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From the Nursery and Beyond
Does the mother matter? The most obvious response is that, of course, every close caretaker of a child matters to that child's development into a healthy -- or less than healthy -- individual. But how much and in what particular ways do mother and mothering (their general and overall style of interacting with her child/ren) affect the development of the child? This is a point that has been debated in professional conversations for decades. In many ways, the assumptions and positions that are made by scholars mirror the questions that families have: What is the best way for a mother to interact with her child/ren? How important is the relationship between mother and child compared to that between child and other caregivers? And how much of the modeling of the good mother -- in this case the "sensitive" mother -- is based on…
Ainsworth, M. (1969). Maternal sensitivity scales.
Erikson, E. (1956). The problem o ego identity. Journal of the American
Psychoanalytic Association 4, 56 -- 121.
Sensitive mothering: A theoretical overview
Although the nature vs. nurture controversy rages on, regarding the degree to which nurturing can influence childhood development, research does suggest that a particular parenting style is preferred: so-called 'sensitive mothering.' Sensitive mothering is defined as being "highly responsive and available" to a child's needs (Spinrad & Sifter 2011). Mothers who could pick up on their child's nonverbal signals "were more likely to have infants who developed more harmonious relationships with their mothers" (Spinrad & Sifter 2011). These children were also more likely to have positive social relationships with others. While the theory of sensitive mothering began in an era when women were assumed to be the primary caregivers of children, this childhood development theory can be helpful for teachers and other primary caregivers to study, as well as parents of both genders. The style is particularly congruent with the principles of Montessori education.
Bretherton, Inge. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth.
Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775. Retrieved June 3, 2011 at http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/inge_origins.pdf
Erikson's developmental stages. (1990). University of Hawaii.
Retrieved June 3, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/erikson.htm
Mothering and Development
The presence of a sensitive mother throughout a child's developmental period is an essential determinant of healthy growth and maturation. The establishment of a solid social and emotional foundation during a child's formative years can not only aid in preparing one's youngster for life in the outside world, it can also instill a beneficial groundwork in the basic concepts of the self (Cassidy, 1990). In order to achieve such noble maternal goals a good mother needs to possess a plethora of fostering characteristics. The most important of such qualities include love, responsiveness, consistency, an eye to encourage and the ability to provide the child with a sense of security. Successful implementation of the aforementioned traits will allow the child to develop a healthy attachment to the mother. This attachment is most often constructed in the stages of infancy. Through the informative and enlightening work of John owlby…
Caldji, C., Tannenbaum, B., Sharma, S., Francis, D., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (1998, February 24). Maternal Care During Infancy Regulates the Development of Neural Systems Mediating the Expression of Fearfulness in the Rat. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20261/
Cassidy, J. (1990). Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Attachment and the Self in Young Children. In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E.M. Cummings, Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research and Intervention (pp. 87-119). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Cherry, K. (2011). Attachment Theory. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Bretherton, I. (1992). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28 (5), 759-775.
These persons do experience a very high level of anxiety coupled with low avoidance. Therefore they get preoccupied and do feel on a constant basis, a sense of unlovabililty along with that of unworthiness that is combined with an affirmative evaluation of others. The preoccupied style is usually formed whenever a primary care giver is inconsistent in their manner of parenting. This is marked with being loving while being responsive. This is however true only when they are able to manage but not in their response to the child's signals as pointed out by Cassidy (2000).
Several adults have been shown to be exhibiting this style and they are known to be in a constant quest to be accepted by others through the gaining of acceptance of other individuals in the community.
Fearful avoidant style
This is the last type of avoidance styles It comprises of highly negative…
Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Bartholomew, K. (1990). Avoidance of intimacy: An attachment perspective. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 147-178.
Crnic, L.S., Reite, M.L., & Shucard, D.W. (1982). Animal models of human behavior: Their application to the study of attachment. In R.N. Emde & R.J. Harmon (Eds.), The development of attachment and affiliative systems (pp. 31-42). New York: Plenum.
Fonagy, P. (2001) Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis. New York: Other Press.
Harris, M.B. & Franklin, C. (2009). Helping adolescent mothers to achieve in school: An evaluation of the taking charge group intervention. Children & Schools, 31. 27-34.
The article, Helping Adolescent Mothers to Achieve in School: An evaluation of the Taking Charge Group Intervention (Franklin & Harris, 2009) is a quantitative study. It uses a quasi-experimental design with a pre and post test for both the comparison group and treatment group, which is a quantitative design. Participants were all pregnant or parenting adolescent females. For ethical reasons, adolescents were not denied access to the initiative, rather, adolescents self-selected their involvement in the initiative. Those who chose to participate populated the treatment group and those who chose not to participate populated the comparison group.
The intervention at the Taking Charge Initiative is heavily based in theory. Social Learning Theory is the overarching theory that dictates the actions and workings of the intervention.…
Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community
An Analysis of the Benefits of Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community and Strategies for Effective Implementation
The success of any counterinsurgency operation depends largely on the effectiveness and appropriateness of intelligence gathered. Human subjects are a crucial source of intelligence for counterinsurgency operations. Several years back, the U.S. Armed Forces opened up opportunities for women to occupy specific positions in counterintelligence/human intelligence (CI/HUMINT) discipline. However, women still remain underrepresented in the same, and researchers remain largely divided on whether their participation in the same ought to be increased. esearchers have raised concern that the decision to integrate women into HUMINT units could cost the country dearly in the long-term as it is likely to ruin unit cohesion and impede on overall effectiveness. Proponents of the whole idea of integration have, however, argued that the inclusion of women in HUMINT units will actually enhance…
Alderman, M. I. (1993). Women in Direct Combat: What is the Price for Equality? School for Advanced Military Studies Monograph, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
Al-Ali, N. & Pratt, N. (2009). What Kind of Liberation: Women and the Occupation of Iraq. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bartone, P.T. Johnsen, B.H. Eid, J. Brun, W. & Laberg, J.C. (2002). Factors Influencing Small-Unit Cohesion in Norwegian Navy Officer Cadets. Military Psychology, 14(1), 1-22.
Beal, D.J. Cohen, R.R. Burke, M.J. & McLendon, C.L. (2003). Cohesion and Performance in Groups: A Meta-Analytic Clarification of Construct Relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (6), 989-1004.
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…
Stocker, deaf since birth, admittedly attempted to compensate for her disability, her imperfection, through the relentless pursuit of achieving perfection physically and athletically, and even when she excelled, Stocker confesses, for a long time she remained emotionally tortured by disability for which no amount of body shaping or athletic skill in sports could change that disability (2001, p. 154). Stocker's struggle with her self-image, her identity and hers sexuality were in large part shaped by her disability.
While it is not an attempt here to disparage Stocker, or to belittle the significance of her disability; Stocker is a woman who suffered her hearing impairment from birth. Stocker suffered emotionally as a result of her disability, struggled with it for most of her life in the ways in which it impacted her self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. So, might not a woman who acquired a disability at that point her life when…
Barker-Benfield, G.J. (2000). The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108011402 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
Bellerose, S.B., & Binik, Y.M. (1993). Body Image and Sexuality in Oophorectomized Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22(5), 435+. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
DeFries, Z., Friedman, R.C., & Corn, R. (Eds.). (1985). Sexuality: New Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=51035002 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105657669
Sensibility omen's Identities Are Determined and Limited by the Expectations of Their Societies
Literature written by and about women lends itself very well to feminist interpretative approaches of various kinds. Such approaches often examine the literature of earlier centuries for signs of discontent with or subversive suggestions against aspects of a society in which men have exclusive control of power. Such an approach is especially fruitful to use when examining Jane Austen's novels since she was writing in a cultural climate that did not accept direct opposition to the status quo. Only through an indirect critique could she publish views critical of the prevailing laws and conditions under which women of her time were forced to live.
By 1811, when Sense and Sensibility was published, an intense backlash against the women's rights fiction of the 1790s had made the publication of blatantly feminist works impossible in England. Yet the women's…
Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.
Cosslett, Tess. Woman to Woman: Female Friendships in Victorian Fiction. Atlantic Heights: Humanities P, 1988.
Chodorow, Nancy. The Reproduction of Mothering. Berkeley: U. Of California P, 1978.
Defoe, Daniel. Moll Flanders. Ed. And Introduction by David Blewett. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989.
The influence on American society has for long been white. We need to outdo this notion and stretch ourselves outside the stereotypical imagination as part of preparation to move on to the next century. We need to put an end to the needless competition among different ethnic groups. To overthrow this black-white conflict we need to re-examine the same in view of exploring an elective strategy acceptable to all for getting rid of it. Moreover, the most recent expansion of racism has been due to the economic recession that followed the end of post world war boom in the early 1970s (Martinez) which restructured the capital as well as the division of labor; this resulted in feeling of insecurity and consequent search of scapegoats. Another cause of increased racism in the United States is the fear of white, of becoming weak and losing dominance in the coming century. This instead…
Women in Policing
women's initial police work followed work in prisons
Estelle B. Freedman's book, Their Sister's Keepers: Women's Prison eform in America, 1830-1930, focuses not on women emerging as police officers, but rather on women in prisons, and women who were employed by prisons to work with female inmates. On page 19, Freedman explains that in the late 19th Century, "sexual ideology began to suggest that purity came naturally to women, in contrast to men, who had to struggle to control their innate lust." It was argued by "influential Victorian authorities" that women did not have an appetite for sex, but rather they just went through the motions to have children. This attitude laid the groundwork for the vicious hatred society had for "impure women" who had the capacity "to unleash not just male sperm, but more importantly, the social disintegration that sexuality symbolized" (20).
And so, the "fallen…
Freedman, Estelle B. (1981). Their Sisters' Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830-1930. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Schulz, Dorothy Moses. (1995). From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Municipal Policing. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
Segrave, Kerry. (1995). Policewomen: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland