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We have over 1000 essays for "Sentencing"

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Sentence Disparity

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27000964

Sentencing Disparity

Preventing Sentence Disparity

Ultimately, sentencing disparity is rooted in a combination of how laws are authored and how they are enforced. Such is to say that the approach to sentencing in the United States is not itself racially biased. However, when contextualized by a legal system that is decidedly tilted to the disadvantage of African-Americans, Hispanics and other ethnic minorities, sentencing does take on unequal proportions.

The text by orrall (2008) points out that the way certain laws are designed seems to suggest that the system is inherently and purposefully designed to produce longer incarcerations for racial minorities. According to orrall, mandatory minimums are an area in which the strategy of sentencing is especially troubling. Here, the emphasis on using drug sentences in order to produce incarcerations is magnified by the three-strikes format. Here, a third offense, regardless of severity, will result in life imprisonment. This combines with…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Worrall, J. (2008). Crime Control in America: What Works? 2nd ed. Boston: Pearson.
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Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their

Words: 2517 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18974474

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism

There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…… [Read More]

Works cited:


Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)

Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)

Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)
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Sandals Resorts in Opening Sentence Briefly Introduce

Words: 1279 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98021473

Sandals esorts

In opening sentence, briefly introduce Sandals esorts intended analysis. This purpose statement. One sentences sufficient. For, a sentence "The purpose report analyze components marketing mix Gatorade brand.

Marketing Mix: Sandals esort

Overview of company

Sandals esorts is a brand-name series of chain resorts, most of which are located in the Caribbean. The target demographic for the resort is primarily established couples. Sandals seeks to showcase romantic yet affordable destinations for vacationers on honeymoons, weddings, and 'second' weddings. Segmentation variables include that of price and also purpose of the trip -- some individuals may want a quiet getaway, while others use Sandals to engage in major event planning, such as those orchestrating 'destination' weddings. The purpose of this report is to show how Sandals uses product, price, placement, and positioning to effectively segment the market of its target demographic of couples and sustain brand interest in the competitive resort…… [Read More]


FAQs. (2012). Sandals. Retrieved: 

Luxury Suites. (2012). Sandals. Retrieved: 

Sandals Resorts International. (2012). Funding Universe. Retrieved:
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Ariticle a Full Sentence A Summarize Critic's

Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 46108434

ariticle a full sentence. A. summarize critic's interpretation work 3-5 senteces. B. State thesis: sentences, critic's strong arguments weak arguments? learn part critic's strong arguments? A.

Tracey Sherard's "Sonny's Bebop: Baldwin's "Blues Text" as Intracultural Critique"

Tracey Sherard's article "Sonny's Bebop: Baldwin's "Blues Text" as Intracultural Critique" was published in 1998 in the "African-American Review." Sherard intended to have her readers understand more regarding Baldwin's interest in writing the short story. hile someone might be inclined to consider that the text deals primarily with inter-human relations and with the relationship between the narrator and Sonny in particular, Sherard emphasizes the fact that it is actually meant to discuss factors like race, class, and how music can assist individuals in getting over their problems more easily.

From Sherard's perspective, "Sonny's Blues" is meant to focus on the African-American experience in the second half of the twentieth century. Sherard apparently considers that…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Sherard, Tracey, "Sonny's Bebop: Baldwin's "Blues Text" as Intracultural Critique," African-American Review, 1998.
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Non-Pronominal Coding of Active Referents in Message Structure of Sentences

Words: 5498 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33546694

Non-Pronominal Coding of Active Referents

The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of English sentence structures with regard to non-pronominal coding of active referents. In order to do this, it is important to have a baseline definition of non-pronominal (NP) coding and active referents. e look to recent literature and case study of not only English but other languages examined to understand sentence structure. Upon reviewing the literature, it was found that definitions for the pronominal approach were plentiful and easy to understand. As a means of comparison an understanding the NP application, we are also exploring the pronominal approach that acts as a framework for literature. Once these definitions are established, we will look at active referents and their role in sentence structure. Available literature suggests non-pronominal coding is used for active referents. As part of this analysis, it is important to look at other languages…… [Read More]

Works Cited List

Andersen, Han Christian. The Princess and the Pea. Philadelphia: Courage Books, 2002.

Barwise, J. And Perry, J. Situations and Attitudes. Cambridge, Mass: Bradford Books 1982.

Baumann, Stefan. And Grice, Martine. Accenting Accessible Information. Cologne, Germany: Saarland University.

Chafe, Wallace. "Givenness, contrasitiveness, definiteness, subjects, topics and point-of-view." In: Li, Charles) (ed.) Subject and Topic. New York: Academic Press, 1976, 25-56.
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Limit Your Summary to 8 Sentences The

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95942145

limit your summary to 8 sentences.

The research area is in cognitive processes related to performance, skill learning, and execution. It is related to research on mathematics anxiety, stereotype threats, and how those factors affect performance on math-related tasks. In particular, the researchers are interested in the "choking under pressure" phenomenon in which individuals perform poorer than expected on a task they have mastered, because they are under pressure. Moreover, the research touches upon working memory and its relationship to performance on mathematics tasks. Working memory is defined as a short-term memory system that can be especially relevant to concentration on a specific task at hand. Anxiety has been shown to impede working memory, basically by clogging it up with the worrisome thoughts.

Why was the current study conducted?

The current study was conducted to identify the individual traits and circumstances in which choking under pressure is most likely to…… [Read More]


Beilock, S.L. & Carr, T.H. (2005). When high-powered people fail: Working memory and "choking under pressure" in math. Psychological Science 16(2), 101-105.
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Woman Scorned A Proper Sentence for Betty Broderick

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75297599

Betty Broderick: A oman Scorned

On November 5, 1989, Betty Broderick killed her ex-husband, attorney Dan Broderick, and his new wife, Linda Kolenka Broderick, at the couple's home in San Diego, California. At the time, Betty and Dan Broderick had been divorced since January 1989, but the divorce had been particularly rancorous, with Dan often baiting Betty, and using his legal expertise to take advantage of her. As a consequence, and perhaps because of her own mental instability, Betty had been unable, at the time of the double murder, to move on from her divorce from Dan. She had also threatened to kill the new couple several times, had smashed her car into the front doorway of their new home, and vandalized their property in various ways.

The double murder committed by Betty was the culmination of a bitter divorce and custody battle (Betty and Dan had four children), that…… [Read More]

Work Cited

"Betty Broderick: Divorce, Desperation, Death." Court TV's Crime Library:

Criminal Minds and Methods." Retrieved April 29, 2005, from: / family/broderick/6.html?sect=12

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Traditionally a Sentence or a

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80892756

In order to ensure that the objectives enunciated in the mission statement are attained, it is necessary that the company based its strategies -- of both internal as well as external operations and behaviors -- on synergies. In other words, it is necessary to ensure that the organizational stakeholder interact in an efficient manner. For instance, the company would be focusing on the creation of a pleasant working environment, in which the staff members are motivated and supported to develop from a personal and professional standpoint. Cultural diversity would not only be integrated and accepted, but it would be embraced as a source of social and professional development.

In turn, the motivated and satisfied staff members interact with the customers and enhance the customer experience. They for instance reveal higher levels of commitment to customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction subsequently generates loyalty to the firm and as such high levels of…… [Read More]


Champoux, J., 2010, Organizational behavior: integrating individuals, groups and organizations, 4th edition, Taylor & Francis

Griffin, R.W., Moorhead, G., 2009, Organizational behavior: managing people and organizations, 9th edition, Cengage Learning
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Except Those Beginning a Sentence Should Be

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 68084894

except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph, and on the Tools menu click Word Count.

Total Quality Management is a popular topic in education today. Japanese firms introduced total Quality Management (TQM) in 1951 (Hess & Gift, 2008). As Hess and Gift put it in the American School Board Journal, "TQM emphasizes carrying out all jobs and practices correctly the first time" (2008). However, this assumes that the jobs and practices were good to begin with.

Today's o Child Left Behind approach aims to fundamentally transform schools, not just perfect current practices (o Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 2002). Technically, the International Standards Organization (ISO) defines it as "a management approach, centred [sic] on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-run success through customer satisfaction,…… [Read More]

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107 -- 110 (115 STAT. 1425 January 8, 2002).

Ravitch, D. (2010). The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education. New York: Basic Books.

Weinstein, L. (2009). The application of a Total Quality Management approach to support student recruitment in schools of music. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 31 (4), 367-377.
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History of Texas Questions 2-3 Sentences Each

Words: 1265 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37608941

History of Texas

questions, (2-3 sentences each question), one page.

Explain the Empresario system. hat is it? And what is the purpose of it?

After the successful Mexican ar of Independence liberated Mexico from Spanish rule in 1821, the 1824 Constitution of Mexico joined Texas with the state of Coahuila to form the new state of Tejas y Coahuila. In order to increase the population within this unsettled frontier, and protect it from roving bands of Indians and American encroachment, the fledgling government of the Mexican Republic instituted the Empresario system. This system authorized immigration anglo agents like Stephen F. Austin to relocate large groups of colonist families to the state in exchange for land grants and settlement rights. The Empresario system granted settlers a league of land for only $100, provided the newcomers adopt Mexican citizenship, learn the Spanish language, and convert to Catholicism.

How does the Mexican Secretary…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Haley, James L. Passionate Nation: The Epic History of Texas. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2006. Print.

Haynes, Sam Walter, Paterson, Thomas, & Wintz, Cary D Major Problems in Texas History: Documents and Essays. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company., 2002. Print
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Build Different Sentence Styles 7th Grade

Words: 2262 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 49763096

8th Grade: Readers Cinema


The students will utilize and identify tone that is steady with the sentence type. (Content)

The students will identify words that are being mentioned. (Content)

The students will learn how to be thoughtful of others. (Process)

The objective of this task is to have the students complete a reader's cinema with the class in front of the camera that will film them using video. The video that will be used can be from a regular cell phone or it can be from some kind of a camcorder. Before this takes place, the students will have done no less than four run-throughs as a class performing on the characteristics of eloquence. We have completed workshops that help students recognize words that produce tone and natural breaks in sentences to make sentence flow. For instance, the teacher will have the students to circle particular words in their…… [Read More]

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African-Americans Receive Longer Jail Sentences

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84389805

Selling in public obviously can result in an arrest far easier than selling in a dorm, or a bar, or a workplace, as whites tend to do. Police can stop a black man on the street and frisk him without a warrant. And so if African-Americans are far more likely to be selling crack in the open air, and crack sales result in far longer jail sentences than powder cocaine sales, there is at least part of the answer as to why African-Americans serve longer sentences in some cases.

A ashington Post analysis of 79,000 federal sentences between the years 1993 and 1995 (referenced in Jet Magazine) reflects that "Blacks received 2% longer jail terms than whites" nationally, and in the District of Columbia Blacks received sentences that were 12% longer than whites (Jet Magazine).

Meantime, in the publication Sentencing Law and Policy (a participant in the law Professor Blogs…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Contexts. "Black/White Disparities in Prison Sentences." Sociological Images. Retrieved January 30, 2009, from .

Doege, David. "Drug Sentences Worse For Blacks." Journal Interactive. Wisconsin State

Journal. (2007).

Jet. "Federal Prison Study Reveals That Black Defendants Still Get Longer Sentences.
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The Usefulness of Sentence Diagramming

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 47128491

Landecker (2009) examines the methods of teaching by a professor at Trinity College who teaches sentence diagramming to her students. The technique is no longer a common one in English classes, so the methods of the professor are quite unique. The students, however, show great enthusiasm for the practice and are able to break down the structure of complex sentences with skill and they do so in a competitive manner as part of the professor's overall testing of their abilities: they must partake in a competitive diagramming game in which one half of the class competes against the other half and points are deducted for sentence diagramming errors. The study indicates that the method is helpful for promoting participation and enthusiasm in the classroom but its narrative structure does not provide any indication as to whether the exercises have an effect on the students' ability to craft a well-written sentence…… [Read More]


Landecker, H. (2009). Diagram this headline in one minute, if you can. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(36): 10-12.

Sipe, R. B. (2006). Grammar Matters. The English Journal, 95(5): 15-17.
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Ethics Prison Purpose of a Prison Sentence

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9201868



Purpose of a Prison Sentence

Crimes are committed daily in our modern day society and can be loosely defined as any action, that by society's standard, equals the breaking or disobeying of some accepted rule, standard, statute or cultural opinion. Crimes can be committed by either or both adults and juveniles. There is no age requirement to committing a crime but age often does affect other aspects of how and when a perpetrator gets caught and/or treated by law information. Many things can get people incarcerated such as selling drugs, jaywalking and premeditated murder to name a few. That brings to light the topic of the system of jurisprudence and the criminal justice system. Even though crime continues to rise, our criminal justice system is underfunded, understaffed and most likely overwhelmed. So, if this is the case, what is the purpose of a prison sentence? There are many…… [Read More]

Works Cited

New World Encyclopedia. (2009). Prison. Ed. All American Patriots. 2005 March 1. Retrieved on December 1, 2009, from New World Encyclopedia at
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Review of a Study on Sentence Diagramming

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 71545965


Diagram This Headline in One Minute, If You Can.

the requirements for EDUC 594

The purpose of the study by Landecker (2009) was to show that the sentence diagramming can be an fun, interactive, competitive and engaging exercise to help students learn the parts of speech and how they fit together in a sentence. Landecker (2009) uses the observational method to gather data on her sample: a classroom of students under the direction of professor Lucy Ferriss. 24 students between the ages of 19 and 21 were "so excited about diagramming" thanks to the teaching methods the 55-year-old instructor employed in the classroom (Landecker, 2009, p. 10). The question that Landecker posed at the beginning of the study was whether or not students could actually find diagramming to be an interesting subject to which they could apply themselves and from which they could learn. As Landecker (2009) finds through…… [Read More]


Landecker, H. (2009). Diagram this headline in one minute, if you can. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(36): 10-12.
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Santos Reyes Is Sentenced to

Words: 1612 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 62453996

The significant increase in prison terms has created unsafe, unhealthy, and potentially dangerous conditions for violent and non-violent criminals alike, frequently affecting the potential to rehabilitate felons. The Law has led to various unusual circumstances that have attracted national attention, especially those cases that send third-time offenders to prison for 25 years or more for simple, non-violent, victimless crimes, such as in the case of Santos Reyes in 1998. Despite the controversy and negative consequences, the Supreme Court upheld the Three Strikes Law, saying that it stopped short of constituting "cruel and unusual punishment."

The Three Strikes Law had the intention of limiting recidivism. However, numerous studies suggest that declines in recidivism have been negligible. This is another unintended consequence of the Three Strikes Law; the general failure to curb third offenses. Violent crimes have dropped in urban areas in California, but those declines are in line with declines in…… [Read More]

PA: Mason Crest Publishers.

Tyler, T. (1997). Three Strikes and You're Out, but Why? The Psychology of Public Support

for Rule Breakers. Law & Society Review, vol. 31, 2, pp. 23-246.
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Appeal System the Appeal of a Sentence

Words: 793 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30746946

Appeal System

The appeal of a sentence or verdict in a criminal case is governed by statute. Consequently, the appeal represents the first opportunity that a convicted federal criminal may seek to contest a conviction or sentence. The appeal allows the system to engage in due care, and gives a final opportunity to the defendant to challenge before the conviction is finalized. In fact the conviction and sentence that has been applied to the individual is not avowed until the direct appeal has been heard by the higher appellate court. It should be noted that when a defendant is found not guilty by the court the government cannot appeal that verdict (The appeals process 2012). There are three avenues of appeal open to a defendant 1. A direct appeal, 2, a post-conviction relief petition and, 3 a petition for Writ of habeas Corpus (Criminal appeals process 2012)

Before a case…… [Read More]


About the court (2012). Retrieved from

The appeals process (2012). Retrieved from 


Criminal appeals process (2012). Retrieved from
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Capital Punishment Analysis of The Death Sentence

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49455016

Capital Punishment

Analysis of "The Death Sentence" by Sidney Hook

Sidney Hook's analysis of the capital punishment and its effect and implications in the society are outlined in his article entitled, "The Capital Punishment." In his article, Hook discusses the different perspectives wherein the debate over the implementation or abolishment of capital punishment is discussed. Hook contends that individuals and groups that favor the implementation of capital punishment tend to subsist to the 'retributive theory,' whose primary aim, according to Hook, is to "desire for revenge," and not justice, as what many proponents for capital punishment claim. Similarly, Hook also criticizes the proponents against the implementation of capital punishment, who are popularly called as the "Abolitionists." The abolitionists contend (against the pro-capital punishment groups) that capital punishment is inhumane, and society must give the criminal a chance to reform his/her self primarily because the criminal's behavior and acted may have…… [Read More]

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Death Sentence Capital Punishment and

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57043786

The death penalty is therefore morally and ethically necessary not only for an ordered society but as a necessary means to protect the innocent from evil.

Secondly, from a Catholic point-of-view this stance is supported by centuries of Church doctrine and by references to iblical test, as discussed above. This also refers to the view that many modern Catholics take; which in turn refers to the contemporary emphasis on the right to life as a sign of the decline of religion and the growth of secularization. This reflects the view that the growing opposition to the death penalty"… has gone hand in hand with a decline of faith in eternal life." ( Dulles)

4. Conclusion

The above discussion has outlined the two central arguments for and against the death penalty from a Catholic perspective. There is little doubt that this topic has also crested intense debate within the Church. This…… [Read More]


Dulles A. Catholicism & Capital Punishment. Sunday. 3 Oct. 2010 ).

Gonzales A. Pro-life and Pro-Capital Punishment Contradiction in Terms? 3 Oct. 2010 )
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Proper Way to Deal With Criminal Offenders

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89105254

Sentencing Philosphy

Sentencing Philosophy

The proper way to deal with criminals has always been something that has vexed and frustrated people on one level or another. To be sure, the idea of punishing someone for their misdeeds is not foreign to most people and indeed this is inculcated into youth from a very young age. There is also the need to protect the public from behavior that is violent or at least very damaging to others or their property. Beyond that, there is also the concern about rehabilitating people and getting them to enter society again with a better head on their shoulders and without a perceived need to commit more crimes. While pointing to a singular purpose for criminal punishment and sentencing is fleeting, a broad-based approach that deals with punishment for misdeeds, public safety and rehabilitation.


Asking different people what the central purpose or purposes of criminal…… [Read More]


Frase, R.S. (1994). Purposes of punishment under the Minnesota sentencing guidelines. Criminal Justice Ethics, 13(1), 11.

Stella, P. (2001). The Purpose and Effects of Punishment. European Journal Of Crime,

Criminal Law & Criminal Justice, 9(1), 56-68. doi:10.1163/15718170120519309
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Criminal Justice - Corrections Criminal

Words: 1119 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68878301

In that regard, sentences imposed for crack cocaine are so much harsher that approximately 100 times as much powdered cocaine is required to approach the sentences imposed in connection with crack cocaine offenses. This issue is particularly relevant to the disparity inherent in mandatory sentencing and arbitrariness in sentencing, especially since dealers in powdered cocaine are much more likely higher up on the supply chain than distributors of crack cocaine (USSC, 2007).

The issues concerning provisions of the U.S.A. PATIOT Act pertain to establishing sentences for crimes established and defined by the ACT, such as narco- terrorism, smuggling munitions or military equipment without a license for transport, mining U.S. waters, and interfering with maritime navigation equipment (USSC, 2007).

The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 requires sex offenders to register and imposes criminal penalties for failure to comply. The current federal sentencing issues authorize increasing sentences for…… [Read More]


Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002) Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision.

Lynch, M.J. (1999) Beating a Dead Horse: Is Their Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrent Effect of Imprisonment?

Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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Punishment in the U S Correctional System in

Words: 1147 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28800007

Punishment in the U.S. Correctional System


Punishment in the U.S. Corrections System

Objectives of Punishment

These are to punish the offender, to protect the population from him or her, and to rehabilitate him or her (eNotes, 2013; Law Link, 2003). The first goal of punishment is theoretically intended to discourage or deter a repeat of the offense and a demonstration of why it should be avoided. The most common example of punishment is incarceration. Others are the death penalty and lesser penalties, such as probation. The second goal of the correctional system next to punishing the offender is to insure the protection of society from criminals. This is carried out by policing the streets and separating criminals through imprisonment to prevent them from repeating or performing more crimes. And the third objective is the rehabilitation of the offender so that he or she can…… [Read More]


ENotes (2013). Sentencing and sentencing guidelines. Encyclopedia of Everyday Law. Retrieved on January 25, 2013 from 

Law Link (2003). Sentencing. Law Reform Commission Report 102. Retrieved on January 25, 2013 from

Rank, J. (2012). Determinate sentence. Net Industries and Its Licensors: