My mother's language added yet another complex of signs: her words conveyed meaning and betrayed her psychological and social background and her particular views of marriage as a social institution with personal implications. Layers of meaning were embedded into a single object in one moment of time.
Signs are as arbitrary as Saussure implied. However, Landry would not be wearing a gold band on her fourth (the "ring") finger if that object did not itself signify something in the cultural context. A finger has a name associated with the object, and marriage is the sign. The symbol of ring on a ring finger is nearly universal and yet at the same time it is arbitrary. It is not as if the ring finger is the only one that can wear a ring, and there is no reason why the condition of being married cannot be signified by a different symbol:…… [Read More]
The content of such a system, Eco continues, depends on our cultural organization of the world into several categories. And this categorization does not necessarily mean the very physical world in which we live:
Euclid's world is not a physical one, but a possible universe organized into points, lines, planes, angles, and so forth. It is a self-sufficient universe in which there are [...] only cultural units such as the concept of similitude and none such as the concept of love or justice. I can communicate about the Euclidian universe, making true or false assertions [...], but the units triangle and line are, in themselves, neither true nor false. They are simply the pertinent or relevant elements of the Euclidean universe. Thus a signification system allows its possible users to isolate and name what is relevant to them from a given point-of-view." (ibid)
With regard to colors and their analysis,…… [Read More]
Suturing in Film Theory and Other Narrative Practices
On a very literal level, to suture something is to sew something back together, usually imperfectly, usually with a substance that is alien to the body that is being altered -- such as the doctor's suturing thread that stitches together an open wound. On a semiotic level, according to Jacques-Alain Miller, Miller's definition of suture (in a nutshell) is that the suturing process in culture is the process through which a subject is joined into the signifying chain of culture, allowing a signifier to stand-in for the subject's absence in discourse. (Suture as a Laconian Concept)
This idea is derived from the Laconian concept of gesture, or pseudo-identification, where one thing is used to stand in for another in a system of signification. This standing-in sutures the system of signification, and makes it seem more seamless than it truly is. The stand-in…… [Read More]
Its product debut in Atlanta occurred the same year as the Statue of Liberty was erected in New York City. The Coca-Cola Company (2011) avers its achievement of material culture: "It was 1886, and in New York Harbor, workers were constructing the Statue of Liberty. Eight hundred miles away, another great American symbol was about to be unveiled." The first Coca-Cola sold for 5 cents per glass at the Jacobs' Pharmacy soda fountain: the primary means by which consumers encountered the soft drink during its early existence and years before it became the cultural icon that is not ironically compared with the Statue of Liberty. The original inventor of Coca-Cola has been nearly forgotten in the annals of cultural history. John Pemberton's name is not the household word, but the product he created has since taken on a life of its own. Coca-Cola has yielded books entitled, For God,…… [Read More]
Therefore, the "day the music died" was the day music and politics became fused. The Vietnam War, the Kennedy assassination, the Civil Rights movement, and other historical events also evoke imagery associated with death. "The day the music died" also marked the day merica's Golden ge died too. During the 1960s music became associated with sex, drugs, and violence: in stark contrast to the childlike "doo-wop" days of the 1950s.
McLean weaves in references to British groups the Beatles and the Rolling Stones to show how the British invasion altered the landscape of merican music. In addition to using musical references, McLean also writes about merican popular culture through film stars like James Dean, who also died tragically and whose iconic career embodies the central themes of "merican Pie." Like Buddy Holly and Richie Valens, James Dean was also a 1950s icon. His death also marked the "day the music…… [Read More]
Although the general public is not likely to know what semiotics is the concepts that have been used by the cultural study known as semiotics have been used by advertising and marketing professionals for a number of years. Through the use of semiotics such professionals have successfully used the information and techniques suggested through semiotics to manipulate the consumer culture so that certain products are now considered to represent style, success, and power in modern society. Semiotics, which is simply, the study of signs and their impact on life, is not a recognized science but incorporates many of the same techniques in defining its studies and recommendations. egardless of its acceptance as a legitimate educational discipline, semiotics has successfully transformed modern culture through its use by advertisers and marketers. It has allowed manufacturers such as Burberry and Gucci to become not only leading clothing manufacturers but also cultural icons. Cultural…… [Read More]
Semiotically, however, the term evolved in the region to symbolize a characteristic aspect of shared cultural attitudes related very directly to the motivation for the murder of the civil rights activists.
Finally, the 1970s counterculture heavily emphasized illicit recreational drug use:
The birds flew off with the fallout shelter Eight miles high and falling fast Again linking the 1950s with the 1970s, the semiotic relevance of high very likely corresponds to the so-called high of hallucinogenic experiences associated with LSD use whereas the fallout shelter evokes a symbol quite unique to American society of the Cold War era of paranoia of unprovoked Communist attack. EFEENCES
Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Macionis, J.J. (2003) Sociology 9th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
O'Brien, P. (1999) American Pie: The analysis…… [Read More]
This will translate to certain philosophies that govern their paintings, films or novels. Such believes are deep-rooted in the society and affect the social, cultural, and economic aspects of the society. According to theorists of intertextuality, the authorship of any text is not real. To them, people claiming authorship or ownership of texts, are insincere and disingenuous. As Ronald Barthes pointed out, every author or artist, depend on the already existing art. Therefore, even the originality is controversial. As proponents of intertextuality, they doubted the authorship since texts are simply multidimensional space where variety of writings blends and clash. In the book, Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (1929), the author attests to every text or reading as a mere rewriting of the existing texts or materials. Under extreme circumstances, readers construct authors. Some authors still contest authorship of selected materials, as the ideas are usually the same.
Framing is…… [Read More]
Popular culture defines what is desired by any given sociological group based on pressure by peers. Every moment of the day, we are saturated by culture. hen we turn on the television, not only are we watching the programs but we are inundated by advertisers trying to convince the viewer that there is some new product that needs to be purchased or a new movie that needs to be seen or a new service that is essential to the happiness of the consumer. On the Internet, each inquiry provides banner headlines where we are also bombarded with advertisements and attitudes. Similarly, there are billboards and ads on cars and radio commercials while we drive to and from work. It is characteristic of a capitalistic society that so much of our culture has to do with the consumption of goods and services (Yar, Lecture 2, slide 2). Everywhere someone or something…… [Read More]
The Jewish naming in Istanbul was foreign to the local people.)
It is for that reason too that we are so apt to see communication or transmission of language as a 'simple' ordinary activity and expect the other to understand us. We forget (as Delaney for one pointed out) that language is a string of interpretations that symbols into verbal form. The symbols -- the way that we see the phenomena -- are engineered by our own particular experiences. Ipso facto, it therefore makes sense that each interprets these phenomena differently and that each imposes a different lens as symbol. It follows, therefore, that we are bound to fail in catching the drift of the person's message (or communication) as the sender intends it.
This was the insight that came to me through the project of watching two people communicate to one another in the cafeteria. It was as though…… [Read More]
Prater Violet was above all else a book meant to elaborate on the creative process as it pertains to film. And although Prater Violet as not intended an avenue for analysis of literary theories, the characters display behaviors and personalities that fall into several theories contemplated in Terry Eagleton' s: Literary Theory:An Introduction. New Criticism, as Eagleton explains, points to the non-essential qualities of novels in their lack of need of an author's life and experiences to draw from. Analysis of the characters can be solely based on their own modalities rather than having anything derived from the writer.
As New Criticism states that the author's life can stand to have no influence on the characters of a story, Structuralism also focuses on elements within works of literature refraining from concentrating on historical social, and biographical influences, but rather linguistics. As Eagleton stated in his book: "If the poem was…… [Read More]
ad and analyze it though Semiotics.
Make an overall judgment, observation and interpretation.
Talk about the signification
What are the signifiers in the ad?
What do they signify?
What meaning does that assign to the product?
What social values / norms does this promote?
Are these particular social groups that the ad speaks to? Not speak to?
What are the possible alternate Interpretations?
Examine all parts: Image, text, background, colors, font
The Patek Philippe print advertising campaign has used the iconic slogan "Begin your own tradition" for fifteen years. This campaign deploys a photographic image depicting a father and son in a warm, timeless moment of parent-child bonding.
Photographs for this campaign are typically in black and white, evoking nostalgia, tradition, a sense of time passing and family heritage. This image focuses on the emotional bond between a father and son, allowing viewers to connect with the image on a…… [Read More]
Messages are normally communicated verbally or non-verbally. Verbal communication may be written or oral. Non-verbal communication means engaging visual signs or audio signs in order to communicate a message. Nonverbal signals are a significant part of the communication procedure. These consist of hand gestures, facial eye contact, touch languages, body movements, posture, and vocal modulations. They can deliver as much significance as words, presenting feelings for instance fear, joy, and anger. Audiences also measure character traits for instance honesty and trustworthiness by means of a speaker's nonverbal actions. An assortment of theories has been established to study these types of communication. ith that said, the two theories that are to be discussed in this paper are Proxemics and Semiotics.
Semiotics and Proxemics: hat are they?
Semiotics is basically what is called the study of signs in body, words, language, and sounds. Researchers in this area look for instructions that regulate…… [Read More]
Ultimately, what modern iconography teaches us is that history is a prism from which we cannot escape. Art, and the study of its meaning, ultimately situates us within this prism and helps us connect the past with the present, while also paving the way towards a future conception of meaning in the visual realm.
Bal, Mieke and Norman Bryson. "Semiotics and Art History: A Discussion of Context and Senders," 1991. Reprinted in Preziosi, Donald, ed. The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Carvajal, Rina. "Mapping Out the Self: The ork of Guillermo Kuitca." Guillermo
Kuitca. Rotterdam: itte de ith, 1990.
Goldberg, Vicki. "It's a Leonardo? it's a Corot? ell, No, it's Chocolate Syrup." New
York Times (September 25, 1998). Retrieved on Nov. 15, 2007 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9406EED61639F936A1575AC0A96E958260#.
Panofsky, Erwin. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1955.
Panofsky, Erwin. Studies in Iconology:…… [Read More]
Changes within a text are accounted for as transformations in the synchronic system, and this meant a tendency to fail to deal with time and social changes, which concerned many of the method's critics from the beginning.
Ferdinand de Saussure offers an explication of the linguistic approach and the meaning of language and contributed to the development of structuralism. He sees the nature of communication as deriving from ongoing processes and also considers the relationship between the human being and language as a social relationship. He offers an analysis of the different planes on which language operates and so points to areas for study and comprehension to be applied to literary criticism as to language studies in general. In emphasizing process, he also emphasizes structure, for he denies that we can begin with units -- with words, say, or phonemes -- and instead sees language as deriving meaning and value…… [Read More]
advert employed psycholinguistics in its aim to manipulate readers to buy the product. The 'Fairy Soap' advertisement was used and investigated for the use of concrete imagery -- a strategy of psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics says that concrete imagery not only forges associations but also makes imagery more vivid and helps reader comprehend and faster remember words. Analysis of the advert in terms of the concrete imagery used showed that all applied. Discussion sums up result and concludes that that readers can be more readily manipulated into buying the product -- unless they were aware that they are being deliberately manipulated by people who know how to make words sound psychologically appealing.
The Concrete Appeal of Soap
None of us wish to be manipulated, but unfortunately, advertisements -- the world of marketing -- uses techniques that indiscernibly manipulates us and influences us in certain way. People tend to think that is only…… [Read More]
), [he knows] that media companies are responsive to pressure when it is sustained, sophisticated and well executed," he fails to offer any concrete examples of this kind of pressure or how it might actually be applied (Schechter, 2003, p. 242). He does propose "a Media and Democracy Act, an omnibus bill that could be a way of showing how all of these issues are connected," but he does not provide any details of what might actually be included in this all-encompassing piece of hypothetical legislation (p. 242). Rather, he simply asserts that this potential legislation (that, if it actually included regulations to effectively combat the problems with American journalism would almost certainly never have passed at the time of his writing and would still be extremely unlikely now) could magically "create one easy to market and explain package of proposals that can forge a coalition with many stakeholders and…… [Read More]
English for Academic purposes (EAP) teaching and research have come up. These are the systematic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and other parts of the world (for example Lee, 2010; Hood, 2006; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacy approaches in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world (for example Lillis & Scott, 2008; Turner, 2004; Thesen & Pletzen, 2006). Despite the two approaches drawing from sociocultural and ethnographic traditions, they tend to have a focus on various facets of EAP. As a language theory, SFL has used linguistic analysis for the establishment of nature of discourses and avenues of getting students participate in the discourses. The pedagogy and research have focused on language systems, language being used and texts. Most academic research literatures have focused on investigating ethnographic leanings and critiquing the predominant institutional and academic practices. The methods in use have focused on finding practices, identities of…… [Read More]
Unintentional Appropriation in Cultures
The cultural appropriation concept of using another culture's symbol, genres, artifacts, rituals, or technologies, as per Rogers is just inescapable when two of them had to meet at a certain point of time. This includes both the virtual as well as the representational contacts. Such appropriations involve in exploiting the marginalized and colonized cultures and help in the survival of subordinated cultures. Their resistance to dominant cultures is also quite visible. According Rogers, the definition of cultural appropriation is the association of one culture to another and ends their own culture. This imitation or borrow tactic might have been done unintentionally to deconstruct or distort one's culture and this is a form of appropriation. [footnoteRef:1] [1:. Ibid., 476]
We can even say that the Cultural appropriation as an active process that represents the meaning as 'taking'. However, cultural appropriation does not include the mere exposures to…… [Read More]
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…… [Read More]
Royal Magistrate courts were installed because of Henry II, making it easier for justice to be done, as local disputes no longer had to be arbitrated by the Crown. The English law system was antiquated during Henry's reign, given that people settled their disputes through trial by ordeal or through trial by combat. The King was supportive toward a system that would employ several individuals forming a jury meant to decide whether a particular individual was guilty or not.
Members of the church were advantaged during the early years of Henry II's reign, since they did not have to subject to the same laws applied to normal individuals. Being aware of this injustice, Henry set out several laws which were meant to limit the church's influence and to make the law equally applicable for everyone (Sherman & Salisbury, 258). In spite of his strength of mind, he experienced little success…… [Read More]
She finds herself in a strange entanglement with her husband's ex-lover, the friendly man, and the young woman who wants "to hold him fast in a re-enactment of the Old Scottish ballad that re-echoes throughout the story" (aterston, 262). However, neither one of these women is able to hold the man fast; "I can't make two women happy," he says (Munro, 103).
The whole idea of "holding someone fast" resonates in different ways throughout the story. Hazel was not able to hold her husband fast and she must come to terms with the fact that she, in some ways, abandoned him before he died -- not "striving toward him" in the past or in the present in memory (Munro, 104).
The song sang in the story is about a young man who is captured by fairies and wants more than anything to go back to human life. The young man…… [Read More]
During the Civil ar, the Confederate flag invoked pride and solidarity among the Southern states. The flag did not as much symbolize racism as it did rebellion against the federal government in ashington, D.C. In fact, this remains one of the key reasons why some Americans continue to glorify the stars and bars. For those who support it, the flag is a symbol of rebellion, independence, and freedom from federalism.
However, the Confederate flag also represented the interests of slave-owners and those who profited from their political and economic motives. Because of this historical association, the stars and bars can never be completely dissociated from racism in America. The complex semiotics of the Confederate flag mirror the heterogeneity within American society.
"Confederate Flag." Retrieved Feb 2, 2010 from http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/Confederate_Flag.htm
Sarratt, David. "The Confederate Flag: Controversy and Culture." Retrieved Feb 2, 2010 from http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CLASS/AM483_97/projects/sarratt/intro.html… [Read More]
Use the appropriate representations to model problems in the physical and social sciences (Ibid.)
Numeration Systems and Number Theory -- Number theory is a basis for all areas of mathematics. Number theory and sense are precludes to computation, to estimate, and to have an understanding of the ways numbers are represented and interrelated. Fluency of also understanding the way positive and negative numbers can be visually represented on a line, or how numerical values interrelate, are essential prior to moving toward higher level concepts (Kane, 2002).
Algebraic Thinking and Problem Solving -- ather than viewing the subject of algebra as certain sets of problems, the appropriate way to introduce it into elementary levels is as the relationship among quantities, the use of symbols, the modeling of phenomena, and the study of change. Students should be able to understand patterns, relations, and functions and how numbers may be represented in different…… [Read More]
(athus) (Day) ("Susan Elliot")
Clearly, the five different works are illustrating how the art of the 21st century is taking the techniques of the past and they are incorporating them with contemporary beliefs. The way that this is occurring is through using classical themes and approaches to set the mood of each piece of art. Then, it is building upon them by taking modern day issues and highlighting the importance of them.
Once this takes place, is the point that these beliefs will become a part of the message that the artist is sending to the viewer. This is when they will have a greater understanding of these ideas and will be motivated to take action. As a result, 21st century art is illustrating how these images are influencing everyone.
"Cathe Hendrick." Cathe Hendrick, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012
"David Hatton." David Hatton, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012…… [Read More]
Communications as a Discipline
By its very definition, "communication is a social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in the environment." ("SPC 3210, Chapter 1") But it is more than just a social process, there are a number of other aspects involved in communication. Whether it is thought of in terms of one of the three models: linear, interaction, or transactional, communication involves many other facets than just the transmission of information from one person to another. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 1") There are psychological aspects of communication, as well as semantic, physical, and physiological ones. Therefore, Communication is a discipline which crosses over into a number of other disciplines such as psychology, sociology, physiology, politics, ethics, and many others.
While the study of communication shares aspects with many other disciplines, none of them can alone encompass all that communication means. Because communication involves interaction between…… [Read More]
power and describe the three ways that the authors suggest this subject may be viewed and modeled. The essay will conclude with comments on the criticalness of this article and discuss the aims of this article and what the authors are wishing to transform or modify.
The authors suggested that the process of naming streets was directly linked to expressing explicit power over a situation or territory. This can be compared to a dog marking his territory by spreading his marking or scent. They wrote " the discursive act of assigning a name to a given location does much more than merely denote an already existing place. ather, as scholars from various fields have suggested, the act of naming is itself a performative practice that calls forth the 'place' to which it refers by attempting to stabilize the unwieldy contradictions of sociospatial processes into the seemingly more 'managable' order…… [Read More]
An English classroom can be carefully designed to cultivate an atmosphere conducive to multiple literacies. The key elements to classroom design include overall design elements including layout of furniture, lighting, and the controls on sound and noise. Other critical components include technologies and tangible tools to encourage hands-on learning and interactive engagement with material. The curricula, pedagogical tools, and learning strategies might be able to inform some elements of classroom design, but other elements may remain immutable. Therefore, instructors focusing on English literacy need to be adaptable and flexible, making the most of their environments and overcoming its limitations. In fact, students can become actively involved in the dynamics of the learning environment, which may increase motivation and empowerment (Phillips, 2014). Social learning theories and constructivism both provide theoretical frameworks to guide intelligent, participative, and evidence-based classroom design. Likewise, cognitive science offers tremendous insight into ideal methods of classroom design.…… [Read More]
Success-promoting action questions involve "resource adequacy, management and control structure, bureaucratic rules and regulations, political effectiveness, and feedback and evaluation" (437). Following the necessary pattern of realistic yet personally-sensitive inquiry when formulating good questions, Wolman considers the fact that differing situations will require discretion with regard to how much value is placed on measurement vs. action questions. Wolman concludes that no matter what, implications for success vs. failure must be considered and questioned thoroughly before any public policy plan is carried out. Further research along these lines may result in a formal guiding theory on the "why's and how's" of ensuring program or policy success.
Behn, . (1995). The Big Questions of Public Management. Public Administration eview, 55 (4), 313.
Brewer, J. (2005). Formulating esearch Questions, in Foundations in Multimethod esearch. Sage Publications.
Camburn, E., owan, B., & Taylor, J.E. (2003). Distributed Leadership in Schools: The Case of Elementary…… [Read More]
Vaughn et al. (2003) report that the identification of LD students has increased upwards of 200% since 1977, with explanations ranging from a likely outcome of the growing knowledge field, to LD as a field serving as a sink for the failures of general education to meet the needs of students of varying abilities. The study investigators find that not only is the heterogeneity of the identified students quite wide, they also find that many students are overrepresented (misidentified) or underrepresented (unidentified). One large problem is the use of IQ tests to identify those students as learning disabled. Using standardized tests fails to accurately identify those students who either have reading difficulties or those students whose first language is not English. More emphasis is needed on response to instruction type models of assessment and intervention to replace ineffective normalized standards for identifying students at risk and properly placing students for…… [Read More]
The beginning pages of this chapter are significant because they do a good job of explaining the relationship between the Enlightenment and modernity, which helps establish a cultural framework for works from modern times. In addition, they help demonstrate that modernity can help explain the eternal if one looks at discrete units of time and all of its qualities.
Anderson, Benedict. "Introduction." Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991. 1-7.
Benedict Anderson begins his introduction by talking about the major transformation in Marxism that was occurring at the time of his writing. He believes that these transformations were self-evident because of wars occurring in Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Furthermore, he states that these wars of historically important because the violence has been largely indefensible from a Marxist perspective, even if the world has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the original Marxist states. Post World War II revolutions have been characterized by…… [Read More]
For this reason, the Americans and Cubans probably did have to use some of the techniques proposed by Shannon and Weaver to simplify communication in order to communicate at all. Despite the fact that communication between these two groups may have been difficult, and that coming together in order to form one design project produced by such culturally diverse designers may have resulted in the portrayal of mixed messages, some theorists contend that this does not matter. Indeed, it is only the "reader's" impression upon interpreting the text that matters. In the case of O'Bryan's designers, the reader is the Toni O'Bryan, and the other founders of the project. Thus, because of this concept -- called "The Death of the Author" -- the mixed messages that the Cubans and Americans may have revealed would be overshadowed by the reader's interpretation. Thus, Bennett and Robert propose a variety of theories and…… [Read More]
The gist of the argument that Hundley (2004) makes is that men still spend much of their time in this 'gentlemen's game' of golf making derogatory comments to other (male) players in ways that are inappropriate and actually derogatory to females. These include comments such as suggesting that men who do not hit the ball well 'hit it with their purse,' and requesting that they 'put on a skirt and hit from the forward tees' (Hundley, 2004). While many believe that these forward tees are designed for golfers who are not yet as skilled, most scorecards and course information mark them as the 'ladies' tees.' It could be argued that this is done as a courtesy to women, to treat them fairly because they are typically not as strong as men. However, Hundley (2004) clearly feels that this is one more example of the way that Semiotics are used by…… [Read More]
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]
" Shin (2006) Shin also states that the CMC literature "illustrates shifts of focus to different layers of context." Early on, research relating to CMC in language learning and teaching looked at the linguistic content of CMC text to examine how language learners could improve certain communication functions and learn linguistic figures through CMC activities (lake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Ortega, 1997; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith 2000, Sotlillo, 2000; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002, Tudini, 2003; Warschauer, 1996) Recent studies of "tellecollaborative projects have examined how language learners jointly construct the contexts of their CMC activities, as part of their focus on tensions among intercultural communication partners. (elz, 2003, 2003; Kramsch & Thorn, 2002; O'Dowd, 2003; Ware 2000, War & Kramsch, 2005) IN the study of Shin (2006) which was "informed by Ware's (2005) examination of a tellecollaborative communication project between American college students and German students" Shin (2006) looks into…… [Read More]
The panopticon centralizes the space of the observer while simultaneously mystifying the act of observation, such that the threat may be ever-present even if an actual prison guard is not. In the same way, Foucault's conception of the societal panopticon imposes its standards on the individual, who must conform to the standards of society due to a fear of the possibility of discovery and punishment. According to Foucault, "the Panopticon is a privileged place for experiments on men, and for analyzing with complete certainty the transformations that may be obtained from them" (Foucault 204). The space the narrator finds himself in at the beginning of The Unnamable functions in this same way, except that in this case the object of the panopticon's gaze has not undergone the process of subjectification prior to finding itself there.
The narrator simply exists upon the reading of the novel, and is subsequently unable to…… [Read More]
Anderson, RW & Chantal K. 1998, Transition banking: financial development of central and eastern Europe, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Barley, 1983, emiotics and the study of occupational and organizational cultures, Administrative cience Quarterly, Vol.28, pp.393-413.
Blount, E 2004, Bad rap on Russian banking? ABA Banking Journal, no.12, pp.47-52.
Brown, J 1987, A review of meta-analyses conducted on psychotherapy outcome research, Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, pp. 1-23.
Bullis, CA & Tompkins, PK 1989, The forest ranger revisited: A study of control practices and identification, Communication Monographs, Vol. 56, Issue.4, pp.287-306.
Chorafas, DN 2000, Reliable Financial reporting and Internal Control: A Global Implementation Guide, Wiley, New York.
Collins, EM 1998, Myth, manifesto, meltdown: communist strategy, 1848-1991, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport.
Czarniawska, B & Joerges, B 1996, Travels of ideas, pp.13-48, ee Czarniawska & evon 1996.
Denison, D 2003, Reviews on Organizational Culture: Ashkanasy, Wilderom, and Peterson (ed.) The Handbook of…… [Read More]
speech version Bank Workspace
Greetings, Thanks! I'm NAME, I used to be in banking, until the S&L crisis.
in fact my first job was as a teller; I moved up the normal channels, our branch became so successful I was promoted into regional management. We did so well our bank was taken over, and I was downsized, along with all the rest of middle management, and so I started this consulting firm.
So now I just use banks. Why? Well I have to, to some degree, but because I want to make money, and that's what banks do.
Why do you go to work every day? Well, to make money! Why does the bank open its doors every day? To make money. Anyone here want to make more money? Who wants to make more? I'm here to tell you today how you can do that, and also…… [Read More]
Additionally, many were on their cell phones; it seemed like they were purposely trying to find ways to keep them from interacting with each other. This showed a clear disconnect between the different subgroups that are in such close proximity of one another. Only a few actually spoke to each other, and when this was observed it was typically using only brief statements. Social manners say a lot about a society's culture. Watching what interactions that did take place showed the clear signs of what is acceptable within this society. People would ask each other questions with polite statements ending in "please" and "thank you." This signifies a sense of manners, but also a sense of coldness that only is present within interactions between strangers. The interactions between these individuals were very formal, showing a use of language that separated the individuals from other members of society who might otherwise…… [Read More]
Constructivism in all forms faces many obstacles and hurdles in getting fair application in the classroom of schools today for many reasons. One reason is that when constructivism is applied properly and fully to a classroom environment, the teacher may find him or herself in the "backseat" while the students steer the direction of the learning process. It removes much of the inherent hierarchal power of the teacher vs. The student in the classroom. Students are allowed a very high degree of autonomy. There is a strong tendency in our society to subordinate children and to keep children submissive to the dominant adult figures in their lives, and within the school it is completely unheard of to treat students as equals to the teachers. This is due to the belief of both teachers and parents that children are not equal to adults. The rationalist myth of "cold reason"…… [Read More]
His imprisonment and escapes, attempts on his life are one of the most regular and yet remarkable commissioned work (Indiana).
Even though the book is overall interesting but what lacks in writing skill, is that he was more than making up his personality, to the extent that his brilliant life and pleasure for living bursts through the embarrassing form at some points in the book. However, Cellini's story reads better than a novel He is the quintessential Renaissance man.
Another weakness of the book is that the reader at times may find it difficult to understand much of the details relating to the alliances of Cellini's Italy and especially difficult for those to follow who doesn't know much about the Renaissance. In addition, he seemed to be a little arrogant on occasion. However, one should not mistake of taking Cellini's book as painting a portrait of his times, as…… [Read More]
Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.
Summary and Conclusion
While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…… [Read More]
eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.
One sign that is frequently taken…… [Read More]
Without hope, The Count of Monte Cristo would fall apart and become a tragic novel of only vengeance, rather than a work of art that inspires readers to stay firm in their convictions and realize their dreams are attainable.
Bloom Harold, ed. Eugene O'Neill. Modern Critical Views. New York: Chelsea House
Coward, D. & Dumas, A. (1998). Twenty years after. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dumas, A. (1928). The Count of Monte Cristo. ahway, NJ: Mershon.
Elam, K. (1980). The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. London: Methuen.
Enge, E.A. (1953) The Haunted Heroes of Eugene O'Neill. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
Floyd, V. (1979). Eugene O'Neill: A World View. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing
Goldstein, Yael. SparkNote on The Count of Monte Cristo. 2 Nov. 2005 http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/montecristo/.
Grenier, C. (2002). "How he earned a place in Pantheon." The Washinton Times, Dec. 8,
Kaplan, J. (2003). "Treasure and vengeance."…… [Read More]
In their book, Progress in Modern Psychology: The Legacy of American Functionalism, Owens and Wagner (1992) suggest that contemporary psychology reflects a common vision of the naturalistic framework that was first inspired by William James and later refined by John Dewey, James owland Angell, Harvey Carr, among others. In this regard, Owens and Wagner argue that one of the key contributors to early functionalism was John Dewey. In sharp contrast to the aforementioned structuralist approach which would analyze a situation into its continent parts, Dewey believed that sensation and the subsequent motor responses could not be legitimately separated, but rather comprised a more linear analysis that provided a coordinated response to a given condition (Owens & Wagner, 1992).
According to Zuriff (1985), behaviorism is not the science of behavior (consisting of findings, principles, laws, and theories that are formulated through the study of behavior) but rather provides a conceptual…… [Read More]
This postmodernist writing that finally ends up having a dialogue with itself reveals an idea common to most of the postmodern art: that language and formulations, as means of expression, are also a means of finding the meaning of something, and that most often, meanings do not reside out of language.
But, at the same time, Handke also demonstrates that the life can sometimes be to terrible to be expressed in language.
The book ends, significantly, with the same Handke sitting at his desk and reading the article about the suicide of a woman. It is not only that the writing turns upon itself, to reveal that the most important subject of the book has not been altogether elucidated and has not been given meaning to yet, but also, the fact that the author is in front if a piece if a newspaper article relating this event is crucial: the…… [Read More]
For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement encompasses behaviours such as pushing the envelope on Islamic dress, sexual behaviours, heterosocializing, driving around in cars playing loud illegal music, partying, drinking, dancing and so on -- to include basically, young people doing what they were not supposed to do under Islamic law" (Mahdavi, 2012, p.35).
In fact, the link between how a society approaches sex and that society's overall approaches towards human rights is interesting to note. Generally, the more liberal a society and the more protective of individual freedoms, the more permissive that society's approach will be towards sexuality, particularly female sexuality. In fact, when a totalitarian regime has been challenged, there seems to be a swing in the other direction, with an embrace of human rights, including rights…… [Read More]
Why should Christian theology be contextual? Explore this by referring to four important issues such as culture, liberation theology, feminist theology, and queer theology.
Christian theology should be contextual because religious expression is dependent on culture. Historical and cultural context have continually impacted the development of Christian theology. Biblical allegories and the gospels are contextual in that they refer to the life and times of Christ, with additional references to Hebraic culture and values. Paul's subsequent neoplatonic stamp on Christianity likewise must be appreciated within its cultural and historical context. The artifice of papal doctrine is in the preposterous assumption that Christian theology is somehow absolute. In fact, theology shifts according to the semiotics of culture and the language used to cloak the Christian vision in terms understandable to the audience.
Christian theology has essential, core elements, which do not lend themselves to contextualization. For example, fundamental issues like…… [Read More]
retain racial prejudices and how can we break such molds? acism and prejudices, just like reading and speaking, are taught. This is one of the easy ways to develop and retain racial prejudices. Babies, toddlers, children, and even adolescents are highly susceptible to their environments. Yes, as children age into adolescents, they begin to think and act with more independence and defiance, yet they are not outside of the realm of influence from their families. The views, attitudes, perceptions, and language that people grow up in build the foundation for nearly all of their own attitudes. This is a reason why concerned and aware parents will seek to find a balance between exposing their children to a variety of people, so that they will not be fearful of people who are different, with being careful about to whom they expose their children to, either because some people do not agree…… [Read More]
Contemporary Feminist Advocacy
Although there is not absolute consensus, popular writings about feminism suggest that there have been three waves of feminism: (1) The first wave of feminism is said to have occurred in the 18th through the 20th centuries and was characterized by a focus on suffrage; (2) The decades spanning 1960 to 1990 are said to encompass the second wave of feminism, to which a concern with cultural and legal gender inequality is attributed; and (3) The third wave of feminism began in the early 1990s partly in response to the conservative backlash the second wave engendered, and partly in recognition of the unrealized goals of the second wave of feminism up to that time ("NOW," 2009). This third wave of feminism made salient a more subjective voice that pointed at the intersection of race and gender with greater resolve than would have been possible when…… [Read More]
McDonald's Integrated Marketing Campaign
This paper is divided into two distinct sections. The first chapter is based on literature reviews of various scholarly works that are related to the topic of integrated marketing campaign that are also relevant to the McDonald marketing campaign that was created to celebrate the inherent democracy of the McDonald's brand. The first chapter is further divided into three parts; the first section mainly focus on advertising in general and then specifically into fast food advertising. The second section in literature review is based on new media as a marketing communication tool and lastly, in the same chapter different aspects of marketing campaign will also be analyzed. The second chapter is a personal reflection on the experience and lessons learnt by the student while preparing the dissertation.
Table of Content
CHAPTE ONE: Literature review
Types of advertising
1.2.1 Digital advertising…… [Read More]
Religion is an analysis of seven works that the author, Daniel Pals, believes have shaped the understanding of religion in the past century. These theories represent seminal attempts to see religion in its social context as a system of values and beliefs, something that would be popularized by French structuralists and students of myth and semiotics in the last half of the 20th century. The theories reviewed put forth a 'scientific approach to religion' that 'first caught the imagination of serious scholars' in the 19th century. (pg. 10) These theories 'exercised a shaping influence not only on religion but on the whole intellectual culture of our century.' Some of the names put to us are familiar to us, such as Freud and Marx, whereas others are more obscure, such as Tylor and Frazer, Emile Durkheim, Mircea Eliade, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, and Clifford Geertz. The author picks what might be called the…… [Read More]
Wayne Booth is considered one of those principally responsible for the revival of the study of rhetoric, a skill that was valued by the Greeks in their debates and later re-visited by enlightenment-era neo-classicists. is concern for the matter couldn't have been more timely; the late 1950's and early 1960's saw the first televised debates (such as those between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon,) the popularity of shows such as 'Meet the Press, a substantial growth in the legal profession, and a new emphasis on the study of media by MacLuhan and others.
Because Booth is proposing a formula for the proper criticism of essays, we are tempted to approach his essay with an attitude of extreme scrutiny; we are thus able to discern the critical from the merely hypocritical.
Booth illustrates the necessary construction of a speech or essay as a trichotomy: the author must present facts, appeal…… [Read More]
Sociocultural Approaches to Learning and Development
The consistent trend in gender, race and SES gaps in academic achievement has been an increasingly important social issue especially in the context of culturally diverse classrooms. It is in light of this fact that John-Steiner and Mahn's analysis of the Vygotskian framework and its implications for classroom learning and teaching assumes significance. John-Steiner and Mahn provide a clear account of how the three central tenets of the Vygotskian theory establish the interdependence of social and individual processes in the coconstruction of knowledge: individual development (including higher mental functioning) is rooted in social sources; human action, on both the social and individual planes, is mediated by semiotics, and genetic or developmental analysis best explains the first two themes. Using Vygotskian sociocultural theory, including his work on the zone of proximal development and analysis of everyday and scientific concepts, the authors then go on to…… [Read More]
Freud vs. atson
Sigmund Freud and John B. atson
Sigmund Freud and John B. atson were chosen for this essay due to the distinct differences between the two. Freud is known as the Father of Psychoanalysis and atson is known as the Father of Behaviorism.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), was an Austrian physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and is recognized as the founder of psychoanalysis (Freud pp). He is regarded as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century (Freud pp).
In the beginning, Freud worked closely with Joseph Breuer, but went on to elaborate the theory "that the mind is a complex energy-system, the structural investigation of which is proper province of psychology (Freud pp). Freud refined and further articulated the concepts of the unconscious, of infantile sexuality, of repression, and proposed a tri-partite account of the mind's structure (Freud pp).
This was all part of a…… [Read More]
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…… [Read More]
isk Management on a Satellite Development Project
Enrolling a project requires risk assessment and management at various levels of implanting a project. This is based on the knowledge that quality of risk management determines the performance and outcome of the project. In any case, the Project Management Office (PMO) is mandated to spearhead a risk assessment and management plan. isk management blueprints will later be implanted to each department. This analysis attempts to vindicate the role risk management in explaining the quality of output of this project. The commencing document is structured in two main parts. Firstly, a critical assessment on the fundamentality of risk. Secondly, the document will analyze the role of the team in responding to risk management stipulated by the PMO office (Charrel & Galarreta, 2007).
Issues arising from the lack of a risk plan.
Absence of a risk management plan would have affected this project negatively.…… [Read More]
Sigmund Freud and Jean Martin Charcot
Psychology refers to the applied and academic discipline that includes the scientific study of behaviors and mental functions. Anyone who has studied psychology has the immediate understanding groups and individuals through the general principles establish by renowned professionals in this field. Psychologists attempt to understand the role played by mental functions in social behaviors and individuals whilst exploring the biological and psychological process that underlie behaviors and cognitive functions. This study endeavors to explain the important contributions made by two psychologists namely Sigmund Feud and Jean Martin Charcot, and the similarities and contrasts of their contributions.
Sigmund Freud and his contributions
He was a neurologist based in Australia and lived between 1856 and 1939. He was the founder of psychoanalysis. He graduated from the University of Vienna as a qualified doctor and carried out extensive research into aphasia, cerebral palsy and microscopic neuroanatomical. He…… [Read More]
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) guarantees the citizen within the EU a right to respect for private and family life, and is typically appealed to in conjunction with disputes regarding unlawful searches. However, as Wicks, Rainey and Ovey (2014:334) illustrate, Article 8 is actually quite open-ended and may be applied in any number of ways -- even in the case of Y who is threatened with deportation to Nepal.
Article 8 states in two provisions that, first, "everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence," and, second, "there shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime,…… [Read More]
digital games is quite relaxing, as no adequate research has been carried out yet, so nearly anything goes. Writing, in general, about gaming and games is also very much similar. Sadly, and with startling cumulative consequences, games are under-theorized. Although there is the work of authors such as Ehrmann, Huizinga, and Caillois, game theory, philosophical ideas such as the work of Wittgenstein, and libraries teeming with research on board games, one can not get far into the field of computer games using only the above resources. As well, if there is, or will be, a proper computer game research field, it can also be said to be at risk of colonization and intrusion from existing scholarly tribes (Eskelinen 2001). Computer games have to be secured against the colonizing effect of textual and narrative analysis. In the case of semiotics, the idea of "text" generalizes to everything in material existence; however,…… [Read More]