "...a documentary record of a business transaction; a written affidavit or authorization; a form or check indicating a credit against future purchases or expenditures." None of the three even approaches the emotionally charged version of the term "voucher" when it comes to the current debate swirling around public vs. private schools. This paper digs into the "vouchers" - or "scholarships," or "subsidies," if you prefer - provided to families in several cities and states, to move their children from less desirable, academically troubled public schools to more desirable, for-profit private, mainly religious schools.

Long before there was any discussion about vouchers, Horace Mann of Massachusetts - the "Father of American public school education" - was in the vanguard of the movement (1837) to solidify support for quality public education, excellence in teacher training, and…… [Read More]

Reference

ABC News (June 27, 2002). [Online] "Divided Court: Voucher Program Victory http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/scotus_vouchers020627.html.

American Federation of Teachers (2002). [Online] "Report Reveals Right-Wing Backers of BAEO" "Milwaukee Vouchers Cost Twice the Tuition Amount Charged Non-Voucher Students http://www.aft.org/research/vouchers/.

Friedman Foundation (2002). [Online] "School Choice Works http://www.friedmanfoundation.org/schoolchoiceworks/schoolchoiceresearch.html.

Greene, Jay P. (2002). [Online] "Vouchers in Charlotte" Education Next Magazine http://www.educationnext.org/20012/46greene.html.
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Funding Public School Disparities

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36300140

Public School Funding

With reports on the lower standardized test scores among the nation's students, policy makers are once again turning their attention to the issue of education reform. For many educators, one of the culprits behind this is not only the dearth of money spent on public education. Rather, the available funding is disbursed unequally, benefiting the already more affluent school districts.

This paper examines the inequity that exists in funding public school education.

The first part of this paper looks at examples of this unequal funding throughout the country. The next part of the paper then looks at the various reasons for these disparities, from the government level to the lack of public support.

In the conclusion, this paper argues that there remains a strong need to increase public support for education funding, and to re-work the current formula used by states to determine how school funds are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brooks, Charles. 2002. "Poor and minority districts get thousands less per student." New York Amsterdam News. August 15.

Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips. 1998. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

McDermott, Kathryn. 1999. Controlling Public Education: Localism vs. Equity. Lawrenc: University Press of Kansas.

Reed, Douglas. 2001. "Not in My Schoolyard: Localism and Public Opposition to Funding Schools Equally." Social Science Quarterly. March.
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Voucher System Individuals With Disabilities

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69139235

With 6,153,000 covered under the IDEA, schools are eligible to receive $18.01 billion federal funds. Regrettably, schools are just receiving a paltry $7.5 billon. (National Education Association: IDEA Funding Coalition Offers Proposal -Plan would make funding mandatory)

To look at it in another way schools are at present receiving just approximately 17% rather than the federal commitment of 40% of APPE. Even though that is a considerable amount, schools will make expenditure in excess of $102 billion on those students. Apart from that, there are additional components within IDEA that are financed individually and cater extra purposes. There are many ways by which federal shortfall hurts the school districts. Whereas a lot of interest has been generated to mounting federal expenses meant for special education since previous few years, new federal funding has not kept pace with the mounting costs at the regional levels. Indeed, special education costs meant for…… [Read More]

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Educational System School Improvement the

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32804940

6% total attendance) while dropout rates decreased by amazing percentiles (300% decrease from 8 to 1.9%). This is not only in Maryland's schools but in others as well.

III. Outcomes Reported in National Reports

The work entitled "Engendering School Improvement Through Strung Instructional Leadership" a study of the Sale Elementary School and Columbus Municipal School District in Columbus, Mississippi, by author Gregory E. Woods states that "effective schooling research identified schooling practices and characteristics were the focus of "the outcomes of measured practices in the classroom in relation to the achievement of and improvement in leadership in the instructional prices of the teachers. Through District-wide effort the school, with a 51.2% African-American population and 48 percentage of other the 5,840 students enrolled passed a 17 million bond for funding reorganization in the district and through efforts such as the school librarian, Virginia Lindsey, who gained a grant for the school…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shaughnessy, Joan M. (2001) Preparing High school Students for the World of Work in a Tech Prep Program - St. Mary's County Public Schools "school Improvement Research Series (SIRS) Online available at5

http://www.nwrel.og/scpd/sirs/9/s036.html.

Woods, Gregory E. (2001) "Engendering School Improvement Through Strung Instructional Leadership" National Institute for Urban School Improvement Commission a study of the Sale Elementary School and Columbus Municipal School District in Columbus, Mississippi.

Educational l System: School Improvement
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Education Policy

Words: 1320 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52340094

School Voucher System

WHY WAS IT WRITTEN?

Proponents - believe voucher systems increase parent choice regarding school attendance for their children. (AFT, accessed 2002b).

Opponents - voucher systems do not give parents full choice - they are limited by size of tuition and fact that private and parochial schools can choose their students and may not admit the child in question

AFT Position - Supports the right to use private schools; opposes the use of public funds to help pay for it.

Reasons (AFT, accessed 2002b):

That money could go to public schools that are available to all children

That public school is essential to democracy

That public schools are more accountable to taxpayers than private or parochial ones

That private and parochial schools often pick their students in biased ways

That voucher systems do not improve student education

D. What research shows improves educational outcomes (AFT, accessed 2002b)

reducing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Federation of Teachers (AFT). "Charter Schools." AFT on the issues. Accessed via the Internet 12/28/02. http://www.aft.org/issues/charterschools.html

American Federation of Teachers (AFT). "The Many Names of School Vouchers." Vouchers. Accessed via the Internet 12/28/02. http://www.aft.org/Edissues/schoolchoice/Index.htm

American Federation of Teachers (AFT). 2001. "Voucher Home Page Reports." AFT over Privatization. March. Accessed via the Internet 12/28/02. http://www.aft.org/research/vouchers/

Ives, Nancy. 2001. "McCain Introduces School Choice Legislation." John McCain, U.S. Senator - Arizona. April 5. Accessed via the Internet 12/28/02. http://mccain.senate.gov
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Public School System in America

Words: 3272 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70099434

However a poll take in 1994 by the Wall Street Journal found that 28% of Americans would prefer to have their own children homeschooled (Houston & Toma 2003).

The authors further explain that the increased number of children being home schooled has created issues associated with truancy laws and in some cases been the catalyst for the passing of new laws. In fact 35 states have created new legislation related to home schooling. For instance, in some states there are hybrid forms of public-home enrollment. In addition the state of Idaho permits dual enrollment, and in California there is a district that gives parents a $1,000 voucher to home-schooled children so that they can purchase textbooks that are approved by the district. Although states have been effective in formulating and implementing laws related to home schooling, the federal government has been less effective in creating such legislation (Robertson 1994; (Houston…… [Read More]

References

Homeschooling. (2000, October). World and I, 15, 14.

Houston, R.G., & Toma, E.F. (2003). Home Schooling: An Alternative School Choice. Southern Economic Journal, 69(4), 920+.

Lines Patricia. (1997). Homeschooling: An Overview for Educational Policymakers. Working paper, U.S. Department of Agriculture, January.

Lyman Isabel. (1998). "Homeschooling: Back to the Future?" Policy Analysis 294.
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Educational Psychology Schools Must Take

Words: 1822 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57685348



The results showed that 37% of those responding have had "some type of frequent involvement in bullying"; the data showed that 17.5% of those thirty-seven percent of the student population were victims, 11.7% were bullies, and 8.4% were both bullies and victims (bully/victim). Interestingly, and going back to the Handbook of Educational Psychology's view of bullying as acting out ethnocentrism, "minority youth were significantly more likely to be categorized as bully/victims and bullies, but significantly less likely to be categorized as victims than White youth" (Bradshaw, p. 12).

Moreover, minority youth in the survey had "increased odds" of reporting that "rumors or lies had been spread about them," and that they had been "bullied with sexual comments or gestures" (Bradshaw, p. 12). No surprisingly, youth in the groups that were connected to bullying or being victims reported feeling "less safe and less connected to their school" than youth in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berliner, David C., & Calfee, Robert C. (1996). Handbook of Educational Psychology.

New York: MacMillan Library Reference / Simon & Schuster MacMillan.

Bradshaw, Catherine P., O'Brennan, Lindsey M., & Sawyer, Anne L. (2008). Examining

Variation in Attitudes Toward Aggressive Retaliation and Perceptions of Safety
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Recruitment Problem for My School Is Predominantly

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25091806

recruitment problem for my school is predominantly the poverty levels that are quite high hence making many children not to be able to attend school. With the voucher system, there has been an upsurge of application for recruitments so as to take advantage of the benefits that come with the voucher. This then presents a new problem of overpopulating the school such that the teacher-student ratio will not be manageable.

The main aim of the school now is to ensure that the enrolment rates go higher and that more students get the chance to join high school to get education. The school is also focused on ensuring the voucher system works out to the benefit of the students and that the system attracts the maximum possible number of students to the school. The quality of education is also another fundamental consideration in light of the fact that the middle class…… [Read More]

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Economic Issues in Non-Public Schools

Words: 2673 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91050370

Economics Issues in Non-Public Schools

This paper is a literature review of economic issues in non-public schools and it will mainly use information obtained from nine sources of economic literatures so highlighted in the work cited section. To begin with, this section will look at an overview of the economic subject from a general perspective, followed also by an overview of the non-public educational sector in general; the purpose of this is to give the research more in depth in terms of information about the topic of discussion.

The economic issues in non-public schools that will be discussed include the issue of economies of scale and the issues of demand and supply in non-public schools. The issues will be presented in a manner stemming from the literatures that will be reviewed for this research.

Economics

Aristides (2002, 253-263) in his studies described economics as the study of how man tries…… [Read More]

Work cited

Aristides, N., 2002. "The Nature of the Firm" European Journal of Law and Economics 14 (3):

Blaug, Mark (2007). "The Social Sciences: Economics," Microeconomics, the New Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago

Bowers, John. (1997) Sustainability and Environmental Economics: An Alternative Text. Singapore: Addison Wesley Longman

Friedman, David D. (2002). "Crime," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics'
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Educational Theory and Philosophy in

Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21973033

Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]

References

Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.

Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.

Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
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Federal and State Governments Effect

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73141438

As a result, private schools will teach above and beyond the minimum state standards. Where, students will learn the basic subjects and then specialized skills that they can use later on in life. (Messerli, 2009)

The school vouchers program has its fair share of drawbacks the most notable would include: they are a violation of the separation of church and state. Because the majority of private schools are religious orientated, means that any kind of public funding that is used in these schools is a violation of this principal. This affects the overall education that students are receiving, because of the increased amounts of influence that religion will play in their education. (Messerli, 2009)

A second criticism that many opponents make about the school voucher program is: there is a lack of regulation for these types of schools. The public school system is highly regulated; this means that all standards…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Messerli, J. (2009, May 24). Should Government Vouchers Be Given to Pay for Private Schools. Retrieved March 13,

2010 from Balanced Politics website:  http://www.balancedpolitics.org/school_vouchers.htm
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Extinction or Survival Implications for

Words: 3413 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96945138



Early Education Shows No Benefit (HSLDA 2007)

This article argues for the viewpoint that Head-Start-type early education is not only non-productive, but can actually lead to detriments to children's development as they enter formal school. The article begins by citing the results of a recent study of 35,000 students by Durham University, which found that there was no benefit to pre-school education programs for children. The article points to a series of earlier studies, reaching back to the 1960's, which demonstrate that there are no lasting benefits: it is clear from these studies that summer pre-school programs show no short-term or long-term gains, while all-year pre-schools offer some advantages only in the first year or two of formal schooling. The article also argues that children who go to pre-schools too young suffer from being away from their parents, and may have behavioral difficulties later. One could expect that those who…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bethell, T. "Against Sociobiology." First Things. 2001. http://www.firstthings.com/article.php3?id_article=2126 (Accessed November 20, 2007).

CER. "Education Programs Constitutional; Growth Steady." EdReform. com. July 26, 2007. http://www.edreform.com/index.cfm?fuseAction=document&documentID=2691&sectionID=122&NEWSYEAR=2007 (Accessed November 20, 2007).

Crawford, C.B. And Krebs, D.L. Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Ideas, Issues, and Applications. Mahwah: Lawrence Eribaum, 1998.

Crawford, C.B. And Sheib, J. The Essence of Evolutionary Society: An Introduction. 2004.
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Education Report to Congress Person

Words: 3813 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2919614

Hernando County and NCLB: Mandate for Drastic Change

The Hon. Ginny Brown-Waite

North Main Street

Sincerely,

Hernando County's Current NCLB Situation

The Hernando County Situation in a Larger Context

National Commentary on NCLB

2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report -District Level, Hernando

1004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report, Hernando

FCAT Grades and AYP Status, Hernando County Schools

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act has stamped modern American education with the mark of mediocrity. In mandating that all school districts in the nation live up to a set of standards or lose important Title 1 funding for their disadvantaged schools, and by imposing sanctions that are draconian in their effects, the federal government is imposing the will of Congress on the choices of parents. In addition, the dissonant requirement that states set their own standards creates disparity of a magnitude unimaginable before the federal government decided to intrude into this…… [Read More]

References

2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report-District Level, Hernando. Retrieved June 18, 2004, from Florida Department of Education Web site: http://web.fldoe.org/NCLB/default.cfm

2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report. Retrieved June 18, 2004 from Florida Department of Education Web site: http://web.fldoe.org/NCLB/default.cfm?action=report2&level=District&district=27 tough law deserves tough questions; Four Maryland elementary teachers examine the new "No Child Left Behind Act" and tell NEA Today exactly what they think. (April 2002) NEA Today, 20 (7), p. 14+. Retrieved June 18, 2004: www.questia.com.

Bacon, Deborah. (June 15, 2004) Seven county schools win A grades. Hernando Today. Retrieved June 18, 2004:

http://www.hernandotoday.com/MGB59VVJIVD.html
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Bob Herbert Believes America Social Economic Political

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19456050

Bob Herbert believes America social, economic political issues require discussion change. Select issues Herbert discusses, essay 500 words, explain issue discuss agree diagree Herbert America handle issue.

In his essay "A Fire in the Basement," Bob Herbert talks about his frustrations with the state of the country today. He illuminates particularly that "public schools [are] swarming with students but starved of books and supplies" (qtd. In Graff, Birkenstein, and Durst 396). Herbert's assertion that public education in America is in trouble is correct: The resources are too taxed, the school systems too apathetic, and the students lack motivation. The best way to solve this problem is to take a closer look at how schooling is structured and make drastic reforms both on a commercial and philosophical level.

As it stands now, public education, with all of its downfalls, is still prized by Americans. In a 1999 poll, "more than 70%…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freeman, Robert. "Competing Models for Public Education: Which Model Is

Best?" Our Schools, Our Selves Summer 2005: 38. Questia. Web. 22 Mar. 2011.

Graff, Gerald, Cathy Birkenstein, and Russel K. Durst. "They Say/I Say": The

Moves that Matter in Academic Writing: with Readings. New York: W.W. Norton, 2009.
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American Nation Today Is That of Its

Words: 1169 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10071618

American nation today is that of its failing school systems. It is a favorite rhetorical trope of politicians that education is an investment in our nation's future. However, few politicians are truly interested in remedying the situation in real, constructive ways. Two ways politicians have recently attempted to improve the nation's education system were through introducing an expanded school voucher system and raising state standards for children's education via increased standardized testing. These solutions are attractive to voters because they do not cause much of a drain upon taxpayer's funds. But ultimately the only real solution to that will result in a real and long-lasting improvement in the education that all American children receive is increased funding for schools. The is particularly true of increased funding for failing schools so they may fund special programs for students experiencing difficulty in mastering basic skills, such as math and language education.

Vouchers…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bumiller, Elizabeth. (July 1, 2002). "Bush Calls Ruling About Vouchers an 'Historic' Move." The New York Times. http://partners.nytimes.com/2002/07/02/politics/02BUSH.html. Retrieved July10, 2002.

Rothstein, Richard. (July 10, 2002). "Raising School Standards and Cutting Budgets: huh?" The New York Times.  http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/10/education/10LESS.html  Retrieved July 10, 2002.
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Pre-Colonial America the History of the Educational

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88528459

Pre-Colonial America

The history of the educational system ironically has not been changed as much as one might think since the colonial era. Of course the content being studied may be completely different and they had no IPods in the early days of America, but the idea of education is still the same. According to American Education: The American Revolution, it boils down to four questions: who will be educated; who controls the overall system; who pays for it; and who gets more education then others, rich and poor, have and have not so to speak. In other words, these issues have been the foundation of the American educational system since the 1700's and they still cause too many problems. So the complaints we hear today about vouchers, testing and rich school district vs. A poor one is simply a matter of history repeating itself, over and over again. This…… [Read More]

References

Education Bug. (2009). "School Vouchers." Retrieved December 10, 2009, from  http://www.educationbug.org/a/school-vouchers.html .

Hooper, Don W. (2002). "Reading Success Where No Child Slips." School Administrator, Vol. 59. January.

Did not have Text information
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Free Market Approach to America's

Words: 2619 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91025407

" (Snell, 2005)

Presently, there are approximately 1 million students nationwide enrolled in Charter schools and over 3,400 contracts between charter schools and their government authorizers..." resulting in Charter schools being the "most common example of school choice." (Snell, 2005) Charter schools in both the profit and nonprofit sector charter schools are growing and stated specifically is: "In 2005 there were at least 500 public schools being operated by 51 for-profit management companies in 28 states. There has also been substantially more specialization and branding of nonprofit charter schools. There are well-known national nonprofit brands, such as KIPP Academies, and there are scores of for-profit and nonprofit charters that operate a handful of schools each focusing on the Montessori method, or math and science, or the performing arts." (Snell, 2005) Snell also relates that the nonprofit schools have succeeded in branding as some of the nonprofit charter schools are well-known.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coulson, Andres J. (2004) Academic Performance of Market vs. Monopoly Schooling (2004) Cato Institute Market Research: A Quick Guide to Scholarly Literature on School Choice. Online available at;

http://www.cato.org/research/education/marketresearch_coulson.html

Harrington-Lueker, Donna (1997) a School District's Entrepreneurism Raises Questions About Fairness, Funding, and the Best Place for Learning the School Administrator 1997 February. American Association of School Administrators. Online available at: A School District's Entrepreneurism Raises Questions About Fairness, Funding, and the Best Place for Learning

Lendman, Stephen (2008) Destroying Public Education in America. 7 April 2008. Global Researcher.ca Centre for Research on Globalization. http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=8579
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Interest Groups and How Their Influence on

Words: 2287 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27418829

Interest Groups and How Their Influence on Public Policy

Interest Groups and their influence on public Policy

Interest groups are clusters of people that come into existent to make stresses on government. The leading interest groups that are located in the United States are financial or occupational, but a range of other clusters -- philosophical, public interest, foreign policy, government itself, and ethnic, religious, and cultural -- have memberships that cut across the big economic groupings; thus, their influence is both reduced and stabilized. Actions of great amounts of individuals who are irritated with government strategies have continuously been with us in the United States. People such as women, Native Americans, Blacks, and those that are considered the economic underdogs have, at numerous times, prearranged themselves into certain types of movements. With that said, this paper will discuss the influence that interest groups have on politics.

What are interest groups?…… [Read More]

References

Burstein, P. & . (2002). The impact of political parties, interest groups, and social movement organizations on public policy: Some recent evidence and theoretical concerns. Social Forces, 23(7), 381-408.

Hastie, R.E. (2009). Tobacco control interest groups and their influence on parliamentary committees in canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 100(5), 370-5.

Nicholson-Crotty, S. & .-C. (2004). Interest group influence on managerial priorities in public organizations. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 14(4), 571-583.

Reutter, L.I. (2002). Public support for poverty-related policies. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 21(9), 297-302.
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For-Profit Education vs Non-Profit Education

Words: 17404 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85288713

NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (Breneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).

The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JBL Associates (2004).

Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.

Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.

Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
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Red Pencil the Author Theodore

Words: 1710 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9860270

Apart from being an uncommon book about schooling written by an eager intellect, it is as in a debate neither expediently right nor left that regularly breaks down (Rotherham, 2005).

Furthermore, the book isn't just a litany of complaints as whenever Sizer writes about education; it has always been worth paying attention (Rotherham, 2005). Thus, from numerous vantage points Sizer is considered plenty of sausage making in the field of American education and written significantly about it.

Sizer's has always believed and taken schools as the center of control, merging well with permissiveness along with conservative political philosophy. Therefore, despite of Sizer's disdain for No Child Left Behind, the National Education Association will not be quoting this book as a road map for modification or transformation in education (Rotherham, 2005). Thus, this political tension between left and right is what makes this book "The Red Pencil" appealing and exciting more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Publishers Weekly. The Red Pencil by Theodore R. Sizer.

A www.publishersweekly.com

Yale University Press. The Red Pencil.

A www.yalepress.yale.edu
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Christian Coalition in the Rise of the Religious Right Ralph Reed Pat Robertson

Words: 787 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25887484

Christian Coalition in the Religious Right

Explaining the Role of the Christian Coalition

The role of the Christian Coalition (CC) during the latter half of the 20th century was to rebuild the Religious Right (RR) movement into a permanent grass roots political organization that would support policies and candidates favored by the Religious Right at all levels, especially at the local level. Under the leadership of Ralph Reed, the CC adopted political pragmatism and professionalism giving the RR more political influence than it had in the past.

At the time the Christian Coalition was created, the Moral Majority (which played an important role in the election of Ronald Reagan in1980) was closing, and the Americans for Robertson (the successor of the Freedom Council created for Pat Robertson's campaign for the Republican nomination for president in 1988) was drifting (Martin 1996, 300-301, 304, 308). The RR was without an effective and…… [Read More]

Reference

Martin, W. 1996. With God on Our Side. The Rise of the Religious Right in America. New York,

NY: Broadway Books.
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NCLB Influences Involved in the

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77133694

For example, superintendents used to be given some leeway in hiring and firing of relevant personnel. Now, if the "relevant school staff when schools fail to make annual yearly progress for four consecutive years" they must be fired (Peterson & Young 2004:1). "Similarly, a significant downturn in student achievement and K-12 education's need to seek larger percentages of ever shrinking state budgets, motivated twenty-three states to pass laws authorizing state or city takeovers of districts perceived to be in crisis," taking many traditional roles and responsibilities away from school superintendents (Peterson & Young 2004:1). NCLB federal funding guidelines have essentially, in some state legislator's eyes, forced their hands to take control over locally supervised districts.

Interventions to influence the interrelationships

To better improve district performance, superintendents can work with teachers to create enrichment programs and test-centered supplements to the curriculum at 'at risk' schools. There is limited federal funding available…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Peterson, George & Michelle Young. (2004, Jul). No Child Left Behind Act and its

Influence on Current and Future District Leaders. Journal of Law and Education. Retrieved 28 Aug 2007 at (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3994/is_200407/ai_n9442100)
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Ideology in Education Over the

Words: 837 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23572664

Those who continue to trend lower in their results must engage in a number of actions to include:

Offering free tutoring and additional services to struggling students in the third year.

Changing the staff, curriculum, the administration and introducing other sweeping reforms during year four.

Turing the facility into a charter school, having the state takeover or hiring a private company to run the institution in the fifth year.

These different elements are showing how the No Child Left Behind Act is focusing on using testing and market forces to deal with the problems inside the education system. ("No Child Left Behind Act," 2004)

Analyze and discuss how the No Child Left Behind Act provides illustration of the connection between ideology and educational philosophy

The market-based ideology is working in conjunction with the No Child Left Behind Act. The way that this is occurring is through having measurable standards (which…… [Read More]

References

Investing in Our Future. (2012). White House. Retrieved from: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/Investing_in_Our_Future_Report.pdf

No Child Left Behind Act. (2004). Education Week. Retrieved from:  http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/no-child-left-behind/ 

Smith, K. (2012). The Ideology of Education. Binghamton, NY: SUNY Press.
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National Education Association American Government

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10590720

National Education Association

Group Identity

The National Education Association (NEA) was formed in 1857 and is dedicated to championing the rights of both educators and children. It has been a part of integration, the Civil Rights movement, equal opportunity education, and the rights of teachers for over 150 years. After 1966 the National Education Association and American Teachers Association merged to form a more cohesive and powerful body. Each state has a branch of the NEA that regularly does lobby work to legislators for the resources schools need and to push for higher standards in the teaching profession. The NEA's programs and services may be accessed at http://www.nea.org. There are currently five forms of membership, from Students to Retired. Anyone actively involved in the American Education System, as well as several distance and online institutions, may join the NEA, although professional certification is required for certain membership tiers.

Goals

The…… [Read More]

References

National Education Association. (2012). Main Website. Retrieved from:

 http://www.nea.org /home/1594.htm

Moe, T. (2011). Special Interest -- Teachers Unions and America's Public Schools. Retrieved From: Brookings Institution Press. http://www.brookings.edu/press/Books/2011/specialinterest.aspx
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American History and Culture Contributes

Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36047997

Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.

Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.

Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.

Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "American Prosperity and the "Race to the Bottom: " Why Won't the Media Ask the Right Questions?" Journal of Economic Issues 42.1 (2008): 133+.

Milner, Murray. Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption. New York: Routledge, 2004.
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Friedman Is Considered to Be One of

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88816011

Friedman is considered to be one of the more influential thinkers of his time and "Milton Friedman on Economics: Selected Papers," is a collection of much of his work. Many of the enclosed papers were originally published in the Journal of Political Economy. The work opens up with his 1977 Nobel Lecture and then spans a great part of his life and career. There were some works in the collection from as early as 1948 through 1990. Because he was so influential over the course of his career, this series of letters and works provides a great opportunity to not only get an introduction into his line of reasoning, it also provides a historic blueprint of detailed economic thought. Milton Friedman offers clues about the twentieth-century's economics and political policies.

Milton Friedman is considered to have been one of the great economic thinkers of our time and he was obviously…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, Milton, 1977. "Nobel Lecture: Inflation and Unemployment." Journal of Political Economy. 85, pp. 451-472.

Friedman, Milton. (2008). "Milton Friedman on Economics: Selected Papers." Chicago: University of Chicago Press Journals. (February 1, 2008)
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American Politics

Words: 1787 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48969749

American citizenry is somewhat in the position of the unfortunate citizens of some third-world countries who try to stay out of the cross-fire while Maoist guerrillas and right-wing death squads shoot at each other. Reports of a culture war are mostly wishful thinking and useful fund-raising strategies on the part of culture-war guerrillas, abetted by a media driven by the need to make the dull and everyday appear exciting and unprecedented.

At the time of every election, both the Democrat and Republican presidential candidates begin spouting their strong political platform. Somewhere along the line of American history, and perhaps it was once true, there arose the belief that a major difference exists between the two parties' beliefs. In their book Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America, Morris P. Fiorina of Stanford University, Samuel J. Abrams of Harvard University, and Jeremy C. Pope of Stanford University combine polling data…… [Read More]

Reference

Fiorina, Morris et al. Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America.

Upper Saddle Ridge, NJ: Pearson Education, 2004.
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Are Uniforms a Good Way to Improve Student Discipline and Motivation

Words: 1668 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92915503

School Uniforms

The topic of school uniforms has been a debated issue for many years. Proponents of school uniforms argue that they are necessary because they encourage children to focus more on their education and less on what they are wearing (Brunsma, 2004). On the other hand opponents of school uniforms argue that school uniforms stifle creativity and discourage individuality (Brunsma, 2004). The purpose of this discussion is to confirm that school uniforms are an effective way to improve student discipline, increase student focus, and increase student motivation.

School Uniforms Lead to Improved Student Discipline

Student discipline is a crucial component in the development of a school environment that is conducive to learning. Uniforms create a sense of conformity and establish for students that school is a place that is designed to encourage learning.

Less fighting over controversial clothing

Non-uniform clothing often leads to students wearing offensive articles of clothing…… [Read More]

References

Brunsma, D. (2004). The school uniform movement and what it tells us about American education: a symbolic crusade. Lanham: Scarecrow Education

Craik, J. (2005). Uniforms exposed: from conformity to transgression. New York: Berg.

Fielder, D. (2003). Achievement now!: how to assure no child is left behind. Larchmont: Eye On Education.

Gentile, E., Imberman S.A. (2010) Dressed for Success? The Effect of School Uniforms on Student Achievement and Behavior.  http://www.class.uh.edu/faculty/simberman/gentile_imberman_2010.pdf
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Graffiti and Possible Solutions Graffiti

Words: 2441 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75436524

The video cameras would be donated as an in-kind contribution from a local business or corporation. If there are no video cameras available through donation, a fundraiser must be held to raise the money to buy the cameras.

Trained technicians -- advanced students from a nearby university -- would put the technology together; they would receive credits toward their degrees though the building of and maintenance of this system of surveillance. When taggers are recorded doing their graffiti on video cameras, the police department then steps in and makes the arrests. Signs are put up all around the school and other places where taggers make their marks that offer $500 for information leading to the arrest and conviction of vandals painting graffiti on buildings. Right next to every sign that offers the reward is another sign that reports the new ordinance enacted by the city council or county supervisors: first-time…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anti-Defamation League (ADL) (2009). Hate Crimes Laws. Retrieved April 9, 2011, from http://www.adl.org/99hatecrime/federal.asp.

Dedel, Kelly. (2005). School Vandalism and Break-Ins / Guide No. 35. Center for Problem-

Oriented Policing. Retrieved April 9, 2011, from  http://www.popcenter.org/problems/vandalism/print .

Grossack, David C. (1994). Citizens' Arrest. Constitutional Business. Retrieved April 9,
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Public Education and the Public

Words: 1766 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80790287

society that the public may claim a greater intellectual stake in than public education. Not only is the process of educating the next generation (at least in public schools) undertaken at the expense of most residents, but it also concerns us in a cultural way as well - we will all have to live in the world that these children will inhabit and help to shape, regardless of whether we ourselves are parents.

And yet, despite the legitimacy of the claim that members of the general public may make to their own engagement in the process of public education, relatively few people who are not themselves parents of public-school children do become deeply involved (and relatively few of these). This does not mean, of course, that people do not have strongly held opinions about matters of educational policy.

This literature review examines two related, indeed often intermingled, sets of subjects.…… [Read More]

IssuesPA notes the importance of such statistics:

http://www.voicesweb.org/voices/cu/goodschools01-0202.html

http://www.goodschoolspa.org/facts/index.cfm?fuseaction=testimony_jill www.latimes.com http://www.issuespa.net
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Greek Mythological Master Piece Sailing

Words: 1363 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69414991



Historical Issues In Modern Education

There are numerous issues seeded in a Greek civilization, rooting down to the contemporary world; for instance Gender Equity, home schooling, Pledge of allegiance, Unions and collective bargaining just to name a few. Each of the issues would be addressed in due course.

Most notably gender bias as practiced by the Greeks is the major parasitical issue in all avenues of education. A study commissioned by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in 1991 claims that girl don't receive as much attention and are not put into challenging situations like complex and abstract questioning, as compared to boys, in an average school (Woodward, 1998). Moreover, countable school books portray "stereotypical" image of women. These books are void of any acknowledgements of the abilities and achievements of women altogether. This has also been hinted by Cahill in the chapter Warrior: how to fight and also…… [Read More]

Reference and Research Book News, August 2005, Kids and Violence, the invisible school experience.

Gender bias in education means treating boys and girls differently at school. (Woodward, 1998)
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Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana

Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27822679

" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
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Richard Dawkins' the Selfish Gene

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36443466

As a result, many children were schooled at home. The modern home schooling movement is a recalling of these earlier days, modernized with home schooling curricula, Internet access and activities for children, such as sports, which bring them together for social activities. Although teachers' unions insist that parents are not professionally-trained teachers, the results of home schooling are incontrovertible. Home-schooled students perform much better on standardized tests than government-schooled children, have higher college admission rates, and report greater satisfaction than those in public schools (Williams, 2007). A recent Gallup poll found that 75% of Americans favor public schooling. A similar Gallup poll, taken in 1985, found that 75% were against home schooling. In the intervening years, the continued decline of the public school paradigm has changed American minds.

Charter, Magnet and Other Schools modified way to introduce vouchers, or school choice, is to create charter and magnet schools. The founding…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chaddock, G. (2006, June 21). U.S. high school dropout rate: high, but how high? Christian Science Monitor, p. n.p.

Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. In R. Dawkins, the Selfish Gene (p. Chapter 11 "memes"). New York: Oxford University Press.

Dobbs, M. (2005, April 21). NEA, States Challenge 'No Child' Program. Washington Post.

Ehrich, R. (2007). The Impact of School Size. Retrieved December 9, 2007, from Virginia Tech: http://delta.cs.vt.edu/edu/size.html
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Recorded Between the Elite and

Words: 1114 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37438336



The issues pertaining to the substandard education imparted by the public schools require continuous monitoring i.e. The evaluation is performed on periodic basis to ascertain the success on the account of each transition. It is recommended that the public schooling system shall hibernate and emerge after undergoing the sequences of assimilation, adjustment, access and achievement. The focus of the public school shall be to serve the social and psychological needs of the children, and their abilities and interests shall be evaluated on periodic basis. It has been observed that in the contemporary standards, such practices are either discouraged or ignored by the teachers due to the lack of enthusiasm. The public schools are under liability to offer better access to education, and the programs offered by the schools shall specifically serve the needs and requirements of the diversified population. The services of the public schools shall be of equal standards…… [Read More]

The NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND (NCLB) ACT of 2001 is the federal law aimed at the improvement of the education for the students, irrespective of their social, cultural, economic and demographic affiliation. The law has been approved to offer flexibility and choices to the parents; the law accounts the school responsible for the performance of the students, and ensures the promotion of the effective and efficient teaching methodologies. The law has approved the funding towards the incorporation of the provisions aimed at improving the teaching and learning for the students, in particular those affiliated with the economically disadvantaged communities.

Conclusion

The above study has brought us to the conclusion that the values required for the understanding of the democratic society by the students can be achieved provided that enough focus is maintained towards the students, and the quality of the education imparted is as per standard. In this regard the allocation of the funds, and the different policies are positive step, the voucher scheme has although affected the operations of the public schools, but it has strengthen the overall educational standard on national level, similarly the principles of the democratic society has been practiced, where the majority and minority groups have been provided with independent options to avail education for the their children from any other school beside public schools. Similarly, the performance of the public school has been monitored, and the previously deteriorated conditions of the public schools have been controlled, and the damage has been repaired. The teachers of the public schools have been offered financial perks in exchange for good resulted of the students, and the involvement of the parents in the entire process has been signified. The principles of the democratic society are expected to be achieved through democratic practices.
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Armstrong E Kukla R Kuppermann

Words: 3055 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26765410

Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.

Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.

The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…… [Read More]

In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.

Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.

For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
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Students With Disabilities Who Did

Words: 17241 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2573798



The shift toward standardized testing has failed to result in a meaningful reduction of high school dropout rates, and students with disabilities continue to be marginalized by the culture of testing in public education (Dynarski et al., 2008). With that said, the needs of students with specific educational challenges are diverse and complex, and the solutions to their needs are not revealed in the results of standardized testing (Crawford & Tindall, 2006). Special education issues that demand more immediate attention include (a) ensuring that special education teachers have appropriate textbooks, (b) providing special education teachers with help to complete needed paperwork relative to student assessments and intervention; and (c) investigating why "a disproportionate number of children of color end up in special education" (Shorr, 2006, p. 1).

Without giving the proper attention to special education, the ongoing challenge of dropping out among students with disabilities cannot be addressed. It is…… [Read More]

Brigham et al. (2006) detailed four different pathways (similar to tracks) that tailored offerings to student needs and then ensured that all students on each pathway received all the support needed to succeed. For special needs students, this often involved co-teaching efforts to ensure success in basic English and math skills required to pass standardized tests. Constant monitoring of all students was accomplished through collaboration between special and general education teachers. Four case studies of how special needs students successfully followed various pathways to graduation were provided. The researcher's careful examination of these case studies found teachers engaging these students through project related activities, prompting, and conversation before or after class. They taught note taking strategies, co-taught courses using interactive instruction, engaged in intensive reading counseling, and carefully adhered to IEPs. The school also offered students with disabilities added help in passing standardized tests. Brigham et al. (2006) thus documented a strongly inclusive culture that refused to allow the emergence of alienation or disconnection between the school and students with disabilities and that exemplified the benefits delivered by committed, collaborative professionals.

The Life-Centered Career Education Model

Roessler and Foshee (2010) described an occupationally-based special education program, called Life-Centered Career Education, at a small, rural high school instructing 23 students with
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Public Administration Policy Reform Supporting

Words: 1747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49045463

This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to introduce a competitor into the marketplace, said charter school supporters." (O'Donoghue, 2010)

Summary and Conclusion

It is very likely that laws will be changed and policy reformed relating to charter schools in the state of Virginia as to do otherwise means to miss the $350 million in funding opportunity for Virginia's school system and it appears highly unlikely that in the present state of the economy that Virginia will be willing to shun this much in educational funding.… [Read More]

Bibliography

Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/

Schaeffer, Adam B. (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756

Braunlich, Christian (2009) Virginia Needs More Public Schools. Bacon's Rebellion. 18 Jan 2009. Online available at: http://baconsrebellion.com/2009/01/18/virginia-needs-more-charter-schools/

Grimes, Cathy (2010) Virginia Seeks $350 Million in Federal Race to the Top Education Funds. Daily Press.21 Jan 2010. Online available at http://www.dailypress.com/news/dp-local_racetothetop_0122jan22,0,5686858.story
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Democratic Education Question No What Are the

Words: 2620 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60875072

Democratic Education

Question No.

What are the principles of democratic education? How are these principles and values in tension/contradiction with our social construction of children and youth? For example, what assumptions do we make about teaching, learning and youth that democratic schools challenge? How does "one size fits all" centralized curriculum contribute to what Apple called the "de-skilling of teachers"? What is lost when this approach is adapted, especially when it is combined with the "intensification" of teaching? Explore the contradictions between what we say we want our students to be when they are finished their schooling (engaged, critical thinkers, active contributors and problem solvers) and how we are often educating young people. How does democratic education address this? What are some of the challenges educators who want to introduce democratic principles into their schools face? What are some of the potential rewards? How does democratic education address the notion…… [Read More]

References

IDEN International Democratic education Network. (2010). Retrieved October 2012, from http://www.idenetwork.org/idec/idec-english.htm

Apple, M.W., & Swalwell, K. (2011). Reviewing Policy: Starting the Wrong Conversations: The Public School Crisis and "Waiting for Superman." Educational Policy, 368-381.

Ayers, W. (1992). The Shifting Grounds of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice . Taylor & Francis, 259-263.

Ayers, W. (1994). Can City Schools be Saved? Educational Leadership, 60.
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Free to Choose A Personal

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88700106

The authors use everyday examples, such as "investment in a newly formed small business" to make their economic processes more understandable to anyone who understands modern business, and this is one of the things that makes this book so readable, and so fascinating, even for someone who might not be that interested in economic theory and practice.

The Friedman's support many ideas that would reduce the authority of government in many economic areas, including the "negative income tax, the volunteer army, an improved method of auctioning Treasury securities, the monetary rule for achieving price stability; the voucher system for education, the flat tax, and flexible exchange rates" (Jordan et al. 199). It is quite amazing to see just how many of these Friedman ideas have made their way into our business and political world, including the volunteer army, the educational voucher system, and flexible exchange rates, to name a few.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Economist of the Century." The Washington Times 3 Aug. 2002: A11.

Friedman, Milton and Rose. Free to Choose: A Personal Statement. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 1990.

Jordan, Jerry L., et al. "Milton, Money, and Mischief: Symposium and Articles in Honor of Milton Friedman's 80th Birthday." Economic Inquiry XXXI.2 (1993): 197-212.

Oi, Walter Y. "Milton Friedman, Starting His Ninth Decade." Economic Inquiry XXXI.2 (1993): 194-196.
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Framework of Implementing the Z Mathematical Model to a Sixth Grade Class

Words: 18348 Length: 67 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66274868

Nature of the ProblemPurpose of the ProjectBackground and Significance of the Problem

Brain Development

Specific Activities to engage students

Data-Driven Instruction

Community Component of Education

Research QuestionsDefinition of TermsMethodology and Procedures

Discussion & ImplicationsConclusions & Application

ntroduction

The goal of present-day educational reformers is to produce students with "higher-order skills" who are able to think independently about the unfamiliar problems they will encounter in the information age, who have become "problem solvers" and have "learned how to learn, " and who are on their way to becoming "critical thinkers" and "lifelong learners." The method advocated for achieving these "higher" order skills" is "discovery learning," by which students solve problems and make decisions on their own through "inquiry" and "independent analysis" of "real-world" projects -- what Kilpatrick in the 1920s called the "project method."

The oft-repeated goal of the educational community -- to inculcate general thinking skills --is not, however, soundly…… [Read More]

References

Family involvement in children's eductaion. (1997). Retrieved March 23, 2003. from Federal brochure. Web Site:

http://www.ed.gov/pubs/FamInvolve/

Henderson, Anne T. And Nancy Berla. (1994). National Committee for Citizens in Education.

California State Board Policy. (1994). Parents infolvement in the education of their children. 89-01. Web Site: http://www.cde.ca.gov/board/policies / policy89_01.htm
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Class Size Cooperative Learning and Its Effects on Participation

Words: 17351 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9696543

Size/Cooperative Learning & it's effects on participation

Action Research Question

Will cooperative learning have a significantly positive impact on smaller or larger classes?

The purpose of this study was to investigate if cooperative learning will have a significantly positive impact on smaller or larger classes. In order to have valid results, I used both my largest and smallest classes as my sampling. I also incorporated a variety of teaching styles with cooperative learning to promote student participation and achievement. Results will be based on quiz and test scores, as well as cooperative assignments.

As educators in middle school and high school classrooms, content specialty teachers often work with a variety of class sizes. Yet, with such an assortment of class sizes, there are also extraneous variables that each teacher must consider in order to foster individual achievement. Participation and achievement are variables of the individual students that weigh heavily on…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alex Molnar. (2000). Vouchers: Class Size Reduction & Student Achievement. Phi Delta Kappa International Publishers.

Charles M. Achilles. (1999). Let's Put Kids First, Finally: Getting Class Size Right. Corwin Press.

Cooper, J.L., Robinson, P.R. And McKinney, M. (1994). Cooperative learning in the classroom. In D.F. Halpern & Associates Changing college classrooms: New teaching and learning strategies for an increasingly complex world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Enerson, Diane M., R. Neill Johnson, Susannah Milner, and Kathryn M. Plank. (1997). Teaching with Collaborative Activities and Small Groups. The Penn State Teacher II: Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn. University Park: CELT, 57-72.
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Teacher Qualifications and Student Performance

Words: 2864 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13867347

They computed a variety of measures to determine whether there was in fact a narrowing of a gap between teacher qualifications across wealthier and poorer schools and found that there was. This narrowing -- indicative of changes in hiring practices and policies as a result in NCLB, was positively correlated with improved test scores in those districts with higher poverty populations.

The researcher felt there was some possibility, as indicated in the study by Milanowski, Kimball, and White above, that more experience was not necessarily better. This was presumably because educational qualifications become stagnant or outdated over time. In order to test a related question, whether there was some minimal level of qualifications that was necessary, above which additional qualification did not matter, the researcher reviewed the literature. Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor (2006) studied a database of teacher qualifications and students assessment scores for all North Carolina schools and found…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berliner, D. (2005). The near impossibility of testing for teacher quality. Journal of Teacher Education, 56(3) (May/June): 205-213.

This paper presents a descriptive analysis of different routes to teacher certification, including traditional and alternate routes as presented in a variety of states. The paper summarizes findings from research and suggests that no definitive conclusions can be reached relevant to the efficacy of either type of certification route.

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Rockoff, J., and Wyckoff, J. (2008) The Narrowing Gap in New York City Teacher Qualifications and Its Implications for Student Achievement in High-Poverty Schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(4): 793 -- 818.

The paper considers the effect of teacher sorting across NYC schools in order to determine whether NCLB has achieved espoused goals of putting qualified teachers in every classroom. Focusing especially on schools in high poverty areas, the researcher utilizes a variety of teacher, students, and school data to compute correlational analysis and show that better teachers are in fact getting into poorer schools. They argue that this has resulted in higher student assessment performance, and support the claim with correlational analysis.
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Role of Religion What Is

Words: 2595 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20493195

The ruling stated that, since the moment of silence was for the purpose of advancing religion, it was unconstitutional. This was evidently a case-specific ruling however, and the fact is that the Court has not ruled that this moment of silence may always be unconstitutional. There are multiple court rulings in other jurisdictions that have ruled the moment of silence allowable if it passes the test of not advancing religion.

Can a student say a prayer at a school graduation ceremony? The Supreme Court has not ruled that student-led non-sectarian prayer is not allowed at public school graduation ceremonies.

The question remains open and has been decided on a case-by-case basis. It cannot be encouraged by school officials, and prayers delivered by clergy have been ruled unconstitutional.

However, prayers at public school baccalaureate services are constitutional as long as the ceremony is distinct and separated from the graduation ceremony and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ADL. (2009). Religion in public schools: Evolution vs. creationism. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Anti-defamation league (ADL): http://www.adl.org/religion_ps_2004/evolution.asp

Boston, R. (2009, November). Prayers, preaching and public schools. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Americans united for separation of church and state: http://www.au.org/media/church-and-state/archives/2009/11/prayers-preaching-public.html

Calefati, J. (2009, January 22). Religion in schools debate heats up. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from U.S. News and World Report: http://www.usnews.com/blogs/on-education/2009/01/22/religion-in-schools-debate-heats-up.html

Facing history and ourselves: Religion. (2009). Retrieved November 16, 2009, from facinghistory.org: http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/facingtoday/43?tid=26&tid_1=2
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Education Human Resource Frame Cuban

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42746886

' Standardized test preparation also takes time away from creative activities that can really engage students with learning, and may even better reinforce skills needed in business, like critical thinking, writing, and working with others. Often teachers know better than administrators or managerial professionals what is needed in their classroom. One of the problems with education is that although schools superficially seem to be structured on a hierarchy similar to a corporation with a board of directors, not all managerial principles apply to schools. Schools are not factories and students are not end products. A teacher may know better what a classroom needs than a principal, a principal may know better the challenges of his or her school than someone comparing the school's results to a very different institution in another county. Finally, slashing costs is not the ultimate goal of the Board of Directors, as it is in a…… [Read More]

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Standardized Tests Truly Reflective of

Words: 6649 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86850476



OCR recognizes that colleges and universities are under a lot of legal and political pressure to stop using racial and ethnic factors in admission," Clegg commented. "[In response,] the agency wants to intimidate colleges and universities to continue using these preferences." (Black Issues in Higher Education, 1999)

The National Association of Scholars, while raising doubts about the reasoning behind the OCR document titled "Nondiscrimination in High-Stakes Testing," pointed to what it believes is hypocrisy from higher education gurus who had previously undervalued the use of the test scores.

It goes without saying that these guidelines are outrageous," commented the association's president, Dr. Stephen H. Balch, in 1999. "But it's hard not to see this as the educational establishment's being hoisted by its own petard. (Black Issues in Higher Education, 1999)

For some time now," Balch continued in a statement released shortly after OCR began distributing the guidelines, "our best universities…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Black Issues in Higher Education. (1999) Exam Negation - new law prevents reliance on discriminatory standardized tests. Black Issues in Higher Education.

Black Issues in Higher Education. (2005) Holy Cross makes standardized test scores optional: college officials concerned about inherent racial and socio-economic bias in standardized tests. Black Issues in Higher Education.

Boyd, W.M. (1977). SAT's minorities: The dangers of under-prediction. Change, 9, 48-64. Chambers, G.A. (1988, March 7). All of America's children: variants in ACT test scores-What principals need to know. Paper presented at the annual convention of the NASSP, Anaheim, CA. (Available from the author, Division of Educational Administration, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242)

The College Entrance Examination Board. (1983). Ten SATs. New York: Author.
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Tube as a Key ICT

Words: 2640 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38843359

"Oh, brave new world indeed," she concludes (11).

Improving Online Education Programs

The growth of "distance education" offerings, also called online education, has been dramatic over the past few years. "Online education has experienced tremendous growth" as colleges and universities -- and private companies that offer training services -- convert "face-to-face classes to online courses" (Revere, et al., 2011, p. 114). Writing in the Quarterly Review of Distance Education, the authors review the advantages of learning online, especially for adults and for students employed full time that cannot attend classes. Also, the authors note that online courses can be boring and even tedious when existing Web-based technologies are not put to use (Revere, 117).

"Because communication within online text-based systems does not always flow as naturally as in face-to-face settings," there is a need to embrace technologies to make the class work more interesting and vital (Revere, 120). The authors…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aragon, Janni. (2007). Technologies and Pedagogy: How YouTubing, Social Networking, and Other Web Sources complement the Classroom. Feminist Collections, 28(4), 45.

Chmielewski, Dawn C. (2012). YouTube's Robert Kyncl charts Internet video's meteoric rise.

Los Angeles Times Business. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com.

Farnan, Jeanne M., Paro, John A.M., Higa, Jennifer, Edelson, Jay, and Arora, Vineet M.
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Vision Mission Philosophy Statement

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86121895

Vygotsky and Mission Statement

One of the keys to a successful pedagogical experience is the ability to translate new materials into the minds of the learner. We have certainly come a long way from the days in which we thought every student should sit straight, learn the same way, and behave identically. One of the most important theories to arise in the 20th century was the idea of constructivism in education. This view is a theory that argues that humans generate and retain knowledge by way of experience. Social constructivism views each student as having unique and special needs, backgrounds, and modes of expression.

My Vision Statement -- The idea of positive and proactive constructivism encourages students to come to their own conclusions about knowledge based on their own worldview, past experience, and the nature of their instruction. The responsibility, however, of actual learning resides with the student -- the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

IES National Center for Education. (2010, March). Statistical Reports. Retrieved from IES Center:  http://nces.ed.gov/ 

Johnson-Laird, P. (2009). How We Reason. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mooney, C. (2005). Constructivism and Education. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Walzer Dewey Education Michael Walzer's

Words: 822 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14260331

Walzer / Dewey / Education

Michael Walzer's position on school busing in Spheres of Justice is rather ingenious. Before we look more closely at it, though, I'd like to recall the context for his argument in favor of what used to be called "forced busing" (a derogatory term which Walzer distances himself from). The issue of using school busing to help to remedy the effects of racial segregation was the subject of two controversial Supreme Court rulings issued during the Nixon presidency: these were Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) and Milliken v. Bradley (1974). In Swann the Supreme Court found that it was constitutional to use busing for the purposes of overcoming the effects of poverty and housing inequality which led to racially homogenous populations within certain school disticts. The revisitation of the same topic in Milliken only three years later reflects the Supreme Court's establishment of a…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Walzer, Michael. Spheres of Justice. New York: Basic Books, 1983. Print.
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Marketing Component of a Business Plan

Words: 2188 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76485931

Vending Machine Businsess Plan

Marketing business plan

Location, environment and target market

Value proposition and competitive edge

Marketing and sales strategy

Online marketing technique

Pricing

Business plan:

H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending -- Healthy Seven Vending

Location, environment and target market

America's obesity epidemic has been spiraling out of control in the past two decades, and will continue to grow unless drastic measures are taken to change American eating habits. It is of particular concern that the rate of childhood and adolescent obesity is growing so rapidly. H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending (Healthy Seven Vending) believes that it is essential that food corporations pair with local municipalities, educational institutions, and other organizations that play a vital role in young people's lives. "More than half of U.S. middle and high schools still offer sugar drinks and less healthy foods for purchase. Students have access to sugar drinks and less healthy foods at school throughout the…… [Read More]

references even when they are not eating from vending machines.

A growing problem. (2013). Overweight and obesity. Centers for Disease Control. (CDC).

Retrieved: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/problem.html

Not even public health experts entirely agree why the obesity rate has skyrocketed in recent decades. This website provides an overview of some of the leading proposed causes, including the popularity of marketing junk food to teens.

H.U.M.A.N. Healthy vending machines. (2013). http://www.healthyvending.com/machines
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Progressive Education Philosophy

Words: 1369 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93517775

Education

In the U.S. The conflict between progressive and traditional education has been going on for over 100 years, and E.D. Hirsch and John Dewey are polar opposites in this pedagogical and philosophical conflict. Dewey was indeed a support of the Left in politics who wanted the U.S. To become a social democracy and move away from more traditional conservative ideas. He thought that democratic socialism would be the wave of the future in urban, industrial society, and that the traditional education system was not preparing students to participate as active citizens in this new society. It was rigid, authoritarian and hierarchical, with teachers acting like dictators in the classroom and often dispensing plenty of corporal punishment. Rather than follow a rigid, old-fashioned curriculum, the teacher had to allow students to participate in designing lessons that were relevant to their lives and experiences. Only this way could the public schools…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Dworkin, M.S. (1961). Dewey on Education. Classics in Education No.3.

Dewey, J. (1938/1997). Experience and Education. Macmillan.

Hirsch. E.D. (1996). The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. Doubleday.

Fernandez, R. (2003). Mappers of Society: The Lives, Times and Legacies of Great Sociologists. Praeger.
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Pre-K Program Evaluation Using Logic Model

Words: 1788 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71740289

Public Program Quality Evaluation

Overview of the Program and the Program Rationale

In 2011, approximately 23% of all children in the United States were children of immigrants. Many of these children have come from countries where the educational systems have not prepared them with competitive skills that will support a good standard of living. Various policies to address this issue have been proposed. Of the feasible options, the policy most likely to achieve popular approval is the provision of preschool education to all low-immigrant children. In part, the basis for this support is the historical national approval of programs such as Head Start. Recently, the nation has seen an upswing in state-funded pre-K programs that focus on preparing low-income 4-year-old children for kindergarten and elementary school. Head Start programs continue in a parallel manner, and necessarily so, as only a handful of states offer pubic school-based pre-K programs to all…… [Read More]

References

Haskins, R. & Tienda, M. (2011). The future of immigrant children. The Future of Children. Princeton University and the Brookings Institution.

Lawrence L. Martin, L.L. & Kettner, P.M. (1996). Measuring the performance of human service programs. Sage Publications.

Neuman, W.L. (2012). Basics of social research: qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed.).

Puma, M. Bell, S., Cook, R., & Heid, C. (2010, January). Head Start Impact Study Final Report, Executive Summary. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. Washington, DC.
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Government - Federal Policy National

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15886792



Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue by improved tracking of prescriptions for controlled substances, including the practice of "doctor shopping" sometimes used to obtain legal prescriptions for controlled substances with the intention of distributing them illegally for profit (USONDCP, 2004).

III. Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic Basis of the Drug Trade: The third major component of the President's drug policy incorporates law enforcement and prosecution in a manner designed to address the economic basis of the drug trade. Specifically, the policy authorizes both increased funding as well as tactical reorganization of various elements of the criminal justice system with respect to the illegal drug trade. In that regard, the policy emphasizes a priority targeting initiative designed to identify and prosecute specific criminal organizations and enterprises involved…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Farwell, S. Man Who Sells Tips on How to Avoid Arrest Is Running for Congress; the Dallas Morning News (Mar. 3/08)

Macionis, J. (2003) Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

USONDCP (2004) the President's National Drug Control Strategy. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs04/index.html
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Zelman vs Simmons-Harris the First

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22327024

They should not expect taxpayers to carry religious as well as general education. Quality of education is another concern altogether. Everybody has the right to a high quality of education. But specific education such as religious instruction should not rest on the shoulders of the public.

It is true that everybody has the right to instruct their children according to the religious choices available. Providing public funding for this however entails a fundamental problem relating to tolerance. The American public is made up of a wide variety of groups in terms of religion, race and ethnicity. Funding for education is carried by taxpayers, regardless of creed or religious choice. Allowing such funding to be used for possible discriminatory choices is thus discriminatory in itself, although it is not seen as such by the Court.

The decision of the Court is explained by the exact argument of freedom of choice. The…… [Read More]

Sources

Cline, Austin. (2004). "Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris (2002): Supreme Court Decisions on Religious Liberty." About, Inc. http://www.about.com
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Democracy Morality and Spheres of Control

Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59836219

standardized, national testing is implemented for students in elementary schools and secondary schools, the United States government will be making a statement that American students will leave their elementary and secondary schools having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, history, and geography. In route to this, it will be shown that every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy. One of the methods that the government has adopted with hopes of assistance in reaching these goals is to apply, nationally throughout the school system, standardized assessments of each student's progress, which can subsequently offer some statistical proof on how well plans of education reform have worked.

This is an important matter, cause although the intentions of using standardized testing seem to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bennett, William J. In Education, Character As Important As Skills. USA Today, http://www.empoweramerica.org/stories/storyReader$237?print-friendly=true.1997.
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Policymaking Is as Integral to

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65078407

Most recently, the Red Sox' Kurt Schilling wore his World Series regalia at many a Bush-Cheney press conference, and many Hollywood stars joined forces with the Kerry-Edwards campaign. As of late, policy has become confrontational across the public sphere, and even the lives of high school seniors are not spared. As a direct result, beginning at a personal level, high school seniors are easily receptive to and can understand the making of public policy.

Talking to high school seniors, it is first important to reach out to them in ways that the empower themselves with an understanding of the role public policy plays in their every day lives and communities. Through news coverage, they can engage each other in issues that matter to them. Asking, "what public policies are currently being discussed that you know about?" Finding a topic with some heat, but not a vast amount of moral debate,…… [Read More]

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Ethical Caring's Great Contribution Is to Guide

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94673859

Ethical caring's great contribution is to guide action long enough for natural caring to be restored and for people once again to interact with mutual and spontaneous regard" (Noddings 1998: 187).

Noddings believes that rather than ethics shaping moral behavior, our moral, spontaneous caring is what is more important and must come first. This impulse is sometimes interfered with, which is why we need ethical systems, but caring comes before the creation of ethical systems.

Statement: "All human communities are founded upon specific shared information, and the basic goal of education in a human community is acculturation - the transmission to children of the specific information shared by the adults of the group or polis" (Hirsch cited by Coppola 2011).

Comment: This reflects Hirsch's belief in the need for a common curriculum, or shared values that must be transmitted to all students to create a more homogeneous and cohesive society.…… [Read More]

References

An interview with Bill Ayers. (2006). Revolution Newspaper. Retrieved:

 http://revcom.us/a/063/ayers-en.html 

Coppola, Jen. (2011). The Educational theory of E.D. Hirsch. New Foundations. Retrieved:

http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Hirsch.html
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African-American Adult Males in GED Programs

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30144616

GED Programs

Education is an essential component of having a successful and prosperous life. However, in many cases students drop out of high school and never receive the diplomas that they need to better their lives. Fortunately there are programs that will provide these individuals with GED's which are equivalent to high school diplomas. The need to acquire a GED is of particular importance to the African-American male. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the research pertaining to the success of this population in such programs. We will also review which programs are the most successful and what element of the programs work the best. We will conclude by discussion the funding that is available for such programs.

What do we know about this population's performance in such programs?

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, approximately 830,000 individual took the GED in 2000. There were 719,000…… [Read More]

Venezky, Richard L., Page S. Bristow, and John P. Sabatini. "Measuring Change in Adult Literacy Programs: Enduring Issues and a Few Answers." Educational Assessment 2.2 (1994): 101-132.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5001814485

Weirauch, Drucie, and Gary Kuhne. "Satisfying the Itch: Addressing Problems in Adult Literacy Programs with Action Research." Adult Learning 11.3 (2000): 9.
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Attend Xxxx University to Further My Professional

Words: 523 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96035270

attend XXXX University to further my professional career goals, and use my International skills to further my current career in accounting. I wish to enroll in XXXX and complete a dual degree MBA concentration in Finance and International Business. I believe learning the concepts of International Business will aid my career in the long-term, and I believe XXXX is the best school to help me reach my goals. My short-term goal is to attend XXXX for a few years in the part time PMBA program, to gain knowledge of all the skills and techniques I need to obtain my PMBA degree. My long-term goals are to work for a global corporation such as Dupont and eventually obtain a higher-level management job. I hope when the opportunity arises, I will go to China and become a branch manager oversea using the skills and instruction I realized at XXXX.

A received my…… [Read More]

I have been working in the accounting field since 2001, and I find it both challenging and interesting. I have completed a variety of different accounting tasks during my varying employment, and feel that my background in accounting will help me with the financial and business concepts I will be learning as I complete my graduate work.

I have chosen XXXX University for a variety of reasons, but foremost is the University's national and international reputation. The LeBow School of Business was recently ranked among the top Executive MBA programs - 30th in the nation and 56th worldwide, and I would be proud to attend such a highly ranked school. I feel XXXX and its reputation would add another dimension to my educational experience, and certainly aid my career goals for the future.

A realize that accomplishing my goals will be a challenge, but I look forward to completing my education at XXXX, and continuing on with my chosen career path. My outside interests vary, and I am currently a member of the International Business Association in anticipation of my graduate work. I look forward to attending XXXX, and to completing my educational goals in the XXXX MBA program.
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Liberalism and Conservatism in Contemporary

Words: 926 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31434040



The conservative view -- that of teaching intelligent design, or an alternative to Darwinism, is antithetical to science. In American public schools, religion may be taught about, but not taught. This means, religion may be presented as an historical or philosophical debate, as long as belief systems or spirituality are neither taught nor given predominance by the teacher. The idea of evolution is central to almost every biological and scientific paradigm in contemporary culture, and must be taught in order to students to be well informed. The idea of taking a non-scientific concept and presenting it as science does not make it science, regardless of how it is dressed up (Polkinghorne, 2006).

Indeed, the idea of presenting fairness in a classroom situation is untenable when trying to teach a religious-based concept next to a scientific-based set of principles. When we teach the Civil War, we do not typically teach the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Epperson v Arkansas, 393 (U.S. Supreme Court December 12, 1968).

Edwards v Aguillard, 482 (U.S. Supreme Court June 19, 1987).

National Science Association. (2010, January). Official Positions: The Teaching of Darwin in he Public Schools. Retrieved August 2010, from NTSA.com:  http://www.nsta.org/about/positions/evolution.aspx 

Polkinghorne, J. (2006). Science and Creation: The Search for Understanding. Templeton Foundation Press.
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Executive Team Re Quality Control Alternatives for

Words: 751 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86240575

Executive Team

RE: Quality Control Alternatives for Whistles

Regarding the recent issues concerning unsafe lead levels in the whistles to be shipped to our client in South America, I would like to propose the following solutions to provide speedy and satisfactory resolution to this problem:

Reshipment of whistles within 30 days with 10% discount on product and waived shipping costs

Reshipment of whistles within 60 days with 20% discount on product and on shipping costs

Refund of deposit for whistles with voucher for discount on next delivery (this option does not include shipping discount)

I am proposing these alternatives after reviewing our previous records with this product to this and other clients in South America. Past records indicate that this client has paid invoices on a timely basis during the five-year period previous to this incident, and there have been no occasions in which quality, safety, or timely delivery has…… [Read More]

http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-govConduct

http://www.att.com/gen/investor-relations?pid=5595

http://www.dom.com/investors/corporate-governance/code-of-ethics.jsp http://www.omgi.com/ir-cg-code-of-ethics.html
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Recruiting and Retention Strategies of Office Temporary Employees

Words: 3169 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2125832

Recruiting and Retention Strategies of Office Temporary Employees

An in-depth analysis of the temporary office employee industry as it pertains to recruiting and retention of those employees.

This paper presents a detailed proposal for the recruiting and retention of temporary office workers. The writer is employed as a full time on site recruiter of temporary office workers at one of Wall Street's top financial firms. The majority of the temporary help the writer recruits are administrative assistants and other entry level finance positions. The positions range from a couple of days to several months in time. The writer is charged with recruiting and retaining temporary workers who have the necessary skill sets and experience to perform the jobs. The writer analyzes the industry, the company history regarding temporary employees and future trends to propose methods for the purpose of recruiting and retention of those workers.

FLOW OF INFORMATION

Abstract

Introduction…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Workforce, July 2002, pp. 74-77 -- Subscribe Now!

http://www.staffingtoday.net/memberserv/1199ss/story24.htm

Offering Insurance Is the Key To Healthy Profits and Retention

Three Ways to Build Recruiter Relationships
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Economic Class and Morality Economics

Words: 3362 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56578291

Ultimately, these issues results in hunger and famine, where these inhabitants become deprived of the basic facilities that they are entitled to, as being a citizen of the country (World Hunger Education Service, 2012).

3. Impacts of Hunger and Famine in U.S.

The standard of living means to have a healthy, vigorous and active life. Keeping in mind, the standard of living, the hunger crisis in the U.S. is calculated and determined when its residents are not able to meet the nutritional needs to live a dynamic life. This indicates the fact that the people have lack of access to the nutritious, healthy and safe food. As a consequence, the inhabitants (especially of the low-income groups) tend to opt for foods that are less expensive with usually low nutrients, so that they can meet up to the financial components. Moreover, it has also been observed that meals are also dropped…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anonymous. "Hunger in the U.S. -- Families in Crisis." The Hunger Site, 2012. Web. 29 Dec 2012

This website has discussed how hunger has become one of the harsh realities of the United States, even though it is a land of abundant resources. The impact of hunger upon the individuals, society and eventually on the nation has been argued by the author. Solving the hunger problem has also been articulated in the study. I have used this website with the prime motive to surface the impact of this enormity upon various bodies.

Austin, Michael. Reading the World Ideas That Matter. 2nd Edition. New York, USA: W.W. Norton & Company, 2012. Print.

This book is about the contemporary readings and classic texts that are particularly based on the diversity of views on ideas. This diversity helps an individual in exploring the development of ideas in different cultures and at various occasions.
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Accounting the Impact of Distance Learning in

Words: 1577 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45566862

Accounting

The Impact of Distance Learning in Accounting Higher Education

This paper is intended as an Introduction to a research study in to the impact of distance learning on the teaching of accounting in higher education. The context of the research will first be introduced i.e., the background to the research. The research to be undertaken will then be introduced, as will the specific questions and sub-questions to be addressed. The significance of this study will then be analyzed, and the people who are expected to benefit from this research will also be outlined. The research methodology and the practical design of this research methodology will be discussed, and the primary and secondary sources to be used will be introduced, and a list of preliminary resources will be given in the… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anne Nicholls, Flexible study opens doors., Independent on Sunday, 01-14-1996, pp 12.

Serwatka, Judy A, Improving student performance in distance learning courses., THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 04-01-2002, pp 46.

Mariola, Eleni; Manley, John, Teaching finance concepts in a distance learning environment -- a personal note., Journal of Education for Business, 01-01-2002, pp 177
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Behavioral Modification Description of the

Words: 1221 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37711055

By praising a child every time they do something correctly instead of reprimanding him every single time he does something wrong, can better his self-esteem and show him that he is in control of his actions and feelings. A program that gives rewards for every accomplishment in form of tokens or tickets which can then be redeemed for things such as movie tickets or restaurant vouchers (something that is practical and useful) can be a motivator in children with mood disorders. A goal of a certain number or tickets could be set so that the child is often motivated to behave appropriately in order to attain the desired prize. Tickets or tokens should never be taken away or revoked since previous desired behavior has already earned them the current number of tokens or tickets, but not giving the redeemable tickets or tokens will be a better option. Ignoring his attention…… [Read More]

References:

Perry, S.E., Hockenberry, M.J., Lowdermilk, D.L., & Wilson, D. (2009).

Maternal Child Nursing Care. Mosby. 4th Edition.

kbarlowe. (2010, July 7). 5- to 12-year-old, mood disorder NOS...help! Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation. Retrieved on May 30, 2011 from http://www.bpkids.org/connect/forums/general-discussion/5-yr-old-mood disorder-noshelp

Flanagan, Dr., Samantha, Psy. D. (2011) University of Maryland. Department of Psychology.
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Physiological Effects and Treatments for

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68982866



Different routes of cocaine administration can produce different adverse effects. Regularly snorting cocaine, for example, can lead to loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and an overall irritation of the nasal septum, which can lead to a chronically inflamed, runny nose. Ingested cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene, due to reduced blood flow. Persons who inject cocaine have puncture marks and tracks, most commonly in their forearms. Intravenous cocaine users may also experience an allergic reaction, either to the drug, or to some additive in street cocaine, which can result, in severe cases, in death. Because cocaine has a tendency to decrease food intake, many chronic cocaine users lose their appetites and can experience significant weight loss and malnourishment. The human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, which intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects 3. The mixture of cocaine and alcohol is the…… [Read More]

References

1. Quaglio G, Lugoboni F, Pajusco B, Fornasiero a, Mezzelani P, Lechi a. [Clinical manifestations of cocaine abuse]. Ann Ital Med Int. Oct-Dec 2004;19(4):291-301; quiz 302-293.

2. White SM, Lambe CJ. The pathophysiology of cocaine abuse. J Clin Forensic Med. Mar 2003;10(1):27-39.

3. Velasquez EM, Anand RC, Newman WP, 3rd, Richard SS, Glancy DL. Cardiovascular complications associated with cocaine use. J La State Med Soc. Nov-Dec 2004;156(6):302-310; quiz 311.

4. Sofuoglu M, Kosten TR. Novel approaches to the treatment of cocaine addiction. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(1):13-25.