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Scientific Research Collect Methods
Comment by Sabina:
Scientific research is obtainable through several methodologies, of which qualitative and quantitative methods are highly utilized. These two research methodology are highly used in the field of social sciences and marketing. Social scientist utilizes these two data collection tools to collect data that would otherwise not be observable without these tools. Marketing researchers utilizes these tools to collect information about the market, gain information about how customers feel and gather other useful information about their product and services.
It is important to understand the type of research that a researcher is attempting to gather. The researcher should first determine the research question, which would help the research determine the type of research tool that is necessary to collect the data. If the researcher is looking for customer opinion, how they feel about a particular store, or product, then a qualitative research would be…
Gibbs et. al. (2007). What have sampling and data collection got to do with good qualitative research? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 31 (6) 540-544.
Smith, P. (2008). Qualitative & Quantitative Research. Research Starters Education. 1-17
Trochim, M.K. (2006). Types of Designs. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/destypes.php
In these cases, the ethical and moral choice seems to be to find another way to test these products that is not so cruel, and to keep cruel procedures out of the labs altogether. The case of the cat sex experiments at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in the 1960s are another case in point. esearchers maimed cats in a variety of ways, from removing parts of their brains to obliterating their sense of smell, and then noted how these procedures affected their sexual activities. The study continued for over a decade, without any clear results, and when the public learned about it, there was a huge outcry and the testing stropped (Degrazia 98). Studies like this, without a clear purpose, seem even more cruel and unusual, and they helped to give animal research such a bad reputation that laws were enacted regarding the ethical…
Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Degrazia, David. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Editors. "Animal Research in Psychology." American Psychological Association. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.apa.org/science/animal2.html.
Katrink, Vicki. "Blinded for Beauty: Rabbits Used in Product Testing." American Anti-Vivisection Society. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.aavs.org/testingTypesBlinded.html .
The ethicality of research methods and the perspectives and potential prejudices of the researcher must also be taken into account during the research and in the presentation of the research (FHI 2003).
Some common qualitative research methods other than focus groups include interviews, content analysis, ethnography, evaluation, and semiotics, all of which provide avenues for answering largely different -- and some similar -- questions about the world and its people that simply cannot be answered using numbers, and cannot be simply answered at all (Ereaut 2007). In each of these methods, there is always the potential for bias on the part of the researcher/observer and in some cases in an uncontrollable manner the part of the study participants; all precautions to preserve the objectivity of the observations and the research must be taken, but the remaining possibilities of bias are constitute one of the reasons that the research methods must…
Ereaut, G. (2007). "What is qualitative research?" QSR International. Accessed 27 April 2010. http://www.qsrinternational.com/what-is-qualitative-research.aspx
FHI. (2003). "Qualitative research methods overview." Family health international. Accessed 27 April 2010. http://www.fhi.org/NR/rdonlyres/etl7vogszehu5s4stpzb3tyqlpp7rojv4waq37elpbyei3tgmc4ty6dunbccfzxtaj2rvbaubzmz4f/overview1.pdf
Greenhalgh, T. & Taylor, R. (1997). "Papers that go beyond numbers." BMJ pp. 740-3. Accessed 27 April 2010. http://ed.isu.edu/SSPE/reading%20qualitative%20researdh.pdf
Myers, M. (2000). "Qualitative research and the generalizability question: Standing firm with Proteus." The Qualitative Report, 4(3/4). Accessed 27 April 2010. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR4-3/myers.html
Response to "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” by Thomas Kuhn
How the Reading Has Affected What I Believe about the Nature of Science and What It Can Tell Us about the World
Science has always been a part of the world: people from the beginning of time have asked questions about nature and the world—and they have based their answers on evidence. Discovering laws or formulating theories is part of the process of science. But so too is something like building or designing or doing mathematics or making a work of art. The science of architecture, or the science of medicine—these sciences are always growing and developing in new ways because the human mind is not static. It can look back on all of human history and on personal experience to make new discoveries and to advance the field of science in unique ways. The reading really opened this idea…
folk wisdom idea common sense generalization grown (e.g., birds a feather flock ). How test validity folk wisdom idea scientific method (consult chapter research methods)? Which research method select? 2.
I would test the validity of this method using the scientific method by direct and systematic observation. I would select a representative sample of birds. The sample would need to include birds of the same type, so the bird behavior would not differ. I would watch the birds during the same temporal interval (morning, between 10 to 11 am or whenever I see the birds are active) and monitor whether their flight habits are generally individual or group.
These observations will be gathered in a table and the purpose of this would be to understand patterns. If a pattern does exist that would show that the birds have a tendency of flying together in the same group, then one can…
Response to Language, Truth and Logic by AJ Ayer
The Nature of Science
Ayer makes the argument that empirical science must serve as the basis of all claims, as it is through empirical science—evidence obtained through the use of the five senses—that one knows reality. Ayer (1990) asks, “What valid process of reasoning can possibly lead [one] to the conception of a transcendent reality?” (p. 4). The answer he provides is that there is no valid process: “Surely from empirical premises nothing whatsoever concerning the properties, or even the existence, of anything super empirical can legitimately be inferred” (Ayer, 1990, p. 4). Ayer’s approach to science, however, is firmly rooted in the traditions fostered during the Age of Reason; prior to that, it was widely accepted that metaphysical reality could be ascertained through the use of logical suppositions. I myself believe there are a number of ways to know the…
There lies question on whether scientific knowledge is able to answer all the questions that relate to physical reality. For many years, people have wondered what the earth is composed of, leaving them wondering if the nature's secrets will one day be revealed (Grant 64). However, it is notable that since Galileo discovered the moon in 1608, there has been a remarkable move by his fellow scientists.
A lot of studies in science including the origin of the solar system, sonata of the stars, how matter changes to energy, and detailed works of an atom, among others has not fully exposed the science knowledge. However, the human culture seems to change with science. orldview patterns prove that complex systems studies by working from their smallest constituents meaning from bottom up. These paradigms also confirm that the laws of nature pounce from deep symmetry writs in to the basics…
Berlin, I. Concepts and Categories New York: Viking Press, 2006
Davis, P. Cosmin Jackpot: Why Our Universe is Just Right for Life California: Houghton Mifflin 2007
Grant, EA History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. London: Cambridge University Press, 2007 pp. 62 -- 67
Gleiser, M. The dancing Universe: Creation Myths to the Big Bang New York: Continuum 2001
The relationship goes beyond any simple realistic or complex scientific models, because it cannot be explained through the observances of realities around us. Myth and culture can often be on the same temporal level, with one or the other being generated at different times. As such, some of the myths were actually born out of a certain culture, determined by the geographic or demographic realities of the respective culture. In other cases, culture was born out of a myth.
An important element to be analyzed in the differences between religious myths and scientific models is the introduction of variables and the type of variables in each case. The religious myth, especially the creation myths in different cultures, falls into the category of sacred myths. There is always such a distinction between sacred and profane myths or, as Eliade puts it, people "distinguish between sacred myths (cosmogony, creation of the stars,…
1. McGrath, Alister. 1998. Science and Religion: An Introduction. Wiley -- Blackwell.
2. Eliade, Mircea. 1963. Myth and Reality. Trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper & Row,
McGrath, Alister. 1998. Science and Religion: An Introduction. Wiley -- Blackwell.
Ibid. Page 107
So, just as the concept of Right has to have Wrong as its counterpart to be a truth, so does theory need evidence. Science is a method of understanding, it is an understanding of what exists, what we can determine that we know about these things, and the method by which we go about achieving that understanding. Thus, without evidence on either side of the theory, there can be no support for the theory therefore making that theory non-scientific.
The evaluation of a theory is the identification of the type of theory it is. Much like theories themselves that set out a parameter of evaluation of a measurable prediction about a particular behavior or set of behaviors, theory evaluation is the determination of the validity, structure, and use of the theory itself. Theories have two dimensions: parasitical (its reliance on other theories) and operationalizable (interpretations of the theory). The less…
In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…
Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.
Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.
TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture
On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).
Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…
Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.
Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.
Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.
Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
The law enforcement in the U.S.A. today is better equipped to handle the terrorism attacks and any terrorism threats than it was before the 9/11 incidence in America. This is evident in the general ways through which the security measures are implemented in the country and the intricate manner of investigations that take place to counter terrorism.
Due to the nature of the data and information that is needed here, the scientific method employed was statistical data collection. This was due to the fact that there is need to have objective information on the facts surrounding the various arms of law enforcement. The best way to have facts behind the changes that took place after the 9/11 in terms of the quality of training and the number of law enforcement agencies, it was not feasible to conduct interviews among the Americans as they would only give a general…
Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html
National commission on Terrorist Attack Upon United States, (2004). Counter Terrorism evolves. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report_Ch3.htm
US Department of Justice, (2006). Legal Authorities Supporting the Activities of the National SECURITY Agency Described by the President. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from http://www.justice.gov/opa/whitepaperonnsalegalauthorities.pdf
Scientific eport of Tufted Capuchin Monkeys in SanDiego Zoo
Behavioral Differences Between Male and Female Capuchin Monkeys in an Artificial Habitat
Studies have shown that the activity and energy of an animal can be determined through the collection of data and presentation as an activity budget (Altmann 1974, Tacha 1985). An activity budget collects specific behavior data over a predetermined time for an animal or population for analysis in the evaluation of a hypothesis. This study reports the differences in activity between males and females for a population of tufted capuchin primates living in an outdoor artificial habitat within a North American zoo. The hypothesis that there are differences in activity levels between male and females for this population is confirmed for the duration of observation in this study. More study would be required to determine the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and daytime verses nocturnal behavior.
Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods.Behaviour 49:227-267.
Bobick, J. 2004. The Handy Biology Answer Book New York, Visible Ink Press 141.
Bohn, K. 2012. Photography Credit, copyright San Diego Zoo
Di Bitetti, M.S. Janson, C.H. (2001) Social foraging and the finder's share in capuchin monkeys, (Cebus apella), Animal Behavior 62, 1, 47-56
Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.
The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.
A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.
BBC. Science and Nature: What is psychology? Oct, 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/what_is_psychology.shtml
Carter, J. Stein. The Scientific Method. Nov. 4, 2004. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm
Theory Evaluation. 2008. http://arti.vub.ac.be/memos/AI-Memo-93-07/subsubsectionstar4_2_3.html
Wilson, Jerry. Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories. 2007. http://www.wilstar.com/theories.htm
The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human…
3. Creative thinking is one of the ways in which human beings are able to separate themselves from other animals and to actualize. Animals can be curious, but whether that curiosity has memory, or deeper implications of "what if," in the future, or synthesizing disparate materials into something new is still debatable. There is a wonderful book series by Roger Von Oech that asks us to continue to develop creative thinking within our daily lives in order to keep our brains functioning well and robust (Von Oech, 1973, 1986). There are several questions about innate human nature that are personally fascinating: 1) Why do myths and legends seem to resonate throughout the ages? 2) What is about certain music, art or literature that seems to transcend human emotions and make us feel actualized? 3) Is there a neurochemical relationship to emotions, and if so, how did it develop within the human psyche?
4. The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human language -- but the question may also be -- can humans learn to communicate with animals in their language? (Rumbaugh and Washburn, 2003).
5. Argument by anecdote is a method of proving one's point by using stories that may be personal recollections, hearsay, or other popular myth. One of the problems with using this format is that each person may have a different anecdote. Stories, we know, can be entertaining, but can also perpetuate like a rumor, once through the crowd, it has changed and become something more than it ever was. One popular example of argument by anecdote is in some of the dubious claims from the non-regulated
Scientific Thinking and Scientific Skepticism
It isn't easy to define psychology. Nonetheless, the general understanding of psychology is that it a scientific study of behavior, the mind and the brain. As a discipline, it spans several levels of analysis. A thorough understanding of psychology cannot be achieved by looking at just a single level of analysis since every level has a different set of knowledge and view point (Lillienfied, Lynn, Namy & Woolf, 2011).
Lilienfield, Lynn, Namy and Woolf (2011) are of the opinion that scientific thinking gives us skills to overcome our prejudices and biases which can distort our perception and make us ignore evidence that go against our line of thinking. Six scientific principles of thinking are particularly vital when one wants to study psychology. The first one is "Extraordinary Claims" which was proposed by David Hume, a Scottish Philosopher who lived in the 18th century. David Hume…
More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).
In the arrangement of science there…
A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cia/tradecraft_notes/contents.htm
Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204630904577058111041127168.html
Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:
The Scarecrow Press.
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
National Institute of Nursing esearch (NIN)
History of the organization
The National Institute of Nursing esearch is a body mandated with the principal responsibility of carrying out research that relates to the nursing and medical field in general. The institution dedicates its effort to improving the health and health care of Americans through funding of nursing research and research training. The involvement of the federal government led to the formation of the research institute as early as 1946. The federal government established a division of nursing within the office of the Surgeon General, Public Health Service. The NIN commenced its activities in 1955 when the institute established a Nursing esearch Study section, which was within the Division of esearch Grants. The purpose of this Study Section was to conduct a scientific review of the growing volume of applications in the nursing sector.
In 1960, a consolidation of the public health…
Fitzpatrick, J.J & Kazer, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. 3rd edition. New York:
Springer Publishing Company.
Miller, A.C. (2009). Nursing for Wellness in Older Adults. Printed in China: Lippincott Williams
Resources needed include manpower and positional aids mentioned previously in this report. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the change would be accomplished through data collection related to the frequency of pressure ulcer occurrence in patients and nurse compliance in the four hours supine positional rotation of patients. Questionnaires will also be administered to nursing staff in order to gain insight as to their attitudes, behaviors and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention.
Phase V: Transplantation and Application
This study concludes that positional rotations of every four hours has been shown to be the most effective prevention of pressure ulcer formation in older patients in elderly care homes and further that that attitudes, behaviors and perceptions of barriers in the view of staff nurses predicts the effectiveness of the implementation of such a prevention program for pressure ulcer care. (Moore and Price, 2006)
Exact Nature of Practice Implications
____ Change the…
Moore, Z. And Price, P. (2004) Nurses' Attitudes, Behaviors, and Perceived Barriers Towards Pressure Ulcer Prevention Journal of Clinical Nursing 13, 2004.
Vanderwee, K.; Grypdonck, D.; Bacquer, De and Defloor, T. (2006) Effectiveness of Turning with Unequal Time Intervals on the Incidence of Pressure Ulcer lesions. JAN Original Research 10 July 2006.
Nursing: Utilization Review
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Founded by entertainer Danny Thomas, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital is celebrating its fiftieth year of operation; in that time the hospital has conducted important research and cured / saved the lives of numerous children with cancer and other diseases. This paper reviews the organization from a number of important perspectives.
Board of Directors and Governors
The chairman / president of St. Jude's Board of Directors is Camille Sarrouf, who is an attorney in Boston with the law practice, Sarrouf Law. The First Vice Chair is Richard "Rich" M. Unes, from Memphis, Tennessee. Second Vice Chair is Paul Ayoub and the Secretary of St. Jude's Fred R. Harris. As to the Board of Governors for St. Jude's, Robert Breit is the chairman and president and Terry Burman is the First Vice Chair. Martha Perine Beard is the Second Vice Chair for the Board of Governors…
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. "50 Years / Finding Cures / Saving Children." Retrieved
November 26, 2012, from http://www.stjude.org .
future research agenda that Judge, et al. (2008) present addresses their critique of personality research in organizational behavior.
According to Judge, Klinger, Simon and Yang (2008), the various criticisms directed at early organizational behavioral theories have been countered by a growing body of evidence that supports these fundamental precepts. In this regard Judge et al. report that there have been three main pieces of evidence to date that have been particularly influential:
The growth of meta-analysis allowed for cumulation of results across studies. This development was particularly important in the area of personality, given the myriad traits that had been considered over decades of scientific research.
The widespread acceptance of the five-factor model (or the 'Big Five' -- Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) of personality provided a framework to organize the diverse set of traits. While the gains from the five-factor model have been considerable, its acceptance…
Chen, J-K & Chen, I-S. (2008, Fall). How can institutes of technology change successfully? A
discussion from a human resources perspective. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 3, 85-
Judge, T.A., Klinger, R., Simon, L.S., & Yang, I.W.F. (2008). The contributions of personality to organizational behavior and psychology: Findings, criticisms, and future research directions. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1982-2000.
gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.
Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.
As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…
Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:
The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
The empirical design and its results, not age, should determine the validity and relevance of a given educational theory. Too often, educational policy makers and the professional support system skip from level one research (theory and conjecture based on correlations) to policy. A shared knowledge base might be created from theory alone and as Grossen (nd) points out, it often is. "Most of the educational practices that become widely disseminated in our university teacher-training programs and across the nation do not even have level two research support, nevermind level three," (Grossen nd).
Greater gatekeeping is necessary to restore the integrity of the educational policy system and the professional networks that support it. Current gatekeepers do not draw their policies from science but from opinion. Almost all of the most popular educational theories touted today have little to no empirical support. Grossen lists a litany of common teaching methods and theories…
Grossen, B. (nd). What does it mean to be a research-based profession? Retrieved July 10, 2007 at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~bgrossen/pubs/resprf.htm
esearch activities, whether clinical trial based, experimentally designed, or product oriented, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. To this end the researcher must catch the essential quality of the excitement of discovery that comes from research well done. The first step in the attainment of the desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward that which is being investigated. A requirement within the scientific approach best-fit format that is oftentimes misunderstood, and consequently wrongly applied, is that of sampling.
In a rather philosophical approach to sampling Ohlson (1998) states that sampling is " ... But part of the whole. Check to make sure I fairly represent my larger connection " (p. 27). With these words Ohlson is informing the research enthusiast that sampling alone can skew testing results, infuse uncontrollable error into statistical processes, and violate the empirical premise under which the research investigation…
Ferguson, Geroge A. 1966. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company
Ohlson, E.L 1998. Best-Fit Statistical Procedures, ACTS Testing Labs. Chicago Thompson, David M., Kozak, Sharon E. And Sheps, Sam (1999). Insulin adjustment by a diabetes nurse educator improves glucose control in insulin-requiring diabetic patients: A randomized trial. CMAJ, 161(8):959-62
Van Dalen, Debold B. (1966). Understanding educational research. New York: McGraw-Hill
By taking this approach, not only will diabetes research be more ethical in its construction, but it will also help break down community barriers that create resistance and fear towards the health care systems, provide care to the economically disadvantaged, and thus act as a force for social change and good.
The example of diabetes treatment and research is an excellent example of research that is vital and important to a community, pertains to cultural acts and rituals like food are affected by social circumstances like the availability to exercise, and shows that a participatory approach is not merely theoretical but realistic in the field. Park's theoretical endorsement of research as a co-creative act with a potential to create social justice is not limited to health care education, but religious education as well. Elizabeth Conde-Frazier discusses how the participatory approach can bridge cultural differences even in the intractable field of…
Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth. (Summer 2006). "Participatory Action Research: Practical
Theology for Social Justice." Religious Education.. Retrieved 24 Feb 2007 a t http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3783/is_200607/ai_n17187967
Park, P. (1993). "What is participatory research? A theoretical and methodological perspective." In P. Park, M. Brydon-Miller, B. Hall and T. Jackson (Eds.). Voices of change (pp. 1-19). Westport. Conn: Bergin & Garvey.
The Role of Community-Based Participatory Research: Creating Partnerships, Improving
In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…
Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Given, L. (2008). The Safe Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Qualitative research is different from quantitative research methodologies on the premise that it does not rely on numerical data. Qualitative research rely on text and image since it's a type of scientific research that seeks to provide contextual descriptions of the experiences of people regarding as specific research issue. In most cases, qualitative research methods are considered suitable in identifying intangible factors through a scientific inquiry such as socioeconomic status, religion, social norms, and ethnicity (College of Computer and Information Science, n.d.). In this regard, there are several aspects that distinguish qualitative research writing, which are brought by specific designs, steps of analysis, and data collection procedures. An understanding of these aspects of qualitative research writing helps in enhancing the effectiveness of the research process and research findings.
Salient Aspects of Qualitative Research Writing
In his discussion on qualitative research procedures, Creswell (2014) proposes ten aspects that differentiate qualitative research…
Acquainted with Research
What is the name of your journal?
-- Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition
For whom does it seem to have been written?
-- Experimental Psychologists and researchers, Cognitive psychologists, sensation and perception psychologists/researchers, people interested in how individuals process visual information in order to read.
Choose a representative research article whose title interests you. Write the name of its time and briefly explain why it interests you.
Full Recognition of Parafoveal Words Precedes Skips During Reading
This article seemed interesting because I often notice that when I read, even if I do not read every single word in a sentence, I still understand the meaning of the sentence. I was hoping to learn more about how the brain processes information in a way that allows it to seemingly skip over some pieces of information and yet still retain the overall meaning of the text that has…
Wernher Von Braun
In the quote, research is what I'm doing when I do not know what I'm doing, Dr. Wernher Von Braun is saying that the elements of discovery, non-linear thinking, creativity and unstructured analysis can be even more powerful than a more thoroughly defined, dogmatic and highly constrained approach to primary research. The intent of this paper is to explain who the kind of research described in the quote can be helpful to science, and that the advantage in research that is more directed and purposeful can lead to more efficiency surrounding the process yet also limit the potential to find entirely new, unthought-of solutions to complex problems.
The essence of successful innovation is in finding associations or links between two or more disparate concepts, theories, frameworks or structures that combined deliver significant, often disruptive innovative value over time (Antonelli, Franzoni, Geuna, 201). An analysis of patent flows…
Antonelli, C., C. Franzoni, and A. Geuna. "The organization, economics, and policy of scientific research: what we do know and what we don't know - an agenda for research. " Industrial and Corporate Change 20.1 (2011): 201.
Bhattacharya, J., and M. Packalen. "Opportunities and benefits as determinants of the direction of scientific research. " Journal of Health Economics 30.4 (2011): 603.
Kumazawa, R., and P. Gomis-Porqueras. "An empirical analysis of patents flows and R&D flows around the world. " Applied Economics 44.36 (2012): 4755.
scientific method in the doctoral research process.
The scientific method has long been the preferred means of conducting research in most fields, including both social sciences and hard sciences. Because the scientific methods "demands that the procedures be objective," as well as clearly stated in research papers, bias is minimized (Stangor, 2012). Moreover, the statement of procedures allows for replication of experiments, something that is integral to the peer review process. eplication is crucial for the validation of scientific research at the doctoral level and beyond.
Doctoral students might develop cogent hypotheses in their research, and those hypotheses when proven over time may evolve into widely accepted theories in their field. However, repeated testing is the only means by which to solidify theories (Harris, n.d.). The doctoral student must be relatively detached from the results of research, and the scientific method enables detachment by highlighting ways the theory can be…
Babbie, E. (1990). The essential wisdom of sociology. Teaching Sociology 18(4): 526-5.30
Babbie, E. (2012). The Practice of Social Research. Nelson.
Harris, W. (n.d.). How the scientific method works. Retrieved online: http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/scientific-experiments/scientific-method9.htm
"Introduction to Scientific Research," (n.d.). Chapter One. Pearson. Retrieved online: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205701655.pdf
Scientific Revolutions Preview
The author uses successive paradigms to bring out the nature of the universe. The point is that there are various (and diverse) aspects of the universe and the behavior of its population. Specifically, Thomas points out that "they differ, that is, about such questions as the existence of subatomic particles, the materiality of light, and the conservation of heat or of energy." (9) The author states that these differences do not require further explanation as they arise in successive paradigms. The paradigms are important since they provide basis for solutions, problem fields and various methods in the universe.
The author points out that the nature of the universe is too complex with great variations and thus, random exploration is not justified. Therefore, there is a need for a map that provides important information to be used in relevant scientific research that explores the complex nature. The importance…
If a butterfly's wings beating in Tibet can cause el Nino, then a gigawatt of electromagnetic radiation ought to be good for something.
* HAARP is an earthquake machine. Also based on a bunch of weird stuff Tesla discovered. Somewhat offset by the fact the HAARP array is clearly pointed at the sky.
* HAARP is a doomsday machine ripping a hole in the earth's atmosphere. Colorful, but scienfitically questionable. How do you rip a hole in air?
* HAARP has something to do with UFOs. Either signalling them, blasting them from the skies, or feeding babies to them.
* HAARP is a giant Mind Control broadcasting machine. Appealing, but if it works, why are people still such assholes? (clarky003)
Though an anonymous blogger is hardly likely to be considered a credible source the reality is that the full implications of this research device are unknown and real scientists who…
Bellis, Mary "History of Dynamite" 2009 at: .
clarky003 [Blogger] "H.A.R.R.P a weapon to end all wars?" at: .
Digg [Earhtfirst Comentator] "The 5 People Responsible for Mankind's Most Toxic Inventions" at: < http://earthfirst.com/the-5-people-responsible-for-mankinds-most-toxic-inventions/ >.
HARRP Website FAQ at: .
This controversial decision drew all kinds of reactions from different groups on each side of the issue. Some adversaries of hESC research expressed admiration for the decision limiting research to existing cell lines, while others said that no research should be allowed under any circumstances. Advocates of hESC research, meanwhile, generally praised the president for allowing some research to go forward, but criticized the restriction to existing cell lines as too strict, questioning whether enough research would be allowed.
Current U.S. Stem Cell Policy under President Obama
The March 9, 2009 EO changes the way the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the NIH Director, is required to review existing NIH and other widely-recognized guidelines on human stem cell research and issue new NIH guidance within 120 days of the date of the EO…
AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research." 10 March 2009. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 27 March 2009 http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/ .
Executive Summary." 2009. The National Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research. 27 March 2009 http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/execSum.asp .
Register, Federal. "Presidential Documents Executive Order 13505." 11 March 2009. Federal Register. 24 March 2009 http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9-5441.pdf .
Stakeholders Research Project
Preliminary stakeholder identification around any natural resource proves vital to carrying out meaningful trans- disciplinary researches with regard to managing that particular resource. Stakeholders may be defined as all players capable of impacting, or being impacted by, any action or decision (after Freeman 1984). Natural resource management research scholars (e.g. Grimble and Wellard 1997; Dougill et al. 2006; Ravnborg and Westermann 2002) constantly report that the inclusion of stakeholders in finding solutions facilitates mutual learning and negotiation, improves stakeholder buy- in and support of actions and decisions, and decreases conflict. Trans- disciplinary study strategies build on this rationale through assimilating stakeholders and integrating the diverse kinds of ideas and knowledge they bring with them to the table in socially- sound, solution- focused studies (Lang et al. 2012; Bracken et al. 2014; Hurni and Wiesmann 2014).
Quite frequently, project reports and scholarly papers’ descriptions pertaining to stakeholder…
Many food companies have expressed an interest in the concept, Darsch says, although he notes that the material is not in wide use yet (Erickson, at (http://www.mercola.com/artcile/irradiated/irradiated_research.htm).
When Operation Desert Shield and the subsequent Desert Storm erupted, Darsch says, Natick was able to accelerate research on high heat stable chocolate bars. The resulting product, which can withstand temperatures as high as 120°F without compromising quality, arrived in the Persian Gulf prior to the end of the conflict, and Hershey Foods introduced the Desert ar to consumers Memorial Day weekend 1991 (Erickson, at (http://www.mercola.com/artcile/irradiated/irradiated_research.htm).This product's future has many applications in warmer climates, and in areas where air conditioning might not be prevalent.
Another food product developed initially for the military is shelf stable bread. Research indicates that the main ingredients in this product are no different from those found in Wonder read. The only difference is an emulsifier that has been…
Bishai, D. & Naluba, R. "Food Fortification Spurred by Military Purchases." John Hopkins
Public Health Magazine (2003).
Erickson, P. "Trickle Down Technology." New Technologies. 1992. Weeks Publishing
Company. 26 Mar. 2005 http://www.mercola.com/article/irradiated/irradiated_research.html .
I might believe that other variables (such as gender and low income) have a more significant impact on the frequency of car accidents as compared to for instance the general belief that it is crime, and location that induce them.
Firstly, I have to ascertain that my operational terms of data are totally accurate and thorough, since the outcome depends on the data that is fed-in to the system.
Most significantly, however, the major conceptual limitation is that I can only ascertain a relationship but never be sure of the underlying causal factor. It may be a variable that is seemingly unrelated to the independent variables mentioned here and, therefore, has been overlooked. For instance, it may be a possibility that menopause may be responsible for inducing accidents; so even though the factor of age may have emerged as significant, the real problem -- menopause -- has remained…
ince minorities (primarily Latinos and Blacks) are over represented in the jail's juvenile population, and since the CDF recognizes this fact and attempts to address it with its Cradle to Prison Pipeline program, the AJA is interested in its contents and effectiveness.
Organizational Details of Research
The study will fall into various parts:
a. Direct observation of the CDF Freedom chools program, where I will assess their affect-school enrichment programs.
b. urveys and focus groups on a minimum sample of 50 participants who attend the Youth Leadership Network for Children (YLNC). The YLNC is distributed into the following divisions: CDF Internship program, the Beat the Odds® cholarship program, CDF Freedom chools program, and the Young Adult Leadership Training (YALT®) program. All will be assessed.
c. Active participation in community summits and other meetings that CDF holds to develop action plans for their Cradle to Prison Pipeline program.
d. Random sampling…
American Educational research Association (AERA) http://www.aera.net/AboutAERA.htm
American Jail Association (AJA) http://www.aja.org/
Children's Defense Fund (CDF) (CDF) http://www.childrensdefense.org/
Furthermore, he argues, a technological culture is not an inevitable feature of human evolution. If other cultures had achieved ascendancy, then science and technology would not have emerged as a reference point for measuring intelligence. SETI's requirement for an almost identical technology, although scientifically understandable, is based on an impoverished concept of intelligence.
According to Munevar, the development of a scientific culture, with access to radio communication, is highly contingent, requiring a number of lucky breaks from the environment and human natural and social history. In this context Munevar cites the development of mammalian intelligence. It is widely believed that the dinosaurs were wiped out by the immediate effects of an asteroid or cometary impact or possibly volcanic eruption. But mammals who survived the years of darkness caused by the dust of the impact or eruption then evolved to occupy the niche held by the dinosaurs. If the dinosaurs had…
Lamb, D. Discovery, Creativity and Problem Solving, Aldershot: Ashgate. 1991
Lamb, D. Crop patterns and the greening of Ufology, Explorations in Knowledge, XI, 2: 12-46. 1994
Munevar, G. Radical Knowledge, Aldershot: Avebury. 1981
Munevar, G. Extraterrestrial and human science, Explorations in Knowledge, VI, 2: 1-8. 2005
scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.
Smoking and its effects
Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli.…
Timmins, William. (1989). Smoking and the workplace. New York: Quorum Books.
Klarreich, Samuel. (1987). Health and fitness in the workplace. New York: Praeger.
Weiss, Stephen. (1991). Health at work. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
Bunton, Robin. (2002). Health Promotion. London: Routledge.
scientific approach to knowledge is generally an expansion on the common-sense everyday approach, by which individuals seek the truth. For example, both the scientific and the everyday approaches to knowledge entail successive and related stages of observation, reporting, concepts, instruments, measurement, and hypotheses. The scientific method is usually far more formal and rigid than the general, everyday approach to knowledge because of the necessary rigors of the sciences.
If an ordinary individual sees a flower she has never before seen, she will probably approach it for a closer look. A scientist would also approach the flower to examine it. Next, both scientist and layperson use as many senses as possible to observe the flower. Observation means not just watching with the eyes, but also listening, smelling, touching, and being aware of the surrounding environment. In the everyday approach, the person might ignore that which the scientist would observe, such as…
'Operational Definition." Wikipedia. 2005. Online at .
scientific observation that distinguish it from our everyday observation are that scientific observation is conducted using precisely defined observational conditions; by performing the observations systematically and objectively; and through keeping careful and accurate records.
Scientific observation, as opposed to everyday observations, must take place within certain well-defined parameters, whether in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Furthermore, the scientist does not choose the parameters arbitrarily but rather relies on such methods as sampling to conduct the observations and experiments in a way that renders them valid. For example, if a researcher wanted to examine the effects of watching violent video games on a child's behavior, he or she would first have to determine which video games would be deemed violent, and what specific behavioral affects to look for. An everyday observation of the same phenomenon would be far less precise.
Also, everyday observation can be passive and filtered through the individual's biases…
Randomization properly done
Baseline comparability reported
Same data collection for all arms
Subjects blinded to treatment assignment
Care givers blinded to treatment assignment
Treatments clearly described
Co intervention monitored
Compliance monitored and equal in all groups
Side effects assessed
Outcomes defined, measurable and valid
Blind assessment of outcomes
Section I: Author's key results and conclusions
Including quantitative estimates, e.g. relative risk, reduction in risk, confidence intervals, and p values)
The average magnitude of BP declines achieved by participants was no greater than the magnitude of decrease observed in the placebo arms of 7 pharmaceutical trials analyzed by the Individual Data Analysis of Antihypertensive Intervention trials (INDANA) research committee. Results suggest that 6 weeks of twice-weekly sessions of fully individualized TCM acupuncture are unlikely to achieve clinically meaningful reductions in SBP or DBP for the average patient with mild-to-moderate hypertension relative to invasive sham acupuncture.
Section S: Conclusions…
However, college students are not an easily quantifiable demographic. Their age and other characteristics vary greatly, making it impossible to precisely categorize them. Second, it will be difficult to select random participants because, with the use of alcohol, the people most likely to participate in the study are those who enjoy drinking alcohol. This will effect the results because people who drink alcohol have a higher tolerance and thus will show less effect after consuming it. Third, because of the use of alcohol the company will have to ensure that all participants are legal. Further, the participants will have to be informed that they are drinking an intoxicating substance. This will make having a control and experimental group impossible because those drinking alcohol will have to know they are drinking, which could create a mental effect on their performance and thus effect the overall results. For these reasons, as chief…
Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process." Responsible Science. Vol. 1:30, NAS, 1992.
Girdner, Ellen R.R. (2001): Evaluating Research Articles from Start to Finish. London: SAGE Publications.
scientific investigation includes both independent and dependent vaiables. The independent vaiable is the cause (antecedent) of the dependent vaiable, the pesumed effect (consequence). Fo the pesent study thee ae two independent vaiables: inclusive and self-contained educational pogams. The eceiving, o dependent, vaiables ae child development and social competence as measued by the SIB and ASC tests. Although not included in the pesent investigation additional independent vaiables could have been age, gende, and eligibility categoy.
Pupose and Design of Study Accoding to the authos the study was designed to study the effects of two diffeent types of educational pogams (inclusive vs. self-contained) fo students with significant disabilities with espect to gains and ate of impovement in levels of development and social competence as measued by the SIB and ASC on a pe and post-test basis. The autho's eseach question was stated somewhat appopiately: "What ae the effects of attending inclusive vs.…
Criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained from direct and indirect observation of a complex social issue whereas anecdotal data is data obtained from someone else's observation or experience of an issue. In the criminal justice field, empirical research data is used to inform evidence-based practices in this field because it's based on well-designed analytical approaches and studies. In some cases, empirical research evidence is used to confirm anecdotal data as…
Schizophrenia is considered to be one of the most sever psychiatric disorders. The incidence of the condition each year is approximately 15 in every 100,000 people, and the lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is 0.7% (Tandon et al., 2008). Family history and genetics have been identified as contributing to the development of schizophrenia in 80% of cases (Tandon et al., 2008). Some environmental factors associated with increased likelihood of the development of schizophrenia include prenatal malnutrition or infection, use of cannabis, birth complications, and winter birth (Tandon et al., 2008). However, the mechanisms by which genetic and genetic-environmental factors interact to cause the onset of schizophrenia are not well understood. It is important that effective treatments be developed to help individuals cope with this serious and debilitating psychiatric disorder. What types of therapies outside of pharmaceuticals have been found to be successful in the treatment of schizophrenia? Is any type…
Eack, S.M., Hogarty, G.E., Cho, R.Y., Prasad, K.M., Greenwald, D.P., Hogarty, S.S., Keshavan, M.S. (2010). Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enhancement therapy against gray matter loss in early schizophrenia: results from a 2-year randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 674-82.
Gorczynski, P., Faulkner, G. (2010). Exercise therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12(5), CD004412.
Laan, W., Grobbee, D.E., Selten, J.P., Heijnen, C.J., Kahn, R.S., Burger, H. (2010). Adjuvent aspirin therapy reduces symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(5), 520-7.
Tandon, R., Keshavon, M.S., Nasrallah, H.A. (2008). Schizophrenia, "just the facts" what we know in 2008. Schizophrenia Research, 102(1-3), 1-18.
Terrorist Threat to California through Mexican Drug Trafficking
The immigration challenges across all the United tates borders often invoke varied responses from both the average citizens and the law enforcement agencies. The cross border migration that has been of greatest concern is the Mexico to UA migration due to the myriad challenges this migration presents to the U..A. The Mexican population residing to the outh of the U.. has had a strained relationship with its northern neighbor over a long period of time owing to the inconsistency of its immigration policies, the distinctly lower socioeconomic status afforded to Mexicans on both sides of the border and the ravages afflicted upon both sides of the border by the U.. sponsored War on Drugs. Though all of these aforementioned factors are relevant, it is the war on drugs that forms the central concern of this research proposal since it has proven persistent…
Astorga, L. (2003). Drug Trafficking in Mexico: A First General Assessment. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Online at http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm
DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory. Online at < http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/mert_strain.html >
Imperial Valley News (IVN). (2008). Mexican Drug-Trafficking Organization Members Indicted in Operation Money Train. Imperial Valley News.
Jeffrey, T.P. (2009). Drug Cartels Control Crossings. The Washington Times.
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…
Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.
Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.
SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…
Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf
Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.
Lancet, 359, 145-149.
Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
criminological research surpasses the mere act of searching and viewing material on a topic and writing an expressive paper. Before research is conducted, it is important to fully grasp and comprehend what it is that needs to be research, why it would be researched, why if it at all it has been researched, and how it may be performed. Types of research that can be performed are basic, multipurpose, or applied. The purpose for research is usually to gain information or knowledge. This information might be predictive, explanatory, intervening, or descriptive in nature.
All research follows basic steps. These steps can be interpreted in a variety ways, but normally follow the same structure, form hypothesis, state hypothesis, collect data, review and record results or conclusion. Fitzgerald, Cox, & Fitzgerald, 2002, p. 124). Different methods of inquiry help gather the data for the research. easoning, causal (observation), deduction, induction, and the…
Fitzgerald, J.D., Cox, S.M., & Fitzgerald, J.D. (2002). Research methods and statistics in criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub.
Graziano, A.M., & Raulin, M.L. (2013). Research methods: A process of inquiry. Boston, Mass: Pearson.
Whether these are actually 'miracle cures' is, of course, debatable. However, anything that has few side effects and that benefits a person's health is worth looking into from a medicinal and a scientific standpoint. Many of the natural remedies do carry some potential risk for side effects, but most are not as serious as the side effects that are seen with many prescription medications today.
From work like Carper's there is a lot that can be learned. The most important thing to take away from Carper's book is that there is much more to medicine than what traditional, western doctors commonly work with. Another important point to take from reading this work is that the medicine that was used in the past should not just be tossed aside because there are new advances. The older, natural medicines often worked well for a lot of different conditions, and with that being…
esearch and the Scientific Method: A Concise Definition
esearch as a term does not have an assigned definition. Indeed, different authors have in the past offered varying definitions of the same. In the opinion of Goddard and Melville (2004), research does not limit itself to information gathering. esearch as the authors point out "is about answering unanswered questions or creating that which does not currently exist" (Goddard and Melville, 2004). In that regard, an individual who seeks to systematically gather new information in an attempt to find answers to specific questions is in one way or the other involved in research. On the other hand, when it comes to the scientific method, the same according to Jackson (as cited in Coon and Mitterer, 2010) can be defined as "a form of critical thinking based on careful collection of evidence, accurate description and measurement, precise definition, controlled observation, and repeatable…
Brain, C. & Mukherji, P. (2005). Understanding Child Psychology. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes Ltd.
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2010). Psychology: A Journey (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Gravetter, F. & Forzano, L.B. (2009). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Goddard, W. & Melville, S. (2004). Research Methodology: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd.
On the part of his fellow scientists, Snow's research was resisted because it was conducted with intellectual 'leaps' of logic in his determination to find the cause, as opposed to Farr's more technical and methodological approach. Farr had the more comprehensive health surveillance program, but Snow's hypothesis and instincts were correct. Snow drew upon past studies involving smallpox, cowpox, and syphilis, to extrapolate parallel examples of how the disease was transmitted, while Farr clung to the airborne model of disease transmission popular at the time even after reviewing such studies. Farr stated that non-living or zymotic material was transmitted through the air, and hence the closer the quarters of the affected, the more apt the material would be transmitted through the air.
The commonly-held belief was that fecalized air and water were the primary conduits of the disease. Farr believed primarily that the transmission was "miasmatic" and the prevalence in…
Certainly, one could tell from your presentation that your political past and present has not yet left you, but the valid ideas remain. My discourse is structured less on what we should do, but rather on how water is both a commodity and a public good.
Moderator: Excellent, but please make sure you don't get into a fight with Paul's rigorous political approach!
Karen akker: Right, will do. We can all understand why water is a public good: because the public drinks it, washes with it and uses it for water balloons. On the other hand, there are companies who see that water can also be a commodity and, as such, they stock the water in water balloons and them sell them, either to the state, in public-private partnerships, or directly to the population. France is a good example in this sense, but then, it was also them who had…
1. Muldoon, Paul, and Theresa McClenaghan. 2007. "A tangled web: Reworking Canada's water laws." In Eau Canada: The future of Canada's water, ed. Karen Bakker, 245-261. Vancouver: UBC Press
2. Barlow, Maude. 2007. Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right Water.
3. Boyd, David. 2003. Unnatural Law: Rethinking Canadian Environmental Law and Policy. Vancouver UBC Press.
4. Bakker, Karen. 2003. Liquid Assets. Alternatives Journal. 29 (2). P. 17-21
The article stated: "To be able to renew itself, most tissues have a reservoir of specific adult stem cells. These stem cells don't divide as frequently as other cell types since they need to maintain the integrity of their DNA, and multiple divisions lead to natural breaks in DNA. But when these stem cells are needed, their progeny can rapidly divide and are able to replenish the tissue with new cells." Without such replenishment, the mice without the normal reserves of ATR had graying hair and hair loss, and osteoporosis, within three to four months. The "10 to 20% of cells that escaped ATR deletion were able to reconstitute tissues in the engineered mice, at least initially. However, it appears that in the long run, even these cells were insufficient to maintain tissue integrity." The ATR deletion speeded up the slow loss of stem cells that come with aging. Of…
From the fact that two individuals were able to keep their hands in for 5 seconds longer than that of the other participants it seems as though the motivational approach may be more effective than sensory discriminative in quelling pain. Nonetheless, this study is severely limited in that the sample was extremely small, and that I was a biased facilitator (ideally such a study should be conducted with at least three other experimenters who are unaware of the purpose and hypothesis of the study), as well as in the fact that it was conducted in limiting circumstances (the bathroom near a bathtub).
Also to be considered is the fact that other confounding circumstances may have induced the resilient individual to have kept her hands in for longer. he may, for instance, be thicker-skinned than the others, or have some other physiological characteristic that may make her naturally more resilient to…
Brewer, B.W, & Karoly, P. (1989). Effects of attentional focusing on pain and perception. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 193-203.
Gentle, M.J. (2001). Attentional shifts alter pain perception in the chicken. Consciousness, cognition and animal welfare, 10, S187-S194.
Hackett, G., & Horan, J.J. (1980). Stress inoculation for pain: What's really going on? Journal of Counseling Psychology
Melzack, R. (1993). Pain: Past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 615.
esearch opportunities are afforded for projects on and off the NIH campus.
Funds for training and research are provided by NIN. Fellowships enable scientists to be trained to conduct independent nursing research and to collaborate in interdisciplinary research through individual and institutional pre-doctoral, post-doctoral, and senior awards. Grants enable schools of nursing with research programs to provide full-time pre-doctoral and post-doctoral research training. NIN also provides Career Development Awards, Mentor esearch Scientist Development Awards (to promote diversity), and Career Training Awards as well as numerous other training and research opportunities both on and off the NIH campus.
The office of Extramural Activities is made up of the Office of Extramural Programs (OEP), the Office of Grants Management (OCGM), and the Office of eview (O). The OEP manages the funding activities of NIN that occur outside of NIH. The NIN OEP is organized into four sections: Neuroscience, Genetics, & Symptom Management;…
The NIH Almanic. (2011, October12). National institute of nursing research. U.S. department of health & human services. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NINR.htm
National institute of nursing research. (2011). National institute of health. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://www.ninr.nih.gov/ResearchAndFunding/
attainment of a desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward the situation, event, occurrence, or phenomenon being investigated. As such no research question can be answered by way of gathering and analyzing data if first investigative issue is not stated in testable terms or form. Once a research investigator has established and properly formatted the specific research design to be used to investigate and test a desired phenomenon attention can be given to the required method of data collection. On the basis of the method chosen the researcher will be permitted to draw the necessary conclusions from the data statistically analyzed. Should a research investigator not choose the best-fit method of data collection then any inferences drawn from the data analysis are subject to a tremendous amount of error and inaccuracy. In order to avoid data error and inaccuracy the research investigator must give particular attention to…
Furguson, George A. (1966). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:
Kerlinger, Fred (1964). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Ohlson, E.L. (1998). Best-Fit Statistical Practices. Chicago: ACTS Testing Labs.