622+ documents containing “sexual assault”.
Prosecution of Sexual Assault Cases
Sexual assault remains a charge much embattled in our courts. Approaches to prosecuting in cases of sexual assault have been both inconsistent and generally ineffective as a true deterrent for repeat offenders. The articles evaluated here help to demonstrate that much of this difficulty is due to an inherent victim-blaming orientation within our courts.
The article by Frohmann (1991) would be somewhat groundbreaking for the field of discourse. The examination of prosecutorial accounts for reasons rejecting certain cases is used to determine the motives that typically drive the rejection of sexual assault cases by the courts. This article helps us to understand exactly why certain cases are never heard. The research design centers on reviewing these aforementioned prosecutorial accounts for evidence of a certain 'indigenous logic' that might imply prejudicial behavior in deciding upon cases. As further discussion will show, this design would be further refined in….
Blumberg, A.S. (1967). The Practice of Law as a Confidence Game: Organizational Cooptation of a Profession. Law and Society Review, 1(2), 15-40.
Frohmann, L. (1991). Discrediting Victims' Allegations of Sexual Assault: Prosecutorial Accounts of Case Rejections. Social Problems, 38(2), 213-226.
Spohn, C.; Beichner, D. & Davis-Frenzel, E. (2001). Assault Case Rejection: Guarding the 'Gateway to Justice.' Social Problems, 48(2), 206-235.
Sexual Assault and Eye Witness Accounts
Sexual assault is a difficult crime to prosecute. It relies heavily on eyewitness accounts and proof of sexual assault. ape kits are used to obtain physical evidence. These rape kits, along with interviews with authorities and sometimes a psychological evaluation create stress and difficulties for the alleged victim. In fact, many people who have been sexually assaulted, mostly women go without reporting the crime or have their cases dismissed because of lack of evidence or refusal to testify. Therefore it is important to understand what goes behind sexual assault eye witness accounts and how it psychologically impacts the victims who report it.
The psychological toll on a sexual assault victim is quote often too much for the victim to bare. Many go through long-term mental distress and even attempt to commit suicide or suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, or depression. Sexual assault is a vicious….
Bidrose, S., & Goodman, G.S. (2000). Testimony and evidence: a scientific case study of memory for child sexual abuse. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 197-213. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(200005/06)14:33.0.CO;2-6
Lindholm, T., & Christianson, S. (1998). Gender effects in eyewitness accounts of a violent crime. Psychology Crime & Law, 4(4), 323-339. doi:10.1080/10683169808401763
2). At all times, the medical examiner needs to respect the victim, and taken into account victim rights by appointing a victim advocate when necessary. The forensic medical examiners could be providing the prosecution with key evidence, a fact that should be communicated to the victim to alleviate distress (IACP, 2004). A victim advocate will also notify the victim of his or her rights in the case, advising the victim as to how to use legal counsel. The medical examination will often include drug testing, because the perpetrator might have illegally administered a drug to the victim and because alcohol or drugs might have been involved to facilitate the assault.
Law enforcement remains in continual contact with the victim during these early stages of the investigation, because it is up to the victim to determine whether or not to press charges (IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center, 2005). Because many….
Government of New South Wales: Justice and Attorney General (2012). The investigation. Victims Services. Retrieved online: http://www.sexualassault.nsw.gov.au/VOSA/sexual_assault_investigation.html
IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center (2005). Investigating sexual assaults. Concepts and Issues Paper. Retrieved online: http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/investigatingsexualassaults/investigatingsexualassaultspdf.pdf
International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP 2004). Training Key 572. Retrieved online: http://www.theiacp.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=JK0TYfpVhkI%3D&tabid=87
State of California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (1999). Guidelines for sexual assault investigation. Retrieved online: http://lib.post.ca.gov/Publications/42653792.pdf
Sexual Assault on Universities and College Campuses
Introduction to Sexual Assault
Sexual assault refers to an involuntary sexual act where an individual is forced to engage in against his or her will (Hoffman, 1998). As the world evolves and becomes more politically correct and more culturally sensitive, certain injustices that might have been swept under the rug in the past are now no longer tolerated, but brought to the light of day for judgment and justice. Today, more stories of sexual assault are playing out at colleges and universities across the country forcing scores of students from different universities to go public by filing formal federal complaints (Schwartz, 1997). Sexual assault continues to be a thing which occurs repeatedly on college campuses, phenomena which violate the very objective of these institutions for higher learning. In order to better prevent sexual assault within the university setting, the world has quickly learned that there….
Boggler, E. (2014). Frustrated by Columbia's inaction, student reports sexual assault to police. Retrieved from columbiaspectator.com: http://www.columbiaspectator.com/news/2014/05/16/frustrated-columbias-inaction-student-reports-sexual-assault-police
Bohmer, C. (2003). Sexual Assault on Campus: The Problem and the Solution. Lexington: Lexington Books.
Cooper-White, M. (2013). 11 Signs You May Be Dating A Sociopath. Retrieved from huffingtonpost.com: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/23/11-signs-dating-a-sociopath_n_3780417.html
Dockterman, E. (2014, April). Students File Title IX Sexual Assault . Retrieved from time.com: http://time.com/76762/students-file-title-ix-sexual-assault-complaint-against-columbia-university/
In most cases thus the violated woman soldier prefers to suffer silently and try to get over it as one of those things that happen in life. There is also the issue of military culture that demands that soldiers suffer in silence and never let their pain and suffering become an object of public pity that prevents from female soldiers from coming out of their closets and reporting the abuses and violations they have been subjected to.
This perhaps is the reason why Pentagon also admitted that almost eighty percent of sexual abuse and rape cases never get reported. (Parker, 2007)
Kaye Whitley, director of the Pentagon's Sexual Assault Prevention and esponse Office, said her office had received 2,923 reports of sexual assault across the military in the twelve months ending Sept. 30, 2008. This increase also included a rise in reports of cases from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan….
Benedict, Helen (2008). "Why Soldiers Rape." In These Times. Volume: 32. Issue: 9. 28-32.
Burke, Carol (2004). Camp All American, Hanoi Jane and the High And Tight: Gender, Folklore and Changing Military Culture. Los Angeles: Beacon Press.
Fitzgerald, Mary (2006). "U.S. Army: Mission Critical Gays." New Statesman. Volume: 135. Issue: 4807. 16.
gay-news.com. (2007) Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Complicates Military Gay Rape Case. http://www.gay-news.com/article04.php?sid=1823 (accessed August 5, 2010).
The self-defense classes should also contain advice on preventative measures, such as taking the campus bus whenever possible, rather than traveling alone by foot in high-risk areas at high-risk times like after dark. Finally, these classes can also include sensitivity training exercises to create a sense of mutual responsibility for the safety of all students. The classes can enable the students to have a forum for discussion about sexual harassment issues, and about behaviors that may make them more vulnerable to attacks, such as drinking too much, which may let down the student's guard while they are walking home. Although it should be stressed that no one deserves to be assaulted, given that such crimes are a fact of life, students should feel empowered, by taking responsibility into their own hands to exercise preventative and proactive strategies to mitigate the likelihood that they may be the subjects of such an….
Sexual Assault on College Campuses
Erdely's article explores the phenomena of campus rape through the case study of a young woman by the name of Jackie, who was allegedly gang raped in 2012. Although the focus of the article is definitely onJackie and her own particular situation -- its ramifications and effects on her own personal life -- this tale is viewed within the wider context of a disturbing pattern of assault, violence, and sexual misconduct conducted against women at the University of Virginia. This particular educational institution is under federal investigation for the violation of women's rights related to numerous allegations of rape, sexual misconduct and violence. Erdely's article explores multiple allegations, as well as the overarching culture surrounding this university and this insidious pattern.
One of the more revealing facets about the article is the implication that the University system -- and perhaps even that of the surrounding country --….
Sexual Assault in the Military
Sexual assault against women in the U.S. military is a problem that continues to be brought to the forefront. This is because there is a culture which encourages and allows it to occur. The result is that women are traumatized by these events and some will look for other opportunities elsewhere. This hurts the combat readiness of all units. To address these issues, a zero tolerance policy needs to be implemented. This will change attitudes and it will lead to an increase in actions that are supporting the most core values. Over the course of time, this will improve professionalism and flexibility. On the modern day battlefield, these attributes are necessary for prevailing against an adversary who is using changing tactics and weapons. This is when the U.S. military can continue to maintain its dominance and serve a positive force for change.
The U.S. military prides….
Doubts of Military's Sexual Assault Stats. (2014). Washington Times. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/apr/6/doubts-on-militarys-sex-assault-stats-as-numbers-f/?page=all
Women, Trauma and PTSD. (2014). VA. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD - overview/women/women-trauma-and-ptsd.asp
Monahan, E. (2011). A Few Good Women. New York, NY: Springer.
Patten, E. (2011). Women in the U.S. Military. Pew Research. Retrieved from: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2011/12/women-in-the-military.pdf
In fact, 12,500 rape kits, which are to be tested, remain frozen with the Los Angeles county police department. The report also cited similar negligence across the nation with the Detroit police and the Houston police department storage facilities having a backlog of 10,000 and 4000 untested 'rape kits' respectively. [Sarah Tofte, 2009]
A separate research by CS found that Louisiana is really worse off. The report showed that Louisiana has untested rape kits from 2001. As Sarah Tofte, the human rights watch research director says, " It's absolutely astounding. What's the point of sending a rape kit to a crime lab for testing if you can't get to it for say, eight years?" [Armen Keteyian, Nov 2009] The problem with such a negligent attitude is that it actually encourages the criminal to commit more such offenses. Sen. Patrick Leahy, who co sponsored the federal legislation that allocated more than….
1) RAINN, 'How often does sexual assault occur', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://www.rainn.org/get-information/statistics/frequency-of-sexual-assault
2) OVW, 'April is Sexual Assault Awareness Month', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://www.ovw.usdoj.gov/
3) Dean G. Kilpatrick PhD & Kenneth J. Ruggeiro PhD, (2003), 'Rape in Louisiana: A Report to the State One in eight', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://academicdepartments.musc.edu/ncvc/grants/50_states_reports/louisiana.pdf
4) CQ Press, 'Most Dangerous States: Crime Ranking for 2010', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://www.walletpop.com/blog/2010/04/05/most-dangerous-states-crime-rankings-for-2010/
Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
The American population is largely plagued by sexual assault and domestic violence, as women are certain victims of such heinous acts in comparison to men. Macy (2009) indicates that data shows that nearly thirty percent of the women, once in their life will experience domestic violence while twenty percent of American women will end up facing sexual assault. Partner violence for that matter consists of sexual and physical assault arising from different relationships such as:
Boyfriend / girlfriend
Sexual violence consists of attempting to have sexual intercourse or forceful sexual intercourse. However, in most cases, the victims of sexual assault / violence have close relationships with the wrongdoer. In other cases, sexual violence can be committed by unknown perpetrators too. There are negative consequences of such an ordeal which are well documented, altering the victim's lives. The negative side effects of such assaults have a direct influence on….
Davidson, M.M. And Bowen, N. (2011). Academia Meets Community Agency: How to Foster Positive Collaboration in Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Work. Journal of Family Violence. 26:309 -- 318.
Gervais, S.J., DiLillo, D., McChargue, D. (2014). Understanding the link between men's alcohol use and sexual violence perpetration: The mediating role of sexual objectification. Psychology of Violence, 4(2).
Hamby, S. (2014). Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Research: Scientific Progress, Scientific Challenges, and Gender. Trauma Violence Abuse, 15(3) 149.
Macy, R.J. (2009). Domestic violence and sexual assault services: Inside the black box. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 14(5), 359 -- 373.
Sexual assault is real, the current unfolds have put this to the bare. I have also been simply amazed by the high profile sexual assault cases, and how such cases have been handled mainly, to favor the perpetrators while at the same time objectifying the victim. I also agree that it is time to address this and my concern is on sexual assault of females in colleges and other institutions of higher education. Sexual assault in colleges is a common well-known secret. However, I think that it is still hard for college females to come out because they don’t know how to deal with the attention they attract for the rest of their life. As a result, it is common that a female sexually assaulted in college might choose to live silently with the wrong perpetrated against them. This line of thought is anchored on the thinking that, it is….
National Sexual Violence Resource Center, “Statistics about sexual violence.” (n.d), 1318-1334. Web.
Sexual Assault Forensic Examinations
Forensic Examinations of Sexual Assaults
Forensics is often associated with murder, but it can play a crucial role in solving sexual assault cases as well. Forensic evidence is often left in sexual assault cases, making it easily traceable and recordable in order to pursue a case in court against a perpetrator. Sexual Assault cases need special attention and care because of the extreme intimate nature of the crime and the need to provide justice for the victim. There are specific criteria for the protocol of examining and investigating a sexual assault that must be followed in order to ensure the preservation of any potential evidence. The following report discusses this protocol from a medical and investigative perspective.
There are very specific national and state guidelines for the investigative purposes revolving cases of sexual assault. Forensic specialists and medical examiners must adhere to these strict guidelines in order to treat….
DNA Initiative. (2013). A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations. U.S. Department of Justice: Office on Violence Against Women. Web. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ovw/241903.pdf
Florida Department of Law Enforcement. (2013). Detailed instruction list for forensic exam kit. Content. Web. http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/
RAINN. (2013). Preserving and collecting forensic evidence. Aftermath of Sexual Assault. Web. http://www.rainn.org/get-information/aftermath-of-sexual-assault/preserving-and-collecting-forensic-evidence
The Associated Press. (2014). Program that trains nurses to conduct forensic sexual assault exams to expand Iberia Parish. Daily Journal. Web. http://www.dailyjournal.net/view/story/b8a3f7b2e8814ff1b7915267c951ec29/LA -- Nursing-Program/#.UuuCzvtXZ_I
Sexual Assault and Bullying: The Struggles for Power ithin Them
Sexual assault and bullying are social ills that have taken place for quite some time, regardless of society and culture. hen one considers these phenomena, there are actually quite a few similarities between them. In both instances, there are victims and those who are aggressors. There are also disturbing patterns of both of these behaviors, which can become chronic -- both for the victims and the perpetrators of these acts. hen one gets to the root causes of these activities, oftentimes they are about power and the wanton exercise of power over those with less power. This similarity is the most eminent between them, and is the key to both identifying and even preventing such behavior.
The prevalence of sexual assault on college campus, and its many manifestations, reinforces the viewpoint that power is the crux of such behavior. The incidence of….
Billboard. Mystikal Accussed of Aggravated Rape, Extortion. www.billboard.com 2002. Web. http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/75046/mystikal-accused-of-aggravated-rape-extortion
Muscatine, Alison. Tyson Found Guilty of Rape, Two Other Charges. http://tech.mit.edu / 1992. Web.
The only medical issues documented in this report are acute findings that potentially relate to the assault or preexisting medical factors that could influence interpretation of findings. Separate medical documentation by examiners and other involved clinicians follows a standard approach -- address acute complaints, gather pertinent historical data, describe findings, and document treatment and follow-up care; and (2) Ensuring the accuracy and objectivity of medical forensic reports by seeking education on proper report writing. (the U.S. Department of Justice, 2004) Photographic evidence of the injuries sustained by the patient may be used to supplement the medical forensic history and to document findings of a physical nature. The U.S. Department of Justice states that following recommendations in the area of photographic documentation: (1) Come to a consensus about the extent of forensic photography necessary. Some jurisdictions routinely take photographs of both detected injuries on patients and normal (apparently uninjured) anatomy,….
National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adult and adolescents September 2004. U.S. Department of Justice Office on Violence Against Women. Online available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ovw/206554.pdf
Registered Nurse Scope of Practice as a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (nd) Oregon State Board of Nursing Policy Statement. Online available at http://www.oregon.gov/OSBN/pdfs/policies/Sane.pdf
Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs: Improving the Community Response to Sexual Assault Victims. April 2001. U.S. Department of justice Office for Victims of Crime. Online available at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/bulletins/sane_4_2001/186366.pdf
U.S. Department of Justice Office on Violence Against Women (2006) NCJ June 2006. online available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ovw/213827.pdf
Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Norristown, PA 19403: Announcement of a Focus Group Study to e Held Addressing the Issue
According to statistical reports on crimes in Norristown, PA and specifically in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, there have been 35 offenses against family and children for 2012 YTD. In 2011, there were 52 offenses against family and children total. According to one source, Norristown, PA "consistently evidences the highest rates of domestic violence, substance abuse, child abuse, school dropouts, unemployment, inadequate housing, and violent crime in Montgomery County. (Norristown CTC Risk and Resource Assessment, 2005) Norristown Area School District has one of the highest incidences of truancy in the state of Pennsylvania with 56,322 instances of truancy in 2005/2006 for a student population of 6,846 students. Truant youth are often the perpetrators and victims of crime in Norristown." (Pennsylvania Truancy Toolkit, nd)
Focus Group Study Participants
All practitioners who deal directly with the issue of….
Annual Domestic Violence Awareness Ceremony Honors Local Law Enforcement (2011) PRLOG. 27 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.prlog.org/11675987-annual-domestic-violence-awareness-ceremony-honors-local-law-enforcement.html
Pennsylvania Truancy Toolkit (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.patruancytoolkit.info/index.cfm?pageid=2597
Segall, Brad (2012) Advocates Alarmed By Increase In Local Domestic Abuse Incidents. Philly News 9 Feb 2012. Retrieved from: http://philadelphia.cbslocal.com/2012/02/09/advocates-alarmed-by-increase-in-local-domestic-abuse-incidents/
The Laurel House -- A Domestic Abuse Shelter in Norristown, Pennsylvania. Retrieved from: http://www.philly2philly.com/the_laurel_house_a_domestic_abuse_shelter_norristown_pennsylvania
Assault Prosecution of Sexual Assault Cases Sexual assault remains a charge much embattled in our courts. Approaches to prosecuting in cases of sexual assault have been both inconsistent and generally ineffective…Read Full Paper ❯
Sexual Assault and Eye Witness Accounts Sexual assault is a difficult crime to prosecute. It relies heavily on eyewitness accounts and proof of sexual assault. ape kits are used to…Read Full Paper ❯
2). At all times, the medical examiner needs to respect the victim, and taken into account victim rights by appointing a victim advocate when necessary. The forensic medical…Read Full Paper ❯
Sexual Assault on Universities and College Campuses Introduction to Sexual Assault Sexual assault refers to an involuntary sexual act where an individual is forced to engage in against his or her…Read Full Paper ❯
In most cases thus the violated woman soldier prefers to suffer silently and try to get over it as one of those things that happen in life. There…Read Full Paper ❯
The self-defense classes should also contain advice on preventative measures, such as taking the campus bus whenever possible, rather than traveling alone by foot in high-risk areas at high-risk…Read Full Paper ❯
Sexual Assault on College Campuses Erdely's article explores the phenomena of campus rape through the case study of a young woman by the name of Jackie, who was allegedly gang…Read Full Paper ❯
Sexual Assault in the Military Sexual assault against women in the U.S. military is a problem that continues to be brought to the forefront. This is because there is…Read Full Paper ❯
In fact, 12,500 rape kits, which are to be tested, remain frozen with the Los Angeles county police department. The report also cited similar negligence across the nation…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prelude The American population is largely plagued by sexual assault and domestic violence, as women are certain victims of such heinous acts in comparison to men.…Read Full Paper ❯
Sexual assault is real, the current unfolds have put this to the bare. I have also been simply amazed by the high profile sexual assault cases, and how such…Read Full Paper ❯
Sexual Assault Forensic Examinations Forensic Examinations of Sexual Assaults Forensics is often associated with murder, but it can play a crucial role in solving sexual assault cases as well. Forensic evidence…Read Full Paper ❯
Sociology - Counseling
Sexual Assault and Bullying: The Struggles for Power ithin Them Sexual assault and bullying are social ills that have taken place for quite some time, regardless of society and culture.…Read Full Paper ❯
The only medical issues documented in this report are acute findings that potentially relate to the assault or preexisting medical factors that could influence interpretation of findings. Separate…Read Full Paper ❯
Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Norristown, PA 19403: Announcement of a Focus Group Study to e Held Addressing the Issue According to statistical reports on crimes in Norristown, PA and specifically…Read Full Paper ❯