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Material Culture Report
Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72050240
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Its product debut in Atlanta occurred the same year as the Statue of Liberty was erected in New York City. The Coca-Cola Company (2011) avers its achievement of material culture: "It was 1886, and in New York Harbor, workers were constructing the Statue of Liberty. Eight hundred miles away, another great American symbol was about to be unveiled." The first Coca-Cola sold for 5 cents per glass at the Jacobs' Pharmacy soda fountain: the primary means by which consumers encountered the soft drink during its early existence and years before it became the cultural icon that is not ironically compared with the Statue of Liberty. The original inventor of Coca-Cola has been nearly forgotten in the annals of cultural history. John Pemberton's name is not the household word, but the product he created has since taken on a life of its own. Coca-Cola has yielded books entitled, For God,…


Bergman, M. (2012). Feed aggregator: The trouble with memes. Retrieved online:

Buchli, V. (2002). The Material Culture Reader. Berg.

Cason, K. (2009). Sippin', pausin', and visualizin': Visual literacy and corporate advertising. Middle Tennessee State University [Dissertation]. Retrieved online:

Christensen, L.T., & Askegaard, S. (2001). Corporate identity and corporate image revisited - A semiotic perspective," European Journal of Marketing 35(3/4): 292 -- 315

American Pie on February 3
Words: 1260 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71320630
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Therefore, the "day the music died" was the day music and politics became fused. The Vietnam War, the Kennedy assassination, the Civil Rights movement, and other historical events also evoke imagery associated with death. "The day the music died" also marked the day merica's Golden ge died too. During the 1960s music became associated with sex, drugs, and violence: in stark contrast to the childlike "doo-wop" days of the 1950s.

McLean weaves in references to British groups the Beatles and the Rolling Stones to show how the British invasion altered the landscape of merican music. In addition to using musical references, McLean also writes about merican popular culture through film stars like James Dean, who also died tragically and whose iconic career embodies the central themes of "merican Pie." Like Buddy Holly and Richie Valens, James Dean was also a 1950s icon. His death also marked the "day the music…

American Pie" progresses chronologically from the "day the music died" until the late 1960s. In verse five, McLean mentions the Woodstock festival in 1969 and refers to "a generation lost in space." McLean also mentions Satan and the Devil to underscore his view that the 1960s was a time of debauch. The songwriter views the 1960s as being a generation "lost" to drugs. Music concerts and public events became spectacles and often erupted into violent protests. For instance, McLean refers to a concert the Rolling Stones played at, during which the Hell's Angels motorcycle gang overstepped their authority as chief security officers. McLean likens the event to a "sacrificial rite." Therefore, the songwriter describes the changes in American culture in Biblical terms, continuing to use imagery relating to death.

The title of the song is itself conveys the semiotics embedded in "American Pie." Pie is one of the only foods considered quintessentially American. The reference evokes mom's apple pie, an image of idyllic domesticity in the suburbs, of traditional gender roles, of sweetness, family, and the American Dream. The "day the music died" was the day that American woke up from its Dream. Gender roles were shifting rapidly so that women were no longer geared to be housewives. American culture seemed to be coming apart at the seams. The happy-go-lucky energy of the 1950s, captured in the songs of Buddy Holly, Richie Valens, and the Big Bopper, had died when those musicians perished in a plane crash. Those were the "good old boys" McLean refers to in the central refrain of the song. Likewise, when McLean writes about driving his "Chevy to the levee," he also uses another icon of American culture: the Chevrolet automobile.

During the 1960s a wave of events took place that would forever alter the character of the American Dream and of the American consciousness. The Vietnam War was by far the most significant, giving rise to a youth culture to a degree that had never before existed. Prior to the 1960s youth culture was a silent voice on the cultural landscape. Artists like James Dean were among the first to reveal the power of youth culture in America. His death, referred to in the third verse of "American Pie," is akin to the deaths of the three musicians mentioned at the beginning of the song. Youth culture became rebellious and highly political. Activism was a new trend that led to disturbing protest movements that were often mingled with musical concerts like Woodstock. The Kennedy assassination also signified the "day the music died," as did the infusion of radical politics into popular music. McLean mentions Marx in verse three to refer to the wholesale shifts in American lifestyle and culture.

Industry Has Perfected the Use
Words: 1577 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94216532
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Although the general public is not likely to know what semiotics is the concepts that have been used by the cultural study known as semiotics have been used by advertising and marketing professionals for a number of years. Through the use of semiotics such professionals have successfully used the information and techniques suggested through semiotics to manipulate the consumer culture so that certain products are now considered to represent style, success, and power in modern society. Semiotics, which is simply, the study of signs and their impact on life, is not a recognized science but incorporates many of the same techniques in defining its studies and recommendations. egardless of its acceptance as a legitimate educational discipline, semiotics has successfully transformed modern culture through its use by advertisers and marketers. It has allowed manufacturers such as Burberry and Gucci to become not only leading clothing manufacturers but also cultural icons. Cultural…


Ahuvia, A.C. (1998). Social criticism of advertising: on the role of literary theory and the use of data. Journal of Advertising .

Beasley, R. (2002). Persuasive Signs: The Semiotics of Advertising. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.

Fox, I. (2010, September 15). British fashion industry now worth nearly 21 Billion Dollars a year. Retrieved August 28, 2011, from 

Gers, D. (2009, October 14). Social Climbing: Luxury Fashion Brands Must Embrace Social Media. Forbes .

American Pie and Cultural Significance
Words: 1503 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96695079
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Semiotically, however, the term evolved in the region to symbolize a characteristic aspect of shared cultural attitudes related very directly to the motivation for the murder of the civil rights activists.

Finally, the 1970s counterculture heavily emphasized illicit recreational drug use:

The birds flew off with the fallout shelter Eight miles high and falling fast Again linking the 1950s with the 1970s, the semiotic relevance of high very likely corresponds to the so-called high of hallucinogenic experiences associated with LSD use whereas the fallout shelter evokes a symbol quite unique to American society of the Cold War era of paranoia of unprovoked Communist attack. EFEENCES

Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.

New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Macionis, J.J. (2003) Sociology 9th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

O'Brien, P. (1999) American Pie: The analysis…


Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.

New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Macionis, J.J. (2003) Sociology 9th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Intertextuality and Narrative Critical Summary
Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25262538
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This will translate to certain philosophies that govern their paintings, films or novels. Such believes are deep-rooted in the society and affect the social, cultural, and economic aspects of the society. According to theorists of intertextuality, the authorship of any text is not real. To them, people claiming authorship or ownership of texts, are insincere and disingenuous. As Ronald Barthes pointed out, every author or artist, depend on the already existing art. Therefore, even the originality is controversial. As proponents of intertextuality, they doubted the authorship since texts are simply multidimensional space where variety of writings blends and clash. In the book, Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (1929), the author attests to every text or reading as a mere rewriting of the existing texts or materials. Under extreme circumstances, readers construct authors. Some authors still contest authorship of selected materials, as the ideas are usually the same.

Framing is…

Works Cited

Daniel Chandler. Semiotics of Beginners. Retrieved from: 

Block, Marcelline. World Film Locations: Paris. Bristol: Intellect, 2011. Internet resource

Sociology of Popular Culture
Words: 1773 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 41806858
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Popular culture defines what is desired by any given sociological group based on pressure by peers. Every moment of the day, we are saturated by culture. hen we turn on the television, not only are we watching the programs but we are inundated by advertisers trying to convince the viewer that there is some new product that needs to be purchased or a new movie that needs to be seen or a new service that is essential to the happiness of the consumer. On the Internet, each inquiry provides banner headlines where we are also bombarded with advertisements and attitudes. Similarly, there are billboards and ads on cars and radio commercials while we drive to and from work. It is characteristic of a capitalistic society that so much of our culture has to do with the consumption of goods and services (Yar, Lecture 2, slide 2). Everywhere someone or something…

Works Cited:

Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 2: Popular Culture, Ideology, and Capitalism: Critique of the 'Culture Industry'"

Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 3: Reading the Popular: Culture as a System

of Signs"

Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 5: Popular Culture and Gender Identities"

Starting Point Carol Delaney's Dictum
Words: 1872 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79725256
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The Jewish naming in Istanbul was foreign to the local people.)

It is for that reason too that we are so apt to see communication or transmission of language as a 'simple' ordinary activity and expect the other to understand us. We forget (as Delaney for one pointed out) that language is a string of interpretations that symbols into verbal form. The symbols -- the way that we see the phenomena -- are engineered by our own particular experiences. Ipso facto, it therefore makes sense that each interprets these phenomena differently and that each imposes a different lens as symbol. It follows, therefore, that we are bound to fail in catching the drift of the person's message (or communication) as the sender intends it.

This was the insight that came to me through the project of watching two people communicate to one another in the cafeteria. It was as though…


Boas, F (1982) Race, language, and culture Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Delaney, C (2011) Investigating Culture: An Experiential Introduction to Anthropology John Wiley & Sons

Korzybski, A. (1994). Science and sanity: An introduction to non-Aristotelian systems and general semantics Institute of GS: UK.

Alan Dundes (1972) Seeing is Believing Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Prater Violet Was Above All Else a
Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85111931
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Prater Violet was above all else a book meant to elaborate on the creative process as it pertains to film. And although Prater Violet as not intended an avenue for analysis of literary theories, the characters display behaviors and personalities that fall into several theories contemplated in Terry Eagleton' s: Literary Theory:An Introduction. New Criticism, as Eagleton explains, points to the non-essential qualities of novels in their lack of need of an author's life and experiences to draw from. Analysis of the characters can be solely based on their own modalities rather than having anything derived from the writer.

As New Criticism states that the author's life can stand to have no influence on the characters of a story, Structuralism also focuses on elements within works of literature refraining from concentrating on historical social, and biographical influences, but rather linguistics. As Eagleton stated in his book: "If the poem was…

Works Cited

Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction; with a New Preface. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008. Print.

Isherwood, Christopher, Don Bachardy, and James P. White. Where Joy Resides: An Isherwood Reader. London: Methuen, 1989. Print.

Isherwood, C. Prater Violet: A novel. New York: Random House, 1945. Print.

Analyzing a Watch Advertisement
Words: 415 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96418625
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ad and analyze it though Semiotics.

Make an overall judgment, observation and interpretation.

Talk about the signification

What are the signifiers in the ad?

What do they signify?

What meaning does that assign to the product?

What social values / norms does this promote?

Are these particular social groups that the ad speaks to? Not speak to?

What are the possible alternate Interpretations?

Examine all parts: Image, text, background, colors, font

The Patek Philippe print advertising campaign has used the iconic slogan "Begin your own tradition" for fifteen years. This campaign deploys a photographic image depicting a father and son in a warm, timeless moment of parent-child bonding.

Photographs for this campaign are typically in black and white, evoking nostalgia, tradition, a sense of time passing and family heritage. This image focuses on the emotional bond between a father and son, allowing viewers to connect with the image on a…

Messages Are Normally Communicated Verbally or Non-verbally
Words: 1637 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 33941961
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Messages are normally communicated verbally or non-verbally. Verbal communication may be written or oral. Non-verbal communication means engaging visual signs or audio signs in order to communicate a message. Nonverbal signals are a significant part of the communication procedure. These consist of hand gestures, facial eye contact, touch languages, body movements, posture, and vocal modulations. They can deliver as much significance as words, presenting feelings for instance fear, joy, and anger. Audiences also measure character traits for instance honesty and trustworthiness by means of a speaker's nonverbal actions. An assortment of theories has been established to study these types of communication. ith that said, the two theories that are to be discussed in this paper are Proxemics and Semiotics.

Semiotics and Proxemics: hat are they?

Semiotics is basically what is called the study of signs in body, words, language, and sounds. Researchers in this area look for instructions that regulate…

Works Cited

Abbott, D.P. (2006). Splendor and misery: Semiotics and the end of rhetoric. Rhetorica, 24(3), 303-323.

Holt, R. (2009). Creating whole life value proxemics in construction projects. Business Strategy and the Environment,, 10(3), 148.

McLaughlin, C.O. (2008). Environmental issues in patient care management: Proxemics, personal space, and territoriality. Rehabilitation Nursing, 12(5), 23-30.

Mick, D.G. (2008). Consumer research and semiotics: Exploring the morphology of signs, symbols, and significance. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(2), 196.

Iconography Picture Is Worth a
Words: 1530 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38362362
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Ultimately, what modern iconography teaches us is that history is a prism from which we cannot escape. Art, and the study of its meaning, ultimately situates us within this prism and helps us connect the past with the present, while also paving the way towards a future conception of meaning in the visual realm.

orks Cited

Bal, Mieke and Norman Bryson. "Semiotics and Art History: A Discussion of Context and Senders," 1991. Reprinted in Preziosi, Donald, ed. The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Carvajal, Rina. "Mapping Out the Self: The ork of Guillermo Kuitca." Guillermo

Kuitca. Rotterdam: itte de ith, 1990.

Goldberg, Vicki. "It's a Leonardo? it's a Corot? ell, No, it's Chocolate Syrup." New

York Times (September 25, 1998). Retrieved on Nov. 15, 2007 at

Panofsky, Erwin. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1955.

Panofsky, Erwin. Studies in Iconology:…

Works Cited

Bal, Mieke and Norman Bryson. "Semiotics and Art History: A Discussion of Context and Senders," 1991. Reprinted in Preziosi, Donald, ed. The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Carvajal, Rina. "Mapping Out the Self: The Work of Guillermo Kuitca." Guillermo

Kuitca. Rotterdam: Witte de With, 1990.

Goldberg, Vicki. "It's a Leonardo? it's a Corot? Well, No, it's Chocolate Syrup." New

Colbert Report Has Been on
Words: 2863 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57346436
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Changes within a text are accounted for as transformations in the synchronic system, and this meant a tendency to fail to deal with time and social changes, which concerned many of the method's critics from the beginning.

Ferdinand de Saussure offers an explication of the linguistic approach and the meaning of language and contributed to the development of structuralism. He sees the nature of communication as deriving from ongoing processes and also considers the relationship between the human being and language as a social relationship. He offers an analysis of the different planes on which language operates and so points to areas for study and comprehension to be applied to literary criticism as to language studies in general. In emphasizing process, he also emphasizes structure, for he denies that we can begin with units -- with words, say, or phonemes -- and instead sees language as deriving meaning and value…

Works Cited

Agar, Michael. Language Shock. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1994.

Chandler, David. Semiotics for Beginners. 2005. August 1, 2007. .

The Colbert Report." Imponderables (2005).

August 1, 2007. .

Psycholinguistic Tools for Analyzing Advertising Text
Words: 1480 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73101287
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advert employed psycholinguistics in its aim to manipulate readers to buy the product. The 'Fairy Soap' advertisement was used and investigated for the use of concrete imagery -- a strategy of psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics says that concrete imagery not only forges associations but also makes imagery more vivid and helps reader comprehend and faster remember words. Analysis of the advert in terms of the concrete imagery used showed that all applied. Discussion sums up result and concludes that that readers can be more readily manipulated into buying the product -- unless they were aware that they are being deliberately manipulated by people who know how to make words sound psychologically appealing.

The Concrete Appeal of Soap

None of us wish to be manipulated, but unfortunately, advertisements -- the world of marketing -- uses techniques that indiscernibly manipulates us and influences us in certain way. People tend to think that is only…



Larry Percy (1982), "Psycholinguistic Guidelines For Advertising Copy," in Advances in Consumer Research Volume 09, eds. Andrew Mitchell, Advances in Consumer Research Volume 09: Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 107-111

A Pictorial History of Fairy Soap Advertising

Embedded The Relationship Between Form
Words: 6480 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 601775
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), [he knows] that media companies are responsive to pressure when it is sustained, sophisticated and well executed," he fails to offer any concrete examples of this kind of pressure or how it might actually be applied (Schechter, 2003, p. 242). He does propose "a Media and Democracy Act, an omnibus bill that could be a way of showing how all of these issues are connected," but he does not provide any details of what might actually be included in this all-encompassing piece of hypothetical legislation (p. 242). Rather, he simply asserts that this potential legislation (that, if it actually included regulations to effectively combat the problems with American journalism would almost certainly never have passed at the time of his writing and would still be extremely unlikely now) could magically "create one easy to market and explain package of proposals that can forge a coalition with many stakeholders and…


Cognitive compression effect. In (2000). M. Danesi (Ed.), Encyclopedic dictionary of semiotics, media, and communications. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Frontani, M.R. (2004). Embedded: Weapons of mass deception-how the media failed to cover the war on iraq. Journalism History, 30(2), 111.

Gaither, T.K. (2007). Advertising's war on terrorism: The story of the U.S. state department's shared values initiative. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 84(4), 843-844.

Goodman, A., & Goodman, D. (2006). Static: Government liars, media cheerleaders, and the people who fight back. New York: Hyperion.

Teaching Choices Approaches
Words: 3051 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44846510
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English for Academic purposes (EAP) teaching and research have come up. These are the systematic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and other parts of the world (for example Lee, 2010; Hood, 2006; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacy approaches in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world (for example Lillis & Scott, 2008; Turner, 2004; Thesen & Pletzen, 2006). Despite the two approaches drawing from sociocultural and ethnographic traditions, they tend to have a focus on various facets of EAP. As a language theory, SFL has used linguistic analysis for the establishment of nature of discourses and avenues of getting students participate in the discourses. The pedagogy and research have focused on language systems, language being used and texts. Most academic research literatures have focused on investigating ethnographic leanings and critiquing the predominant institutional and academic practices. The methods in use have focused on finding practices, identities of…


Achugar, M. & Colombi, C., n.d.. Systemic Functional Linguistic explorations into the longitudinal study of the advanced capacities, s.l.: s.n.

Coffin, C. & Donohue, J., 2012. Academic Literacy and systemic functional linguistics: How do they relate?. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, pp. 64-75.

Chen, Y., & Foley, J. (2004).Problems with the metaphorical reconstrual of meaning in Chinese EFL learners' expositions. In L. Ravelli, & R. Ellis (Eds.). Analyzing academic writing: Contextualized frameworks (pp. 190-209). London: Continuum

Christie, F., & Maton, K. (Eds.). (2011). Disciplinarity: Functional linguistic and sociological perspectives. London: Continuum

Unintentional Appropriation in Cultures
Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24261436
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Unintentional Appropriation in Cultures

The cultural appropriation concept of using another culture's symbol, genres, artifacts, rituals, or technologies, as per Rogers is just inescapable when two of them had to meet at a certain point of time. This includes both the virtual as well as the representational contacts. Such appropriations involve in exploiting the marginalized and colonized cultures and help in the survival of subordinated cultures. Their resistance to dominant cultures is also quite visible. According Rogers, the definition of cultural appropriation is the association of one culture to another and ends their own culture. This imitation or borrow tactic might have been done unintentionally to deconstruct or distort one's culture and this is a form of appropriation. [footnoteRef:1] [1:. Ibid., 476]

We can even say that the Cultural appropriation as an active process that represents the meaning as 'taking'. However, cultural appropriation does not include the mere exposures to…


Finley, Taryn. 10 Times Black Culture Was Appropriated In 2015. December 16, 2015. Accessed November 18, 2016. .

McLeod, L. Poppy. Nice Day for a 'White' Wedding: The Problem With Whiteness in Bridal Magazines. July 23, 2016. Accessed November 18, 2016. .

Nittle, K. Nadra. What Is Cultural Appropriation and Why Is It Wrong? November 14, 2016. Accessed November 18, 2016. .

Rogers, Richard A. "From Cultural Exchange to Transculturation: A Review and Reconceptualization of Cultural Appropriation." Communication Theory, Vol 16, Issue 4 (November 2006): 474 -- 503. .

Ben Jonson Intertextualities The Influence
Words: 22973 Length: 80 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70168505
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" James a.S. McPeek

further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."


asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.

This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…

Works Cited

Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.


Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.

Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative

Trace the Development of Law
Words: 1643 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58375618
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Royal Magistrate courts were installed because of Henry II, making it easier for justice to be done, as local disputes no longer had to be arbitrated by the Crown. The English law system was antiquated during Henry's reign, given that people settled their disputes through trial by ordeal or through trial by combat. The King was supportive toward a system that would employ several individuals forming a jury meant to decide whether a particular individual was guilty or not.

Members of the church were advantaged during the early years of Henry II's reign, since they did not have to subject to the same laws applied to normal individuals. Being aware of this injustice, Henry set out several laws which were meant to limit the church's influence and to make the law equally applicable for everyone (Sherman & Salisbury, 258). In spite of his strength of mind, he experienced little success…

Works cited:

1. Dewes Winspear, Alban and Kramp Geweke, Lenore Augustus and the Reconstruction of Roman Government and Society (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1935).

2. Easton, Stewart C. And Wieruszowski, Helene The Era of Charlemagne: Frankish State and Society (Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger Publishing, 1961).

3. Firth, J.B. "Preface," The Reorganisation of the Empire and the Triumph of the Church (New York G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1905).

4. Hecht, N.S. Jackson, B.S. Passamaneck, S.M. Piattelli, D. And Rabello, A.M. eds., An Introduction to the History and Sources of Jewish Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Saussure's Definition of Sign Every
Words: 757 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57258085
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She finds herself in a strange entanglement with her husband's ex-lover, the friendly man, and the young woman who wants "to hold him fast in a re-enactment of the Old Scottish ballad that re-echoes throughout the story" (aterston, 262). However, neither one of these women is able to hold the man fast; "I can't make two women happy," he says (Munro, 103).

The whole idea of "holding someone fast" resonates in different ways throughout the story. Hazel was not able to hold her husband fast and she must come to terms with the fact that she, in some ways, abandoned him before he died -- not "striving toward him" in the past or in the present in memory (Munro, 104).

The song sang in the story is about a young man who is captured by fairies and wants more than anything to go back to human life. The young man…

Works Cited

Kakutani, Michiko. "Book of The Times; Alice Munro's Stories of Changes of the Heart." New York Times. August 19, 2010 

Munro, Alice. Friend of My Youth. New York: Vintage; First Vintage Contemporaries

Edition Edition, 1991.

Confederate Flag Is One of
Words: 339 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 30278295
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During the Civil ar, the Confederate flag invoked pride and solidarity among the Southern states. The flag did not as much symbolize racism as it did rebellion against the federal government in ashington, D.C. In fact, this remains one of the key reasons why some Americans continue to glorify the stars and bars. For those who support it, the flag is a symbol of rebellion, independence, and freedom from federalism.

However, the Confederate flag also represented the interests of slave-owners and those who profited from their political and economic motives. Because of this historical association, the stars and bars can never be completely dissociated from racism in America. The complex semiotics of the Confederate flag mirror the heterogeneity within American society.

orks Cited

"Confederate Flag." Retrieved Feb 2, 2010 from

Sarratt, David. "The Confederate Flag: Controversy and Culture." Retrieved Feb 2, 2010 from

Works Cited

"Confederate Flag." Retrieved Feb 2, 2010 from 

Sarratt, David. "The Confederate Flag: Controversy and Culture." Retrieved Feb 2, 2010 from

Globalization and the Structures of
Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28982792
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Use the appropriate representations to model problems in the physical and social sciences (Ibid.)

Numeration Systems and Number Theory -- Number theory is a basis for all areas of mathematics. Number theory and sense are precludes to computation, to estimate, and to have an understanding of the ways numbers are represented and interrelated. Fluency of also understanding the way positive and negative numbers can be visually represented on a line, or how numerical values interrelate, are essential prior to moving toward higher level concepts (Kane, 2002).

Algebraic Thinking and Problem Solving -- ather than viewing the subject of algebra as certain sets of problems, the appropriate way to introduce it into elementary levels is as the relationship among quantities, the use of symbols, the modeling of phenomena, and the study of change. Students should be able to understand patterns, relations, and functions and how numbers may be represented in different…


Askey, R. (1999). "Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics." American

Educator. Fall 1999, Cited in: 

Blanton, M. (2008). Algebra and the Elementary Classroom. Heinemann.

Modern Art of the 21st
Words: 1560 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 29479497
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(athus) (Day) ("Susan Elliot")


Clearly, the five different works are illustrating how the art of the 21st century is taking the techniques of the past and they are incorporating them with contemporary beliefs. The way that this is occurring is through using classical themes and approaches to set the mood of each piece of art. Then, it is building upon them by taking modern day issues and highlighting the importance of them.

Once this takes place, is the point that these beliefs will become a part of the message that the artist is sending to the viewer. This is when they will have a greater understanding of these ideas and will be motivated to take action. As a result, 21st century art is illustrating how these images are influencing everyone.


"Cathe Hendrick." Cathe Hendrick, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012

"David Hatton." David Hatton, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012…


"Cathe Hendrick." Cathe Hendrick, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012

"David Hatton." David Hatton, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012

"Igal Fedida." Igal Fedida, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012 < >

"Marianne Monnoye -- Termeer." Marianne Monnoye -- Termeer, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012

Communication as a Discipline
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9430922
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Communications as a Discipline

By its very definition, "communication is a social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in the environment." ("SPC 3210, Chapter 1") But it is more than just a social process, there are a number of other aspects involved in communication. Whether it is thought of in terms of one of the three models: linear, interaction, or transactional, communication involves many other facets than just the transmission of information from one person to another. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 1") There are psychological aspects of communication, as well as semantic, physical, and physiological ones. Therefore, Communication is a discipline which crosses over into a number of other disciplines such as psychology, sociology, physiology, politics, ethics, and many others.

While the study of communication shares aspects with many other disciplines, none of them can alone encompass all that communication means. Because communication involves interaction between…


"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida

State University. Retrieved from http://ezto.mhecloud.mcgraw-

Naming Streets
Words: 449 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69407957
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power and describe the three ways that the authors suggest this subject may be viewed and modeled. The essay will conclude with comments on the criticalness of this article and discuss the aims of this article and what the authors are wishing to transform or modify.


The authors suggested that the process of naming streets was directly linked to expressing explicit power over a situation or territory. This can be compared to a dog marking his territory by spreading his marking or scent. They wrote " the discursive act of assigning a name to a given location does much more than merely denote an already existing place. ather, as scholars from various fields have suggested, the act of naming is itself a performative practice that calls forth the 'place' to which it refers by attempting to stabilize the unwieldy contradictions of sociospatial processes into the seemingly more 'managable' order…


Rose-Redwood, R., Alderman, D., & Azaryahu, M. (2010). Geographies of toponymic inscription: new directions in critical place-name studies. Progress in Human Geography, 34(4), 453-470.

Behn R 1995 The Big
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Success-promoting action questions involve "resource adequacy, management and control structure, bureaucratic rules and regulations, political effectiveness, and feedback and evaluation" (437). Following the necessary pattern of realistic yet personally-sensitive inquiry when formulating good questions, Wolman considers the fact that differing situations will require discretion with regard to how much value is placed on measurement vs. action questions. Wolman concludes that no matter what, implications for success vs. failure must be considered and questioned thoroughly before any public policy plan is carried out. Further research along these lines may result in a formal guiding theory on the "why's and how's" of ensuring program or policy success.


Behn, . (1995). The Big Questions of Public Management. Public Administration eview, 55 (4), 313.

Brewer, J. (2005). Formulating esearch Questions, in Foundations in Multimethod esearch. Sage Publications.

Camburn, E., owan, B., & Taylor, J.E. (2003). Distributed Leadership in Schools: The Case of Elementary…


Behn, R. (1995). The Big Questions of Public Management. Public Administration Review, 55 (4), 313.

Brewer, J. (2005). Formulating Research Questions, in Foundations in Multimethod Research. Sage Publications.

Camburn, E., Rowan, B., & Taylor, J.E. (2003). Distributed Leadership in Schools: The Case of Elementary Schools Adopting Comprehensive School Reform Models. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25 (4), 347-373.

Feldman, M., Skoldberg, K., Brown, R.N., & Horner, D. (2004). Making Sense of Stories: A Rhetorical Approach to Narrative Analysis. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 14 (2), 147-170.

R-Questions to Build the Literature
Words: 9245 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 46920430
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Vaughn et al. (2003) report that the identification of LD students has increased upwards of 200% since 1977, with explanations ranging from a likely outcome of the growing knowledge field, to LD as a field serving as a sink for the failures of general education to meet the needs of students of varying abilities. The study investigators find that not only is the heterogeneity of the identified students quite wide, they also find that many students are overrepresented (misidentified) or underrepresented (unidentified). One large problem is the use of IQ tests to identify those students as learning disabled. Using standardized tests fails to accurately identify those students who either have reading difficulties or those students whose first language is not English. More emphasis is needed on response to instruction type models of assessment and intervention to replace ineffective normalized standards for identifying students at risk and properly placing students for…


Aaron, P. (1997). The Impending Demise of the Discrepancy Formula. Review of Educational Research, 461-502.

Abedi, J. (2008). Psychometric Issues in the ELL Assessment and Special Education Eligibility. Teachers College Record, 2282-2303.

Ang, S., Van Dynne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K., Templar, K., Tay, C., et al. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 335-371.

August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 50-57.

Representation and Culture Hall Stuart
Words: 2593 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 40035347
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The beginning pages of this chapter are significant because they do a good job of explaining the relationship between the Enlightenment and modernity, which helps establish a cultural framework for works from modern times. In addition, they help demonstrate that modernity can help explain the eternal if one looks at discrete units of time and all of its qualities.

Anderson, Benedict. "Introduction." Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991. 1-7.

Benedict Anderson begins his introduction by talking about the major transformation in Marxism that was occurring at the time of his writing. He believes that these transformations were self-evident because of wars occurring in Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Furthermore, he states that these wars of historically important because the violence has been largely indefensible from a Marxist perspective, even if the world has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the original Marxist states. Post World War II revolutions have been characterized by…

Cross Cultural Communication in Bennett's
Words: 378 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32351024
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For this reason, the Americans and Cubans probably did have to use some of the techniques proposed by Shannon and Weaver to simplify communication in order to communicate at all. Despite the fact that communication between these two groups may have been difficult, and that coming together in order to form one design project produced by such culturally diverse designers may have resulted in the portrayal of mixed messages, some theorists contend that this does not matter. Indeed, it is only the "reader's" impression upon interpreting the text that matters. In the case of O'Bryan's designers, the reader is the Toni O'Bryan, and the other founders of the project. Thus, because of this concept -- called "The Death of the Author" -- the mixed messages that the Cubans and Americans may have revealed would be overshadowed by the reader's interpretation. Thus, Bennett and Robert propose a variety of theories and…

Heather Hundley 2004 States That
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The gist of the argument that Hundley (2004) makes is that men still spend much of their time in this 'gentlemen's game' of golf making derogatory comments to other (male) players in ways that are inappropriate and actually derogatory to females. These include comments such as suggesting that men who do not hit the ball well 'hit it with their purse,' and requesting that they 'put on a skirt and hit from the forward tees' (Hundley, 2004). While many believe that these forward tees are designed for golfers who are not yet as skilled, most scorecards and course information mark them as the 'ladies' tees.' It could be argued that this is done as a courtesy to women, to treat them fairly because they are typically not as strong as men. However, Hundley (2004) clearly feels that this is one more example of the way that Semiotics are used by…


Hundley, Heather L. (Winter, 2004). Keeping the score: The hegemonic everyday practices in golf. Communication Reports, 17(1), 39-48

Educational Theory and Philosophy in
Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21973033
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Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…


Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.

Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.

Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.

Computer Assisted Writing Learning Applied
Words: 6823 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52847352
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" Shin (2006) Shin also states that the CMC literature "illustrates shifts of focus to different layers of context." Early on, research relating to CMC in language learning and teaching looked at the linguistic content of CMC text to examine how language learners could improve certain communication functions and learn linguistic figures through CMC activities (lake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Ortega, 1997; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith 2000, Sotlillo, 2000; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002, Tudini, 2003; Warschauer, 1996) Recent studies of "tellecollaborative projects have examined how language learners jointly construct the contexts of their CMC activities, as part of their focus on tensions among intercultural communication partners. (elz, 2003, 2003; Kramsch & Thorn, 2002; O'Dowd, 2003; Ware 2000, War & Kramsch, 2005) IN the study of Shin (2006) which was "informed by Ware's (2005) examination of a tellecollaborative communication project between American college students and German students" Shin (2006) looks into…


Introduction to Computational Linguistics (2006) Computer-Assisted Language Learning .

Lusnia, Karen B. (1000) Teaching Teachers Long-Distance: A Paradigm-Shift for the Teacher-Planner in Mexico - Applied Linguistics. Paper presented at the International Conference on Language Teacher Education.

Bakhtin, M.M. (1981). Excerpts from discourse in the novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M.M. Bakhtin. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Bateson, G. (2000). Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press.

Foucault and Derrida in Samuel
Words: 4937 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 43071711
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The panopticon centralizes the space of the observer while simultaneously mystifying the act of observation, such that the threat may be ever-present even if an actual prison guard is not. In the same way, Foucault's conception of the societal panopticon imposes its standards on the individual, who must conform to the standards of society due to a fear of the possibility of discovery and punishment. According to Foucault, "the Panopticon is a privileged place for experiments on men, and for analyzing with complete certainty the transformations that may be obtained from them" (Foucault 204). The space the narrator finds himself in at the beginning of The Unnamable functions in this same way, except that in this case the object of the panopticon's gaze has not undergone the process of subjectification prior to finding itself there.

The narrator simply exists upon the reading of the novel, and is subsequently unable to…

Works Cited

Armstrong, Charles. "Echo: Reading The Unnamable Through Kant and Kristeva." Nordic

Journal of English Studies. 1.1 173-197. Print.

Balinisteanu, Tudor. "Meaning and Significance in Beckett's The Unnamable ." Applied

Semiotics 13. (2003): n. pag. Web. 30 May 2011.

Anderson Rw & Chantal K 1998 Transition
Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87452129
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Anderson, RW & Chantal K. 1998, Transition banking: financial development of central and eastern Europe, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Barley, 1983, emiotics and the study of occupational and organizational cultures, Administrative cience Quarterly, Vol.28, pp.393-413.

Blount, E 2004, Bad rap on Russian banking? ABA Banking Journal, no.12, pp.47-52.

Brown, J 1987, A review of meta-analyses conducted on psychotherapy outcome research, Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, pp. 1-23.

Bullis, CA & Tompkins, PK 1989, The forest ranger revisited: A study of control practices and identification, Communication Monographs, Vol. 56, Issue.4, pp.287-306.

Chorafas, DN 2000, Reliable Financial reporting and Internal Control: A Global Implementation Guide, Wiley, New York.

Collins, EM 1998, Myth, manifesto, meltdown: communist strategy, 1848-1991, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport.

Czarniawska, B & Joerges, B 1996, Travels of ideas, pp.13-48, ee Czarniawska & evon 1996.

Denison, D 2003, Reviews on Organizational Culture: Ashkanasy, Wilderom, and Peterson (ed.) The Handbook of…

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Woodbury, G 2001, An Introduction to Statistics, 1st edition, Duxbury Press, George Woodbury.

Workspace Speech Speech Version Bank Workspace Self-Interest
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Workspace Speech

speech version Bank Workspace


Greetings, Thanks! I'm NAME, I used to be in banking, until the S&L crisis.

in fact my first job was as a teller; I moved up the normal channels, our branch became so successful I was promoted into regional management. We did so well our bank was taken over, and I was downsized, along with all the rest of middle management, and so I started this consulting firm.

So now I just use banks. Why? Well I have to, to some degree, but because I want to make money, and that's what banks do.

Why do you go to work every day? Well, to make money! Why does the bank open its doors every day? To make money. Anyone here want to make more money? Who wants to make more? I'm here to tell you today how you can do that, and also…

Dr. Gloria Galanes tells us how "[d]ialectical theory describes all human relationships as grounded in contradictions" (Galanes, 2009, p. 409), because have opposing drives and want to satisfy both at once. She points to simultaneous desires for autonomy and connectedness; stability and adaptation; task-oriented vs. socio-emotional orientation; and a list of examples which you could probably add to yourselves. These drives create ambiguous demands between individuals in probably every conceivable relationship, many of which have been studied explicitly. Dialectical theory is particularly useful for explaining small group relationships, which become "inherently paradoxical" because "members encounter a variety of feelings and actions they experience as contradictory but that exist simultaneously within the group (Smith & Berg, 1987b, qtd. In Galanes 2009).

I see some of you nodding: I expected that, because all individuals (to our knowledge so far) share these conflicting desires in many ways to different degrees. How can this play out in the bank? Time passes faster when there are more customers at the till but some of them are grouchy so you both want and don't it to get busy at the same time. You are a social person but sometimes others become more personal or intimate too quickly so you remain aloof, which they take as something completely different. The result is lonely people who both do and don't want someone to talk to. I know these things happen because they happen to all of us, including me.

What happens next is that we internalize these dialectical ambiguities and their tensions into 'self-talk.' It is apparently very rare to find people who don't constantly have a conversation with themselves -- not out loud, although we find those too! [laughing; 'there's one in every crowd' etc.] Most people discuss the world they observe with themselves in an ongoing conversation that is never verbalized, which Dr. Patrick Jenner argues convincingly is how we explain the reality we find outside ourselves, to ourselves (2009, 37). What happens as we encounter change in the world around us is we continually renegotiate the definitions underlying our prior assessment of relationships, individuals, situations and objects to cope with new information. When this

Anthropological Observations Walking Downtown Is
Words: 850 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60506257
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Additionally, many were on their cell phones; it seemed like they were purposely trying to find ways to keep them from interacting with each other. This showed a clear disconnect between the different subgroups that are in such close proximity of one another. Only a few actually spoke to each other, and when this was observed it was typically using only brief statements. Social manners say a lot about a society's culture. Watching what interactions that did take place showed the clear signs of what is acceptable within this society. People would ask each other questions with polite statements ending in "please" and "thank you." This signifies a sense of manners, but also a sense of coldness that only is present within interactions between strangers. The interactions between these individuals were very formal, showing a use of language that separated the individuals from other members of society who might otherwise…


Eichberg, Henning. (2010). How to study body culture: Observing human practice. International Society of Eastern Sports & P.E. Web.

Engel, Claudia a. & Ebron, Paulla a. (2004). Mapping key concepts in cultural anthropology. Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Web. 

O'Neil, Dennis. (2006). What is culture? Palomar University. Web.

Constructivism Is an Important Learning
Words: 1992 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59271883
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(rier, 1992)

Constructivism in all forms faces many obstacles and hurdles in getting fair application in the classroom of schools today for many reasons. One reason is that when constructivism is applied properly and fully to a classroom environment, the teacher may find him or herself in the "backseat" while the students steer the direction of the learning process. It removes much of the inherent hierarchal power of the teacher vs. The student in the classroom. Students are allowed a very high degree of autonomy. There is a strong tendency in our society to subordinate children and to keep children submissive to the dominant adult figures in their lives, and within the school it is completely unheard of to treat students as equals to the teachers. This is due to the belief of both teachers and parents that children are not equal to adults. The rationalist myth of "cold reason"…


Brier, S. (1992): "Information and consciousness: A critique of the mechanistic concept of information," in Vol.1, no. 2/3 pp. 71-94 of "Cybernetics & Human Knowing." Aalborg, Denmark.

Dougiamas, M. (1998) "A Journey into Constructivism." Accessed Jan 21, 2004 at 

Glasersfeld, E.V., (1992) "Aspects of Radical Constructivism and its Educational Recommendations." Scientific Reasoning research Institute. Presented at ICMe-7, Working Group #4, Quebec. Accessed Jan 21, 2004 at 

Glasersfeld, E.V. (1992) "Why I Consider Myself a Cybernetician" CYBERNETICS & HUMAN KNOWING. A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics & Cyber-Semiotics, Vol. 1 no. 1. Accessed Jan 21, 2004 from:

History of Adornment - Jewelry
Words: 1912 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13339074
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His imprisonment and escapes, attempts on his life are one of the most regular and yet remarkable commissioned work (Indiana).


Even though the book is overall interesting but what lacks in writing skill, is that he was more than making up his personality, to the extent that his brilliant life and pleasure for living bursts through the embarrassing form at some points in the book. However, Cellini's story reads better than a novel He is the quintessential Renaissance man.

Another weakness of the book is that the reader at times may find it difficult to understand much of the details relating to the alliances of Cellini's Italy and especially difficult for those to follow who doesn't know much about the Renaissance. In addition, he seemed to be a little arrogant on occasion. However, one should not mistake of taking Cellini's book as painting a portrait of his times, as…

Works Cited Jewelry Talks: A Novel Thesis by Richard Klein.

Women's Jewelry Association. Schmoozing with Jewelry Talks.

A Jewelry Talks -- Richard Klein.

Family Theory Application the Purpose
Words: 1595 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6216315
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Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.

Summary and Conclusion

While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…


Sandelowski M. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing; as cited by Joan Engebretson in Document entitled Hands-on: The Persistent Metaphor in Nursing, Holistic Nursing Practice Vol.16 No.4 07-01-2002 ISSN 09979311.

The Ecological Theory (nd) Online available at

The Theoretical Matrix for a Rogerian Nursing Practice" by E.A.M.Barrett 2000, Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory, 9 (4) p.3-7. Copyright 2000 by the Swedish Society for Nursing Theories in Practice, Research, and Education. Reprinted with permission.

Meyers, S.A. An Ecological Approach to Enhancing Parenting Skills in Family Therapy "http: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Sociology the Shifting Definitions of
Words: 3386 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41556052
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eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.

One sign that is frequently taken…

Works Cited 

Baehr, Peter. 2002. In the Grip of Freedom: Law and Modernity in Max Weber. Canadian Journal of Sociology 27, no. 4: 587+. Database online. Available from Questia, Accessed 4 June 2005. 

1990. The Forms of Power: From Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 

Grusky, David B., ed. 1994. Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Count of Monte Cristo Theme
Words: 1737 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99398260
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Without hope, The Count of Monte Cristo would fall apart and become a tragic novel of only vengeance, rather than a work of art that inspires readers to stay firm in their convictions and realize their dreams are attainable.


Bloom Harold, ed. Eugene O'Neill. Modern Critical Views. New York: Chelsea House

Publishers, 1987.

Coward, D. & Dumas, A. (1998). Twenty years after. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dumas, A. (1928). The Count of Monte Cristo. ahway, NJ: Mershon.

Elam, K. (1980). The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. London: Methuen.

Enge, E.A. (1953) The Haunted Heroes of Eugene O'Neill. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard

Floyd, V. (1979). Eugene O'Neill: A World View. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing


Goldstein, Yael. SparkNote on The Count of Monte Cristo. 2 Nov. 2005

Grenier, C. (2002). "How he earned a place in Pantheon." The Washinton Times, Dec. 8,


Kaplan, J. (2003). "Treasure and vengeance."…


Bloom Harold, ed. Eugene O'Neill. Modern Critical Views. New York: Chelsea House

Publishers, 1987.

Coward, D. & Dumas, A. (1998). Twenty years after. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dumas, A. (1928). The Count of Monte Cristo. Rahway, NJ: Mershon.

Psychology Term Comparison of Three
Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6423877
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In their book, Progress in Modern Psychology: The Legacy of American Functionalism, Owens and Wagner (1992) suggest that contemporary psychology reflects a common vision of the naturalistic framework that was first inspired by William James and later refined by John Dewey, James owland Angell, Harvey Carr, among others. In this regard, Owens and Wagner argue that one of the key contributors to early functionalism was John Dewey. In sharp contrast to the aforementioned structuralist approach which would analyze a situation into its continent parts, Dewey believed that sensation and the subsequent motor responses could not be legitimately separated, but rather comprised a more linear analysis that provided a coordinated response to a given condition (Owens & Wagner, 1992).


According to Zuriff (1985), behaviorism is not the science of behavior (consisting of findings, principles, laws, and theories that are formulated through the study of behavior) but rather provides a conceptual…


Badcock, C.R. (1976). Laevi-Strauss: Structuralism and sociological theory. New York: Holmes & Meier.

Hawkes, T. (2003). Structuralism and semiotics. New York: Routledge.

Noble, C.E. (2006). Structuralism. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 15, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service.

Owens, D.A., & Wagner, M. (1992). Progress in modern psychology: The legacy of American functionalism. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Sorrow Beyond Dreams Peter Handke's
Words: 1932 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 60031487
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This postmodernist writing that finally ends up having a dialogue with itself reveals an idea common to most of the postmodern art: that language and formulations, as means of expression, are also a means of finding the meaning of something, and that most often, meanings do not reside out of language.

But, at the same time, Handke also demonstrates that the life can sometimes be to terrible to be expressed in language.

The book ends, significantly, with the same Handke sitting at his desk and reading the article about the suicide of a woman. It is not only that the writing turns upon itself, to reveal that the most important subject of the book has not been altogether elucidated and has not been given meaning to yet, but also, the fact that the author is in front if a piece if a newspaper article relating this event is crucial: the…

Works Cited

Handke, Peter a Sorrow Beyond Dreams, New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux, 1975

Klinkowitz, Jerome the Self Apparent Word, Fiction as Language, Language as Fiction Illinois: Southern Illinois Press, 1994

Wertheimer, Alison a Special Scar: The Experience of the People Bereaved by Suicide, New York: Routledge, 2001

Cultures Can Teach Us About
Words: 2123 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74815074
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For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement encompasses behaviours such as pushing the envelope on Islamic dress, sexual behaviours, heterosocializing, driving around in cars playing loud illegal music, partying, drinking, dancing and so on -- to include basically, young people doing what they were not supposed to do under Islamic law" (Mahdavi, 2012, p.35).

In fact, the link between how a society approaches sex and that society's overall approaches towards human rights is interesting to note. Generally, the more liberal a society and the more protective of individual freedoms, the more permissive that society's approach will be towards sexuality, particularly female sexuality. In fact, when a totalitarian regime has been challenged, there seems to be a swing in the other direction, with an embrace of human rights, including rights…


Elliston, D. (2005). Erotic anthropology: "Ritualized homosexuality" in Melanesia and beyond.

In J. Robertson (Ed.), Same sex cultures and sexualities: An anthropological reader (pp.91-115). Malden: Blackwell.

Hunter, M. (2012). Rights amidst wrongs: The paradoxes of gender rights-based approaches towards AIDS in South Africa. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.66-74). London: Routledge.

Mahdavi, P. (2012). 'The personal is political and the political is personal': Sexuality, politics, and social movements in modern Iran. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.34-48). London: Routledge.

Feminist Advocacy of a Social Issue in Contemporary Culture
Words: 1979 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12426002
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Post-Feminist Society

Contemporary Feminist Advocacy

Although there is not absolute consensus, popular writings about feminism suggest that there have been three waves of feminism: (1) The first wave of feminism is said to have occurred in the 18th through the 20th centuries and was characterized by a focus on suffrage; (2) The decades spanning 1960 to 1990 are said to encompass the second wave of feminism, to which a concern with cultural and legal gender inequality is attributed; and (3) The third wave of feminism began in the early 1990s partly in response to the conservative backlash the second wave engendered, and partly in recognition of the unrealized goals of the second wave of feminism up to that time ("NOW," 2009). This third wave of feminism made salient a more subjective voice that pointed at the intersection of race and gender with greater resolve than would have been possible when…


Coffey, L.T. (2011, October 11). Girl Project' reveals what teens are really thinking. Today People. Retrieved 

Dow, B.J. (2003). Feminism, Miss America, and media mythology. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6 (1), 127 -- 150.

Faludi, Susan, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (Three Rivers Press, 2006)

Feminist Majority Foundation, Choices Campus Leadership Program. (2011). Retrieved

Mcdonald's Integrated Marketing Campaign This Paper Is
Words: 12619 Length: 48 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 21725758
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McDonald's Integrated Marketing Campaign

This paper is divided into two distinct sections. The first chapter is based on literature reviews of various scholarly works that are related to the topic of integrated marketing campaign that are also relevant to the McDonald marketing campaign that was created to celebrate the inherent democracy of the McDonald's brand. The first chapter is further divided into three parts; the first section mainly focus on advertising in general and then specifically into fast food advertising. The second section in literature review is based on new media as a marketing communication tool and lastly, in the same chapter different aspects of marketing campaign will also be analyzed. The second chapter is a personal reflection on the experience and lessons learnt by the student while preparing the dissertation.

Table of Content

CHAPTE ONE: Literature review


Section one:


Advertising theories

Types of advertising

1.2.1 Digital advertising…


Ben H., (2005): "4udible revolution," The Guardian,

Berry, R. (2006). Will the iPod kill the radio star? Profiling podcasting as radio. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 12(2), 143.

Brownell, K.D., & Horgen, K.B. (2004); Food fight: The inside story of the food industry, America's obesity crisis, and what we can do about it. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Blanchard, O., (2008) Macroeconomics. Harlow: Pearson Education

Religion Is an Analysis of Seven Works
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Religion is an analysis of seven works that the author, Daniel Pals, believes have shaped the understanding of religion in the past century. These theories represent seminal attempts to see religion in its social context as a system of values and beliefs, something that would be popularized by French structuralists and students of myth and semiotics in the last half of the 20th century. The theories reviewed put forth a 'scientific approach to religion' that 'first caught the imagination of serious scholars' in the 19th century. (pg. 10) These theories 'exercised a shaping influence not only on religion but on the whole intellectual culture of our century.' Some of the names put to us are familiar to us, such as Freud and Marx, whereas others are more obscure, such as Tylor and Frazer, Emile Durkheim, Mircea Eliade, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, and Clifford Geertz. The author picks what might be called the…

Rhetorical Stance
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Wayne Booth is considered one of those principally responsible for the revival of the study of rhetoric, a skill that was valued by the Greeks in their debates and later re-visited by enlightenment-era neo-classicists. is concern for the matter couldn't have been more timely; the late 1950's and early 1960's saw the first televised debates (such as those between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon,) the popularity of shows such as 'Meet the Press, a substantial growth in the legal profession, and a new emphasis on the study of media by MacLuhan and others.

Because Booth is proposing a formula for the proper criticism of essays, we are tempted to approach his essay with an attitude of extreme scrutiny; we are thus able to discern the critical from the merely hypocritical.

Booth illustrates the necessary construction of a speech or essay as a trichotomy: the author must present facts, appeal…

He repeats a popular gimmick in academia; breaking a certain problem, such as the nature of public speaking, into a simplistic illustration with only three permutations. People have been doing this for centuries; even things as special and beautiful as love were broken down into easy-to-digest components by academics that possessed a desire to over-simplify for a broad-based target audience. The best example of such a breakdown proving to be wildly wrong was that of the elementals: Earth, Water, Wind and Fire. The litmus test of Booth's ability to illustrate a proper architecture for rhetorical speech is to be found in whether or not its conceptual employment is universally applicable.

The three stances Booth illustrates are in many respects three of six - one can be strong on two of the three points. Usually entertainers also please their audiences. It's hard to be entertaining without pleasing your audience and the opposite scenario; entertaining by saying the opposite of what your audience thinks, is extremely rare. It might be said that entertaining speech and advertising speech are more correlated than either of these with pedantic speech. Booth may have hesitated to develop a more comprehensive set of mandates for proper rhetorical speech because he didn't want to sound too pedantic.

Interestingly, it was also during the 1960's that semiotics was re-discovered by French philosophers such as Saussure and Levi-Strauss under the heading of structuralism. With some of the key elements of structuralism in mind (the idea of encoding messages, the sociological 'structure' of things that are said or advertisements) it is possible to develop arguments specifically designed to make a specific portion of the audience change their thoughts or opinions in a pre-calculated fashion; this methodology is used without exception in political campaigns. However, to Booth's credit it can be said that such methodologies and his are not mutually exclusive.

Contemporary Learning
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Sociocultural Approaches to Learning and Development

The consistent trend in gender, race and SES gaps in academic achievement has been an increasingly important social issue especially in the context of culturally diverse classrooms. It is in light of this fact that John-Steiner and Mahn's analysis of the Vygotskian framework and its implications for classroom learning and teaching assumes significance. John-Steiner and Mahn provide a clear account of how the three central tenets of the Vygotskian theory establish the interdependence of social and individual processes in the coconstruction of knowledge: individual development (including higher mental functioning) is rooted in social sources; human action, on both the social and individual planes, is mediated by semiotics, and genetic or developmental analysis best explains the first two themes. Using Vygotskian sociocultural theory, including his work on the zone of proximal development and analysis of everyday and scientific concepts, the authors then go on to…


Berlak, H. (2001). Race and the Achievement Gap. Rethinking Schools Online. Vol. 15, No. 4.

Retrieved Jan 27, 2004: 

John-Steiner, V. & Mahn, H. (1996). Sociocultural Approaches to Learning and Development:

Vygotskian Framework. Educational Psychologist, 31 (3/4), p. 191-206

Freud vs Watson
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Freud vs. atson

Sigmund Freud and John B. atson

Sigmund Freud and John B. atson were chosen for this essay due to the distinct differences between the two. Freud is known as the Father of Psychoanalysis and atson is known as the Father of Behaviorism.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), was an Austrian physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and is recognized as the founder of psychoanalysis (Freud pp). He is regarded as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century (Freud pp).

In the beginning, Freud worked closely with Joseph Breuer, but went on to elaborate the theory "that the mind is a complex energy-system, the structural investigation of which is proper province of psychology (Freud pp). Freud refined and further articulated the concepts of the unconscious, of infantile sexuality, of repression, and proposed a tri-partite account of the mind's structure (Freud pp).

This was all part of a…

Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 

John B. Watson. Wikipedia. 

Watson, John Broadus

Application of a Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
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Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…

Importance of a Risk Management Plan
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isk Management on a Satellite Development Project

Enrolling a project requires risk assessment and management at various levels of implanting a project. This is based on the knowledge that quality of risk management determines the performance and outcome of the project. In any case, the Project Management Office (PMO) is mandated to spearhead a risk assessment and management plan. isk management blueprints will later be implanted to each department. This analysis attempts to vindicate the role risk management in explaining the quality of output of this project. The commencing document is structured in two main parts. Firstly, a critical assessment on the fundamentality of risk. Secondly, the document will analyze the role of the team in responding to risk management stipulated by the PMO office (Charrel & Galarreta, 2007).

Issues arising from the lack of a risk plan.

Absence of a risk management plan would have affected this project negatively.…


Charrel, P., & Galarreta, D. (2007). Project management and risk management in complex projects studies in organizational semiotics. Dordrecht: Springer.

Dar, M. (2013). Operational Risk Management, Risk Management Approaches, and Risk Mitigation Techniques: Challenges Faced By Islamic Financial Services. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 11(2), 72-79

Kerzner, H. (2013). Project management a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling (Eleventh ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Kloppenborg, T.J. (2012). Contemporary project management: organize, plan, perform (2nd ed.). Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Professional in Psychology
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Sigmund Freud and Jean Martin Charcot

Psychology refers to the applied and academic discipline that includes the scientific study of behaviors and mental functions. Anyone who has studied psychology has the immediate understanding groups and individuals through the general principles establish by renowned professionals in this field. Psychologists attempt to understand the role played by mental functions in social behaviors and individuals whilst exploring the biological and psychological process that underlie behaviors and cognitive functions. This study endeavors to explain the important contributions made by two psychologists namely Sigmund Feud and Jean Martin Charcot, and the similarities and contrasts of their contributions.

Sigmund Freud and his contributions

He was a neurologist based in Australia and lived between 1856 and 1939. He was the founder of psychoanalysis. He graduated from the University of Vienna as a qualified doctor and carried out extensive research into aphasia, cerebral palsy and microscopic neuroanatomical. He…


Freud, S., & Strachey, J. (2001). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud: early psycho-analytic publications. Vol. 7, 1901-1905, A case of hysteria, three essays on sexuality and other works. London: Vintage.

Huberman, G., & Charcot, J.M. (2003). Invention of hysteria: Charcot and the photographic iconography of the Salpe-trie-re. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

European Convention on Human Rights Echr Guarantees
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European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) guarantees the citizen within the EU a right to respect for private and family life, and is typically appealed to in conjunction with disputes regarding unlawful searches. However, as Wicks, Rainey and Ovey (2014:334) illustrate, Article 8 is actually quite open-ended and may be applied in any number of ways -- even in the case of Y who is threatened with deportation to Nepal.

Article 8 states in two provisions that, first, "everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence," and, second, "there shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime,…


England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Decisions (2010) Birmingham City

Council v Clue, Accessed 12 May 2015 at 

European Convention on Human Rights (2010) Convention for the Protection of Human

Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Strasbourg, European Court of Human Rights.

Digital Movies and Digital Games
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digital games is quite relaxing, as no adequate research has been carried out yet, so nearly anything goes. Writing, in general, about gaming and games is also very much similar. Sadly, and with startling cumulative consequences, games are under-theorized. Although there is the work of authors such as Ehrmann, Huizinga, and Caillois, game theory, philosophical ideas such as the work of Wittgenstein, and libraries teeming with research on board games, one can not get far into the field of computer games using only the above resources. As well, if there is, or will be, a proper computer game research field, it can also be said to be at risk of colonization and intrusion from existing scholarly tribes (Eskelinen 2001). Computer games have to be secured against the colonizing effect of textual and narrative analysis. In the case of semiotics, the idea of "text" generalizes to everything in material existence; however,…


Adams, Ernest. 1999. "Three Problems for Interactive Storytelters.." Gamasutra.

Engberg, Maria. n.d. Markku Eskelinen. Accessed July 14, 2015.

Eskelinen, Markku. 2001. "The Gaming Situation." The international journal of computer game research.

Eskelinen, Markku. 2001. "Towards Computer Game Studies, Part 1: Narratology and Ludology." Helsinki.

Role of Materiality in Auditing in Advanced Auditing
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Auditing; Topic: Materiality in Auditing

With respect to the field of auditing, materiality is a critically important concept addressing the significance of discrepancies, amounts, and transactions. Specific materiality guidelines are required in accounting practices to avoid judgmental (legal) decisions. Materiality is applied for most, if not all, economic decisions, and the topic of materiality is not a new issue. Disclosures in re financial statements have been emphasized by courts in the United Kingdom since the 1800's, whereas materiality initially rose to importance in the United States following 1933's Security act. The significance of the materiality concept and its implications are pertinent to business decisions, as well as for analysis and preparation of financial statements and in order to apply GAAP, generally accepted accounting principles.

For the accounting field, as well as for all fields of management, the concept of materiality is central to decision making. If something is considered to…


Ball, R., and P. Brown. (1968). An Empirical Evaluation of Accounting Income Numbers. Journal of Accounting Research 6 (Autumn): 158-178

Brennan, N. & Gray, S., (2005). The Impact of Materiality: The Impact of Materiality:. The ICFAI Journal of Accounting Research, IV (1), pp. 61-84.

Chewning G., S. Wheeler, and K. Chan. (1998). Evidence on Auditor and Investor Materiality Thresholds Resulting from Equity-for-Debt Swaps. Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory (Spring): 39-53.

Collins, D., and W. Salatka. (1993). Noisy Accounting Earnings Signals and Earnings Response Coefficients: The Case of Foreign Currency Accounting. Contemporary Accounting Research 10(1) Fall: 119-159.

Theories Related to Organizational Change
Words: 2545 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 13579303
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Organizational theory refers to the behavioral and social theories which help in the understanding of both informal and formal organizations. It makes references to a number of fields - anthropology, sociology, psychology, semiotics, economics, communications science, history and cybernetics (Sage Publications, n.d). The field has become popular with sociological researchers. Many of these researchers, drawn from such fields as medical sociology, social movements, political sociology and education, have realized the need to study this concept because of the role in empirical research that big organizations play. Scholars out of this field have always found discussions regarding organizational theory arcane. These scholars also hold the view that all that organizational theory concerns itself with is firms and so it is not applicable in other social situations. The formal or complex organization is the study object in organizational theory. Assumptions are made that there exists goals, rules, hierarchy and definitions of membership…


Ascher, W. (2000). Applying classic organization theory to sustainable resource & environmental management. Retrieved from 

Boundless. (2014). Why Study Organizational Theory?. Retrieved from

Cohen, D, & Prusak, L. (2001). In Good Company. How social capital makes organizations work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Conner, D. (1990). The changing nation: Strategies for citizen action (Handout materials). Atlanta: ODR, Inc.ent document.

Gender Sexuality and Advertising
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Advertising's most fundamental function is to sell products, but in order to do so, advertising must also shape the values and norms of the culture. One of the most obvious ways advertising shapes social norms and cultural values is through the representations of gender and sexuality. Few products other than adult toys, condoms, and others of an overtly sexual nature offer as much potential to shape, play with, and manipulate gender and sexuality than undergarments. In an advertisement for its line of men's underwear, the company Under Armour promotes an ordinary product by claiming that it has an erotic appeal. The fine print of the advertisement states mainly that the underwear is comfortable and can keep the wearer "cool and dry," but the image speaks more about the way the underwear will confer grand sexual prowess and status on the males who wear it. Although the Under Armour advertisement is…

Works Cited

Kilbourne, Jean. Killing Us Softly. Film.

Kilbourne, Jean. "Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt."

Solomon, Jack. "Masters of Desire: The Culture of American Advertising." From The Signs of Our Times. Putnam, 1988.