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Self-concept is the mental image or idea that I have of myself and my strengths, weaknesses and status such as self-image. These are the whole set of opinions, attitudes and cognitions individuals have on themselves. The paper is a response that I will examine the origins of my self-concept. This will be in four parts all of which are all exploring a source of self-concept.
There is a lot that I have learned about myself in the past few weeks through this course. I have learned so much about myself particularly my self-concept. I have learned that I am very compassionate. This is because I am a very good listener hence making me compassionate to the pleas and the details that I am keen to get. I always try to help anyone that is in need of my help without asking or expecting anything in return. Even though I do…
If he has good self-concept, he will see the feedback as a chance to weigh things, impove self and deepen his self-undestanding. Howeve, if he has othewise, he may not accept the feedback, feel bad about it and possibly even efuse to ecognize the expeience and/o the peson/s involved in it. This denial to addess the event may ultimately cause social and individual stagnation.
The inteplay of self-concept and emotions affect one's self-esteem. Poo self-concept esults to a low aspiation in achieving things which when confonted may lead to emotions like anxiety, humiliation o self-depecation. These feelings, if not addessed, will consequently lowe self-esteem and undesiably lessen one's outlook of self and life. As Mecca (1989) explained:
"Fo pesons with high self-esteem, shame is painful but not ovewhelming. Such pesons have sufficient expeiences of pide in thei lives that they can usually manage the shame they expeience. [But] Pesons with…
reference: A comprehensive Guide to Project Planning, Scheduling, Evaluation and Systems. (pp. 373-374). New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
London, M. (1999). Principled Leadership & Business Diplomacy: Values-Based Strategies for Management Development. (p. 84). Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books.
Brown, D. (2002). Career Choice & Development. Jossey-Bass Business & Management Series. (p. 18)
US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Mecca, A.M. (1989). The Social Importance of Self-Esteem. (p. 178) Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
Internalizing the views of others results in a failure to take risks, like the hypothetical case of 'Myrtle' who refused to learn how to drive because she believed what her children told her, that she knew nothing about cars (Sherfield 36). Don't rely solely on others for self-assessments suggests Sherfield.
hat is 'realistic' may differ for both authors. For Brown, realistic may be more in the sense of measurable outcomes, while realistic for Sherfield means a sense of self that is motivating, that doesn't encourage the individual to aim for the stars, but still enables him or her to get out of bed and live a happy, productive life. Reaching for the stars takes smaller goals and concrete, proactive steps in the world and achieving a sense of efficacy and self-mastery and control, even if human beings may have less control over their outcomes in life. Having a sense of…
Brown, Jonathan. The Self. New York: McGraw Hill, 1997.
Sherfield, Robert M. The Everything Self-Esteem Book. New York: Adams Media, 2003.
In one case you please the boss in the other you don't, but in both cases you demonstrate a disregard for the wishes of your loved ones.
Scenario Three: A favorite relative tells you he or she is disappointed that you have decided not to continue the family tradition of pursuing a career in a particular field. How do you respond?
Positive response: I would acknowledge that the family tradition was something to be proud of and that I was proud of it as well. I would explain that my interests/passions lie in a different direction and hope that she would understand and support me in my effort to make the family proud.
Negative response: Tell her that it's my life, I will do as I please and to mind her own business.
Scenario Four: You just got a new haircut. A close friend says, "I love your new look.…
Nurses are the facilitators of health. They work both with the patients and all types of physicians or healthcare providers to ensure that the needed healthcare and/or medical service is given. Nurses, therefore, are very much important in maintaining a healthy and well taken care of patients.
At any given time or date, health should always be the main concern of any human being. If one's health is down, he/she could not perform effectively and/or properly in any task. This is the every reason why health should be maintained through the assistance of medical and healthcare providers that abound the area. Through the combined efforts of the person and the nurses and physicians, it will be easier to ensure that person's health is in good condition.
There are different threats and opportunities spread in the society and the environment. Threats are considered as those…
Self-Concept and Presentation to Prospective Employers
Why is understanding yourself important in your career development?
In general, those who find careers within their natural interests and abilities are more likely to be happy than people who end up in careers or positions that do not match their interests and skills. Understanding yourself is important for career development because prospective employers always want to see indications that job applicants are self-aware enough to appreciate their weaknesses and areas where they can make improvements as well as their strengths and area where they may already be strong, They are especially interested to know that you have a realistic perspective about how they can succeed in the positions that they see (Beatty 2003 p35).
rom a much more practical perspective, understanding yourself is a fundamentally important life skill because it is impossible to make meaningful improvements in many areas of life, whether in…
From a practical perspective, prospective employers would obviously want to see evidence that you are sufficiently self-aware to recognize what past failures of yours were your fault. More importantly, prospective employers would obviously want to see evidence that you know what you are good at and what you are not as good at and what you have done in the past in situations where you recognized that you could have made some improvement to overcome problems you might have encountered in the past or to become better at your old job. As a general principle, it would obviously be very difficult to convince a prospective employer that you can make the necessary commitment to improve your vocational potential if you cannot provide some concrete evidence that you are able to recognize your limitations and then do whatever is necessary to become as good at your job as possible.
Beatty, R.H. (2003). The Resume Kit 5th Edition. Wiley & Sons: New York.
The first is the case of "imitation," wherein the individual sees similarities in his/her social environment that this reinforces his/her self-concept or desired image (i.e., the image desired is the same for the individual and the social environment). However, when the individual sees that the majority or social environment does not subscribe to the desired image or behavior of the individual, s/he will adapt and assume a different behavior/image in accordance to the social environment or situation. This case is called "contagion."
Social identity theory's foundations are similar with social comparison theory, in that self-concept maintenance is highly dependent on the response or favorability of the social environment to the developed self-concept of the individual. As posited by Stets and Burke (2008), "[a] particular identity becomes activated/salient as a function of the interaction between the characteristics of the perceiver (accessibility) and of the situation (fit)" (231). Thus, when the social…
Carver, C. (2001). "Self-regulation." In Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intraindividual Processes. A. Tesser and N. Schwarz (Eds.). MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Kaminka, G. (2007). "Towards a cognitive model of crowd behavior based on social comparison theory." American Association for Artificial Intelligence.
Stets, J. And P. Burke. (2008). "Identity theory and social identity theory." Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 63, No. 3.
Twenge, J. (2003). "Individual differences in narcissism: inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world." Journal of Research in Personality, Vol. 37.
My self-concept and perceptions influence my interpersonal communication in a variety of ways. First, my style of dress is a reflection of my self-concept and communicates in fashion how I perceive certain societal values and norms, whether I respect them, embody them and embrace them or whether I shun them, reject them, and disregard them. Second, my body language is a reflection of my self-concept and communicates the way in which I perceive my environment. Third, my verbal and written communications are a reflection of my self-concept and my express my perceptions about myself and the world around me in specific terms.
My self-concept is based on my own sense of self image, my roles in society, and my sense of place in the universe. I define myself by the feelings I have, the thoughts I possess, the work I do, the friends I have, my family, my beliefs, and…
Argyle, M. (2008). Social encounters: Contributions to social interaction. Aldine
Baumeister, R. F. (1999). The self in social psychology. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Self Concept. Retrieved from
The level of individuals' self-esteem can have an enormous effect on their performance and behaviors in the workplace. People with high levels of self-esteem will likely be more confident, assertive and accepting of constructive criticism while those with low levels of self-esteem will probably be less likely to positively assert themselves and more likely to experience poor interpersonal relationships with others. The theories of self-concept maintenance are used in this paper to help explain these dichotomous outcomes, followed by a comparison of the similarities and differences of the three theories of self-concept maintenance. An explanation concerning how each theory explains the difference of the behavior of the women in the animated workplace vignette, "The Virtual Office." Finally, the paper concludes with a description concerning fresh insights that emerged based on the above-described research.
SELECT AND DESCIBE ONE OF THE WOMEN IN THE MEDIA POGAM EXHIBITING EITHE POSITIVE SELF-ESTEEM…
The virtual office. (2011). Laureate Education, Inc. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Crisp, R.J., & Turner, R.N. (2010). Essential social psychology (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA:
Fiske, S.T. (2010). Social beings: Core motives in social psychology (2nd Ed.). Hoboken, NJ:
I think that I am a fairly confident person who wants to do my best in the nursing profession and can do so given the particular range of talents and qualities that I possess. Helpful talents include the ability and desire to learn and acquire new knowledge as well as the tendency to reflect. Critical reflection is an important quality in nursing, particularly as espoused by the evidence-based learning field, since it enables me to evaluate my teaching and to determine whether current and authoritative research may not reverse and update current practice thereby nudging me in new directions.
I also like people and this is important for nursing. Important too is the fact that I have curiosity about other cultures and ways of life. I will need this in a field where the whole person needs to be respected for him or herself and where, as Watson…
My self-concept is that I am a good friend and a good person. I try to set a good example for my friends and family on how a person should conduct oneself. I believe that civic duties are important and I believe that faith is also important, so I try to communicate both in my life. I also believe that it is important to be honest no matter what, even if it makes a person uncomfortable. Lies distort reality and lead to confusion and mistakes down the road. So it is better to be honest and forthright at all times. I also believe in dressing well and expressing my self-confidence in the manner in which I clothe myself. How we present ourselves publicly also reveals something about our self-concept (Baumeister, 1999; McLeod, 2008).
The role that self-concept plays in ethical communication is that I am able to be open and…
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (2012). Social Psychology. NY: Pearson.
Hewitt, J.P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University
Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.
As a top manager, the person possesses three distinct categories of self-efficacy beliefs (Yun, 2007). These are his individual participant's abilities, his team's capabilities, and the organization's capabilities. Team capabilities are not simply the sum of the abilities of the individual members. And organizational capabilities are different from team capabilities. These being distinct from one another, the top manager can build his efficacy beliefs on himself, the team and the organization. Organizational efficacy can then proceed from the top manager's belief in the organization's capabilities to create competitive advantage as well as attain high performance (Yun).
Self-Efficacy in the Work Environment
According to Newstrom and Davis, self-efficacy is the conviction that one can successfully perform a given task and make meaningful contributions (Edralin, 2004). Causes of powerlessness and low self-efficacy in the workplace are job-related, boss-related, and reward system-related. Unclear roles and expectations, lack of opportunity to…
Bandura, a. (1994). Self-efficacy. Vol 4: 71-81 Encyclopedia of Human Behavior:
Academic Press. Retrieved on March 24, 2010 from http://www.des.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html
Beckman, R.H., et al. (2007). Effect of workplace laughter groups on personal efficacy beliefs. 28: 167-182 The Journal of Primary Prevention: Springer Science- Business
Media. Retrieved on March 23, 2010 from http://www.laughterlinks.com/research/AuthorsFullText.pdf
Indeed, Bandura (1997) writes, "The way in which adolescents develop and exercise their personal efficacy during this period can play a key role in setting the course their life paths take" (pg. 177). Because society is made up of people, people who have higher levels of self-efficacy in large numbers tend to change society, making it more proactive, productive, and progressive. In addition, the opposite of this is also true. Indeed, larger groups with lower levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to create societies that are less motivated to change, or at least pockets within this society who have motivated the laissez-faire mentality. Furthermore, one's self-esteem, self-concept, and self-efficacy help determine how one sees one's self in society. Those who see themselves as unproductive and who believe they will be burdens to society can account for many of those who make up society's prisons and areas of social assistance.
Alvarez, J.M. (2009). Self-Concept. Retrieved August 2, 2009, from Child Development
Reference Volume 7: http://social.jrank.org/pages/554/Self-Concept.html
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. Retrieved August 2, 2009, from Emory University: http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy. New York: Macmillan.
It therefore follows that if a young woman has a poor sense of self-esteem as a result of prescribed ideals about body image, then this will also affect self-representation and even behavior patterns; for example, the woman may react negatively in an attempt to meet social norms about self-image and become Anorexic.
However, the literature also makes a clear distinction between personal self-image and esteem and group esteem and expectations. One would expect that groups that are discriminated against in society would have low level of self-esteem. This is not always the case. In fact as a study by Verkuyten ( 1989) shows, high levels of personal self-esteem may result in groups that have a low social level of esteem and acceptance. "The presumption of lower self-esteem among minority youth, given their confrontation with discrimination, disregards the perspectives of minorities themselves" (Verkuyten, 1998, p. 479). This refers to "The…
Bornman, E. (1999). Self-Image and Ethnic Identification in South Africa. Journal of Social Psychology, 139(4), pp.411-425
Fiske S.T. (2004) Social Beings. Ho Boken, NJ: Wiley.
Klein, H.A. (1995). Self-Perception in Late Adolescence: An Interactive Perspective. Adolescence, 30(119), 579+.
Monteath, S.A., & McCabe, M.P. (1997). The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image. Journal of Social Psychology, 137(6), pp. 708-727. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97807666
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.
Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…
Cavell, M. (1993). The Psychoanalytic Mind: From Freud to Philosophy. Cambridge, MA:
Deigh, J. (1996). The Sources of Moral Agency: Essays in Moral Psychology and Freudian
Theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,
Geller, L. (1984). Another look at self-actualization. Journal of humanistic psychology, 24:100
Therefore, these skills eventually become the deciding factor between the nurses either staying a nurse or leaving their career. Thus, many things are dependent on how well the nurses know their skills.
Coming back to the major reason why this problem is so important. The way the nurses perform controls and actually decides how well a person recovers. The skills learnt during nursing school and how they are applied will be embedded for the nurse's entire career. Lofmark, Smide and Wikblad (2006) stated that final year nursing students believe their strongest areas are being aware of the ethics, communicating with patients, self knowledge, cooperation and being focused. Sadly, it is not the knowledge that is going to save the patients and heal them. Lofmark et al. (2006) has stated that the students say they have the lowest confidence in how much practical experience they have. Clearly, these students lack critical…
Carlson, S., Kotze, W.J., & van Rooyen, D. (2005). Experiences of final year nursing students in their preparedness to become registered nurses. Curationis, 28(4), 65-73.
Cowen, L.S., Craven, R.G., Johnson, M., & Marsh, H.W. (2006). A longitudinal study of student and experienced nurses' self-concept. Collegian, 13(3), 25-31.
Clark, M.C., Owen, S.V. And Tholcken, M.A. (2004). Measuring student perceptions of clinical competence. J Nurse Education, 42(12), 548-554.
Del Bueno, D. (2005). A Crisis in Critical Thinking. Nursing Education Perspectives, 26 (5), pp.278-282.
e., physically), socially, and morally. In cognitive development, the individual learns how to think for himself/herself, and create decisions, judgments, and thoughts that are uniquely his/hers. Social development, meanwhile, is reinforced through one's recognition of gender identity. Through gender identity, the individual is able to determine and reinforce the role and status that society has given him or her as a man or woman. In effect, the individual becomes part of the society's institutions and structure because of the reinforcement of one's gender identity. Lastly, moral development takes place when the individual, based on his own cognitive and social experiences, is able to formulate his/her "personal philosophy," value judgment that s/he uses to create his/her beliefs, opinions, and feelings about life in general.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill ook Co.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
This is another weaker area I aim to work harder on - always trying to picture myself out carrying his or her burden or sharing his or her joy. This will make me more appreciative of people I hold dear and less judgmental or condemnatory to those I do not have much liking for.
But how do we really get to know a person? I believe it is only through open lines of communication that relationships grow and nourish.
So from now on, I aim to breed the habit of telling people how I feel, as our actions are bound to be misinterpreted and what we are trying to portray could be very contradictory to their observations. Likewise, opening yourself up to people around you makes them comfortable to show their inner selves to you, too. This could also be achieved through listening, another skill I would like to master.…
Gray, John. (2000). Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. Harper Collins.
Wood, Julia T. Communication in our lives.
Wood, Julia. (1997). Communication Theories in Action. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Self-Worth and the Need to Belong
Juvenile Delinquency Paper
The self-help author Wayne Dyer once wrote that, "Self-worth comes from one thing…thinking that you are worthy." This quote captures the functional role of gangs: they exist because they serve a purpose. Gangs are attractive to recruits because they promise a variety of benefits. Though many members reap material benefits from joining, it is the psychological benefits which play a critical role in the decision to join a gang, particularly as it relates to self-worth and the need to belong. While some gang members often portray themselves with great machismo, think highly of themselves and are proud of what they have become, the majority of youths who join gangs suffer from a negative self-image (Miller, 2001). Opportunities to feel good about themselves in their family or at school are few and far between. Yablonsky (1997) tells us "The gangsters'…
Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Miller, J., Maxson, C., Klein, M. (2001). The Modern Gang Reader. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co.
Sanchez-Jankowski, M.S. (1991). Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Shelden, R., Tracy, S., Brown, W. (1997). Youth Gangs in American Society. Ann Arbor, MI: Wadsworth Publishers.
Moreover, the strong correlation between confidence in peers and communication/problem understanding demonstrated that it is the confidence and ability of these co-workers that encourage members of self-managing teams to gather new information and knowledge, so that they may create useful decisions in relation to problem solving. Confidence in peers resulted in a negative, not positive, impact on organization and negotiation. This suggested that confidence in peers has a negative effect in the process of organizing the dissemination of knowledge in self-managing teams. Thus, it is imperative for team members to trust their peers and management and, in doing so, create and share new knowledge and further the organization's opportunity to offer best solutions to clients. Present research lacks the empirical evidence supporting the relationship between interpersonal trust and knowledge acquisition. Especially, academicians and practitioners are interested in studying whether "interpersonal trust" advances the follower's knowledge acquisition practices -- knowledge sharing…
Abbott, J.B., Boyd, N.B, and Miles, G. (2006) Does Type of Team Matter? An Investigation of the Relationships Between Job Characteristics and Outcomes Within a Team-Based Environment. The Journal of Social Psychology
Attaran, M. And Nguyen, N.U. (1999) Succeeding with self-managed work teams. CT Industrial Management. 41(4). 24-29
Brannick, M.T. And C. Prince. An overview of team performance measurement. In Team performance assessment and measurement-Theory, methods, and applications, ed. M. Brannick, E. Salas and C. Prince. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Brannick, M.T., E. Salas and C. Prince. 1997. Team performance assessment and measurement: Theory, methods, and applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…
Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php
Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/
Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
Many people, including myself, can coast through life, without giving much thought to personal goals or planning. However, after taking this course I realized the value in thinking deeply about my future, especially in relation to my talents, dreams, and desires. The lessons have opened my mind and broadened my horizons in many areas, as I can apply the lessons to almost every aspect of my life, from relationships to personal finances. Moreover, I have begun to appreciate more fully the meaning behind much of the rhetoric I often hear. For instance, while I always heard that a college education could be beneficial for me, I never truly grasped what a higher education actually entailed. After taking this course, I will pursue a degree not only because I feel I "should," but because I genuinely desire to experience college life. In addition to the networking and social opportunities college…
4.The risk of democracy vs. The rewards given by loyal company employees who feel valued. (Clark, 1999)
5. The risk of listening to the 'lower rungs' on the totem pole whom may challenge one's core beliefs -- and the reward of gaining a stronger sense of values
6. The risk of a costly transition to a new modality of leadership vs. The rewards of eschewing stale stasis. (Sims & Manz, 1995)
7. The risk of hearing what you don't like vs. The reward of having employees as well as one's own self have more successful careers. (Sims & Manz, 1995)
The risk of immediate upward vs. The long time reward of a stronger company
The risk of greater conflict vs. The reward of working with a group of people who are as optimistic, energetic, and successful as you are on all company levels of hierarchy.
The risk and the chance,…
Clark, Bob. (Web Page created March 19, 1997) "Concepts of Leadership." Last update - February 27, 2000. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leader.html " Big Dog's Leadership Page. Retrieved on 5 November 2004 at http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon.html
Clark, Bob. (Web Page created March 19, 1998) "Leadership and Human Behavior." Last update - May 1999.
Self and Other
George Herbert Mead is one of the pioneers of American philosophy as well as among the founders of Pragmatism. His work was published in several papers during his lifetime and even after his death. After his death, his students published four books in his name from his unpublished work. Mead's work has significantly influenced the 20th century social sciences. His theory of the emergence of mind and self is considered as a milestone in social philosophy. His contributions were not limited to social philosophy but his work also contributed in other areas of philosophy such as philosophy of nature or philosophical anthropology. Because of his significant contributions, he was being considered one of the greatest thinkers of his time.
The Self According to Mead:
According to the theories presented by Mead, self is characteristically different from physiological organism. Self is not present in an individual by birth…
George Herbert Mead & Charles W. Morris: Mind Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist: Chicago: University of Chicago: 1934.
George Herbert Mead: The Social Self: The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods: 10, 374-380: 1913
George Herbert Mead: The Mechanisms of Social Consciousness: The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods
George Herbert Mead: A Behavioristic Account of the significant symbol: Journal of Philosophy: 1922
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Communication
Does the full moon really effect one's behavior? Does Friday the 13th really deserve extra precaution? Is a Harvard professor wiser than say an Appalachian hermit? Or is someone who abandons their life of wealth and fame, suffering from mental illness? Is one race or gender more adept at a particular profession than another? There is no scientific evidence that proves the full moon has any effect on a person's personality or behavior, yet those in law enforcement and the medical profession often say that crime, accidents, and psychotic behavior are higher during the full moon, moreover, many people say they feel more anxious or nervous during a full moon. Henry David Thoreau lived in the woods for several years, St. Francis of Assisi abandoned his wealth and military position for a life of poverty, and many people regard Friday 13th as a lucky day. Self-fulfilling…
Barsoux, Jean-Louis. "The Set-Up-to-Fail Syndrome." Harvard Business Review. March http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Harvard_Business_Review&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.hbsp.harvard.edu&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Jean%2DLouis+Barsoux+%2D+INSEAD+%28France%29&title=The+Set%2DUp%2Dto%2DFail+Syndrome++&date=03%2D01%2D1998&query=effects+of+Self%2Dfulfilling+prophecies+&maxdoc=30&idx=3.(accessed 10-30-2002).
Bushman, Brad J.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Stack, Angela D. "Catharsis, Aggression, and Persuasive Influence: Self-Fulfilling or Self-Defeating Prophecies?" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Volume 76. No. 3 January 1999. http://www.apa.org/journals/psp/psp763367.html.(accessed 10-30-2002).
Feingold, Alan. "Gender Stereotyping for Sociability, Dominance, Character, and MentalHealth: A Meta-Analysis of Findings From the Bogus Stranger Paradigm." Genetic, Social & General Psychology Monographs. Volume 124. August 01, 1998. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Genetic,_Social_~A~_General_Psychology_Monographs&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.heldref.org~S~mono.html&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=FEINGOLD%2C+ALAN&title=Gender+Stereotyping+for+Sociability%2C+Dominance%2C+Character%2C+and+MentalHealth%3A+A+Meta%2DAnalysis+of+Findings+From+the+Bogus+Stranger+Paradigm+%2E++&date=08%2D01%2D1998&query=effects+of+Self%2Dfulfilling+prophecies+&maxdoc=30&idx=24.
A accessed 10-30-2002).
(Nofziger, 2001, p. 10)
All sociological (subculture) theories do not blame the parents of deviant children for bad parenting, some in fact say it isn't an abundance of bad parenting but a lack or limitation of positive parenting in a subculture that has peers training individual children, regardless of risk status to be deviant. (Brendtro, Mitchell & Mccall, 2007, p. 200) Most stress the need for parents to reassert focus on the family, and yet very few discuss much more difficult questions of social disparity and observed social helplessness, that contradicts the teaching of parents. When a parent tells a child that they can achieve anything they set their mind to and then they repeatedly see clues and cues in their environment that contradicts this observation, by omission when those who succeed in legitimate manners leave the community to by commission when society offers alternative (deviant) choices in abundance but…
Bartkowski, J.P. (1995). Spare the Rod..., or Spare the Child? Divergent Perspectives on Conservative Protestant Child Discipline. Review of Religious Research, 37(2), 97-116.
Bowman, P.J., & Sanders, R. (1998). Unmarried African-American Fathers: A Comparative Life Span Analysis. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(1), 39.
Brendtro, L.K., Mitchell, M.L., & Mccall, H. (2007). Positive Peer Culture: Antidote to "Peer Deviance Training." Reclaiming Children and Youth, 15(4), 200.
2001). Bullies, Fights, and Guns: Testing Self-Control Theory with Juveniles. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
..then put down four qualities for each that you find most offensive" (Chopra 121). He now says to look at the list and for each trait say, "I acted like this when I..." And cautions that this is not to wallow in self-criticism but to reclaim feelings rather than projecting them onto others (Chopra 122). Says Chopra, "when you are able to see yourself in what you hate, you come closer to realizing that you contain everything, as befits a child of spirit" (Chopra 122).
This is certainly easier said than done. hat of an abusive parent, an abusive mate, an arrogant boss, or Hitler? Are we to list the qualities that we despise in Hitler and then compare ourselves to that list? True, most self-help books and psychology do claim that people most often project their own flaws and fears onto the people around them, however, it seems that…
Chopra, Deepak. The Path to Love. Harmony Books. 1997; 1. 2. 3. 4, 64, 65, 67, 121, 122, 193, 194, 195, 328.
Still, Mason indicates that the opposite is often true in public education settings, where educators, parents and institutions collectively overlook the implications of research and demands imposed by law. Indeed, "despite the IDEA requirements, research results, teacher perceptions, and strong encouragement from disabilities rights advocate, many youth have been left out of IEP and self-determination activities. For example, 31% of the teaches in a 1998 survey reported that they wrote no self-determination goals, and 41% indicated they did not have sufficient training or information on teaching self-determination." (Mason et al., 442)
This is a troubling finding, and one which implicates the needed paradigm shift discussed already in the research endeavor. Clearly, as the matter is framed by Mason et al., educators and researchers have already acknowledged the value in the strategies addressed here. By contrast, institutional change has been hard won, with schools and administrators balking at making broad-based alterations…
Beresford, B. (2004). On the Road to Nowhere? Young Disabled People and Transition. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(6).
Department of Education (DOE). (2007). Guide to the Individualized Education Program. United States Department of Education. Online at http://www.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html .
Katsiyannis, A.; deFur, S. & Conderman, G. (1998). Transition Services -- Systems Change for Youth with Disabilities? A Review of State Practices? The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 55-61.
Mason, C.; Field, S. & Sawilowsky, S. (2004). Implementation of self-determination activities and student participation in IEPs. Council for Exceptional Children, 70(4), 441-451.
Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.
One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…
Adam, B. 2000. "Love and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex
With Men." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4).
Barry, P. (2002). Lesbian and gay criticism. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Culture and Society,
One of the fundamental concepts of any free, democratic society is the idea of the individual's right to self-defense -- that one may use any means at one's disposal to protect one's person or property from assault from another. However, there are important stipulations and limitations that define the allowable limits an individual may approach -- and crossing over these limits can make the difference between being a justified victim and an outright criminal.
According to the legal definition of self-defense, the use of force is allowed when an individual "reasonable believes that it is necessary for the defense of oneself or another against the immediate use of unlawful force. However, a person must use no more force than appears reasonably necessary in the circumstances." This means that one can only employ enough force to remove the present threat. For example, one may only use lethal force in self-defense…
Kopel, David B. (2000) "The self-defense cases: Howe the United States Supreme Court confronted a hanging judge in the nineteenth century and taught some lessons for jurisprudence in the twenty-first." American Journal of Criminal Law. Summer, 293.
Lectric Law Library. 2002. "Self-Defense." Web Site. Retrieved from Web site on March 31, 2004 http://www.lectlaw.com/def/d030.htm
Starr v. United States 153 U.S. 614 (1894).
Wallace v. United States.162 U.S. 466 (1896).
The causes of human actions and behavior are generally sought for in the psyche of the individual or in the social environment.
Ewen obert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boeree C. ABAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. etrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Guy T.M. (2004) Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politics. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology; 3/22/2004. etrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125869018.html
Jantzen, Grace M.(2004) Death and the Displacement of Beauty. New York: outledge.
McKeachie W. And Doyle C. ( 1971) Psychology. New York: Addison-Wesley.
athna I. Ethics in the practice of clinical psychology. etrieved from http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/172ar69.html
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Strachey, James, ed. (1961) Civilization and Its Discontents. 1st ed. New York W.W. Norton.
The Final Struggle and Victory of Science - Pinel and Tuke. etrieved from http://www.cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/White/insanity/pinel.html
The Genetic Self. etrieved from http://www.trans4mind.com/transformation/transform7.1.htm
The Scope Of Psychology.…
Ewen Robert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boeree C. ABRAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Guy T.M. (2004) Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politics. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology; 3/22/2004. Retrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125869018.html
Biases in Person Perception-Self-Verification
Biases in Self-Perception
"O wad some Pow'r the giftie gie us ... To see ourselves as others see us," wrote Scotland's bard obert Burns, asserting the oft-believed truism that we would all like to have the power to know exactly what it is that other people are saying and thinking about us. And yet, as the poet continues on to say, the more we think about this idea the less wholeheartedly we might well be to embrace it: Thinking about how others see us (and especially if they so precipitate as to tell us their precise thoughts) carries a very high degree of social and psychological risk. The high degree of risk so incurred arises in no small part from the fact that when we consider the idea that other people know what we are "really" like rather than the self-deception with which we cloak ourselves…
London, M. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of self-verification: Implications for individual and group development. Human Resource Development Review 2(3), 273-293.
Pasupathi, P. & Rich, B. (2005) Inattentive listening undermines self-verification in personal storytelling. Journal of personality 73(4).
Swann, W.B. & Ely, R. (1984). A battle of wills: Self-verification vs. behavioral confirmation. Journal of personality and social psychology 46(6), 1287-1302.
Retrieved May 2, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database.
This article promotes the National Year of Reading in England which was created to promote increased reading and improve literacy. Specific ideas of supporting adults in reading and using the National Year as an opportunity to do this are presented. The incidental rewards of pleasure reading are also noted.
Stanistreet, P. (2008, March). A girl like you. Adults Learning, 19(7), 11-13. Retrieved May 2, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database.
Stanistreet met with Gilda O'Neill, who, at age 15, was told by a teacher that "girls like her" never become writers. (p. 11) She grew up during World War I and began writing about her experiences. Her life had consisted of material poverty and, after repeated discouragement, she dropped out of school. She continued to eagerly absorb information from any source and became the writer she had always wanted to be.…
Duke questions the role of lifelong learning as part of attaining the goals of "Education for all." The "Education of all" initiative was developed in the northern parts of the globe, and is now being considered for the poor countries in the southern hemisphere. This is a report of a discussion of national and international attempts to use the "Education of all" program to increase lifelong learning in developing countries. Implementation is not simple because the program is confusing and there is resistance to acceptance.
Long hours don't deliver results. (2008, March). Adults Learning, Retrieved May 2, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database.
Education managers continue to work long hours, but with few returns. This article reports that this affects productivity and morale. Specifically, exercise and developing new skills are prevented due to the overload. This affects both health and performance. The article concludes with the questions: Why are employers not working to lessen the overtime, and why are employees not taking the responsibility to manage themselves?
family by applying theories, concepts and knowledge. Through the study of the theories and concepts, the study will look at how families communicate, behave, operate and will also highlight common problems facing the family and especially tackling the health issue and how social systems affect provision of health care, and will illuminate this through an in-depth study of how it applies or affect the family unit. The study will discuss diversity issues in relation to the social system.
Family life is being scrutinized, and a new definition of a family is emerging every day, but in simple terms a family is a group consisting of parents and children living together in a household, caring and supporting each other. According to Merriam-ebster Dictionary; a family is a fundamental social group in society typically consisting of one or two parents and their children.
The family is the natural and fundamental group unit…
Boss P. Doherty W. LaRossa R. (2008). Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A contextual Approach, New York: Springer
Crawford, (1999), Bilingual Education: History Politics, Theory and Practice, 23 July 2011, http://www.one nation.org/Crawford.html
LaRossa & Reitzes. (1993). Family Theory, Washington D.C: Chapman Publishers
McGoldrick M, Gerson R. & Shellenberger S. (1985). Genograms in Family Assessment. W.W. Norton: North America
" Young children are more likely to benefit from tasks and activities that offer a real challenge than from those that are merely frivolous or fun." (Katz) Children can help prepare meals, care for pets, and do other projects that are productive. The child will be able to translate that the parent trusts him or her with a truly important task -- not just a make-believe one -- into a sense of being trustworthy, useful, and able to accomplish things. When children show interest in a parent's activities, if that parent includes him or her in that activity and takes that interest seriously, it can be a strong self-esteem boost. Encouragement is vital, and it is important to acknowledge progress as well as rewarding achievement.
Parents also show trust in the child to accomplish things by setting a few reasonable rules for even toddlers to follow; "Knowing that certain family…
Hart, Louise. "Self-Esteem: The Best Gift You Can Give Your Child -- and Yourself." Mothering Magazine. Spring, 1989. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_n51/ai_7512259
Henry, Sarah. "Ten Ways to Build Your Child's Self-Esteem." ParentCenter Medical Advisory Board. http://parentcenter.babycenter.com/refcap/preschooler/pdevelopment/65569.html
Katz, Lilian. "How Can We Strengthen Children's Self-Esteem?" ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Summer, 1995. http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/strengthen_children_self.html
That is, until an infant ealizes that she is looking at heself in the mio athe than anothe baby, the concept of self cannot begin to fom (Johnston, 1996). As childen matue, the link between cognition and self-concept becomes moe illuminated. In olde childen, pat of the matuation pocess is the ability to solve poblems and pocess infomation (Siegle and Alibali, 2004). The fact that childen use a vaiety of stategies and behave diffeently when ovecoming obstacles to each a common goal eflects diffeences not only in thei cognitive abilities but also how they see themselves -- "I don't give up easily; I always ty my best; I lean well; I don't like myself," etc. (Measelle et al., 2005).
If, as ealie suggested, by five to seven yeas of age, childen ae able to give accuate self-desciptions of themselves, then the pecusos of self-concept clealy evolve aound the toddle and…
references, discussing negative emotions, engaging children in conversations, discovering unique attributes, and the like all have Western upbringing tones. In other cultures, these norms may not be norms at all and hence the psychometric procedures used to generate traditionally Western self-description may not apply, say among Chinese or Asian children (Wang, 2004). The Chinese, as opposed to the autonomy-oriented European-Americans, are interdependent and put value in kinship such that a person's identity is often tied to his social responsibilities. Social rules exist in the Chinese culture that promotes humility and self-criticism for the sake of social harmony (Chin, 1988, in Wang, 2004). This, of course, is in contrast to Western culture that promotes self-enhancement.
A recent study on the comparative autobiographical memories and self-description in 3- to 8-year-old American and Chinese children considered the following differences and used a relatively novel, open-ended narrative method to examine the development of self-constructs. The results of the study are consistent with the cultural outlines above. American children tend to describe themselves in terms of their personal attributes and inner disposition in a generally light tone. Chinese children, on the other hand, focused on specific relationships, social roles, observable behavior, and situation bound features in a modest tone (Wang, 2004). The implication of this study is that self-concept is culture-specific and that the early emergence of cultural self-constructs may prepare children to become competent members of their respective societies (Wang, 2004).
In summary, this paper illustrates that the development of self is a product of cognitive achievement, everyday experiences, and cultural values. The role of child-parent interactions and differing cultural beliefs are emphasized as crucial in shaping self-concept among children.
Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.
According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no…
Bolm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory-at the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res., vol 4, 277-285 Retrieved from http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468274.
Dartey-Baah, K. & . (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management 3(9).
Peters, R.M. (2010). Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care. Res Theory Nurs Pract, 24(3), 172-186 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm, nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728772.
Sukato, N. & . (2009). A Model of Male Consumer Behavior in Buying Skin Care Products in Thailand. ABAC Journal, 29(1), 39-52 Retrieved from http://www.abacjournal.au.edu/2009/jan09/article03_JanApr2009.pdf .
12-step programs were somewhat mixed. On one hand, I have friends who say that they would never have recovered without Alcoholic's Anonymous (AA). I have never suffered an addiction myself so I cannot presume to judge the validity of their experiences. On the other hand, I often find the language of addiction and recovery, and its insistence upon the '12 steps' to be confining, even cultish in tone.
I attended a 'speaker's meeting' for this assignment. Although meetings are anonymous and closed to observers, at an AA speaker's meeting, a speaker with a year or more of sobriety talks to an open group to relate his or her experience, followed by discussion (Garrett 2009).
The meeting I attended was consistent with the literature I had previously read on AA: "the three important steps to sobriety are admitting powerlessness to alcohol, turning yourself over to a 'higher power' and never drinking…
Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs. The New York Times.
Retrieved October 4, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/25/health/25drin.html
Garrett, Floyd P. (2009). Your first AA Meeting. Recovery and Wellness.
Retrieved October 4, 2011 at http://www.bma-wellness.com/papers/First_AA_Meeting.html#Speaker%20
Peer tutoring was found to be an effective tool for teaching those with learning disabilities to read (Fuchs, Fuchs, and Saenz, 2005). This research supports the use of struggling readers in the first grade for the group that receives the tutoring. First graders that are enrolled in the program are already labeled as learning disabled. Whether their difficulty in reading is caused by an organic deficiency, or an emotional problem, intervention by way of peer tutoring will help to reduce its effects.
Strengthening mentor programs is an essential part of the equation when it comes to academic performance (King, et al., 2002). A strong mentoring program has many benefits for individual students, but it also has benefits for the school as well, including improved overall academic perforce and a decrease in school violence.
Peer mentoring programs were found to be better than intervention programs that used a teacher, especially if…
Chard, D.; Kameenui, E.. (2000) Struggling First-Grade Readers: The Frequency and Progress of Their Reading. Journal of Special Education, 34 (1), 128.
Dufrene, BA., Duhon, G.J., Gilbertson, D.N., & Noell, G.H. (2005). Monitoring implementation of reciprocal peer tutoring: Identifying and intervening with students who do not maintain accurate implementation. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 74.
Emler, Nicholas (2002) the costs and causes of low self-esteem. Youth Studies
Australia, 21(3) 45. Retrieved June 21, 2006, from the ULV Academic Search
Part One: Main Ideas and Insights
Critical thinking does not necessarily come naturally to people, who are subject to biases and prejudicial assumptions. According to Paul & Elder (2016), critical thinking can be learned and mastered. Critical thinking is essential for improving quality of life and promoting best practices in any field. With critical thinking, a person actively seeks answers and solutions to problems, probing multiple points of view and perspectives. Therefore, critical thinking requires open-mindedness and strong communication skills. Critical thinking also requires time and self-discipline, including the painstaking gathering of data, information, and evidence, and picking apart each issue using systematic methods. Rather than being reactive or subjective, critical thinking involves thorough analyses and assessments, with problem solving as its primary goal. Critical thinking is clear, accurate, significant, and ultimately, fair.
According to Paul & Elder (2016), all thought involves the same eight elements including point of view,…
Self and Others
The manner in which people view themselves has been shown to be an important predictor of their behavior, achievement, and physical and psychological health. There has been a growing trend in recent years to promote a positive self-view in young people through the avoidance of failure. Increasingly, positive reinforcement is provided for merely taking part and trying rather than succeeding or failing, with little regard to the long-term consequences of such practices. To help identify the long-term implications of such practices, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine whether keeping children from having to face failure provides them with an accurate view of themselves as they relate to the people around them and others around them. A discussion concerning how, as these children grow and mature, they will likely deal with cognitive dissonance and failure in their lives is followed by a summary…
Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., Demoulin, D.F. & Reiger, R.C. (2000). Identifying high school freshmen with serious atypical behavior and mental health problems for delinquency prevention purposes. Education, 121(2), 257.
Cryder, C.E., Lerner, J.S., Gross, J.J., & Dahl, R.E. (2008). Misery is not miserly: Sad and self-focused individuals spend more. Psychological Science, 19, 525-530
Nielsen, D.M. & Metha, A. (1999). Parental behavior and adolescent self-esteem in clinical and nonclinical samples. Adolescence, 29(115), 525-527.
Pierce, G.R., Sarason, BR. & Sarason, I.G. (1996). Cognitive interference: Theories, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cheesman (2002) conducted a study on Karen identity in the Union of Myanmar with regards to historical and social conditions. The study found that Karen identity is a relatively difficult identity because individuals from this ethnic background do not have a common language, material attributes, religion and culture. While most of the existing assessments of this ethnic identity have been carried out in Thailand, it is largely influenced by historical and social conditions in the Union of Myanmar. Based on a review of contemporary Myanmar, people of Karen identity are seemingly virtuous, illiterate (uneducated), and oppressed. Many aspects relating to this identity appear to emphasize inferiority and subordination mostly because of mythology and modifications by the elite. Similar to the Union of Myanmar, Karen identity was brought by political dynamics and created by elite groups in the society.
The information provided in the article is accurate with regards to the…
The idea of remaining silent when faced with accusation has historical religious and legal roots. Moses teachings', transformed to written form by the ancient Talmudic law had a complete ban on self-incrimination. The self-incrimination law could not be changed because it was viewed to contravene the natural instinct for survival. The ancient common law rule also had it that confusions must be voluntary. When the right to remain silent was included in the Fifth Amendment of the U.S. constitution, it was tied to a complicated and controversial history. The Supreme Court has applied three tenets in the constitution to evolve rules that govern police interrogation and the confession process. These three include the Sixth Amendment on the Right to Counsel, the Fourteenth Amendment clause on due process and the Fifth Amendment on Self-incrimination clauses. Each of these provisions has led the police to handle interrogation and confessions in varying ways…
If a psychotherapist is used to assessing their own performance then they themselves will be that much more effective. That benefits all parties involved for patient to doctor. A counselor's duties are first and foremost, pushing and challenging their client in a safe environment. it's imperative that a client feel unthreatened but still be pushed beyond their comfort zone which, oftentimes, becomes interacting with daily life. How then, to judge growth?
If a counselor is self-employed then it becomes crucial to continuously and regularly check and grade oneself for the client. Any form of therapy produces some resistance to changing old ways. Client's often feel their not moving or growing when in reality, they've made huge strides they cannot see. With no supervisor to answer to and the misinterpretation by the patient themselves, self-assessment is key. Identifying what techniques are helping and what are hindering. Only in education are we…
Dunning, D. (2005). Self-insight: roadblocks and detours on the path to knowing thyself. Psychology Press; New York, NY.
Morrissette, P.J. (2001). Self-supervision: A primer for counselors and helping professionals. Brunner-Routledge; New York, NY.
Not only is the phrase self-love used as synonymous with the desire of happiness, but it is often confounded with the word selfishness, which certainly, in strict propriety, denotes a very different disposition of mind." --Slewart. [Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary]
The novel "Things Fall part," by Chinua chebe, is a shocking account of the life and extinction of an frican tribe called the Ibo. The light is mainly on the main character, Okonkwo, who begins his search for self-perfection at a very young age. He was highly unimpressed with his father and vowed to never to be like him. Okonkwo and his family suffered through trying times but he eventually beat the odds and was very successful as the leader of the tribe. However, on beating his wives, he disobeyed the gods by refusing to offer animal sacrifice. The gods gave him a severe punishment. He was extremely selfish…
A movie based on the theme of self-love is the animated comedy called Shrek, about an ugly green ogre who's on a quest to rescue a princess for the egocentric lord who simply wants her because he feels she is perfect for his kingdom. However, Shrek sees the inner beauty in the princess and they develop mutual respect and also fall in love. Although, this movie is based on the concept of self-love, it also deals with the importance of couples accepting each other as they regardless of the faults they have in each other.
As for myself, I always willingly acknowledge my own self as the principal cause of every good and of every evil which may befall me; therefore I have always found myself capable of being my own pupil, and ready to love my teacher.
Giacomo Casonova. [Quotes on self-love, available at http://www.freedomsnest.com/cgi-bin/q.cgi?subject=self-love]
The world changes, and we must change with the world, and that is a good thing, as talents we took for granted suddenly seem more remarkable, if we develop them and they are recognized and nurtured by others.
I also believe that education, when embarked upon at a later date, can quite frequently be more enriching, given the greater self-knowledge that comes with age. As an adolescent, avoiding homework is a frequent act of childish rebellion. But the adult knows that time is finite and making the most of the here and now means embracing rather than avoiding work. An adult also knows better what he or she likes and dislikes, what are his or her strengths and weaknesses, and so the can better cope with these deficits and compensate for them.
Yet an adult may fear to take more risks, unlike the child that joyously learns to walk by…
Self-Made Man and the Recipient of Divine Grace:
Benjamin Franklin vs. Jonathan Edwards
Despite the fact that both Benjamin Franklin and Jonathan Edwards are honored as two of the greatest authors of colonial America, they could not be more different in their ideological orientations. Edwards (1703-1758) is perhaps most famous for penning the image of the human soul as a spider in the hand of a merciful God, suspended above the flames of hell in his sermon "Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God." All human beings, Edwards implied in his image, were essentially fallen beings. A true Puritan, Edwards believed there was no way for hard work to win divine favor; one could only hope to be the recipient of divine grace. In contrast, Franklin (1706-1790), despite living during roughly the same time period as Edwards, was the consummate self-made man. As well as being credited as one…
Edwards, Jonathan. "A divine and supernatural light." CCEL. Web. 16 Dec 2013. http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/sermons/supernatural_light.html
Franklin, Benjamin. "From Chapter VIII of The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin." The
American Tradition in Literature. Perkins & Perkins (Ed). McGraw Hill.
This could be referred to in terms of Stern's Sense of Subjective Self. As Stern notes, the child or infant becomes aware that the 'gap' that develops in the realization of its subjectivity can be overcome through various intersubjective experiences. My strength in this regard lies in my understanding of the value of intersubjectivity in enhancing my own sense of self.
Another strength that I have that can be related to Stern's theory is the verbal self. As Stern notes, the capacity that the child develops for representation and language usage also tends to enhance intersubjective aspects of development. In other words, intersubjectivity is improved through the development of symbolic language. This is a strength that I feel can be further enhanced and improved in later life. A sensitivity to language and symbolic representation also allows us to develop better relationship skills.
In conclusion, it is noteworthy that an imminent…
Daniel_Stern_(psychologist) Retrieved September 19, 2009, from http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Daniel_Stern_%28psychologist%29
Guattari F. (1995) Chaosmosis: An Ethico-Aesthetic Paradigm, trans. Paul Bains and Julian Pefanis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Stern, Daniel. (1985) the interpersonal world of the infant. N.Y.: Basic Books.
Zuriff, E. (1992). Theoretical Inference and the New Psychoanalytic Theories of Infancy. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 61(1), 18-36. Retrieved September 20, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76926326
Do I choose things that are primarily in my best interest or do I choose based in what is best for society and then trust that the end result will be in my best interest?
There are so many choices in life and I do at times become nervous about making the right choices, however, I think with the right education and spiritual guidance I will find the path that allows me to be my best self while at the same time making the world a better place for others as well as me.
Like osa Parks, and countless others who daily make choices that produce change, it is those who will dare to dream of a better life, those who will risk failure, those who will make the right choices who will change themselves, their families, their businesses and organizations and yes, even their world! The ability to choose…
Here is something very refreshing indeed:
March 3, 2000 Bush Is Catching the Spiritual Wave by Larry Kudlow
Concept of human rights
The concept of human rights: Defining human rights
Human rights are rights that no government can deny, by virtue of a citizen being 'human.' Yet what constitutes a human right has varied greatly, depending upon the sentiments of the international community. There have always been basic, general rules of etiquette in terms of how to treat enemy soldiers during wartime and the actions of certain governments have been deemed outside of community norms throughout history, but standards of 'universal' human rights shift and change with history. The first formal declaration of human rights was made in 1948 by the UN. The definition of human rights today places limits on what governments can do to citizens -- examples of commonly-accepted human rights include the right to be free of the threat of genocide, slavery, and have the right to due process.
Although the words 'human…
Nickel, James. (2010). Human rights. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved:
Perrett, R. W., & Patterson, J. (1991). Virtue ethics and Maori ethics. Philosophy East and West, 41(2), 185-202.
• The argument of the author is that the Maori Ethics is a representation of the virtue ethics as it is a representation of what one should be and not how one should act. The author alludes to Aristotle's perceptions of ethics and differentiates the concept of virtue ethics from the deontological and consequentialist theories. The concept of the self as the prime moral agent of nature is one of the main argument brought forward by the authors.
• Verbatim: The main thesis of this essay is that traditional New Zealand Maori ethics is a virtue ethics.
• The research question is: what type of ethics is the Maori ethics and how does it relate to the other forms of ethics described today? This question is answered using various arguments…
self" is difficult to define but usually involves the inner life of the individual, the psychological dimension of human existence as opposed to the outward, physical form. The self is conceived as a creature of consciousness, a mind capable of thought and able to engage in deliberate action. A self is capable of self-consciousness, which means it recognizes its own ability to think and to contain first-person thoughts. The question is, however, is there a Self or not, and if there is, what is its nature? This has been argued in philosophy since the time of the Greeks and has been answered differently by philosophers, religious leaders, and psychologists at different times in history. Leslie Stevenson notes that the "question of the ultimate nature of such mental states is a philosophical problem which is left open by our everyday language about them" (Stevenson 74). This common language is often challenged…
Hume: Knowledge That There Is an External World and Knowledge of the Mind." Lesson 7 (Handout).
Lavine, T.Z. From Socrates to Sartre: The Philosophic Quest. New York: Bantam, 1984.
Stevenson, Leslie. Seven Theories of Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Hamlet, however, is full of hesitation. He does not experience the type of confidence Antigone does and suffers because of it. These characters are not abnormal; they are exaggerated or comical in a way audiences cannot relate to them. They are uniquely human and that is why they are still popular today -- because they are real enough that audience members feel as though they have known these types of personalities before. Through these characters, the playwrights show the audience how important it is to be true to self above all else. From Creon, who loses his sense of self when he sells out to power to Hamlet, who loses his sense of self when he falls into depression, to Antigone, who gladly gives her life for what she believes, we see the power of the sense of self and the importance of how it should be respected.
Blits, Jan. Introduction to Deadly Thought: 'Hamlet' and the Human Soul, pp. 3-21. Lanham:
Lexington Books, 2001. Information Retrieved July 01, 2010.
Sophocles. Antigone. Three Theban Plays: Antigone, Oedipus the King, Oedipus and Colonus.
Robert Fagles, trans. New York: Penguin Books. 1980.
Judicial Philosophy of the Supreme Court
Judicial philosophy is a concept that refers to the way judges understand and interpret the law in relation to the specific cases they are handling. This concept emerges from the fact that while laws are universal and broad, they need to be applied to specific cases based on the judge's understanding and interpretation of the law as well as the unique circumstances surrounding the case. The two most common judicial philosophies of the Supreme Court are judicial activism and judicial restraint, which have influenced various cases including Gore vs. Bush (2000) and Obergefell vs. Hodges (2015). Judicial activism refers to a philosophy in which judges depart from conventional precedents to adopt new, progressive social policies whereas judicial restraint is a philosophy in which judges limit the exercise of their own authority (Bendor, 2011).
Judicial activism of the Supreme Court influenced cases like Gore vs.…
A Concept Analysis in Behavior Management: Self-Management in Psych Nursing
In nursing, when it comes to behavior management—i.e., helping individuals to alter their behavior in order to achieve a positive aim—various strategies are available. One concept of behavior management that has been handed down over generations of nursing practice is the concept of self-management. This concept analysis paper will analyze self-management by describing a history of the concept, its defining characteristics and attributes, antecedents and consequences, various cases related to the concept, empirical measurements, and recommendations following a discussion of the analysis.
Aims and Purposes of Analysis
The aims of this analysis are:
1) to obtain better understanding of a concept;
2) to obtain clarity in terms of what the concept means and how it impacts an environment, a population, a sector, an industry or a strategy; and
3) to establish definition in terms of empirical evidence that…
Discharge Education to Promote Patient Self-Efficacy
Care and concern for the patient's health and well-being after being discharged from the hospital or clinic does not end for healthcare providers. Particularly for chronically ill patients, post-discharge care is more critical to ensure that in the course of the patient's daily routine and activities, all medical requirements are adhered to and all medications needed are complied with. This is why more often than not, patients receive discharge education as the healthcare provider's continuing effort to ensure that the patient and his/her family members or caregivers will be well-capacitated to continue care and treatment at home.
However, the above-mentioned scenario is the ideal rather than the actual. In real life, healthcare providers are often fraught with the dilemma of patients who are constantly hospitalized or have witnessed the worsening of their patient's condition as a result of non-compliance to their medications and other…
Baker, D., D. DeWalt, D. Schillinger, V. Hawk and B. Ruo. (2011). "The effect of progressive, reinforcing telephone education and counseling vs. brief educational intervention on knowledge, self-care behaviors and heart failure symptoms." Journal of Cardiac Failure, Vol. 17, No. 10.
Barnason, S., L. Zimmerman and L. Young. (2011). "An integrative review of interventions promoting self-care of patients with heart failure." Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 21.
Castelnuovo, G. (2010). "TECNOB: study design of a randomized controlled trial of a multidisciplinary telecare intervention for obese patients with type 2 diabetes." BMC Public Health, Vol. 10.
Conn, V., A. Hafdahl, S. Brown and L. Brown. (2008). "Meta-analysis of patient education interventions to increase physical activity among chronically ill adults." Patient Education Counseling, Vol. 70, No. 2.
history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…
J.S. Spong, "A New Christianity for a New World: Why Traditional Faith is Dying & How a New Faith is Being Born," HarperSanFrancisco, (2001), Pages 37 & 38.
THE JEWISH CONCEPT OF THE MESSIAH
Book Review: Concept of God as shepherd is Jewish paradigm
Judaism and Christianity both have fairly common as well as totally contrasting religious concepts. In spite of the apparent differences and divisions it has to be understood that both these religions are like different streams of water merging in the ocean of god.
Christianity and Judaism are both religions of abrahamic origin. There are many similarities and differences between the two religions. Since Christianity originated from Judaism, it lends to the thought that both the religions are very closely related. However, in spite of their common origin, they differ considerably in some of the important issues while at the same time exhibit resemblance in many aspects. Even the monotheistic belief, which both these religions stand for, is quantified by entirely different perception of the attributes of godhead. Similarly, in the understanding of the messianic concept there is a significant contradiction giving us a hint of the vastly different nature of…
1) Tracey R. Rich, "Moshiach: The Messiah," Accessed on May 23rd, 2003
2) Catholic Encyclopaedia, "original Sin," accessed on May 23rd, 2003 http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11312a.htm
3) Jono, " Different sects of Judaism," Accessed on May 23rd, 2003, http://members.aol.com/bagelboyj/reports/sects.html
esearch instruments fall into two broad categories: those compiled by the researcher him or herself in the form of recorded observations, logs, and rating scales and those completed by the interview subject him or herself in the form of questionnaires and interviews. egardless of the instruments used, research studies should be guided by acceptable standards of validity and reliability. "Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). Statistical tests are usually used to establish the external validity of an instrument. "External validity is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized from a sample to a population" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). In contrast, internal validity is the extent to which the instrument is internally valid based upon the results obtained within the sample. An instrument may be…
Instrument, validity, reliability. (2014). Research Rundowns. Retrieved:
Korb, K. (2012). Select sampling technique. Conducting Educational Research.
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