Scientific Research Essays (Examples)

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Scientific Knowledge

Words: 2208 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11338397

Scientific Knowledge

There lies question on whether scientific knowledge is able to answer all the questions that relate to physical reality. For many years, people have wondered what the earth is composed of, leaving them wondering if the nature's secrets will one day be revealed (Grant 64). However, it is notable that since Galileo discovered the moon in 1608, there has been a remarkable move by his fellow scientists.

A lot of studies in science including the origin of the solar system, sonata of the stars, how matter changes to energy, and detailed works of an atom, among others has not fully exposed the science knowledge. However, the human culture seems to change with science. orldview patterns prove that complex systems studies by working from their smallest constituents meaning from bottom up. These paradigms also confirm that the laws of nature pounce from deep symmetry writs in to the basics…… [Read More]

Works cited

Berlin, I. Concepts and Categories New York: Viking Press, 2006

Davis, P. Cosmin Jackpot: Why Our Universe is Just Right for Life California: Houghton Mifflin 2007

Grant, EA History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. London: Cambridge University Press, 2007 pp. 62 -- 67

Gleiser, M. The dancing Universe: Creation Myths to the Big Bang New York: Continuum 2001
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Scientific Models and Religious Myths

Words: 1935 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13958789

The relationship goes beyond any simple realistic or complex scientific models, because it cannot be explained through the observances of realities around us. Myth and culture can often be on the same temporal level, with one or the other being generated at different times. As such, some of the myths were actually born out of a certain culture, determined by the geographic or demographic realities of the respective culture. In other cases, culture was born out of a myth.

An important element to be analyzed in the differences between religious myths and scientific models is the introduction of variables and the type of variables in each case. The religious myth, especially the creation myths in different cultures, falls into the category of sacred myths. There is always such a distinction between sacred and profane myths or, as Eliade puts it, people "distinguish between sacred myths (cosmogony, creation of the stars,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. McGrath, Alister. 1998. Science and Religion: An Introduction. Wiley -- Blackwell.

2. Eliade, Mircea. 1963. Myth and Reality. Trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper & Row,

McGrath, Alister. 1998. Science and Religion: An Introduction. Wiley -- Blackwell.

Ibid. Page 107
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Scientific Theory in Psychology the

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86305141

So, just as the concept of Right has to have Wrong as its counterpart to be a truth, so does theory need evidence. Science is a method of understanding, it is an understanding of what exists, what we can determine that we know about these things, and the method by which we go about achieving that understanding. Thus, without evidence on either side of the theory, there can be no support for the theory therefore making that theory non-scientific.

The evaluation of a theory is the identification of the type of theory it is. Much like theories themselves that set out a parameter of evaluation of a measurable prediction about a particular behavior or set of behaviors, theory evaluation is the determination of the validity, structure, and use of the theory itself. Theories have two dimensions: parasitical (its reliance on other theories) and operationalizable (interpretations of the theory). The less…… [Read More]

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Scientific Progress Scientific Responsibility Nuclear

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94001606

In fact:

In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).

hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.

Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.

TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
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Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture

Words: 3934 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22341787

Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture

On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).

Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…… [Read More]

References

Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.

Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.

Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.

Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
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Scientific Methods the Law Enforcement in the

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49784850

Scientific Methods

The law enforcement in the U.S.A. today is better equipped to handle the terrorism attacks and any terrorism threats than it was before the 9/11 incidence in America. This is evident in the general ways through which the security measures are implemented in the country and the intricate manner of investigations that take place to counter terrorism.

Due to the nature of the data and information that is needed here, the scientific method employed was statistical data collection. This was due to the fact that there is need to have objective information on the facts surrounding the various arms of law enforcement. The best way to have facts behind the changes that took place after the 9/11 in terms of the quality of training and the number of law enforcement agencies, it was not feasible to conduct interviews among the Americans as they would only give a general…… [Read More]

References

Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from  https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html 

National commission on Terrorist Attack Upon United States, (2004). Counter Terrorism evolves. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from  http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report_Ch3.htm 

US Department of Justice, (2006). Legal Authorities Supporting the Activities of the National SECURITY Agency Described by the President. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from http://www.justice.gov/opa/whitepaperonnsalegalauthorities.pdf
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Scientific Report of Tufted Capuchin Monkeys San Diego Zoo

Words: 1265 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21763837

Scientific eport of Tufted Capuchin Monkeys in SanDiego Zoo

Behavioral Differences Between Male and Female Capuchin Monkeys in an Artificial Habitat

Studies have shown that the activity and energy of an animal can be determined through the collection of data and presentation as an activity budget (Altmann 1974, Tacha 1985). An activity budget collects specific behavior data over a predetermined time for an animal or population for analysis in the evaluation of a hypothesis. This study reports the differences in activity between males and females for a population of tufted capuchin primates living in an outdoor artificial habitat within a North American zoo. The hypothesis that there are differences in activity levels between male and females for this population is confirmed for the duration of observation in this study. More study would be required to determine the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and daytime verses nocturnal behavior.

Introduction

The tufted…… [Read More]

References

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods.Behaviour 49:227-267.

Bobick, J. 2004. The Handy Biology Answer Book New York, Visible Ink Press 141.

Bohn, K. 2012. Photography Credit, copyright San Diego Zoo

Di Bitetti, M.S. Janson, C.H. (2001) Social foraging and the finder's share in capuchin monkeys, (Cebus apella), Animal Behavior 62, 1, 47-56
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Scientific Theory in Scientific Investigation

Words: 2513 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91974570

Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.

The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.

A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.

Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Sources

BBC. Science and Nature: What is psychology? Oct, 2008.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/what_is_psychology.shtml 

Carter, J. Stein. The Scientific Method. Nov. 4, 2004. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm

Theory Evaluation. 2008.  http://arti.vub.ac.be/memos/AI-Memo-93-07/subsubsectionstar4_2_3.html 

Wilson, Jerry. Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories. 2007. http://www.wilstar.com/theories.htm
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Scientific Approaches to Learning Behavior

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15172684

The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human…… [Read More]

3. Creative thinking is one of the ways in which human beings are able to separate themselves from other animals and to actualize. Animals can be curious, but whether that curiosity has memory, or deeper implications of "what if," in the future, or synthesizing disparate materials into something new is still debatable. There is a wonderful book series by Roger Von Oech that asks us to continue to develop creative thinking within our daily lives in order to keep our brains functioning well and robust (Von Oech, 1973, 1986). There are several questions about innate human nature that are personally fascinating: 1) Why do myths and legends seem to resonate throughout the ages? 2) What is about certain music, art or literature that seems to transcend human emotions and make us feel actualized? 3) Is there a neurochemical relationship to emotions, and if so, how did it develop within the human psyche?

4. The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human language -- but the question may also be -- can humans learn to communicate with animals in their language? (Rumbaugh and Washburn, 2003).

5. Argument by anecdote is a method of proving one's point by using stories that may be personal recollections, hearsay, or other popular myth. One of the problems with using this format is that each person may have a different anecdote. Stories, we know, can be entertaining, but can also perpetuate like a rumor, once through the crowd, it has changed and become something more than it ever was. One popular example of argument by anecdote is in some of the dubious claims from the non-regulated
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Scientific Thinking and Scientific Skepticism

Words: 1936 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92833628

Scientific Thinking and Scientific Skepticism

It isn't easy to define psychology. Nonetheless, the general understanding of psychology is that it a scientific study of behavior, the mind and the brain. As a discipline, it spans several levels of analysis. A thorough understanding of psychology cannot be achieved by looking at just a single level of analysis since every level has a different set of knowledge and view point (Lillienfied, Lynn, Namy & Woolf, 2011).

Lilienfield, Lynn, Namy and Woolf (2011) are of the opinion that scientific thinking gives us skills to overcome our prejudices and biases which can distort our perception and make us ignore evidence that go against our line of thinking. Six scientific principles of thinking are particularly vital when one wants to study psychology. The first one is "Extraordinary Claims" which was proposed by David Hume, a Scottish Philosopher who lived in the 18th century. David Hume…… [Read More]

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Intelligence the Role of Scientific

Words: 2772 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38343941

More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).

In the arrangement of science there…… [Read More]

References

A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cia/tradecraft_notes/contents.htm

Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204630904577058111041127168.html

Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:

The Scarecrow Press.
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Experimental Research Methods in Business Experimental Research

Words: 4846 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87946505

Experimental esearch Methods in Business

Experimental esearch Methods

The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.

Introduction

The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.

Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.

Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved  http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
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National Institute of Nursing Research NINR History

Words: 1877 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63067891

National Institute of Nursing esearch (NIN)

History of the organization

The National Institute of Nursing esearch is a body mandated with the principal responsibility of carrying out research that relates to the nursing and medical field in general. The institution dedicates its effort to improving the health and health care of Americans through funding of nursing research and research training. The involvement of the federal government led to the formation of the research institute as early as 1946. The federal government established a division of nursing within the office of the Surgeon General, Public Health Service. The NIN commenced its activities in 1955 when the institute established a Nursing esearch Study section, which was within the Division of esearch Grants. The purpose of this Study Section was to conduct a scientific review of the growing volume of applications in the nursing sector.

In 1960, a consolidation of the public health…… [Read More]

References

Fitzpatrick, J.J & Kazer, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. 3rd edition. New York:

Springer Publishing Company.

Miller, A.C. (2009). Nursing for Wellness in Older Adults. Printed in China: Lippincott Williams

and Wilkins.
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Nursing Utilization Review Preparation Scientific

Words: 1792 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85081273

Resources needed include manpower and positional aids mentioned previously in this report. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the change would be accomplished through data collection related to the frequency of pressure ulcer occurrence in patients and nurse compliance in the four hours supine positional rotation of patients. Questionnaires will also be administered to nursing staff in order to gain insight as to their attitudes, behaviors and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention.

Phase V: Transplantation and Application

This study concludes that positional rotations of every four hours has been shown to be the most effective prevention of pressure ulcer formation in older patients in elderly care homes and further that that attitudes, behaviors and perceptions of barriers in the view of staff nurses predicts the effectiveness of the implementation of such a prevention program for pressure ulcer care. (Moore and Price, 2006)

Exact Nature of Practice Implications

____ Change the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Moore, Z. And Price, P. (2004) Nurses' Attitudes, Behaviors, and Perceived Barriers Towards Pressure Ulcer Prevention Journal of Clinical Nursing 13, 2004.

Vanderwee, K.; Grypdonck, D.; Bacquer, De and Defloor, T. (2006) Effectiveness of Turning with Unequal Time Intervals on the Incidence of Pressure Ulcer lesions. JAN Original Research 10 July 2006.

Nursing: Utilization Review
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St Jude Children's Research Hospital Founded by

Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79097607

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

Founded by entertainer Danny Thomas, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital is celebrating its fiftieth year of operation; in that time the hospital has conducted important research and cured / saved the lives of numerous children with cancer and other diseases. This paper reviews the organization from a number of important perspectives.

Board of Directors and Governors

The chairman / president of St. Jude's Board of Directors is Camille Sarrouf, who is an attorney in Boston with the law practice, Sarrouf Law. The First Vice Chair is Richard "Rich" M. Unes, from Memphis, Tennessee. Second Vice Chair is Paul Ayoub and the Secretary of St. Jude's Fred R. Harris. As to the Board of Governors for St. Jude's, Robert Breit is the chairman and president and Terry Burman is the First Vice Chair. Martha Perine Beard is the Second Vice Chair for the Board of Governors…… [Read More]

Works Cited

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. "50 Years / Finding Cures / Saving Children." Retrieved

November 26, 2012, from http://www.stjude.org.
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Future Research Agenda That Judge Et Al

Words: 1187 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65713662

future research agenda that Judge, et al. (2008) present addresses their critique of personality research in organizational behavior.

According to Judge, Klinger, Simon and Yang (2008), the various criticisms directed at early organizational behavioral theories have been countered by a growing body of evidence that supports these fundamental precepts. In this regard Judge et al. report that there have been three main pieces of evidence to date that have been particularly influential:

The growth of meta-analysis allowed for cumulation of results across studies. This development was particularly important in the area of personality, given the myriad traits that had been considered over decades of scientific research.

The widespread acceptance of the five-factor model (or the 'Big Five' -- Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) of personality provided a framework to organize the diverse set of traits. While the gains from the five-factor model have been considerable, its acceptance…… [Read More]

References

Chen, J-K & Chen, I-S. (2008, Fall). How can institutes of technology change successfully? A

discussion from a human resources perspective. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 3, 85-

88.

Judge, T.A., Klinger, R., Simon, L.S., & Yang, I.W.F. (2008). The contributions of personality to organizational behavior and psychology: Findings, criticisms, and future research directions. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1982-2000.
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Rick Houser's Book Counseling and Educational Research

Words: 6074 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60383503

ICK HOUSE'S BOOK COUNSELING AND EDUCATIONAL ESEACH

ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"

ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"

Why is it important to acquire necessary skills in research for a counselor?

Clinical counselors are doctoral-level providers of health services skilled in counseling clients while evaluating and treating emotional and mental disorders utilizing scientific theories and methods. Adequate interpersonal correspondence skills are imperative. A clinical counselor must have the ability to listen eagerly and understand what customers communicate with them, and have the capacity to talk clearly with customers about sensitive issues. This occupation also requires basic thinking skills, as clinical therapists must have the capacity to utilize logic and reason to solve and interpret complex issues. Houser writes: "… but I believe acquiring the skill to evaluate how knowledge was generated is a key skill in functioning as a professional and dissociates those with advanced graduate degrees…… [Read More]

References

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Psychologists Conduct Research on a

Words: 1669 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23679378



The following abstract demonstrates the different aspects of the scientific method:

POBLEM STATEMENT: Study of relationship between folates-B-vitamins and Alzheimer's disease.

Adults who eat the daily recommended allowance of folates-B-vitamin nutrients found in oranges, legumes, leafy green vegetables and folic acid supplements significantly reduce their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, according to results from a long-term study of diet and brain aging (SUPPOTED HYPOTHESIS EPOTED FINDINGS).

The study also found that folates appear to have more impact on reducing Alzheimer's risk than vitamin E, a noted antioxidant, and other nutrients considered for their effect as a brain-aging deterrent (SUPPOTED HYPOTHESIS EPOTED FINDINGS).

Maria Corrada and Dr. Claudia Kawas of University of California, Irvine led the effort, which analyzed the diets of non-demented men and women age 60 and older (DESIGN METHODOLOGY). They compared the food nutrient and supplement intake of those who later developed Alzheimer's disease to the intake of…… [Read More]

References

Descartes, R. 1970. "Rules for the direction of the mind." Eds. E. Haldane & G. Ross.

Philosophical works of Descartes. New York: Cambridge.

Franklin, R., D., Allison, and B. Gorman. 1997. Design and analysis of single-case research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Mason, E., and W. Bramble. 1978. Understanding and conducting research. NewYork: McGraw Hill.
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Proposing and Justifying a Research Method and Design

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33133730

gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.

Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.

As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…… [Read More]

References

Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:

 http://guides.temple.edu/groundedtheory 

The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:

 http://www.jbhe.com/2012/03/the-gender-gap-in-african-american-degree-attainments/
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Social Research Activities Whether Empirical Literature Review

Words: 2967 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86822578

Social Research

Research activities, whether empirical, literature review sponsored, descriptive, or historical, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. It is vital that the researcher catch the essential quality of the excitement of discovery that comes from research well done if expected results are to be gained. If this sole tenet can be achieved then the difficulties and frustrations of the research performance, while they never completely vanish, play a much less significant role (Ferguson, 1967). To the enthused researcher there must be debate, discussion, and even argument if there is to exist intelligent conviction regarding the nature, design analysis, and inferences regarding the phenomenon or topic under investigation (Kerlinger, 1964). The remainder of this paper will examine two research studies from the perspective of data certification and whether or not the author's have adequately fulfilled the research requirements associated with the principle of data certification. The two…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Friedman T, Slayton WB, Allen LS, Pollock BH, Dumont-Driscoll M, Mehta P, Graham-Pole J.

Use of alternative therapies for children with cancer. Pediatrics December 1997, vol.

100, no. 6, p. e1.

Furgeson, George A. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York: McGraw-
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Social Research Involves Measuring Describing Explaining and

Words: 3185 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72954458

Social research involves measuring, describing, explaining and predicting social and economic phenomena. Its objectives include exploring social and economic structures, attitudes, values and behaviors and the factors, which motivate and constrain individuals and groups in society. here are, however, a number of ethical and political concerns that social researchers must be aware of while conducting such research. his paper focuses on and describes some of these valid ethical and political concerns.

Ethics of Social Research

Since "social research" encompasses a wide-ranging field, it is probably not appropriate to have a universal or a single set of code of ethics to govern such research. Over time, however, a number of conflicting ethical theories such as the Utilitarian theory introduced by John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), advocating that the ends justify the means, and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)'s ethical theories that emphasized that humans should not be the means to an end, have been…… [Read More]

The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) conducted an experiment on 399 black men in the late stages of syphilis between 1932 and 1972 without their knowledge and were deliberately deprived of proper treatment for the disease. (Brenner, 2004)

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) had sponsored experiments during the Cold War in which hundreds of Americans were exposed to radioactive material, often without their consent

Chronically ill non-cancer patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in New York were injected with live human cancer cells without their consent as part of experiments on cancer
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Social Science Research Are Qualitative and Quantitative

Words: 4883 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70439606

social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.

In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/

Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.

Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
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Education Research Plays an Extraordinarily

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10057095

The empirical design and its results, not age, should determine the validity and relevance of a given educational theory. Too often, educational policy makers and the professional support system skip from level one research (theory and conjecture based on correlations) to policy. A shared knowledge base might be created from theory alone and as Grossen (nd) points out, it often is. "Most of the educational practices that become widely disseminated in our university teacher-training programs and across the nation do not even have level two research support, nevermind level three," (Grossen nd).

Greater gatekeeping is necessary to restore the integrity of the educational policy system and the professional networks that support it. Current gatekeepers do not draw their policies from science but from opinion. Almost all of the most popular educational theories touted today have little to no empirical support. Grossen lists a litany of common teaching methods and theories…… [Read More]

Reference

Grossen, B. (nd). What does it mean to be a research-based profession? Retrieved July 10, 2007 at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~bgrossen/pubs/resprf.htm
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Bio-Statistics Research Activities Whether Clinical Trial Based

Words: 2419 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3118141

Bio-Statistics

esearch activities, whether clinical trial based, experimentally designed, or product oriented, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. To this end the researcher must catch the essential quality of the excitement of discovery that comes from research well done. The first step in the attainment of the desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward that which is being investigated. A requirement within the scientific approach best-fit format that is oftentimes misunderstood, and consequently wrongly applied, is that of sampling.

In a rather philosophical approach to sampling Ohlson (1998) states that sampling is " ... But part of the whole. Check to make sure I fairly represent my larger connection " (p. 27). With these words Ohlson is informing the research enthusiast that sampling alone can skew testing results, infuse uncontrollable error into statistical processes, and violate the empirical premise under which the research investigation…… [Read More]

References

Ferguson, Geroge A. 1966. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:

McGraw-Hill Book Company

Ohlson, E.L 1998. Best-Fit Statistical Procedures, ACTS Testing Labs. Chicago Thompson, David M., Kozak, Sharon E. And Sheps, Sam (1999). Insulin adjustment by a diabetes nurse educator improves glucose control in insulin-requiring diabetic patients: A randomized trial. CMAJ, 161(8):959-62

Van Dalen, Debold B. (1966). Understanding educational research. New York: McGraw-Hill
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Participatory Research An Approach With

Words: 1061 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83659054

By taking this approach, not only will diabetes research be more ethical in its construction, but it will also help break down community barriers that create resistance and fear towards the health care systems, provide care to the economically disadvantaged, and thus act as a force for social change and good.

The example of diabetes treatment and research is an excellent example of research that is vital and important to a community, pertains to cultural acts and rituals like food are affected by social circumstances like the availability to exercise, and shows that a participatory approach is not merely theoretical but realistic in the field. Park's theoretical endorsement of research as a co-creative act with a potential to create social justice is not limited to health care education, but religious education as well. Elizabeth Conde-Frazier discusses how the participatory approach can bridge cultural differences even in the intractable field of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth. (Summer 2006). "Participatory Action Research: Practical

Theology for Social Justice." Religious Education.. Retrieved 24 Feb 2007 a t http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3783/is_200607/ai_n17187967

Park, P. (1993). "What is participatory research? A theoretical and methodological perspective." In P. Park, M. Brydon-Miller, B. Hall and T. Jackson (Eds.). Voices of change (pp. 1-19). Westport. Conn: Bergin & Garvey.

The Role of Community-Based Participatory Research: Creating Partnerships, Improving
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Dupont Research in Its Purest Definition Quantitative

Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52186817

Dupont esearch

In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Given, L. (2008). The Safe Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
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Communicating Qualitative Research Analysis

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83055817

Qualitative research is different from quantitative research methodologies on the premise that it does not rely on numerical data. Qualitative research rely on text and image since it's a type of scientific research that seeks to provide contextual descriptions of the experiences of people regarding as specific research issue. In most cases, qualitative research methods are considered suitable in identifying intangible factors through a scientific inquiry such as socioeconomic status, religion, social norms, and ethnicity (College of Computer and Information Science, n.d.). In this regard, there are several aspects that distinguish qualitative research writing, which are brought by specific designs, steps of analysis, and data collection procedures. An understanding of these aspects of qualitative research writing helps in enhancing the effectiveness of the research process and research findings.

Salient Aspects of Qualitative Research Writing

In his discussion on qualitative research procedures, Creswell (2014) proposes ten aspects that differentiate qualitative research…… [Read More]

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Psychological Research It Is Difficult

Words: 1904 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91807125



We have also talked about the "blue print" of a study, or the logical model of proof which guides the researcher throughout the entire study -- i.e. The research design. It is by which the investigator determines the relationships between variables being tested. We have discussed true experiments, its nature and validity issues as well as quasi-experimental designs. We also provided a discussion of the difference between these two designs.

What is worth nothing, I believe, is the importance of a good research design. A good research design theoretically leads to good data. Hence, during the conceptualization of research design, careful thought needs to be employed.

Lastly, our research considerations, on which kind of statistical tool to use, whether to use sample or population, and/or which research design to employ, should always be anchored in our research objectives, on the things that we aim to know through the study.

eferences…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association (2003). How To Be A Wise Consumer of Psychological

Research. Retrieved from http://www.psychologymatters.org/wiseconsumer.html on May 15, 2009.

Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E.J. (2006). Statistics for Psychology, 4th Edition.

New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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Becoming Acquainted With Research

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50336071

Acquainted with Research

What is the name of your journal?

-- Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition

For whom does it seem to have been written?

-- Experimental Psychologists and researchers, Cognitive psychologists, sensation and perception psychologists/researchers, people interested in how individuals process visual information in order to read.

Choose a representative research article whose title interests you. Write the name of its time and briefly explain why it interests you.

Full Recognition of Parafoveal Words Precedes Skips During Reading

This article seemed interesting because I often notice that when I read, even if I do not read every single word in a sentence, I still understand the meaning of the sentence. I was hoping to learn more about how the brain processes information in a way that allows it to seemingly skip over some pieces of information and yet still retain the overall meaning of the text that has…… [Read More]

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Wernher Von Braun in the Quote Research

Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70275756

Wernher Von Braun

In the quote, research is what I'm doing when I do not know what I'm doing, Dr. Wernher Von Braun is saying that the elements of discovery, non-linear thinking, creativity and unstructured analysis can be even more powerful than a more thoroughly defined, dogmatic and highly constrained approach to primary research. The intent of this paper is to explain who the kind of research described in the quote can be helpful to science, and that the advantage in research that is more directed and purposeful can lead to more efficiency surrounding the process yet also limit the potential to find entirely new, unthought-of solutions to complex problems.

The essence of successful innovation is in finding associations or links between two or more disparate concepts, theories, frameworks or structures that combined deliver significant, often disruptive innovative value over time (Antonelli, Franzoni, Geuna, 201). An analysis of patent flows…… [Read More]

References

Antonelli, C., C. Franzoni, and A. Geuna. "The organization, economics, and policy of scientific research: what we do know and what we don't know - an agenda for research. " Industrial and Corporate Change 20.1 (2011): 201.

Bhattacharya, J., and M. Packalen. "Opportunities and benefits as determinants of the direction of scientific research. " Journal of Health Economics 30.4 (2011): 603.

Kumazawa, R., and P. Gomis-Porqueras. "An empirical analysis of patents flows and R&D flows around the world. " Applied Economics 44.36 (2012): 4755.
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The Scientific Method and Its Importance to Research

Words: 831 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98038350

scientific method in the doctoral research process.

The scientific method has long been the preferred means of conducting research in most fields, including both social sciences and hard sciences. Because the scientific methods "demands that the procedures be objective," as well as clearly stated in research papers, bias is minimized (Stangor, 2012). Moreover, the statement of procedures allows for replication of experiments, something that is integral to the peer review process. eplication is crucial for the validation of scientific research at the doctoral level and beyond.

Doctoral students might develop cogent hypotheses in their research, and those hypotheses when proven over time may evolve into widely accepted theories in their field. However, repeated testing is the only means by which to solidify theories (Harris, n.d.). The doctoral student must be relatively detached from the results of research, and the scientific method enables detachment by highlighting ways the theory can be…… [Read More]

References

Babbie, E. (1990). The essential wisdom of sociology. Teaching Sociology 18(4): 526-5.30

Babbie, E. (2012). The Practice of Social Research. Nelson.

Harris, W. (n.d.). How the scientific method works. Retrieved online: http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/scientific-experiments/scientific-method9.htm

"Introduction to Scientific Research," (n.d.). Chapter One. Pearson. Retrieved online: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205701655.pdf
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Nature and Necessity of Scientific Revolutions Preview

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86727393

Scientific Revolutions Preview

The author uses successive paradigms to bring out the nature of the universe. The point is that there are various (and diverse) aspects of the universe and the behavior of its population. Specifically, Thomas points out that "they differ, that is, about such questions as the existence of subatomic particles, the materiality of light, and the conservation of heat or of energy." (9) The author states that these differences do not require further explanation as they arise in successive paradigms. The paradigms are important since they provide basis for solutions, problem fields and various methods in the universe.

The author points out that the nature of the universe is too complex with great variations and thus, random exploration is not justified. Therefore, there is a need for a map that provides important information to be used in relevant scientific research that explores the complex nature. The importance…… [Read More]

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High Frequency Active Auroral Research

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61892702

If a butterfly's wings beating in Tibet can cause el Nino, then a gigawatt of electromagnetic radiation ought to be good for something.

* HAARP is an earthquake machine. Also based on a bunch of weird stuff Tesla discovered. Somewhat offset by the fact the HAARP array is clearly pointed at the sky.

* HAARP is a doomsday machine ripping a hole in the earth's atmosphere. Colorful, but scienfitically questionable. How do you rip a hole in air?

* HAARP has something to do with UFOs. Either signalling them, blasting them from the skies, or feeding babies to them.

* HAARP is a giant Mind Control broadcasting machine. Appealing, but if it works, why are people still such assholes? (clarky003)

Though an anonymous blogger is hardly likely to be considered a credible source the reality is that the full implications of this research device are unknown and real scientists who…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bellis, Mary "History of Dynamite" 2009 at: .

clarky003 [Blogger] "H.A.R.R.P a weapon to end all wars?" at: .

Digg [Earhtfirst Comentator] "The 5 People Responsible for Mankind's Most Toxic Inventions" at: < http://earthfirst.com/the-5-people-responsible-for-mankinds-most-toxic-inventions/>.

HARRP Website FAQ at: .
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Stem Cell Policies Scientific Breakthrough

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78401625



This controversial decision drew all kinds of reactions from different groups on each side of the issue. Some adversaries of hESC research expressed admiration for the decision limiting research to existing cell lines, while others said that no research should be allowed under any circumstances. Advocates of hESC research, meanwhile, generally praised the president for allowing some research to go forward, but criticized the restriction to existing cell lines as too strict, questioning whether enough research would be allowed.

Current U.S. Stem Cell Policy under President Obama

The March 9, 2009 EO changes the way the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the NIH Director, is required to review existing NIH and other widely-recognized guidelines on human stem cell research and issue new NIH guidance within 120 days of the date of the EO…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research." 10 March 2009. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 27 March 2009 http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/.

Executive Summary." 2009. The National Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research. 27 March 2009 http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/execSum.asp.

Register, Federal. "Presidential Documents Executive Order 13505." 11 March 2009. Federal Register. 24 March 2009 http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9-5441.pdf.
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Stakeholders Research Project

Words: 1483 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96829099

Stakeholders Research Project
Introduction
Preliminary stakeholder identification around any natural resource proves vital to carrying out meaningful trans- disciplinary researches with regard to managing that particular resource. Stakeholders may be defined as all players capable of impacting, or being impacted by, any action or decision (after Freeman 1984). Natural resource management research scholars (e.g. Grimble and Wellard 1997; Dougill et al. 2006; Ravnborg and Westermann 2002) constantly report that the inclusion of stakeholders in finding solutions facilitates mutual learning and negotiation, improves stakeholder buy- in and support of actions and decisions, and decreases conflict. Trans- disciplinary study strategies build on this rationale through assimilating stakeholders and integrating the diverse kinds of ideas and knowledge they bring with them to the table in socially- sound, solution- focused studies (Lang et al. 2012; Bracken et al. 2014; Hurni and Wiesmann 2014).
Quite frequently, project reports and scholarly papers’ descriptions pertaining to stakeholder…… [Read More]

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Military Food Research on the

Words: 1493 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17887726

Many food companies have expressed an interest in the concept, Darsch says, although he notes that the material is not in wide use yet (Erickson, at (http://www.mercola.com/artcile/irradiated/irradiated_research.htm).

When Operation Desert Shield and the subsequent Desert Storm erupted, Darsch says, Natick was able to accelerate research on high heat stable chocolate bars. The resulting product, which can withstand temperatures as high as 120°F without compromising quality, arrived in the Persian Gulf prior to the end of the conflict, and Hershey Foods introduced the Desert ar to consumers Memorial Day weekend 1991 (Erickson, at (http://www.mercola.com/artcile/irradiated/irradiated_research.htm).This product's future has many applications in warmer climates, and in areas where air conditioning might not be prevalent.

Another food product developed initially for the military is shelf stable bread. Research indicates that the main ingredients in this product are no different from those found in Wonder read. The only difference is an emulsifier that has been…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bishai, D. & Naluba, R. "Food Fortification Spurred by Military Purchases." John Hopkins

Public Health Magazine (2003).

Erickson, P. "Trickle Down Technology." New Technologies. 1992. Weeks Publishing

Company. 26 Mar. 2005 http://www.mercola.com/article/irradiated/irradiated_research.html.
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Society Quantitative Methods of Research

Words: 2663 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85321002

The high stakes testing proponents believes that the use of testing will motivate students, their families and teachers to take education more seriously. (Nathan, 2002, p.595) Many opponents on the other hand believe that "teaching to the test" will likely prove disastrous for the schools and curriculums involved and this is especially true if the test is the only gauge of success or if there is any question as to the validity of the test. (Toch, 2005, 26)

Either way, the debate rages on and the situation of quantitative data as the driving force behind school improvement is upon us. This change also requires that administrators and others become statisticians, interpreting and adding to data at every possible turn, in order to seek out as much qualitative information as possible from the quantitative data. This may mean finding and utilizing data systems, secondary to the high stakes yearly (or every…… [Read More]

References

Bon, S.C., S.C. Faircloth, and G.K. Letendre. (2006) The School Violence Dilemma: Protecting the Rights of Students with Disabilities While Maintaining Teachers' Sense of Safety in Schools. Journal of Disability Policy Studies 17.3: 148.

Bridges, A. (October 20, 2007), NP Panel: Kids Shouldn't Use Cold Medicines

Associated Press Retrieved December 8, 2007 at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2007/10/18/national/w000553D36.DTL

Burst Media. (2004) Current research You Can Use Online Insights 4.11 NP. Retrieved December 8, 2007 at http://www.burstmedia.com/release/advertisers/online_insights/november_2004.pdf
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Multivariate Statistics the Research Question

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81352641

I might believe that other variables (such as gender and low income) have a more significant impact on the frequency of car accidents as compared to for instance the general belief that it is crime, and location that induce them.

Potential pitfall

Firstly, I have to ascertain that my operational terms of data are totally accurate and thorough, since the outcome depends on the data that is fed-in to the system.

Most significantly, however, the major conceptual limitation is that I can only ascertain a relationship but never be sure of the underlying causal factor. It may be a variable that is seemingly unrelated to the independent variables mentioned here and, therefore, has been overlooked. For instance, it may be a possibility that menopause may be responsible for inducing accidents; so even though the factor of age may have emerged as significant, the real problem -- menopause -- has remained…… [Read More]

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Why I am Best Suited to Independent Research

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23338646

ince minorities (primarily Latinos and Blacks) are over represented in the jail's juvenile population, and since the CDF recognizes this fact and attempts to address it with its Cradle to Prison Pipeline program, the AJA is interested in its contents and effectiveness.

Organizational Details of Research

The study will fall into various parts:

a. Direct observation of the CDF Freedom chools program, where I will assess their affect-school enrichment programs.

b. urveys and focus groups on a minimum sample of 50 participants who attend the Youth Leadership Network for Children (YLNC). The YLNC is distributed into the following divisions: CDF Internship program, the Beat the Odds® cholarship program, CDF Freedom chools program, and the Young Adult Leadership Training (YALT®) program. All will be assessed.

c. Active participation in community summits and other meetings that CDF holds to develop action plans for their Cradle to Prison Pipeline program.

d. Random sampling…… [Read More]

Sources

American Educational research Association (AERA) http://www.aera.net/AboutAERA.htm

American Jail Association (AJA) http://www.aja.org/

Children's Defense Fund (CDF) (CDF)  http://www.childrensdefense.org/
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Scientific Inquiry Into Extraterrestrial Life

Words: 2388 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83384088

Furthermore, he argues, a technological culture is not an inevitable feature of human evolution. If other cultures had achieved ascendancy, then science and technology would not have emerged as a reference point for measuring intelligence. SETI's requirement for an almost identical technology, although scientifically understandable, is based on an impoverished concept of intelligence.

According to Munevar, the development of a scientific culture, with access to radio communication, is highly contingent, requiring a number of lucky breaks from the environment and human natural and social history. In this context Munevar cites the development of mammalian intelligence. It is widely believed that the dinosaurs were wiped out by the immediate effects of an asteroid or cometary impact or possibly volcanic eruption. But mammals who survived the years of darkness caused by the dust of the impact or eruption then evolved to occupy the niche held by the dinosaurs. If the dinosaurs had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lamb, D. Discovery, Creativity and Problem Solving, Aldershot: Ashgate. 1991

Lamb, D. Crop patterns and the greening of Ufology, Explorations in Knowledge, XI, 2: 12-46. 1994

Munevar, G. Radical Knowledge, Aldershot: Avebury. 1981

Munevar, G. Extraterrestrial and human science, Explorations in Knowledge, VI, 2: 1-8. 2005
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Scientific Effects of Smoking on the Human

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96151006

scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.

Smoking and its effects

Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli.…… [Read More]

References

Timmins, William. (1989). Smoking and the workplace. New York: Quorum Books.

Klarreich, Samuel. (1987). Health and fitness in the workplace. New York: Praeger.

Weiss, Stephen. (1991). Health at work. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.

Bunton, Robin. (2002). Health Promotion. London: Routledge.
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Scientific Approach to Knowledge Is Generally an

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43602049

scientific approach to knowledge is generally an expansion on the common-sense everyday approach, by which individuals seek the truth. For example, both the scientific and the everyday approaches to knowledge entail successive and related stages of observation, reporting, concepts, instruments, measurement, and hypotheses. The scientific method is usually far more formal and rigid than the general, everyday approach to knowledge because of the necessary rigors of the sciences.

If an ordinary individual sees a flower she has never before seen, she will probably approach it for a closer look. A scientist would also approach the flower to examine it. Next, both scientist and layperson use as many senses as possible to observe the flower. Observation means not just watching with the eyes, but also listening, smelling, touching, and being aware of the surrounding environment. In the everyday approach, the person might ignore that which the scientist would observe, such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'Operational Definition." Wikipedia. 2005. Online at .
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Scientific Observation That Distinguish it From Our

Words: 2109 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83022137

scientific observation that distinguish it from our everyday observation are that scientific observation is conducted using precisely defined observational conditions; by performing the observations systematically and objectively; and through keeping careful and accurate records.

Scientific observation, as opposed to everyday observations, must take place within certain well-defined parameters, whether in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Furthermore, the scientist does not choose the parameters arbitrarily but rather relies on such methods as sampling to conduct the observations and experiments in a way that renders them valid. For example, if a researcher wanted to examine the effects of watching violent video games on a child's behavior, he or she would first have to determine which video games would be deemed violent, and what specific behavioral affects to look for. An everyday observation of the same phenomenon would be far less precise.

Also, everyday observation can be passive and filtered through the individual's biases…… [Read More]

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Scientific Admissibility and Merit of

Words: 801 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80685976



Criteria

NQ

Comments

Randomization properly done

Baseline comparability reported

Same data collection for all arms

Subjects blinded to treatment assignment

Care givers blinded to treatment assignment

Treatments clearly described

Co intervention monitored

Compliance monitored and equal in all groups

Side effects assessed

Outcomes defined, measurable and valid

Blind assessment of outcomes

Section I: Author's key results and conclusions

Including quantitative estimates, e.g. relative risk, reduction in risk, confidence intervals, and p values)

The average magnitude of BP declines achieved by participants was no greater than the magnitude of decrease observed in the placebo arms of 7 pharmaceutical trials analyzed by the Individual Data Analysis of Antihypertensive Intervention trials (INDANA) research committee. Results suggest that 6 weeks of twice-weekly sessions of fully individualized TCM acupuncture are unlikely to achieve clinically meaningful reductions in SBP or DBP for the average patient with mild-to-moderate hypertension relative to invasive sham acupuncture.

Section S: Conclusions…… [Read More]

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Scientific Misconduct Of the Five

Words: 871 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84336365

However, college students are not an easily quantifiable demographic. Their age and other characteristics vary greatly, making it impossible to precisely categorize them. Second, it will be difficult to select random participants because, with the use of alcohol, the people most likely to participate in the study are those who enjoy drinking alcohol. This will effect the results because people who drink alcohol have a higher tolerance and thus will show less effect after consuming it. Third, because of the use of alcohol the company will have to ensure that all participants are legal. Further, the participants will have to be informed that they are drinking an intoxicating substance. This will make having a control and experimental group impossible because those drinking alcohol will have to know they are drinking, which could create a mental effect on their performance and thus effect the overall results. For these reasons, as chief…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process." Responsible Science. Vol. 1:30, NAS, 1992.

Girdner, Ellen R.R. (2001): Evaluating Research Articles from Start to Finish. London: SAGE Publications.
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Scientific Investigation Includes Both Independent and Dependent

Words: 1679 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99236775

scientific investigation includes both independent and dependent vaiables. The independent vaiable is the cause (antecedent) of the dependent vaiable, the pesumed effect (consequence). Fo the pesent study thee ae two independent vaiables: inclusive and self-contained educational pogams. The eceiving, o dependent, vaiables ae child development and social competence as measued by the SIB and ASC tests. Although not included in the pesent investigation additional independent vaiables could have been age, gende, and eligibility categoy.

Pupose and Design of Study Accoding to the authos the study was designed to study the effects of two diffeent types of educational pogams (inclusive vs. self-contained) fo students with significant disabilities with espect to gains and ate of impovement in levels of development and social competence as measued by the SIB and ASC on a pe and post-test basis. The autho's eseach question was stated somewhat appopiately: "What ae the effects of attending inclusive vs.…… [Read More]

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Research and Theory in Criminal Justice

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58637443

Criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained from direct and indirect observation of a complex social issue whereas anecdotal data is data obtained from someone else's observation or experience of an issue. In the criminal justice field, empirical research data is used to inform evidence-based practices in this field because it's based on well-designed analytical approaches and studies. In some cases, empirical research evidence is used to confirm anecdotal data as…… [Read More]

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Scientific Study

Words: 1715 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36266078

Schizophrenia is considered to be one of the most sever psychiatric disorders. The incidence of the condition each year is approximately 15 in every 100,000 people, and the lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is 0.7% (Tandon et al., 2008). Family history and genetics have been identified as contributing to the development of schizophrenia in 80% of cases (Tandon et al., 2008). Some environmental factors associated with increased likelihood of the development of schizophrenia include prenatal malnutrition or infection, use of cannabis, birth complications, and winter birth (Tandon et al., 2008). However, the mechanisms by which genetic and genetic-environmental factors interact to cause the onset of schizophrenia are not well understood. It is important that effective treatments be developed to help individuals cope with this serious and debilitating psychiatric disorder. What types of therapies outside of pharmaceuticals have been found to be successful in the treatment of schizophrenia? Is any type…… [Read More]

References

Eack, S.M., Hogarty, G.E., Cho, R.Y., Prasad, K.M., Greenwald, D.P., Hogarty, S.S., Keshavan, M.S. (2010). Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enhancement therapy against gray matter loss in early schizophrenia: results from a 2-year randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 674-82.

Gorczynski, P., Faulkner, G. (2010). Exercise therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12(5), CD004412.

Laan, W., Grobbee, D.E., Selten, J.P., Heijnen, C.J., Kahn, R.S., Burger, H. (2010). Adjuvent aspirin therapy reduces symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(5), 520-7.

Tandon, R., Keshavon, M.S., Nasrallah, H.A. (2008). Schizophrenia, "just the facts" what we know in 2008. Schizophrenia Research, 102(1-3), 1-18.
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Research on Terrorism

Words: 1641 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32040451

Terrorist Threat to California through Mexican Drug Trafficking

The immigration challenges across all the United tates borders often invoke varied responses from both the average citizens and the law enforcement agencies. The cross border migration that has been of greatest concern is the Mexico to UA migration due to the myriad challenges this migration presents to the U..A. The Mexican population residing to the outh of the U.. has had a strained relationship with its northern neighbor over a long period of time owing to the inconsistency of its immigration policies, the distinctly lower socioeconomic status afforded to Mexicans on both sides of the border and the ravages afflicted upon both sides of the border by the U.. sponsored War on Drugs. Though all of these aforementioned factors are relevant, it is the war on drugs that forms the central concern of this research proposal since it has proven persistent…… [Read More]

Sources:

Astorga, L. (2003). Drug Trafficking in Mexico: A First General Assessment. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Online at  http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm 

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory. Online at < http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/mert_strain.html>

Imperial Valley News (IVN). (2008). Mexican Drug-Trafficking Organization Members Indicted in Operation Money Train. Imperial Valley News.

Jeffrey, T.P. (2009). Drug Cartels Control Crossings. The Washington Times.
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Research on the Benefits of a College Degree

Words: 1866 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22803645

Benefits Obtaining a College Degree

ecently, students have been paying huge amounts of money to attend a college but earned less upon graduation (Arai, 1998). Such trends have caused many observers to question if a college degree is a worthwhile investment. To be precise, college students endure the following expenses: supplies such as textbooks, tuition fees, food, and room and board among others. Supplies, tuition fees and books are the direct costs of education, but board and room are indirect costs as they are incurred to sustain a subsistence level of education. Besides the above, opportunity cost is one of the most important costs as these students forgo earnings while in school. While it is categorized under indirect costs, it accounts for nearly 40% of the total college degree costs (eynolds et al. 2007). In addition to the above costs that students endure, a college education is also associated with…… [Read More]

References

Arai, K. (1998). Economics of Education: An Analysis of College-Going Behavior. New York: Springer-Verlaq

Gratz, D. B. (2009). The Peril and Promise of Performance Pay: Making Education Compensation Work. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

McIntyre, L. J. (2005). Need To Know: Social Science Research Methods. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Reynolds, L. G., Masters, S. H., & Moser, C. H. (2007). Economics of Labor. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall
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Ethics in Research for Organizations of All

Words: 1204 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83305104

Ethics in esearch

For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).

Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.

Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.

SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
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Descrptive Design Research Method and Design Proposal

Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90647310

Descrptive Design

esearch Method and Design Proposal

A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).

Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]

References

Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf

Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.

Lancet, 359, 145-149.

Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
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Criminological Research Surpasses the Mere Act of

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59205292

criminological research surpasses the mere act of searching and viewing material on a topic and writing an expressive paper. Before research is conducted, it is important to fully grasp and comprehend what it is that needs to be research, why it would be researched, why if it at all it has been researched, and how it may be performed. Types of research that can be performed are basic, multipurpose, or applied. The purpose for research is usually to gain information or knowledge. This information might be predictive, explanatory, intervening, or descriptive in nature.

All research follows basic steps. These steps can be interpreted in a variety ways, but normally follow the same structure, form hypothesis, state hypothesis, collect data, review and record results or conclusion. Fitzgerald, Cox, & Fitzgerald, 2002, p. 124). Different methods of inquiry help gather the data for the research. easoning, causal (observation), deduction, induction, and the…… [Read More]

References

Fitzgerald, J.D., Cox, S.M., & Fitzgerald, J.D. (2002). Research methods and statistics in criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub.

Graziano, A.M., & Raulin, M.L. (2013). Research methods: A process of inquiry. Boston, Mass: Pearson.
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Gaps Between the Academic Research and Practitioner

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36464313

gaps between the academic research and practitioner knowledge with respect to HR that are identified by Saari & Judge (2004) are: "the cause of employee attitudes, the results of positive or negative job satisfaction and how to measure and influence employee attitudes." The authors note this in context of the lack of understanding in practice with respect to employee satisfaction. Employers do not fully understand how employee satisfaction arises (cause of employee attitudes). They also have a lack of knowledge about the outcomes associated with positive or negative job satisfaction. Some employers believe that happy workers are more productive, others disagree. Practitioners generally do not know the answer and are not familiar with current research in the area. The authors assert that practitioners generally are not able to measure employee attitudes, much less influence them.

Saari and Judge point out that academic research has more or less answered each of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Saari, L & Judge, T. (2004) Employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Human Resource Management. Vol. 43 (4) 395-407.