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The stereotype that "the exotic is the erotic" has fueled the demand for foreign women to enter prostitution, further inflating the demand for trafficked women. This has been a traditional marketing angle in the sex industry, dating back to oman times when the hetaerae, or foreign women, commanded the highest prices for sexual services. Today, there is an even broader selection of source countries for recruitment.
War or a military conflict has fueled the demand for women to be brought to places of conflict so they can provide sexual services for troops. Where a permanent military presence is established, there are always brothels and prostitutes in the vicinity and places for the troops to rest, relax, and be entertained.
estrictive immigration policies do not offer working opportunities with legitimate travel documents for those who want to work in non-professional jobs (Cwikel & Hoban, 2005).
Furthermore, because of the enormous amounts…… [Read More]
Human rafficking: A Growing hreat for All Undocumented Migrant Workers.
Human trafficking, despite the growing global awareness, has generated an international response that is fractured and disjointed. he issue of human trafficking in the current global world is a very tragic reality. . Despite a growing global awareness of this issue there still appears to be a fractured and disjointed international response regarding how to effectively deal with the problem. Although many countries have adopted interventions to limit the increasing cases of human trafficking, the prevalence of the crime is still high accompanied with few risks and high profits. Historical analysis of the vice shows that its origin dates back to two hundred years ago when the slave trade started between different communities and exchange of sex for favors that were considered contrary to the humanity. Reliable statistics of human trafficking across the globe are limited, but the number of…… [Read More]
Sex Trafficking of Women Across Europe
Sex trafficking is the transportation of women using deception, force, and coercion into slavery and exploitative conditions. Sex trafficking is associated with organized crime. In the global economy, selling of women for sexual bondage is the fastest growing criminal enterprise. The European Union has stated that the problem of sex trafficking is growing worse with each passing year. It is estimated that women account for 96% of sex trafficked victims. The victims are mostly from European countries like Bulgaria, omania, or Moldova. Outside Europe Nigeria and China accounted for most victims.
There are many factors that compel women to fall into the arms of sex traffickers outside their home country. The traffickers deceive women seeking better employment in foreign countries, and once they arrive, they are kept in bondage in the foreign country. The factors that contribute to sex trafficking of women are economic,…… [Read More]
Sex trafficking is a broad term that encompasses a wide range of dehumanizing activities. By definition, sex trafficking involves the forced transportation and subsequent exploitation of human beings, especially women. Sex trafficking is a subset of a more general problem known as human trafficking, which can involve any type of slavery-like forced labor scenarios often but not necessarily involved in sex (The Project to End Human Trafficking). As the organization Soroptimist puts it, "all forms of modern day slavery share some common characteristics: slaves are forced to work; are owned or controlled by another person; are dehumanized and treated as commodities; and are physically or psychologically constrained and unable to escape." Commonly referred as a form of "modern slavery" by media outlets like CNN, sex trafficking has reached epic proportions in a global underground marketplace (Kara). Although the methods of sex trafficking differ per operation, there are patterns that have…… [Read More]
Written by husband and wife team Kristof and WuDunn, Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide exposes the oppression of women worldwide as the final frontier of human slavery and social injustice. Gender disparity underlies a host of political, social, and economic problems worldwide, according to the authors. Both authors are Pulitzer-prize winning journalists who wrote for The New York Times. The authors bring their journalistic style to Half the Sky by traveling around the world offering first-hand insight into what is arguably the most persistent and problematic social and political issue in all of human history. While the authors are prepared to focus on the sheer immediacy of the issue, most readers understand that these are not modern problems. Sex trafficking, gendercide, and other extreme manifestations of sexism have occurred in multiple cultures throughout human history, which is one reason why they are perpetuated…… [Read More]
Child Sex Trafficking:
Sex trafficking is basically defined as the enlisting, harboring, provision, moving, or acquisition of an individual for the main goal of a commercial sex act. In this case, an individual who has not attained 18 years old is forced or coerced to perform sexual acts. Generally, a person is forced or coerced for the purpose of debt bondage, involuntary servitude, or slavery. In the past few years, child sex trafficking has become a major epidemic not only in the United States but also across the world. While many people know the issue of child sex trafficking, they are not aware of the extent of uncontrolled exploitation of children and its impact. Given the severity of the impact of child sex trafficking, it is increasingly important to understand this crime and develop appropriate policy measures to reduce its prevalence.
The Problem of Child Trafficking:
As previously mentioned, child…… [Read More]
(2009, Oct. 4). 25,000 Nepli girls involved in sex trde in Indin cities.
Commercil sex brothels in the towns of Delhi, Mumbi, Pune nd Kolkt feture young girls believed to hve been kidnpped from Nepl, ccording to the rticle. There re n estimted fifty brothels in Pune, nd mny of them re reportedly owned by dult women from Nepl. In those 50 brothels there re bout 500 Neplese girls working in sexul slvery, the rticle sserts. This informtion comes through report tht ws intended to get the medi interested in reporting these terrible crimes. Retrieved Feb. 13,
2010, from http://www.expressindi, com/fullstory.php?newsid=55901.
Hwii News Now. (2010, Februry 10). Hwii mn chrged with sex trfficking t Super Bowl. A mn who is lleged to be pimp from Hwii is being chrged with bringing teenge Hwiin girl to the Super Bowl in Mimi -- nd llegedly used her to mke money. Fred Collins…… [Read More]
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
Final Project / Dissertation
Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized
Specialization: Constitutional Law
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.
Table of Contents
Elements of Human Trafficking
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000
Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation
New York State's Human Trafficking Law…… [Read More]
Child Sex Trafficking
Human Trafficking is occurring all around the world and also in the United States. This is not just a crime that is committed in other countries. There have been cases reported by the authorities in every single state. Those victimized are at every age from adults to young children of both genders. Based on federal reporting it is estimated that the number of persons exploited sexually for money or trafficked are in the thousands (DOJ, 2007). Some are brought into the U.S. from other countries and the number of citizens that are trafficked in the U.S. are unknown officially. The primary sex crimes being includes child exploitation, prostitution, and pornography (Keane, 2006).
The age range of children involved in sexual trafficking is as early as 12 years old. Those of school age that do not live with their biological parents are often targeted. Children are often targeted…… [Read More]
international sex tourism has been a worldwide curse for a long time, the last few decades witnessed great surge in its practice as the effects of globalization, poverty and consumerism spread while advancement in internet caused an increase in travel opportunities. The racist fantasies and unusual interest in sexual activities in the developing countries along with poor law enforcement have made way for sex tourism. Though some may have exaggerated the magnitude of this immoral industry, more than one million children are trapped inside this trade every year (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009).
The 1904 Paris Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (1904 Agreement), the first of its kind, aimed at protecting female children and others who were forced to go abroad for sex trade. It operated through border watching, supervising agencies and repatriating or employing the girls (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009). Then other national and international laws…… [Read More]
Prostitution and Feminism: Questions for a Modern Society
In answer to the question of whether prostitution is just another line of work, the most comprehensive and simplest answer is to say, no, it is not. The reason for this is that there are too many complexities associated with prostitution -- not just ethical and moral issues -- but also social, legal, economic, political, safety, and theoretical issues that color the sex industry. True, one could argue that any field of labor or industry could be discussed using the same terms, but the issue with prostitution is that it is a term that can be used without being properly defined. As Hallie Rose Liberto points out, when feminists discuss prostitution, they are discussing much more than the sex trade: they are discussing women's rights, women's alienation, women's health, and women's equality.[footnoteRef:1] Because the issue is those so charged with underlying meanings,…… [Read More]
The children surrounding the woman are holding hands and moving in her direction. She is a figurehead, a positive role model for change. In its entirety, the memorial represents the empowerment of individual women and of women collectively. The memorial suggests that as we have more powerful female role models, we can achieve the goal of a global egalitarian society that does not tolerate or tacitly condone any type of human trafficking.
Several of the children in the memorial sculpture are depicted holding books. Their books represent education, and the power of information to transform lives. e project that sponsors of and donors to the memorial can inscribe their names and the names of their institutions on the books. This will alert visitors as to which organizations are committed to change. Because the memorial is located in public spaces, visitors can arrive any time of day or night to meditate…… [Read More]
Munity Nursing and Human Trafficking
Community nursing and Human trafficking
From the PowerPoint we get the definition of human trafficking which is stated as the exploitation of a person or persons for sex, labor or for body organs. This means that human trafficking is done for different reasons which are stated above (Chernush, 2010). Statistics show that men, women and children are all victims of the different forms of human trafficking. Therefore it means that men, women and children are all vulnerable to these three forms of human trafficking.in the U.S. The average age at which a child can become a victim of sex trafficking is between 12 and 14 years. This means that children at this age are more vulnerable to sex trafficking in the United States. Human trafficking can happen to anyone and even the people we love most. The victims of human trafficking are from all walks…… [Read More]
Additionally, it has been observed that the Obama Administration's approach differs from the Bush Administration in that the latter was more short-sighted in its anti-trafficking goals (Ditmore, 2009). The Bush Administration was focused primarily on combating sex trafficking, while the Obama Administration aims to address a wider array of abusive labor practices (Ditmore, 2009). The aims of the Obama Administration reach for wider public support and attempting to deal with the problem more effectively by addressing important, related abusive practices.
States are also playing a critical role in anti-trafficking measures. State and local law enforcement officials are working on combating human trafficking (National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2010). Many states have their own human trafficking legislation (National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2010). Maryland is also committed to anti-trafficking measures. In particular, the Attorney General of Maryland, the Baltimore City State's Attorney, and the U.S. Attorney's Office created a Human Trafficking…… [Read More]
Comparative Analysis of Human Trafficking in the United States with the orld
Specialized Field Project
Human Trafficking is a very serious issue that affects every country around the world. Human Trafficking is also known as "Sex Trafficking," or "Modern Day Slavery," which reflects the primary reasons people are bought and sold today -- sex trade and involuntary labor. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) defines sex trafficking as
"the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for a commercial sex act, is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age."
Moreover, labor trafficking is defined as
"the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, using force, fraud, or coercion for subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery." (CNHTR, n.d.)…… [Read More]
The Inextricable Correlation between Human Trafficking and Prostitution
Despite ongoing efforts by the international community, human trafficking remains a global problem today. Tens of thousands of men, women and children are routinely exploited by human traffickers each year, and the practice generates billions of dollars in criminal proceeds at home and abroad. In fact, after drugs and gun-running, sex trafficking is the largest source of money for criminal organizations in the United States. Given the enormity of the problem and the vast sums of money that are involved, it is not surprising that the international community has not been successful in eliminating this practice. To determine the facts, this paper provides an analysis of the relevant literature concerning the correlation between prostitution and human trafficking to demonstrate that the two have an inextricable but difficult to quantify effect on each other. A summary of the research and important findings…… [Read More]
Theory -- Approach Linkage
Human trafficking in Vietnam: Article critique
Although no region of the world is immune to the problem of human trafficking, in certain areas the crime is particularly acute. In Asia, the ratio of trafficked persons relative to the rest of the population is even higher than it is worldwide, with 3 victims per every 1,000 inhabitants, and that is only of the persons who are known to be trafficked (uong 2012: 48). There are also a likely very high percentage of trafficked persons who are not detected by any legal agencies at all. "The exact number of victims of human trafficking, therefore, is likely to be much higher" (uong 2012: 49). The majority are likely thought to be women, specifically women in the sex trade. With this in mind, uong (2012) offers a gender-based analysis of trafficking, with a focus upon Vietnam. Vietnam is often called…… [Read More]
Peril of Human Trafficking
All over the world, human beings are bought and sold like slaves: this is known as the scourge of human trafficking. Human trafficking can take many forms. There is trafficking of persons involved in forced labor, forced prostitution, child labor, migrant smuggling and manipulation. No matter the form, the outcome is always the same -- trafficking is a violation of human rights. The United Nations has issued a very clear and stark warning to the world regarding the severity and seriousness of human trafficking: "Virtually every country in the world is affected by these crimes" (UNODC, 2015). To put a stop to it, the UN has partnered with six organizations "committed to combating human trafficking" (UNGIFT, 20015). This paper will discuss the nature of human trafficking, how and why it violates human rights and international law, and how it can be stopped.
At Its oot Human…… [Read More]
A previous casualty of trafficking names Given Kachepa, said that human trafficking is so concealed you will not be aware of who you're fighting because the victims are so frightened, they're not going to say anything that is happening to them (the Associated Press, 2005).
Nevertheless, the fatality of human trafficking acquired some main characteristics that makes this person appealing to the trafficker in accordance to the aimed trade that they are being employed -- for female victims, this may varies from simply being female, or being beautiful or having exotic characteristics, to possessing skills to operate a sewing machine quickly; or for men, having massive physical strength or simply age are often main characteristics; in both instancesm the victim is to be expected to have some defenselessness that will make him/her be effortless to ensnare with ideas of exciting city life and job prospects (Iselin & Adams, 2003).
Lined…… [Read More]
Human trafficking has become a major global epidemic that affects all nations. Human sex trafficking is the fastest growing business and the third largest criminal enterprise worldwide (alker-Rodriquez, 2011). Victims include children, both male and female, and women. The victims are often given false identities and some get entangled into national organized crime networks. They are often isolated, drugged, terrorized, repeatedly raped, and often sold to other traffickers. The abuse over extended periods of time causes victims to be attached to the trafficker in a paradoxical psychological phenomenon. The average ages of children living on the streets in the U.S. that become engaged in prostitution is 12 to 14 for girls and 11 to 13 for boys (alker-Rodriquez, 2011).
Barriers to victim identification include the nature of the crime, lack of awareness, victim perception, lack of resources, and providers' view of training provided (Clawson, 2007). Victims usually come from povertized,…… [Read More]
Poverty has a particularly strong influence on world affairs today and it is especially difficult for particular individuals to survive as long as they do not get involved in activities that very much resemble the form of slavery that was abolished more than 140 years ago. While some might interpret certain jobs to be no different from others, given that they entail individuals doing things they are not particularly fond of, the reality is that these respective jobs involve people being unable to leave and forced to work.
Many people leave their homes because they are poor and hope that they are going to make it in other locations. However, once they actually get there they realize that they are abused and forced to work for little to no compensation. These people are, by definition, slaves, in spite of the fact that the social order has a tendency to regard…… [Read More]
Challenging Issue in Counseling
Human sex trafficking is a problem that is growing in scope. This is because there are tremendous amounts of money that can be made on the part of recruiters and smugglers. In many cases, large organized crime syndicates have developed with them actively targeting teenagers who are from disadvantaged social and economic backgrounds. In the article that was written by Turner (2009), it is clear that globalization is fueling the demand for these services. To fully understand what is happening requires examining the article's focus, summary of the research, the main ideas, finding, recommendations and how the information will be utilized. Together, these different areas will highlight how they applicable to the affected population. (Turner, 2009)
The Article's Focus
The article is focusing on boys and girls who are between the ages of 12 to 18. In general, these individuals come from third world countries and…… [Read More]
Forced labor is one of the most important and at the same time intriguing "diseases" of the 21st century particularly because it should no longer be a subject for discussion considering that the 21st century should be one of technological advancements, of improvements in the living standards, as well as it the overall consideration of human life as being essential for the well-being of our future. Yet, there are constant cases of forced labor in regions such as Africa or Asia that have questioned the ability of the state and of the human being to protect another human being from abuses.
The current research focuses on the way in which forced labor is viewed from the point-of-view of the international law, as well as through the lens of a known case study of forced labor that determined not only reactions from the state, but also an increased in the awareness…… [Read More]
Trafficking and Prostitution in the Developing orld
The world can be a harsh place, especially if you live in a developing nation, and especially if you are a woman. Lack of food and adequate housing, lack of access to good educational and medical facilities, an oppressive, often male-dominated social system - these are just some of the problems faced by millions of women each and every day of their lives. For most there is no hope of escape. Each new dawn brings with it the same sense of despair; the same feeling that one is a prisoner of one's fate. Change is slow in the developing world. Progress, if it comes at all, comes only very gradually, painfully, and often at a high price. Many of the nations of the Third orld were only recently communist, or colonies of the estern powers. Many still have one foot in…… [Read More]
They may be sold to another owner after they arrive, and since most agreements are verbal, they are easily broken. Another startling fact in human trafficking is how many victims enter the trade willingly, because of the need to provide income for their families. esearchers Cwikel and Hoban note this is especially true in ussia, where many former Soviet Union countries have privatized education and health care facilities. ussian women often enter the sex trade via trafficking as a way to earn wages for education and health care expenses for the rest of their family. Often, victims come from poor, third-world countries. esearcher Miller states, "Desperate and gullible populations, especially in developing and transitioning countries, are susceptible to the promises made by recruiters (including family members) of a better life in another place, especially promises of paid work, marriage, or domestic service" (Miller). Thus, the practice preys on the most…… [Read More]
Human trafficking is defined as "the recruitment and movement of people by force, coercion or deception, for the purposes of exploitation" (Abas et al. 2013: 1). However, according to a 2013 study by Abas (et al.), current literature on the subject of human trafficking is somewhat problematic, given that research studies have focused on victims at different stages of trafficking and combined the perspectives of a wide range of persons of different ethnicities. This compromises the internal validity of the studies, given that so many other factors could impact results. Still, there is evidence that women who have been trafficked suffer from higher rates of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Abas et al. 2013: 1). To offer a more controlled study, Abbas (et al. 2013) conducted a study on Moldavian women specifically. All women in the study were eligible to receive government post-intervention crisis care as a result…… [Read More]
The new law has prosecuted 426 traffickers in 203 cases. These traffickers had 844 victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment (Kyodo).
Myanmar: Effective or Not?
The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited (UNODC 2007). It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking into the situation. The UNODC addresses the issue by implementing projects and participating in partnership initiatives in the country. These projects and initiatives include increasing public awareness of the problem, provision of technical assistance for the law enforcement sector and the judiciary, greater and easier access to service providers and enhancing their capabilities (UNODC).
Reports say that Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking (HumanTrafficking.org 2009). Human traffickers consist of organized crime syndicates, parents,…… [Read More]
Over the last several years, the issue of human trafficking has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the industry is considered to be a major source of income for organized criminal gangs and other groups with it accounting for $31.6 billion in profits worldwide. Depending the region, these returns will vary with some having greater rewards from: socially acceptable practices, a lack of regulation and the ability of criminal groups to move with impunity in certain regions. The below table is showing, those areas with the highest returns and levels of human trafficking. ("An Introduction to Human Trafficking," 2008) ("Human Trafficking," 2013)
The Profit Margins and Amounts of Human Trafficking
Number of People
49% ($15.1 billion)
% ($9.7 billion)
Latin America and the Caribbean
4.1% ($1.3 billion)
Middle East and North Africa
4.7% ($1.5 billion)
9.2%…… [Read More]
This institution has not been anti-gays traditionally. The country has been trying to frame LGBT laws in the context of human rights as presented in the constitution. The leaders and politicians are also aware of the homophobia persisting in the country and understand that they are not as much because of the laws as they are due to macho mentality of the society. Gays and lesbians are allowed to speak at gatherings and participate in gay march and rallies but they are expected to keep everything low-key. (Stewart, p.16)
US on the other hand is more tolerant even if the state doesn't recognize allow marital status to gay couples on federal level. However some states do offer marriage licenses to gay couples however these are not recognized on national basis and can easily be rejected by other states thus denying a couple benefits that come with being legally married in…… [Read More]
Human Trafficking: Causes and Motivating Forces
There's no doubt that human trafficking is one of the saddest evils of our day: "On the worldwide black market, the third most profitable commodity after illegal weapons and drugs is human flesh: women and girls from all over Eastern Europe, sold for sex by the networks of organized crime that became entrenched in the aftermath after the fall of communism" (Malarek, 2011). Other scholars call it "modern day slavery" or "a slippery and confounding evil" (Skinner, 2008). egardless of what human trafficking is most accurately referred to, the more one entrenches oneself with a bold study of the literature and research that surrounds human trafficking, the better one will understand what motivates and perpetuates this crime against humanity and the better armed one becomes at abolishing it.
For example, in the article, "Human Trafficking in the United States: Expanding Victim Protection Beyond Prosecution…… [Read More]
data collection instrument to assess the degree to which people were aware of the problem of human trafficking and understood the concept. I began with the hypothesis that people would lack extensive awareness about the issue. I selected an interview-based methodology so I could ask specific, targeted questions regarding the nature of human trafficking.
The interview questions I submitted to my interview subjects asked them to define human trafficking, identify when and where it takes place, and to suggest possible solutions. One person I interviewed did not even know what human trafficking was: they thought it was similar to crowding or the condition of too many people being in the same place at once. The other two respondents did know that trafficking was the forcible movement of persons for illegal purposes. They said that they believed that both genders could be and were trafficked. One respondent likened it to kidnapping,…… [Read More]
infused my original assumptions with greater specificity over the course of the gathering of my information. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic (human trafficking) to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms. For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. Since all forms of prostitution are illegal in most states, this makes it easier to detect than coerced labor in the agricultural and garment industries and in domestic service (Hepburn & Simon 2010). This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…… [Read More]
Human Sex Trafficking
Introduction to the Issue
Globalism may be increasing human trafficking
Sex Trafficking is a global issue, developed and developing countries alike
Trade is both overt and covert
Statistics on the trade
easons for the trade (incentive)
Use of trickery and subterfuge to entice young people and parents
Use of drugs and addiction to make "slaves" pliable
The underdeveloped world
Economic issues with larger families
Attitude of girls being "disposable" as cultural tenet
Techniques used to ply trafficking trade (intimidation, drugs, brainwashing)
Difficult to coordinate response and law enforcement because of locations
Those involved in many underdeveloped countries are part of the wealthy or elite -- corruption part of culture
c. U.S. And Interpol working together
d. Nature of legal scrutiny and substance via technology
a. Global Problem and the United Nations
b. Education and techniques for mitigation
c. Future goals and prospects
Human…… [Read More]
Human trafficking is defined as the trade in humans for the purposes of forced labor, sexual slavery, or organ extraction Avdan, 2012.
It has been estimated that human trafficking is a lucrative industry that represents around $32 billion per year. Human trafficking is a serious crime that violates human rights. This trade affects almost all countries in the world. There are thousands of people (men, women, and children) who fall in the hands of traffickers. The traffickers are mostly located in the home country of the victims. The recruitment, transfer, transportation, receipt, or harboring of persons by using threats, coercion, force, abduction, deception, fraud, or power is also referred to as human trafficking. The traffickers are mainly intent in exploiting these persons for their own benefit.
Human trafficking should not be confused with people smuggling. People smuggling usually involves people hiring an individual who will transport…… [Read More]
Globalization and Social/Human Injustices
Human slavery/sex trafficking
The menace of slavery and trafficking for purpose of sexual exploitation is a menace that greatly neglected or not talked about by the high and mighty yet it is a problem that ravages families on a daily basis. Across the globe, there are people who benefit from the modern day slavery and there are countries that act as source, most of them being the underdeveloped nations where poverty is high and unemployment is also significantly high. These two factors when combined, often push affected families to willingly or otherwise let go of their daughters into the forced labor or sex slavery in more developed nations. The women and children are the most affected groups in the slavery business since they are the most vulnerable in the society. Against the common belief that slavery is obsolete, the opening up of more borders and easy…… [Read More]
sex trafficking situation in the Ukraine.
Cho, S., Dreher, A., & Neumayer, E. (2013). Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?. World Development, 41, 67-82. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.05.023
Connell, N., Jennings, W., Barbieri, N., & eingle Gonzalez, J. (2015). Arrest as a way out: understanding the needs of women sex trafficking victims identified by law enforcement. Journal Of Crime And Justice, 1-10. doi:10.1080/0735648x.2015.1007614
Constantinou, A. (2013). Cyprus and the Global Polemics of Sex Trade and Sex Trafficking: Colonial and Postcolonial Connections. International Criminal Justice eview, 23(3), 280-294. doi:10.1177/1057567713501517
Farrington, D., & Ttofi, M. (2014). 2 Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Offending. The Development Of Criminal And Antisocial Behavior, 19-38. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-08720-7_2
Guth, A., Anderson, ., Kinnard, K., & Tran, H. (2014). Proper Methodology and Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Slavery Data: An Examination of the Global Slavery Index. Social Inclusion, 2(4), 14. doi:10.17645/si.v2i4.195
Kleemans,…… [Read More]
Unlike the transatlantic slave trade, they are not being recruited to work in any specific geographical area or any clearly defined industry or economy. True, many of the women are sold as prostitutes or concubines, and the children as labourers, but there are relatively few established and stable routes and markets. hile the transatlantic slave trade was legal and carried on as a form of legitimate commerce, the modern slave trade is illegal. Records of these underground business transactions are largely hidden from public view; so are the human beings who are bought and sold in this twenty-first-century slave trafficking. The pervasiveness and the relatively invisible nature of this illegal trafficking make it difficult to define and develop a strategy for abolishing it.
Actions of Mexico:
As this work has previously stated there are several innate problems associated with ideology surrounding prostitution, as well as illegal immigration with…… [Read More]
Organized Crime uses Poverty to Facilitate Human Trafficking
Clandestine Partnerships: The Link Between Human Trafficking and Organized Crime in Metropolitan Atlanta
The author had several research questions: 1)What proportion of the specified human trafficking cases involves organized crime; 2) What type of relationship is most prevalent between human trafficking and organized crime in metropolitan Atlanta; 3)What types of organized crime demonstrate a relationship with human trafficking in the specified cases; 4)What differences, if any, do the specified sex trafficking and forced labor cases exhibit in regards to their relationship with organized crime; and 5) What differences, if any, do the specified international and domestic human trafficking cases exhibit in regards to their relationship with organized crime?
The author's hypothesis is that human trafficking, while occurring in an organized fashion, may be conducted outside of traditionally established organized criminal organizations, and that the links may differ depending on whether humans are…… [Read More]
freedom and rights are valued, it can be observed that the most oppressed members of societies in our world today are the women. Treated as subordinate individuals and subject to abuse and exploitation, women are continually perpetuated as "objects of possession" instead of human beings through the rampant sex trade industry. In a report presented by the United Nations Population Fund, they addressed the continuing problem of sex trafficking, which is defined as, "the recruitment... harboring or receipt of persons... For the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include...prostitution..." (United Nations Convention Against Transactional Organized Crime). At present, sex trafficking is estimated to have 700,000 to 2 million women trafficked internationally. This number could grow up to 4 million women if the estimates shall include the number of trafficked women domestically.
The reasons why women are forced to enter the sex trade industry are poverty and inequity. Domestically, women are forced…… [Read More]
Ecological Reconnaissance Project: An Inquiry-Based Project Youth & Sex Northwest (King & Snohomish County, ashington State) Organizational Analysis: hat organizations exist region support adolescent sexual health? -Identify organizations address topic.
The Snohomish County Children's Commission is a ashington state institution meant to deal with promoting the rights of children and on providing them with assistance they need in order to effectively integrate the social order. The organization has twenty-five members and two of them are adolescents, as this makes it possible for them to reach out to young persons more effectively. The institute reaches out to children with the purpose of making them better prepared to deal with sexuality in general. It provides sexual education by teaching children concerning the attitudes they need to employ with regard to this topic in order to be able to avoid coming across significant problems.
The group provides advice meant to assist children…… [Read More]
Establishment owners who have been interviewed say that most of these men are highly educated family men, who frequent the establishment by day and then return home to their families at night. Women who try to maintain legitimate relationships with men find more and more that their partners are visiting these brothels and sex establishments (aymond, 2003).
Legalization Does Not Protect Women's Health
The legalization of prostitution mandates that the women submit to health checks and certifications, but does not require this from male consumers. This makes no sense at all since women oftentimes contract the disease from the men. The women are not protected from contracting HIV, AIDS, or other STDs. This is not to support that both the prostitutes and male consumers be checked -- it simply points out the ridiculousness that the policy implies. "A regulated and decriminalized system of prostitution will promote safer sex and HIV…… [Read More]
Organized Crime: A Contested Concept
The presence of organized crime in modern society is not as a cut and dry concept as most people would intuitively think. Take for example the existence of prostitution in virtually every society that has existed throughout the course of humanity. Although it is clear that this practice falls outside the realm of what is considered to be acceptable by the majority, many of the practitioners of this trade are actually grateful that they have the opportunity, the clients are obviously satisfied or else the demand for such services would not exist in the first place, and there is, in most cases, no one that is actually harmed in the process (at least directly). Therefore, whether organized or not, where does the actual criminality for such practices come into play? Is it because some people and/or groups believe it fall outside their limits of moral…… [Read More]
In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is as follows:
The amount of tissue removed is extensive. The most extreme form involves the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, together with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse, using thorns, poultices or stitching to hold them in place, and the legs are tied together for 2-6 weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin which covers the urethra and part or most of…… [Read More]
There are so many things that make successful storytelling. One of the major components that stick out is the events in the story. Selecting and arranging the events is highly important in the process of composing the story passage. ithout the events, there really is not kind of story. Brainstorming and writing down an important list of the things that have gone on is something that is very vital. The more ideas a story has the better it will be to the reader. hat makes good storytelling is the fact they a writer knows how to capture the reader's attention without having to go back and repeat themselves over and over. It is also important to make sure that the story has a lot of detail and also the links that are between them. The details make a story really good because it draws the reader into the…… [Read More]
Thus the argument over whether prostitution should remain illegal or whether it should be decriminalized or made lawful, focuses principally on ethical and realistic considerations. Those opposed to legalized prostitution tend to underscore the horrors associated with the profession. They point to the trafficking in women and children, and the physical, sexual, and economic abuse of these same individuals. Prostitutes are thought to engage in a profession so reprehensible that no person would possibly choose to participate in it unless forced to do so by the most extremely adverse of circumstances. Law enforcement has failed to make much of a dent in prostitution despite an enormous amount of time, effort, and money. In fact, high-ranking officials, such as Governor Eliot Spitzer of New York have made their names breaking up prostitution rings while at the same time patronizing prostitutes themselves. The conflict reveals the very real conflict between desire and…… [Read More]
However, I was simply unaware that the problem was so huge. To know that today's global slave trade is far larger than the slave trade was at the height of the Atlantic Slave trade if horrifying. Even more horrifying is the fact that many slaveholders are in Western countries where slavery has long been illegal, and these slaves are hidden away and may never be detected. Three forms of human trafficking that I noticed were smuggling-related trafficking, where immigrants seeking to come to the United States are instead diverted into sweat shops and forced to work as laborers, the sex-slave trade, and the domestic labor slave trade. Most troubling to me was child trafficking. Honestly, after watching the videos, I went beyond them to further examine the problem. I found a wide variety in numbers, but consistently saw that between 100,000 and 300,000 children in the U.S. are at risk…… [Read More]
Sexual Predators Prosecution
TOO HARSH AND DISADVANTAGEOUS
Sexual Predators' Prosecution
Sexual predators are persons who sexually victimize other persons (ILGA, 2009). They may be rapists, molesters, peeping toms or sexual deviants. A sexual deviant is convicted for rape, attempted rape, child molestation or abuse, incest, sodomy or indecent sexual assault or exposure. A judge may, however, convict a sexual predator for a crime unrelated to the sexual act. If the offender takes a child from home without parental consent, he may be convicted for kidnapping. As of 2009, 17 States have laws that penalize sexual predators, specifically a sub-class of sexually violent predators or SVP. Of these 17, Illinois adopted and enforces the broadest definition of SVP as sex offenders who victimize persons below 18 years old, regardless of past convictions. The other 16 define SVPs as those who victimize others below 12 years old and who have prior sex…… [Read More]
Disease Control and Prevention (2016), as many as one out of every four children have experienced some type of abuse: including physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. Exposure to pornography, whether accidental or not, can be harmful to children's psychological or social development. However, coerced exposure to pornography is a more extensive form of abuse that coincides with other types of abuse including psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Coerced child pornography may in fact be one of the most harmful types of child abuse because of the multifaceted nature of the crime. The nationwide prevalence of abuse in the United States is over 700,000 children, with prevalence of death at 2.13 deaths per 100,000 children (CDC, 2016). Child abuse is not just an ethical issue; there are proven consequences of child abuse that have been substantiated by empirical evidence in the scientific literature. Only a few of the harmful effects of…… [Read More]
Even the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (2001), a worldwide organization opposed to prostitution, supports regular health checks, and governmental provisions for regular health checks, for prostitutes. Further, as Prorock (1999) states: "Legalizing prostitution nusually relies on monitoring practices, that decrease the transmission of STD's and unwanted pregnancies. Any way you look at it, STD's are a problem in almost any situation, but competent monitoring in a licensed service provides a certain measure of security" (p. 2). Liberator (2003, p. 12) concurs with: "There is a strong rationale for legalizing prostitution by regulating the industry, thereby monitoring sex workers and consequently the clients they serve. Allowing prostitution to remain invisible only perpetuates the spread of sometimes-deadly sexually transmitted diseases. A containment model based on managing the problem is better than an abolitionist model based on ignoring it, hoping it one day goes away all by itself."
Keeping prostitution Illegal Does…… [Read More]
Open Source Intelligence and Organized Crime
In the words of Bell and Congram (2014), TOC-Transnational Organized Crime can be defined as a crime carried out by an enduring organization or structure created and primarily involved in pursuing profits through several illegal businesses. It shares certain traits with formal organizations: using rules and codes to coordinate activities, division of labour, and allocating tasks with the aim of actualizing some given goals. While it is appropriate to see TOC as being composed of several activities, it can be seen that some specified organized criminal activities fall into the same category. They include activities such as drug trafficking, money laundering, people smuggling, human/sex trafficking, endangered species trafficking, arms trafficking, and most significantly since the last decade, terrorism.
Structure of TOC Groups
According to Bell and Congram (2014), the domestic and transnational groups that perpetrate crimes have succeeded in modifying their structures into flexible,…… [Read More]
Career in Prostitution
'CHOOSING' A CAEE IN POSTITUTION
Criminality, Sex, and Work
'Choosing' a Career in Prostitution
'Choosing' a Career in Prostitution
The concept of 'career' has been defined by economists as "… the means through which human capital is accrued through experience and education" (Murphy and Venkatesh, 2006, p. 132). Sociologists on the other hand, propose that the definition of 'career' also includes nurturing a positive social role. Mainstream America would probably define 'career' using both these concepts, in addition to others. For example, most Americans would probably include a significant degree of choice and commitment to a specific type of occupation.
While most Americans would probably not imagine crime as a possible career choice, many of the same core concepts of 'career' seem to be present when speaking of drug dealers, thieves, and prostitutes, as they are depicted in the HBO television series The Wire (Simon, 2002-2008). On…… [Read More]
Thus, the television shows, or their producers would have us think, do not actually promote violence and sexual promiscuity, they simply depict it as part of the reality of the particular people they chose to show on their programs.
The problem, however, comes with what such depictions teach those people for whom identity is yet to be determined - our youngest boys and girls. Before MTV's the Real orld, popular culture's images of boys and girls was managed through a scripted experience - a lens that showed only what the writers, directors, producers, and television executives wanted you to see. Therefore, shows gave people what other people thought they should and would like, and nothing else. hat reality shows have capitalized on is a hunger for the non-scripted, for the spontaneous, for the unpredictable. and, as society is still managed by people who were brought up by people who generally…… [Read More]
Tourism in Thailand
Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Thailand
Urban and rural tourism in Thailand accounts for around 7% of the total GDP. There are various factors, social, economic, environmental and cultural factors which affect the tourism industry in Thailand. Also, the rural tourism in Thailand needs more work. This report has some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Thailand's tourism industry. In the end, recommendations are given on how to improve the tourism industry in Thailand.
Tourism in Thailand
Impact of Environmental, Economical, Social and Cultural Factors on Tourism in Thailand
Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries, and this industry has been identified as a means of generating national income (Pender, & Sharpley, 2005). Thailand, a beautiful country at the heart…… [Read More]
globalized context, which of the two issues -- sovereign debt and energy insecurity -- is the greater challenge to U.S. national interests and why?
Globalization is the integration of trade, economic, financial and communication resources. Its primary focus is on the free transfer of goods and services across national borders. However, there are some restrictions which are applied under this philosophy. Most notably: the movement of people across national borders with little to no interference. This is designed to protect the smaller economies and encourage development inside these regions. (Dodds, 2012)
The biggest challenge for U.S. national security interests is energy insecurity. This is because all nations require resources (such as oil and natural gas) to maintain consistent levels of economic growth. The tighter supplies will lead to increased chances of conflicts taking place based upon controlling them. (Dodds, 2012)
A good example of this can be seen with the…… [Read More]
Afghanistan has experienced war and lack of infrastructure for over a decade. Ever since the end of the civil war in Afghanistan which began in 1996 and ended in 2001, Afghanistan has had to deal with Taliban (a section of Islamic extremism), and intervention by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO as well as other allied forces in the War in Afghanistan which (although it is meant to deal with the civil war in Afghanistan) has created its own obstacles in Afghan recovery. Essentially what the three challenges Afghanistan face are: enhancing security, constructing the civil society and infrastructure of Afghanistan, and controlling Islamic extremism. The seeds of each obstacle can be seen in the beginnings of the 1996 Afghan civil war. Here is where the Taliban first formed, and the country started to lose their infrastructure to bombings and missile attacks. Ever since then, only a few places…… [Read More]
When it comes to the sale of organs from one party to another, there are usually two "camps" that people fall within. Those camps are inclusive of people that rae entirely against the practice in any form and then there are those that feel that some level of person-to-person sales should be allowed for so long as the parties involved face certain rules. Even with the concerns about organs going to the highest bidder, there are diametrically opposed concerns and assertions including the right of an owner of a kidney being able to sell to who he or she wants and the fact that the proceeds from such a transaction can be life-changing in nature. While it may be controversial and problematic to some, there is a middle ground to be had between allowing organ sales between people with no limitation and never doing so under any circumstances.…… [Read More]
Effects of child abuse in adulthood
Child neglect and abuse are usually a result of the interactions of several environmental, societal, family and individual factors. Child neglect and abuse are not unavoidable- steady, safe, and nurturing environments and relationships are crucial for prevention. Prevention of child neglect and abuse could also prevent other kinds of violence, given that certain kinds of violence are interconnected and have common protective and risk factors, repercussions, as well as tactic of prevention (CDC, 2019). Child neglect and abuse together with other negative childhood encounters could also have significant influence on an individual’s lifetime health and wider wellbeing if left unattended to. For instance, being exposed to violence in early childhood raises the risks of future perpetration and victimization of violence, injury, delayed development of the brain, sexually transmitted diseases, taking part in sex trafficking, reproductive health issues, restricted employment opportunities, lower academic success,…… [Read More]
ight to Privacy
Being a citizen of the United States comes with many benefits in comparison to citizenship in other countries. Through the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of ights we are granted certain rights -- the right to free speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly -- just to name a few. However, despite the 27 amendments the Bill of ights that guarantee American protections and liberties, there is no explicit law that guarantees protection to a citizen's right to privacy (Davis, 2009). It is more of an assumed protection, although most Americans do not realize it.
In 1928, Associate Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis referred to the right to privacy as the "right to be left alone" (De Bruin, 2010). This assertion is often supported with a citation of the 14th amendment which states: "No State shall make or enforce any law which…… [Read More]
Victim Advocacy -- National Center for Victims of Crime
The National Center for Victims of Crime is one of the most respected, most influential national organizations that offer information, services, advocacy and references for victims of crime. This paper covers many of the services that they provide and delves into the ways in which victims can recover from the trauma of having been a victim of a crime. Moreover, this paper goes deeper into the victim issue by referencing the shocking increases recently reported regarding crimes against women -- and the reticence of some elected officials to pass legislation that provides harsh measures against those who attack, rape, and otherwise victimize women.
hy is there a need for victim advocacy groups?
Throughout history there have always been crimes and criminals at one level or another; no data is available to note how far back unkind and vicious acts have been…… [Read More]