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One criticism however is that while the information is informative, it is at times a bit too concise and inadequate in terms of the complexity and numerous variables related to self-esteem and self-image issues. The article also deals with important aspects such as the way that beliefs and patterns of thought can create low self-esteem. The most positive and enlightening aspect of the article is the attention that is given to various ways of improving self-esteem. This also refers to an interesting technique known as "Thought Stopping," which is a conscious process of curtailing negative thoughts which tend to increase feelings of low self-esteem. Overall this is an impressive site and provides some topical and interesting information.
4. Nelson, M.H. (1994). The Self in the System: A Revision of the Three R's in Response to Relevant Research. Education, 114(3), 384+.
A central issue in the literature on self-esteem and self-image…
Baldwin, S.A., & Hoffmann, J.P. (2002). The Dynamics of Self-Esteem: A
Growth-Curve Analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(2), 101+.
Halliday, N. (1999). Developing Self-Esteem through Challenge Education
Experiences. JOPERD -- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 70(6), 51+.
rand Identity Levers
Source: Saviolio, 2006
rand identity levers include those as follows:
(1) stylistic identity; and (2) Visual Identity. (Saviolio, 2006)
The methodology employed in this study is qualitative in nature and in the form of a literature review conducted through a thorough research in this area of study via the World Wide Web and specifically the literature found in books or journals.
IV. Value of Research
The research reported herein this document is of the nature that has been located in online journals or books and which has been reported in research studies which render empirical findings in this area of study.
The limitations in this study include the limitations represented by time available to conduct the research.
Arising from the research reported in this work in writing is a recommendation for further and additional research in this are of…
Landon, E.L. Kjr. (1974) Self-Concept, Ideal Self-Concept, and Consumer Purchase Intention. The Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Sep., 1974), pp. 44-51
Online available at: http://www.jstor.org/pss/2489106
Stegemann, Nicole (2006) Unique Brand Extension Challenges for Luxury Brands. Journal of Business & Economics Research. Vol.4, No.10, Journal of Business and Economics Research October 2006. Online available at: http://www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/PDFs/2006401.pdf
Barnier, Virginie and Rodina, Irina (2006) Which Luxury Perceptions Affect Most Consumer Purchase Behavior? A Cross-Cultural Exploratory Study in France, the United Kingdom and Russia. Pierre Valette-Florence, University Pierre Mendes-France of Grenoble. Online available at: http://www.escp-eap.net/conferences/marketing/2006_cp/Materiali/Paper/Fr/DeBarnier_Rodina_ValetteFlorence.pdf
Consumer ehavior: Self-Image Congruence Affects Luxury Goods Retail
The concept of luxury has been present in the society in various forms since the beginning of civilization. With very clear differences between the social classes back in the day, the consumption of goods categorized as luxury items were restricted to the elite classes. This also defines the underlying thought behind luxury goods; whatever the poor couldn't afford to have while the elite could, came to be identified as luxury. The word luxury is derived from the Latin term "luxus" meaning, "soft or extravagant living, indulgence, sumptuousness or opulence" (Anon., n.d.). Nevertheless, luxury is quite a slippery term to define because of the strong involvement of human element and the value recognition from others.
A luxury good, is basically any good that is expensive and pleasant to own, but not necessarily required for daily routine and can be lived without (Anon., n.d.).…
Aaker, D., 1996. Building strong brands. New York, NY: Free Press.
Anon., n.d. Cambridge Dictionaries Online. [Online]
Available at: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/luxury-goods [Accessed 2012].
Anon., n.d. EconGuru. [Online]
How do adolescents build self-concept and identity?
During the adolescent period in an individual's life, he/she is in a constant search for identity, according to Professor David D. itt, University of Akron. The formation of one's identity is the "main development task in adolescence," and the importance of developing a positive self-image in adolescence is that it is "the single motivating force in life" (itt, 2008). Self-image is what makes an adolescent either passive, or active, and whether an adolescent achieves an active personality depends on intelligence, experiences, and "…the quality of [the adolescent's] social network (itt, p. 2).
The reality vis-a-vis adolescence is that it is a "major drama" that plays out "on center stage" -- and is, objectively speaking, a "fascinating transitional period" that features the development of new cognitive competencies and emerging societal "expectations" (itt, p. 2) But on the other hand, how does an…
Brinthaupt, T.M., and Lipka, R.P. (2002). Understanding Early Adolescent Self and Identity:
Applications and Interventions. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Huang, J.S., Norman, G.J., Zabinski, M.F., Calfas, K., and Patrick, K. (2007). Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescents undergoing an Intervention Targeting Dietary and Physical
Activity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(3), 245-251.
Surprisingly, BDD, which is often a precursor to or comorbid symptom of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, is nearly as common among young men as women. This indicates that the onslaught and idolization of media images of "gorgeous" men in America is also having a negative effect on boys' sexual self-images. (da Costa, Nelson, udes, & Guterman, 2007)
Narrowing the focus down to American women and their obsession with breast size still yields significant startling data about damaged sexual self-images. ecent surveys indicate that nearly half of women would change their breast size if they could (Goodman & Walsh-Childers, 2004). Not surprisingly, 91% of women who choose to undergo breast augmentation surgery say their primary motivation is an improved self-image. Additionally, surveys reveal that 43% of women with poor sexual self-images compare themselves regularly with magazine models, and 47% of these women are preoccupied with studying those…
Adams, K. (2009). Modernization and Dangerous Women in Japan. The Journal of Psychohistory, 33+.
Clammer, J. (2004). Working out in Japan: Shaping the Female Body in Tokyo Fitness Clubs. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 955+.
da Costa, D., Nelson, T., Rudes, J., & Guterman, J. (2007). A Narrative Approach to Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 67+.
Goodman, J.R., & Walsh-Childers, K. (2004). Sculpting the Female Breast: How College Women Negotiate the Media's Ideal Breast Image. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 657+.
Self-Images in Baroque Art
'Baroque' is a word that is employed to describe 17th- and early 18th- century European art. The art form signified a shift from Renaissance art's classism and linearity (though a few artists from that period carried on with creating artworks in the older style). Baroque was also characterized by a shift towards drama, motion, theatricality, unpredictability, and impulse. This style thrived in many areas of the European continent including Italy, Spain, Flanders, and the Netherlands, and was marked by some common elements despite the existence of major distinctions between regions and artists. Baroque sculptures and paintings were structured around unpredictable diagonal lines, instead of the traditional pyramid or triangle.[footnoteRef:1] Self-portraits grew into a progressively ambitious form that took the aspects of self-awareness and self-promotion to new heights.[footnoteRef:2] In this paper, three Baroque self-images will be discussed, namely, Rembrandt, 1660; Salvatore Rosa, 1647; and Anthony van Dyck,…
' A cognitive behavioral therapist might ask, what will harming yourself do to improve your grades on the test? Cognitive therapies in general have been shown to be more effective than traditional supportive talk therapies when treating anxiety conditions because they offer concrete steps for self-improvement on a continuing basis (Reeves 2003, p1.). Patients are also asked to identify things they would like to do in which current behavior patterns prevent them from engaging, such as wearing short-sleeved shirts.
Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapy shows a higher success rate in anxiety disorders and OCD than traditional psychotherapy, likely because of its behavioral component. The fact that many DSH patients are diagnosed with BPD may complicate treatment, but BPT responds well in some instances to these therapies, too. BPT patients manifest disordered patterns of relationships, thinking, behavior, and coping mechanisms that contribute to unstable life patterns as well as contribute to the…
Bland, Ann R., Georgina Tudor & Deborah McNeil Whitehouse (2007, October). Nursing care of inpatients with Borderline Personality Disorder.
Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.
Retrieved from FindArticles.com on February 16, 2009 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3804/is_200710/ai_n21099913?tag=content;col1
Mangnall, Jacqueline & Eleanor Yurkovich. (2008). A literature review of deliberate self-harm.
Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.
One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…
Adam, B. 2000. "Love and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex
With Men." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4).
Barry, P. (2002). Lesbian and gay criticism. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Culture and Society,
Image chronicles the history of the United States and the Philippines over several hundred years of modern history. Karnow's main argument about the relationship between the new nation is that the United States had an empire over this far-off but ostensibly independent country that "dare not speak its name." Over the course of the book, Karnow paints a convincing portrait of a nation colonized. Karnow suggests that what was particularly damaging about the de facto (if not de jure) American empire in the Philippines was that America's self-image is that it is a democratic, non-empirical country. By engaging in the sort of relationship America had with the Philippines, America betrayed its most fundamental principles as a nation as well as engaged in exploitation. Because America did not perceive itself as a nation capable of exploiting other nations like its parent country England, it could not even acknowledge the abuses it…
Greenberger, Allen J. "Imperialism." World Book Online Americas Edition. http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/ar?/na/ar/co/ar273460.htm. November 18, 2002.
Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines. New York: Random House, 1989.
Stanley Karnow, In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines, New York: Random House, 1989, "Introduction."
Ibid, Chapter 1.
It therefore follows that if a young woman has a poor sense of self-esteem as a result of prescribed ideals about body image, then this will also affect self-representation and even behavior patterns; for example, the woman may react negatively in an attempt to meet social norms about self-image and become Anorexic.
However, the literature also makes a clear distinction between personal self-image and esteem and group esteem and expectations. One would expect that groups that are discriminated against in society would have low level of self-esteem. This is not always the case. In fact as a study by Verkuyten ( 1989) shows, high levels of personal self-esteem may result in groups that have a low social level of esteem and acceptance. "The presumption of lower self-esteem among minority youth, given their confrontation with discrimination, disregards the perspectives of minorities themselves" (Verkuyten, 1998, p. 479). This refers to "The…
Bornman, E. (1999). Self-Image and Ethnic Identification in South Africa. Journal of Social Psychology, 139(4), pp.411-425
Fiske S.T. (2004) Social Beings. Ho Boken, NJ: Wiley.
Klein, H.A. (1995). Self-Perception in Late Adolescence: An Interactive Perspective. Adolescence, 30(119), 579+.
Monteath, S.A., & McCabe, M.P. (1997). The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image. Journal of Social Psychology, 137(6), pp. 708-727. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97807666
Self-Worth and the Need to Belong
Juvenile Delinquency Paper
The self-help author Wayne Dyer once wrote that, "Self-worth comes from one thing…thinking that you are worthy." This quote captures the functional role of gangs: they exist because they serve a purpose. Gangs are attractive to recruits because they promise a variety of benefits. Though many members reap material benefits from joining, it is the psychological benefits which play a critical role in the decision to join a gang, particularly as it relates to self-worth and the need to belong. While some gang members often portray themselves with great machismo, think highly of themselves and are proud of what they have become, the majority of youths who join gangs suffer from a negative self-image (Miller, 2001). Opportunities to feel good about themselves in their family or at school are few and far between. Yablonsky (1997) tells us "The gangsters'…
Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Miller, J., Maxson, C., Klein, M. (2001). The Modern Gang Reader. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co.
Sanchez-Jankowski, M.S. (1991). Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Shelden, R., Tracy, S., Brown, W. (1997). Youth Gangs in American Society. Ann Arbor, MI: Wadsworth Publishers.
Hamlet, however, is full of hesitation. He does not experience the type of confidence Antigone does and suffers because of it. These characters are not abnormal; they are exaggerated or comical in a way audiences cannot relate to them. They are uniquely human and that is why they are still popular today -- because they are real enough that audience members feel as though they have known these types of personalities before. Through these characters, the playwrights show the audience how important it is to be true to self above all else. From Creon, who loses his sense of self when he sells out to power to Hamlet, who loses his sense of self when he falls into depression, to Antigone, who gladly gives her life for what she believes, we see the power of the sense of self and the importance of how it should be respected.
Blits, Jan. Introduction to Deadly Thought: 'Hamlet' and the Human Soul, pp. 3-21. Lanham:
Lexington Books, 2001. Information Retrieved July 01, 2010.
Sophocles. Antigone. Three Theban Plays: Antigone, Oedipus the King, Oedipus and Colonus.
Robert Fagles, trans. New York: Penguin Books. 1980.
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.
DSH is also often called parasuicide,…
Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.
Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.
Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.
Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.
second and fourth chapter of the book. Specifically, the topics that will be covered are self-esteem, self-motivation and emotional intelligence. There were related and ancillary themes in each of those chapters but those three will be the primary focus. Indeed, those three items are the linchpins of living and operating effectively. However, having those metrics and facets of one's psyche out of whack in either direction can lead to problems with perceptions and outcomes and thus they are worth of some specific and measured review.
The True & ealistic Self
It is undeniable that people that have strong self-esteem, self-motivation and emotional intelligence are much stronger people in terms of perseverance, overall performance and how they deal with adversity. However, there would seem to be a good amount of people that are a bit over-inflated in terms of self-esteem, are a bit underwhelming with personal motivation and they perceive the…
Banks, J., & Coutu, D. (2008). How to Protect Your Job in a Recession. Harvard Business Review, 86(9), 113-116.
Blain, A. (2008). The Millenial Tidalwave: Five Elements That Will Change The
Workplace of Tomorrow. Journal Of The Quality Assurance Institute, 22(2), 11-
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (2012). Social Psychology. NY: Pearson.
Hewitt, J.P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University
Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.
If she indicates an interest in promotion and leadership, I will connect her existing behavior and its effects to her relatively slim chances of ever attaining such dreams.
Another problem is that ue is relatively new in the company and feels that she has to make an impression as a highly ambitious person. I will talk to ue about this and ask her about her definitions of ambition, and whether this should necessarily include aggression. I will impress upon her the necessity of honesty and teamwork. When she leaves my office, ue needs to be aware that her behavior is to change if she hopes to excel in a leadership position. I would therefore attempt to persuade sue by using her own beliefs and dreams.
In the case of Alice, I would also call her to my office and ask her whether she is aware of the opinions surrounding her…
Capadanno, Stephanie, Zapanta, Liezel & Buccoli, Molly. Prompting Plus Choice of Target Behavior Increase Compliance with Behavioral Self-Monitoring. Organizational Behavior Network. http://www.obmnetwork.com/resources/articles/main/Capadanno_PromptPlusChoice/
ChangingMinds.org (2007). Self-Monitoring Behavior. http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/self-monitoring.htm
Holtzhausen, Derina. (2001, Jan 1). The Effects of Workplace Democracy on Employee Communication Behavior: Implications for Competitive Advantage. http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/workforce-management/817419-1.html
Mehra, Ajay, Kilduff, Martin & Brass, Daniel J. (2001, March). The Social Networks of High and Low Self-monitors: Implications for Workplace Performance. Administrative Science Quarterly. Database: FindArticles.com:
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Communication
Does the full moon really effect one's behavior? Does Friday the 13th really deserve extra precaution? Is a Harvard professor wiser than say an Appalachian hermit? Or is someone who abandons their life of wealth and fame, suffering from mental illness? Is one race or gender more adept at a particular profession than another? There is no scientific evidence that proves the full moon has any effect on a person's personality or behavior, yet those in law enforcement and the medical profession often say that crime, accidents, and psychotic behavior are higher during the full moon, moreover, many people say they feel more anxious or nervous during a full moon. Henry David Thoreau lived in the woods for several years, St. Francis of Assisi abandoned his wealth and military position for a life of poverty, and many people regard Friday 13th as a lucky day. Self-fulfilling…
Barsoux, Jean-Louis. "The Set-Up-to-Fail Syndrome." Harvard Business Review. March http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Harvard_Business_Review&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.hbsp.harvard.edu&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Jean%2DLouis+Barsoux+%2D+INSEAD+%28France%29&title=The+Set%2DUp%2Dto%2DFail+Syndrome++&date=03%2D01%2D1998&query=effects+of+Self%2Dfulfilling+prophecies+&maxdoc=30&idx=3.(accessed 10-30-2002).
Bushman, Brad J.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Stack, Angela D. "Catharsis, Aggression, and Persuasive Influence: Self-Fulfilling or Self-Defeating Prophecies?" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Volume 76. No. 3 January 1999. http://www.apa.org/journals/psp/psp763367.html.(accessed 10-30-2002).
Feingold, Alan. "Gender Stereotyping for Sociability, Dominance, Character, and MentalHealth: A Meta-Analysis of Findings From the Bogus Stranger Paradigm." Genetic, Social & General Psychology Monographs. Volume 124. August 01, 1998. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Genetic,_Social_~A~_General_Psychology_Monographs&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.heldref.org~S~mono.html&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=FEINGOLD%2C+ALAN&title=Gender+Stereotyping+for+Sociability%2C+Dominance%2C+Character%2C+and+MentalHealth%3A+A+Meta%2DAnalysis+of+Findings+From+the+Bogus+Stranger+Paradigm+%2E++&date=08%2D01%2D1998&query=effects+of+Self%2Dfulfilling+prophecies+&maxdoc=30&idx=24.
A accessed 10-30-2002).
In conclusion the Interpreter role would need to define the extent, interaction and depth of internal and external forces as exemplified by the growing acceptance of the SaaS platform by enterprise software purchasers. The competitive threat of SaaS would also need to be kept in context as well, as SaaS has the limitations of a lack of security as it is entirely stored on the Internet, and also has the limitation of not being as easy to integrate with as licensed applications, which is where Cincom has attained all its growth.
Making the Transition from Interpreter to Coach
Of all the images discussed in Table 3.1 on page 51 of the text the one that most resonates with me is Coach. Identification with the Coach image is one that stresses collaboration and cooperation and the need to be continually developmental in focus. This approach to managing change equips organizations to…
Hongwei He and Yehuda Baruch. 2009. Transforming organizational identity under institutional change. Journal of Organizational Change Management 22, no. 6, (November 1): 575-599.
Mueller, J. 2009. Maxims of Maximizing Organizational Change Effectiveness. The Business Review, Cambridge 14, no. 1, (December 1): 70-75.
Robinson, C. And K. Goudy. 2009. Leadership in These Challenging Times. Frontiers of Health Services Management 26, no. 2, (December 1): 21-26.
Being sure that their book is current on all distribution sites, in addition to on the self-publishers' site is critically important.
Leading Self-Publishing Companies Globally
Of the over 60 self-publishers or print-on-demand publishers in existence globally only a handful are considered world-class in their operations, from editing to production and distribution. The vast majority of self-publishers do not offer manuscript screening, hardcover binding, color printing or support for ISBN and Library of Congress (LIC) submission of books. The self-publishing companies who dominate this industry are Amazon.com CreateSpace, Authorhouse, Lulu.com, iUniverse, and Xlibris. Of these companies two are world leaders in children's book publishing with Lulu.com producing a total of 15,240 children's books to date (as of April, 2010) and iUniverse producing 1,020. Lulu.com has produced orders of magnitude more children's books as a result of their expertise in on-demand color printing and production. One of their ancillary businesses is the…
"Business: Just press print; The boom in printing on demand. " The Economist 27 Feb. 2010:
Diane Cole. "Bind it Yourself; Print on demand can make you an author. " U.S. News & World Report 13 Mar. 2006
"Business: Just press print; The boom in printing on demand. " The Economist 27 Feb. 2010
Ann Haugland. "Opening the Gates: Print On-Demand Publishing as Cultural Production. " Publishing Research Quarterly 22.3 (2006): 3.
He does his share of complaining but he does little else to remedy the situation. The truth of the matter is that Gregor did not enjoy much of his life away from work. He never expresses a desire to have more in his life nor does he express any regret, until he is a bug. In "A Hunger Artist," our hunger artist chooses to live a considerable amount of his life behind bars being a public spectacle. hile he can communicate with onlookers, he is separated from them by the bars and the setting in which he finds himself only forces him to interact with individuals for a short amount of time. Once they have become satisfied with his spectacle, they move on and leave the artist to his own thoughts. Our hunger artist is aware of the world that exists around him but it does not seem to affect…
Freed, Donna. The Metamorphosis and Other Stories. New York: Barnes and Nobel Books. 1996.
Goldfarb, Sheldon. "The Metamorphosis." Short Stories for Students. 2001. Gale Resource Database. 1963. Site Accessed November 22, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Kafka, Franz. "A Hunger Artist." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981. pp. 779-86.
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981. pp. 740-78.
..then put down four qualities for each that you find most offensive" (Chopra 121). He now says to look at the list and for each trait say, "I acted like this when I..." And cautions that this is not to wallow in self-criticism but to reclaim feelings rather than projecting them onto others (Chopra 122). Says Chopra, "when you are able to see yourself in what you hate, you come closer to realizing that you contain everything, as befits a child of spirit" (Chopra 122).
This is certainly easier said than done. hat of an abusive parent, an abusive mate, an arrogant boss, or Hitler? Are we to list the qualities that we despise in Hitler and then compare ourselves to that list? True, most self-help books and psychology do claim that people most often project their own flaws and fears onto the people around them, however, it seems that…
Chopra, Deepak. The Path to Love. Harmony Books. 1997; 1. 2. 3. 4, 64, 65, 67, 121, 122, 193, 194, 195, 328.
Unfortunately, for those individuals who did not use direct coping strategies but instead used the kind of coping that distances one's thoughts, emotions, and physical presence from the stressor (e.g., denial and wishful thinking) or disengages completely (e.g., escape and emotional numbing) to cope with discrimination stress tended to have lower self-esteem.
Consequences/Effects of Low Self-Esteem
A number of studies have shown that low self-esteem is predictive of negative outcomes. Parker et al. (2005) found that girls and adolescents with low self-worth reported the greatest jealousy of friends and that a reputation for being jealous of friends was associated with aggressive behavior and other peer adjustment difficulties, including loneliness.
Donnellan et al. (2005) found a link between low self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. The authors cited osenberg (1965), who suggested that low self-esteem weakens ties to society and weaker ties to society decrease conformity…
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 15, 328-335.
Edwards, L.M. & Romero, A.J. (2008). Coping with discrimination among Mexican descent adolescents. Marquette University Education Faculty Research and Publications. Retrieved from http://epublications.marquette.edu/edu fac/59.
Krayer, A., Ingledew, D.K. & Iphofen, K. (2008). Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach. Health Education Research, 23. 892-903.
Martinez, I & Garcia, J.F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43, 19-29.
Exercise promotes higher self-esteem in individuals of all ages and/or physical capabilities as long as the individual enjoys the particular exercise program or feels there are definite and measurable benefit to participating in the program.
Professional athletes are some of the most self assured individuals in our society. There have been many studies that have shown that these individuals are highly paid yet the majority of them would continue to work at their sport for free. One of the main reasons for these phenomena is that these specialists really enjoy what they do and they feel they get an obvious reward for doing what they do. They literally get paid for exercising.
Exercise provides many benefits. These athletes receive a unique benefit that many laymen simply are unaware that it comes with the turf so to speak. Professional athletes get the benefit of added self-esteem. "Speculation regarding the interactions…
Boyd, Michael and Yin, Zenong. "Cognitive-Affective And Behavioral Correlates Of Self-Schemata In Sport" Journal of Sport Behavior (1999).
Douthitt, Vicki L. "Psychological Determinants Of Adolescent Exercise Adherence" Adolescence 22 Sept. 1994.
Gavin, Jim, and Avi Mark Spitzer. "The psychology of exercise: studying recent trends in exercise psychology research gives clues on how to promote participation." IDEA Health & Fitness Source 01 Nov. 2002.
Guthrie, Sharon R. "Defending the Self-Martial Arts and Women's Self-Esteem [Part 1 of 3]" Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal (1997).
They perceive their self-worth mainly in connection with those achievements and their confidence in social situations is largely dependent on the knowledge that others recognize them for those attributes (Branden, 2007).
The Shift from False Confidence to Self-Efficacy
I experienced a period during my later childhood and adolescence where I now realize I had substituted unjustified fears and apprehensions with unjustified confidence and positive beliefs about myself that exceeded my actual abilities. My parents meant to instill in me a sense of self-esteem by inflating my self-image. However, in doing so, they actually infused me with what I have more recently learned to recognize as false confidence. Because I was taught to "be confident" I became equally confident in situations where I knew almost nothing as I was in situations where I deserved to be confident. On several occasions, I allowed myself to become argumentative even after realizing that I…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., and Akert, R. (2008). Social Psychology. New York:
Branden, N. (2008). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Bantam.
Myers, D.G. (2010). Social Psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Interrelationship of Self-Perceptions, Culturally-Based Perceptions, Impressions, and their effects on Leadership Abilities
Humans have the most highly organized social structure of any creature on earth. In an attempt to ascertain our relative position in a complex social hierarchy, we constantly evaluate and re-evaluate ourselves. e do this by comparing ourselves to other human beings. e use this information to establish our opinions of ourselves, the various social groups to which we belong and our opinions of others. e belong to many social groups, our family, our group of friends at school, a community and a culture that includes our ethnic backgrounds. e must make decisions about our place in each of these groups. These opinions constitute what we think of ourselves, and gives us our self-esteem, or self-worth.
Our attitudes and beliefs regarding ourselves and others effect our ability to learn our acceptance of subordination to authority figures and our…
Baron, R. And Kenny, D. (1986). "The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic and Statistical Considerations." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6): 1173-1182.
Bugental, B., Blue, J. Cortez, V., Fleck, K., Kopeikin, H., Lewis, J.C., & Lyon, J. (1993). "Social cognitions as organizers of autonomic and affecitive response to social challenge." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (64)1: 94-103.
Christopher, A. (1998). "The Psychology of Names: An Empirical Reexamination." Journal of Applied Social Psychology, (19): 1173-1195.
Feldman, J., and Lynch, J. Jr. (1988). "Self-generated validity and other effects of measurement on belief, attitude, intention and behavior." Journal of Applied Psychology, (73): 431-435.
Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)
In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…
Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64
Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
bad about yourself! Self-Esteem may not be all it has been reputed to be!
Baumeister, Roy & Jennifer D. Campbell, Jochim I. Kurger and Kathleen D. Vohs. (20 December 2004) "Exploding the Self-Esteem Myth." Scientific American. Article retrievable in full text on the World Wide Web at http://www.sciam.com/print_version.cfm?articleID=000CB565-F330-11BE-AD0683414B7F0000
According to the popular science periodical Scientific American, a number of long-standing scientific studies on the correlation between high or low self-esteem and positive or negative forms of social behaviors shows that there is little indication that low self-esteem is at the root of individual and societal problems and dysfunctions. his flies in the face of a 1989 study whose results appeared in a volume entitled he Social Importance of Self-Esteem. his previous, influential study stated that "many, if not most, of the major problems plaguing society have roots in the low self-esteem of many of the people who make up society."…
The authors of the study stressed that they were mindful to avoid the assumption that a correlation between self-esteem and some desired behavior establishes causality, in contrast to studies of the past. For example, high self-esteem may seem to bring about certain positive outcomes, such as vocational success. But correlations between self-esteem and success may mean simply that a positive self-image is a result of success or good behavior. (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.2) In fact, in a literature review by the authors, self-esteem and high self-perception could not show that a link between good self-image leads to occupational success in terms of causality, and even hinted artificially boosting self-esteem may lower subsequent performance. In terms of relationships, the only positive correlation was that individuals with high self-esteem were more likely to leave relationships they found unfulfilling or did not reinforce their perceptions of themselves as competent. (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.3)
Even correlations between low esteem and drug use are inconclusive. Of course, on all of these measures "people with a healthy sense of self-respect" may be "lumped with those feigning higher self-esteem." Thus it is not surprising the results of studies of self-esteem investigations may always produce "weak or contradictory findings." (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.4) The only statistically significant correlation found by the researchers was that "and high self-esteem emerged as the strongest factor in overall life satisfaction," but again it is "even possible that happiness, in the sense of a temperament or disposition to feel good, induces high self-esteem." (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.5)
"We have found," write the authors little evidence to indicate that "indiscriminately promoting self-esteem in today's children or adults, just for being themselves, offers society any compensatory benefits beyond the seductive pleasure it brings to those engaged in the exercise." (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.5) Yes, students enjoy self-esteem building exercises, but they do not necessarily benefit in the concrete, measurable terms that were once claimed for such programs, and an overall fostering of competence, rather than high self-esteem in the abstract may be equally as effective as the promotion of the value in the first place.
Adolescence: A conflicted life period
Adolescence is often considered to be a particularly 'fraught' time during the average individual's life history. Although the construction of adolescence and the age during which someone is considered to be an adolescent may vary from culture to culture, most societies define a certain period of time as 'not childhood' and 'not adulthood.' There are common physiological changes seen in all adolescents such as menstruation in females; lowered voice in males; and increased height and body hair in both genders. Adolescents also begin to experience and experiment with showing sexual desire. However, these changes can cause great anxiety and confusion, as the adolescent struggles with his or her emerging adolescent identity.
Females in particular tend to be more anxious about their body image than boys because of the great emphasis placed upon female beauty within the culture as a measure of self-worth…
Zastrow, C. & Kirst-Ashman, K. (2010). Understanding human behavior and the social
Environment. 8th ed. Cengage Learning.
Anxiety and depression are the most commonly witnessed psychiatric disorders in adolescence. The prevalence of both anxiety disorder and depression increase in the adolescence period and progresses to young adulthood. The final result of these developments is low self-esteem. General prevalence measures for depression stand between 2 to 4%. Recurrence rates are placed at 70% in a span of five years. Point prevalence rates for anxiety disorders stand at 20% and show stability across one's life. Furthermore, anxiety and depression highly co-occur. They also occur along with other psychiatric complications (Lee & Hankin, 2009).
Self-Esteem, Depression and Anxiety
The CBT (2006) center describes self-image as a circus mirror which remolds the shape and size of a person into one that departs from the way one really looks like. These are perceptions of how we see and think of ourselves, how we think others see us, the beliefs about ourselves, our…
House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros [...] theme of search for self-definition. The protagonist of this novel, Esperanza, narrates a series of "chapters" concerning her life, her world, and the barrio as she sees it happening around her. Throughout the book, as Esperanza watches the world, she struggles to discover just who she is, and where she fits in the world around her. This self-definition is a compelling theme of the novel, but it also shows the difficulties many young Latinas face as they come of age in America.
Published in 1984, many critics believe "The House on Mango Street" is one of the best Chicana stories written. Author Sandra Cisneros writes with knowledge and pathos of growing up Latina in America because she herself experienced the difficulties of growing up in multi-cultural family. Her mother is Mexican-American and her father is Mexican, and she spent her childhood "commuting"…
Cisneros, Sandra. The House on Mango Street. New York: Vintage Contemporaries, 1991.
Eysturoy, Annie O. Daughters of Self-Creation: The Contemporary Chicana Novel. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.
Kevane, Bridget. Latino Literature in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
The cliched image of the Romantic poet is of a solitary tortured genius; it is ironic that the work of the poets collectively regarded as the 'Romantic School' is marked by collective and co-operative effort as much as by individual creativity. For none of the great figures of Romantic poetry is this so true as it is for Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The first-rate poetic output of this extraordinary, multi-faceted man lasted only a few years, from approximately 1797 to 1802, and he has even been regarded by some historians and critics as 'merely a channel for the work and ideas of others' (Jasper, 8) rather than as a creative figure in his own right. It is as if his own creative character has become lost in the extraordinary wide-ranging and complex interplay of relationships between poets, thinkers, writers and critics which swirled around him. It is also…
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Biographia Literaria. Ed. J. Shawcross. London: Oxford University Press, 2 vols., 1954.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, The Complete Poetical Works. London: Oxford University Press, 1912.
Hill, John Spencer. A Coleridge Companion. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1983.
Holmes, Richard. Coleridge: Early Visions. London: Penguin, 1989.
The table below summarizes the relationship between the variables and measures that will be used for the study:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following major crimes:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following minor crimes:
Profile/Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondent
Personal annual income
Access to mass media
Viewing behavior of TV crime programs
Kind of TV crime programs usually watch
Frequency of watching TV crime programs
Duration of crime TV-watching
Personal concern for crime and public safety
Self-ratings on attitude statements about the respondent's level of concern about issues concerning crime and public safety
Units of Analysis
Primary units of analysis will be the students and staff members in the Hong Kong University (HKU). There will be no restrictions on…
Bollhofer, B. (2006). "Screenscapes': placing TV series in their contexts of production, meaning and consumption." Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 98, No. 2.
Hennigan, K., L. Heath, and J. Wharton. (1982). "Impact of the introduction of television on crime in the United States: empirical findings and theoretical implications." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 3.
Holbert, R., D. Shah, and N. Kwak. (2004). "Fear, authority, and justice: crime-related TV viewing and endorsements of capital punishment and gun ownership." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 2.
Yanich, D. (2004). "Crime creep: urban and suburban crime on local TV news." Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 26, No. 5.
Self-Made Man and the Recipient of Divine Grace:
Benjamin Franklin vs. Jonathan Edwards
Despite the fact that both Benjamin Franklin and Jonathan Edwards are honored as two of the greatest authors of colonial America, they could not be more different in their ideological orientations. Edwards (1703-1758) is perhaps most famous for penning the image of the human soul as a spider in the hand of a merciful God, suspended above the flames of hell in his sermon "Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God." All human beings, Edwards implied in his image, were essentially fallen beings. A true Puritan, Edwards believed there was no way for hard work to win divine favor; one could only hope to be the recipient of divine grace. In contrast, Franklin (1706-1790), despite living during roughly the same time period as Edwards, was the consummate self-made man. As well as being credited as one…
Edwards, Jonathan. "A divine and supernatural light." CCEL. Web. 16 Dec 2013. http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/sermons/supernatural_light.html
Franklin, Benjamin. "From Chapter VIII of The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin." The
American Tradition in Literature. Perkins & Perkins (Ed). McGraw Hill.
My self-concept is that I am a good friend and a good person. I try to set a good example for my friends and family on how a person should conduct oneself. I believe that civic duties are important and I believe that faith is also important, so I try to communicate both in my life. I also believe that it is important to be honest no matter what, even if it makes a person uncomfortable. Lies distort reality and lead to confusion and mistakes down the road. So it is better to be honest and forthright at all times. I also believe in dressing well and expressing my self-confidence in the manner in which I clothe myself. How we present ourselves publicly also reveals something about our self-concept (Baumeister, 1999; McLeod, 2008).
The role that self-concept plays in ethical communication is that I am able to be open and…
There are primarily two different connotations of the term self organization. The first pertains to the way that a system found in nature or in any natural state organizes itself. If there is no central authority or mediator involved, and the state is able to organize itself into patterns of production at a localized level, then self organization has been achieved. Perhaps the best example of this fact is found in the way a flock of birds create a singular formation when they take to the sky. There is no central authority, yet simply from the interactions between the birds that are closest to one another the entire mass moves in a uniform pattern.
The second denotation for the term self organization pertains to computer systems, programming languages, and the computerized models upon which those models are based. With this dimension of self organization the computer provides a state or…
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.
Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…
Cavell, M. (1993). The Psychoanalytic Mind: From Freud to Philosophy. Cambridge, MA:
Deigh, J. (1996). The Sources of Moral Agency: Essays in Moral Psychology and Freudian
Theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,
Geller, L. (1984). Another look at self-actualization. Journal of humanistic psychology, 24:100
e., physically), socially, and morally. In cognitive development, the individual learns how to think for himself/herself, and create decisions, judgments, and thoughts that are uniquely his/hers. Social development, meanwhile, is reinforced through one's recognition of gender identity. Through gender identity, the individual is able to determine and reinforce the role and status that society has given him or her as a man or woman. In effect, the individual becomes part of the society's institutions and structure because of the reinforcement of one's gender identity. Lastly, moral development takes place when the individual, based on his own cognitive and social experiences, is able to formulate his/her "personal philosophy," value judgment that s/he uses to create his/her beliefs, opinions, and feelings about life in general.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill ook Co.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
self" is difficult to define but usually involves the inner life of the individual, the psychological dimension of human existence as opposed to the outward, physical form. The self is conceived as a creature of consciousness, a mind capable of thought and able to engage in deliberate action. A self is capable of self-consciousness, which means it recognizes its own ability to think and to contain first-person thoughts. The question is, however, is there a Self or not, and if there is, what is its nature? This has been argued in philosophy since the time of the Greeks and has been answered differently by philosophers, religious leaders, and psychologists at different times in history. Leslie Stevenson notes that the "question of the ultimate nature of such mental states is a philosophical problem which is left open by our everyday language about them" (Stevenson 74). This common language is often challenged…
Hume: Knowledge That There Is an External World and Knowledge of the Mind." Lesson 7 (Handout).
Lavine, T.Z. From Socrates to Sartre: The Philosophic Quest. New York: Bantam, 1984.
Stevenson, Leslie. Seven Theories of Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
The curvilinear forms of the human bodies are framed by the intense angularity of the architectural elements behind them. On the left, a tree provides extra verticality, but both images offer a geometric background that contrasts with the undulating forms of female bodies, drapery, and the softness of the infants. The heads of the mothers in both compositions are where the eye is drawn. Even if slightly off-center, the heads form the thematic midpoint. The Virgin's head is placed slightly higher on the canvas, but in both cases the heads are the emphasis in the composition. Both compositions use monochrome, with no color. The Schongauer engraving depicts the mother Mary and infant Jesus seated on the ground inside an ordinary medieval walled compound; whereas the photograph on the right depicts a Madonna-like image of a black-clad mother smiling with her two happy children.
The silkscreen Warhol self-portrait is rendered…
Disrupting by Imagining: ethinking Early Childhood esearch
Early Childhood esearch
This research highlights four teachers who work in early childhood classrooms who have chosen to implement the use of video-observations of their teaching in conjunction with the reflective process. Each teacher profile will include discussions and interviews about their teaching and change implementation. The ideas for change will be based upon their own knowledge, skills, and dispositions along with evidence from the recorded and observed videotapes. After viewing their own instruction, practitioners began the process of implementing change for individual students as well as for their class overall. Teachers shared this experience with others in their school and provided information regarding their results based on the following three areas: 1) Analysis: individuals and/or groups in the process of reflection (grade level teams); 2) Strategies: offers other teachers and/or programs ways to introduce concepts to a group of teachers and/or school;…
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freedom.
Brophy, J.E. (2004). Using video in teacher education. San Diego, CA: Elsivier.
Copa, A., Lucinski L., Olsen, E, & Wollenburg, K. (1999). Promoting professional and organizational development: A reflective practice model. Zero to Three, 20(1), 3-9.
Cross, N. (2011). Coaching: Seven reasons to go to the tape. ASCD Express, 7(1).
Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad. Specifically it will discuss the self-discovery Marlow encounters on his journey through Africa. Marlow's journey from England to Africa and back to Europe is a journey of self-discovery and adventure. He encounters greed, savagery, and indifference along his journey, and he encounters prejudice, imperialism, and a new understanding of himself along the way, as well. In the end, he recognizes he is a changed man who no longer sees the world or himself in the same way.
Throughout the book, Marlow recognizes, as he looks back on his experiences, that he was on a journey of self-discovery on his trip to Africa. Literary critic Harold Bloom notes, "But Marlow reiterates often enough that he is recounting a spiritual voyage of self-discovery. He remarks casually but crucially that he did not know himself before setting out, and that he likes work for the chance it…
His final thoughts at the conclusion of the essay are significant because we know with certainty that Theresa would have accepted him had he been honest with her and himself. The narrator thinks of how things might have turned out between the two of them and, with a little sarcasm, he considers the meals they might have concocted had they remained friends over the years. Theresa is seared into the narrator's mind because she is the one that first uttered anything to him about being gay and, in doing so, she prodded the narrator into facing the truth about himself. This honesty about himself is more difficult to face that the narrator can imagine and this is why Theresa is important. Had she never said anything to him, he might have tried to mask the truth longer, stalling the process of discovering himself. Theresa was a catalyst for truth and…
Cooper, Bernard. "A Clack of Tiny Sparks: Remembrances of a Gay Boyhood." Literature: The Human Experience. New York: Bedford St. Martin's. 2006.
Experiencing Art in Person: A review of Godspell
For my 'Experiencing Art in Person' project, I elected to watch a performance of the musical theater production Godspell at the Production Studio on April 27th at 7:30pm, performed by an ensemble cast. My goal in watching this production was to learn about a play that had such a seismic impact upon American theater. I am an international student. I come from Saudi Arabia and was unfamiliar with the show, but I had heard many of my American friends talk about how they had performed or seen the play in school and church productions. The fact that there is no corresponding play in my own culture, with my own religion made the play especially intriguing to me.
Godspell is a loosely-structured musical without a tightly-constructed plot. It is based on the Gospel of Saint Matthew and some of the other gospels in…
Brown, Scott. "Is Godspell worthy?" Vulture. 7 Nov 2011.
"Original Godspell Cast on The Today Show" You Tube. Posted 28 Dec 2009.
1983, Howard Gardner challenged conventional views of teaching and learning styles with his book, Frames of Mind. Gardner hypothesized that the skill-sets of different people are directly correlated to their learning styles. It was from this that he developed the theory of multiple intelligences. Within this theory there are seven intelligences, linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, and what are known as intra and inter-personnel forms of the personal intelligences.
The following paper is an assessment of the intelligence which represents my personal learning style. It is clear this style is best represented by the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.
This intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which controls body motion. ody/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such…
Tutoring Strategies to Use with Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from Cedar Crest College Academic Advising Center. Website: http://www2.cedarcrest.edu/acadadvising/tactile_strategies.html
Kinesthetic Learners. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from Berkshire.org. Website: http: / / www.cc.berkshire.org/studentlife/ssas_kinesthetic_learners.html
Learning Styles: A Multiple Intelligences Approach. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from Learning Style Inventory. Website: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html
Kinesthetic Learning Style. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from girlsite.org. Website: http://www.girlsite.org/Html/minds/quiz/kinesthetic.htm
Smith may dislike the stereotype, but she cannot help internalizing it. She feels unfinished because she is regarded as unfinished, and even members of her community urge her to straighten her hair. This is completely different from the joyous, affirmative sigh "I am complete" at the end of Morales' poem. Just as Morales admits that all experiences with racism and discrimination are different, Smith's poem demonstrates how African-American women frequently lack assurance of their sense of self and that their physical qualities are regarded as alien to what is considered 'good' and 'American.' (The young Smith's wearing white to cover up one's tallness seems an attempt to mask blackness and presumed 'badness' with clothing). Morales' instability of identity lies in multiplicity of national cultures, but Smith, even as a young, black girl, but carefully balance her sense as an American and African-American with even greater care and psychological discomfort that…
Bolano, Roberto. (2000). Literature and Exile. The Nation. Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.thenation.com/article/157695/literature-and-exile
Daniels, Lenore Jean. (2009). What is the image of black women today? Philly IMC.
Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.phillyimc.org/en/what-image-black-women-today
Doughty, Julia. (1995). Testimonies of survival: Notes from an interview with Aurora Levins
This was true for the most part of the 20th century, when the concept of "work" involved going to the office or the factory. For many, the term "work" additionally meant working for an employer or a boss, a person who was usually not liked. Very few people had the option of leisure, working independently or going into business for themselves.
With telecommuting technology, however, many people are re-defining traditional notions of "work." Staying at the office for eight hours a day is no longer a requirement. This technology allows many parents, for example, to spend more time in with their families, a pursuit that many people certainly find more liberating that being yoked to a desk.
Other people are able to spend extra time pursuing less profitable interests, such as volunteering for charity, writing a novel or taking continuing education classes.
For many people, the technology work itself is…
Self-Image and Significant Others
Self-image refers to the internal picture than people hold of themselves, meaning it is who we think we are. However, in many cases, who we think we are may not the same as how others see us. In my opinion, a great deal of my self-image comes from how my significant others see me.
For example, everybody has an inherited temperament. (arrat, 1991) Combined with various life experiences, this inherited temperament makes up our personality. Some people are naturally shy and quiet; others may be loud or outgoing. It is possible to change outward behaviors and people can learn to be more outgoing or reserved. However, while the outward behavior may change, the inward temperament usually does not. Therefore, someone who has learned to overcome shyness on the outside may still be inwardly introverted.
A person's self-image is made up of natural temperament and input from…
Aboulafia, Mitchell. The Mediating Self: Mead, Sartre, and Self-Determination. Yale University Press, 1986.
Adorno, Theodore. Introduction to Sociology. Stanford University Press, 2000.
Situating the Self: Gender, Community and Postmodernism in Contemporary Ethics. Routledge, 1992.
Barrat, D. & T. Cole) Sociology projects: a students' guide. Routledge, 1991.
Providing a strong cultural and personal role model may be more important than attempting to socially engineer the messages teens and all citizens receive. The lesser susceptibility of certain ethnic groups to media pressures to live up to an ideal of thinness or physical perfection highlights the complex interplay between cultural, social, and psychological factors that produce self-esteem and what might be called body image. The interplay of these factors is more important in creating a 'body image' than what constitutes an individual's media exposure.
This is an important topic of research because it highlights the fact that censorship of media has limited value in engineering positive social results. hile it would be tempting and easy to suggest that developing minds and bodies should be shielded from toxic media influence as though it were the plague, this type of isolation would have a limited effect. It would not screen out…
Girls get anorexia 'because their brains are wired differently' (17 Dec 2007). The Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at ttp:/ / www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-502705/Girls-anorexia-brains-wired-differently.html
Holmstrom, Amanda J. (2004). The effects of the media on body image: A meta-analysis.
Entrepreneur. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/118953907_5.html
Media's effect on girls: Body image and gender identity. (2008). National Institute on Media and the Family. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_mediaeffect.shtml
The tone is personalistic and is parallel with the narrative style used by the author in her analysis. Furthermore, McDonough's choice of words is simplistic, primarily because she aims to give understanding to her audience the main arguments she presented. All throughout the article, there is a conscious effort to sensitively discuss the issue for the sake of its audience, which are primarily, women, and secondarily, parents of female children.
Contrasting McDonough's essay with that of the editorial in the San Francisco Chronicle entitled, "Beauty and the Barbie Doll," it is evident that the arguments presented are oversimplified. A reader may get the idea that what the editorial points out is the argument, "Barbie is the only factor that strongly influences female children's concept of beauty and sex." It does not take into account other factors that may influence children's attitudes and behavior, such as what McDonough centers on in…
After completing the self-analysis in Hackman & Johnson's (2008) book Leadership: A communication perspective, I have evaluated myself as follows: For competence I rated myself as being skilled, informed and trained. In regards to trustworthiness I evaluated that I am honest, kind and friendly. For dynamism, I regard myself as assertive and active. This paper will summarize the results that I found and discuss what those results illustrate or reveal about my leadership communication behaviors.
I rated myself as skilled, informed and trained when it comes to competence. When it comes to leadership, the higher the individual is in a leadership role, the more important communication competence becomes. I rated myself as skilled because I have been in leadership roles where I have had to communicate information effectively. Being in these positions helped me hone my leadership communication skills. I feel that being in smaller leadership roles were good…
Hackman, M.Z. & Johnson, C.E. (2008). Leadership: A communication perspective. (5th edition). Waveland Pr Inc.
This article provides the findings of a study that sought to examine how leadership and follower characteristics influence self leadership behaviour in followers. Two hypotheses were formulated: H1) empowering leadership positively influences self leadership behaviour in followers with a high need for autonomy; and H2) directive leadership negatively influences self leadership behaviour in followers with a high need for autonomy. Longitudinal data was collected from a large defence company with operations in the U.S. The data was collected at two points in time with an interval of 10 weeks. At Time 1, the sample comprised 404 followers in 75 groups, while Time 2 involved 313 followers in 72 groups.
Employing hierarchical linear modelling, the study found that follower self leadership behaviour was substantially influenced by both empowering and directive leadership styles as well as follower’s desire for independence. More specifically, a leadership style in which the leader empowered followers was…
Exploring Self, Culture, History, eligion
Exploring the Self, Cultures, History, or eligion through Myth
PO Box, 60453,
How are you my little friend and how is everyone at your home? I hope all doing good. Pass my greetings to them.
I received your letter and was happy to know that you have been promoted to 4 rth and the final year of your college. Wow! You'll graduate after a year. Lee! You mentioned in your letter that you have chosen Mythology (general) as your elective subject and that you are facing some difficulties in it. I went through the attached course outline; there I found out that you will be exploring self, cultures, history, or religion through myth. Also there was a list of theories that you will be presenting throughout this course.
I have collected some data regarding the first theory "Carl Jung's…
Boeree, C.G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html .
Carl-jung.net. Concept of Collective Unconscious at Jung. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://www.carl-jung.net/collective_unconscious.html .
Integration Training. Inner Voices: Embracing all the Parts of Our Personality. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://integrationtraining.co.uk/blog/2011/01/inner-voices-embracing-all-parts-of-personality.html .
Jung, C.G. (1970). The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Regardless, "it is sensible to extend the scope of the mapping exercise to include those habitats which most strongly resemble the habitat of interest…By incorporating those habitats which are most likely to create misclassifications and errors in the habitat maps, the accuracy of the mapping objective can be determined" (Mumby 2009). Comparing the images of known habitat areas, to see if the images are distinct, lends greater credence to the portrait generated of the area as a whole. Sensors can be used to map both geomorphological zones and more broadly-defined ecological habitats.
Properly executed, with the use of 'control' groupings and 'ground-truthing,' the technology can be highly effective. "The number of ground-truthing sites required per habitat is difficult to quantify and depends on the size of the area and distribution (i.e. complexity) of habitats: smaller study areas and areas of relatively uniform habitat (e.g. sand banks) require less ground-truthing. For…
Edwards, A. "Part 1: Remote Sensing for Coastal Managers An Introduction."
From Remote Sensing Handbook for Tropical Coastal Management. Edited by Edmund P. Green, Peter J. Mumby, Alasdair J. Edwards, & Christopher D. Clark
January 9, 2010. http://www.unesco.org/csi/pub/source/rs.htm
Mumby, P., E. Green, A. Edwards, & C. Clark. "Cost-effectiveness of Remote Sensing for Coastal Management." From Remote Sensing Handbook for Tropical Coastal
Of course, the timeline for the defensive line of attack or its initiation during the armed assault is also a determinant of whether the line of attack can be called defensive or a new attack. A good example of this could have been 9/11 where the U.S. government could have reacted with an armed line of self-defensive attacks if they feared that the first attack on the World trade centre would be followed by a series of similar attacks elsewhere. In other words, the anticipatory self-defence is perhaps most useful when there is clear cut evidence of a series of attacks. The downside, of course, is that if the state launches a defensive attack and is not able to present concrete evidence for it then that state would have to face serious repercussions from the international law and hamper its overall image in the international community. The important thing to…
D'Amato, a. (1983). Israel's Air Strike Upon the Iraqi Nuclear Reactor, 77 AM. J. INT'L L. 584.
Rothwell D.R. (2005). Anticipatory self-defence in the age of international terrorism. Law Journal of University of Queensland. 2-3.
Anticipatory self defence in international law
Specifically, deficient cae may esult in a child's being vulneable as a consequence of a low intinsic level of self-esteem and self-woth (Pake, Baett, and Hickie, 1992). It is clea that a numbe of factos ae likely to affect the teenaged individual esulting in depession and it is citically noted that this depession must necessaily be addessed, teated and esolved. The client in this instance has bodeline low blood pessue which should be monitoed seveal times each week and futhemoe the body mass index (BMI) of this individual is excessively low indicating that this patient needs to be counseled in egads to thei diet both in tems of quality and quantity of foods consumed.
Logsdon, Cynthia J.(nd) Depession in Adolescent Gils: Sceening and Teatment Stategies fo Pimay Cae Povides Jounal of the Ameican Medical Women's Association Volume 59, No 2.
Lemay, Edwad P. And Ashmoe, Richad D. (2005) the…
reference: Studies of occupational and recreational choice. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49, 11-18.
CI realized a finalizing image stories ( authors) interrelate ( final image ) works focus . You asked interrelate works referred syllabus-based reading: glancing references materials authors assigned reading syllabus; reference works author: short stories, plays, poetry, essays, graphic stories, comicstrips, photographs, moving pictures (created authors photojournalists, movie directors final phase respective, correlatable, works art).
The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the themes presented in two short stories, namely "A good man is hard to find" by Flannery O'Connor and in "Hands" by Sherwood Anderson. In order to have a better understanding of the concepts which these authors deal with we will also be referring to other short stories written by each of them. The social standards almost crush the individuals' true identity. There is a lack of real communication in people's lives. The divine manifests itself even in the grotesque. The tragic destiny of the characters…
Anderson, S. The egg and other stories, CreateSpace, 2009
Asals, F. Flanery Rows, Novel: a forum on fiction, vol.4, no.1, 1971, pp.92-96
Friedman, M., T., Bya nd about Flannery O'Connor, Journal of Modern Literature, vol.1, no.2 (1970-1971), pp.288-292
Friedman, M.T.Review: Flannery O'Connor: the canon completed, the commentary continuing. The Souhern literary Jornal, vol. 5, no. 2, 1973, pp.116-123
This has often made it very difficult for black individuals to become high educational and social achievers. Racists then twist the reasons behind this lack of achievement and use it as evidence that members of the group are inferior (Gimlin, 2005). Racism and discrimination are both common threads in prejudiced activity toward black women, and this works to perpetuate the problems that they have faced in the past and that they are still facing in society today.
There is little that can be done to eliminate biological differences between the ethnic groups, but society can change differences that have been created by its own political and economic systems. Some psychologists even argue that racism should be treated like a mental health issue. Racism, therefore, becomes a double-edged sword and both the oppressors and the oppressed suffer from and for it. The oppressors have guilt, shame, and remorse, while the…
Collins, Patricia Hill (1998) "Mammies, matriarchs, and other controlling images, black feminist thought" New York: Routledge
Espiritu, Yen Le (2007) "Chapter five: Ideological racism and cultural resistance." In Asian-American women and men: Labor, laws, and love. New York: Rowman and Littlefield
Hook, Bell (1998) "Selling Hot Pussy: Representations of Black Female Sexuality in the Cultural Market" in: R. Weitz (ed) The Politics Of Women's Bodies: Sexuality Appearance and Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Gimlin, Debra. (2005). "Cosmetic Surgery: Paying for Your Beauty." In L. Richardson, V. Taylor and N. Whittier (ed), Feminist Frontiers, 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill
Picasso: The Image of Modern Man
Picasso came to Paris from Malaga, Spain, a town known for its bull-fighters. Picasso in his less experimental days he depicted these bull fights in a number of pencil sketches that captured the flare, dynamism and thrill of the arena. However, he never content to simply reflect in a realistic way the world around him. Society was changing the very first years of the 20th century: the modern world had lived through the Reformation, the Revolution and Industrialization. Now it was becoming a world where new socialistic and atheistic ideologies were competing with old world beliefs still being clung to by certain leaders (like Franco in Spain, for instance). Picasso saw the importance of fashion and trends in this new age of modern art. In the first years of the 20th century, he painted in blues -- then in pinks (the Rose Period) --…
Greenberg, C. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Partisan Review, Vol. 6, No. 5 (1939): 34-
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.
Picasso, Pablo. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. 12 Apr 2013. Web.
739, p=0.009, e?=0.727). This study clearly highlighted that sleep shortage and work fatigue poses a threat to patient safety and that nurse self-care is warranted.[Dorrian et.al, (2006)]
Nurse Support Services
An earlier Australian study by Moore KA (2001) which observed 201 nurses working in three different hospitals had concluded that organizational restructuring policies and the consequent work overload was a high stressor for nurses and this was made worse by the poor communication style (top -- down approach instead of consultative style) that only contributed more to nurse burnout. [Moore KA, (2001)]. Given the high levels of occupational stress and burnout among nurses, it is important that nurse self-care interventions are prioritized. A recent literature review on the subject of work stress and coping methods among Australian nurses revealed that 'work load ', 'role conflict' and 'expression of aggression' were the three main stressors. The literature study also revealed 'seeking…
1) Linda H. Aiken, 'Image of Nursing Global Trends', retrieved Sep 4th 2010, from, http://www.fpnl.co.za/downloads/Presentations/Presentations/Prof%20Linda%20Aiken%20-%20Image%20of%20Nursing%20-%20Global%20Trends.pdf
2) Jillian Dorrian, Nicole Lamond & Cameron Van del Heuvel et.al (Oct 2006), 'A Pilot study of the Safety Implications of Australian Nurses' Sleep and Working Hours', Chronobiology International, Vol 23, Issue 6, pg 1149-1163
3) Lim J, BOGOSSIAN F. & AHERN K. (2010), ' Stress and coping in Australian nurses: a systematic review. International Nursing Review 57, 22-31
4) Moore KA, (2001), 'Hospital restructuring: impact on nurses mediated by social
Van Gogh's "Self-Portrait with a Straw Hat" (1887)
ith an oeuvre of over 2000 works Van Gogh's artistic passion matched the intensity of his religious fervor. Religion and art were, essentially, the basis of Van Gogh's life. And the history of his life is, in a way, a history of modern Europe; in another way it is a history of the prelude to 20th century modern art; and in another way it is a lesson on the loss that Europe had suffered when it broke with its religious heritage and embarked on a course of Industrialization. This paper will discuss the meaning of Van Gogh's 1887 Self-Portrait and how it reflects deeper passions within Van Gogh -- passions that ran contrary to the modernization going on around him.
Religion was always very important to Van Gogh, and though the subject may seem incidental in his self-portraits, the sheer fact that…
Hulsker, J. The Complete Van Gogh. NY H.N. Abrams, 1980. Print.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.
Van Gogh, Vincent. Self-Portrait with a Straw Hat, 1887. Metropolitan Museum.