Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Prosecution of Sexual Assault Cases
Sexual assault remains a charge much embattled in our courts. Approaches to prosecuting in cases of sexual assault have been both inconsistent and generally ineffective as a true deterrent for repeat offenders. The articles evaluated here help to demonstrate that much of this difficulty is due to an inherent victim-blaming orientation within our courts.
The article by Frohmann (1991) would be somewhat groundbreaking for the field of discourse. The examination of prosecutorial accounts for reasons rejecting certain cases is used to determine the motives that typically drive the rejection of sexual assault cases by the courts. This article helps us to understand exactly why certain cases are never heard. The research design centers on reviewing these aforementioned prosecutorial accounts for evidence of a certain 'indigenous logic' that might imply prejudicial behavior in deciding upon cases. As further discussion will show, this design would be…
Blumberg, A.S. (1967). The Practice of Law as a Confidence Game: Organizational Cooptation of a Profession. Law and Society Review, 1(2), 15-40.
Frohmann, L. (1991). Discrediting Victims' Allegations of Sexual Assault: Prosecutorial Accounts of Case Rejections. Social Problems, 38(2), 213-226.
Spohn, C.; Beichner, D. & Davis-Frenzel, E. (2001). Assault Case Rejection: Guarding the 'Gateway to Justice.' Social Problems, 48(2), 206-235.
Sexual Assault and Eye Witness Accounts
Sexual assault is a difficult crime to prosecute. It relies heavily on eyewitness accounts and proof of sexual assault. ape kits are used to obtain physical evidence. These rape kits, along with interviews with authorities and sometimes a psychological evaluation create stress and difficulties for the alleged victim. In fact, many people who have been sexually assaulted, mostly women go without reporting the crime or have their cases dismissed because of lack of evidence or refusal to testify. Therefore it is important to understand what goes behind sexual assault eye witness accounts and how it psychologically impacts the victims who report it.
The psychological toll on a sexual assault victim is quote often too much for the victim to bare. Many go through long-term mental distress and even attempt to commit suicide or suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, or depression. Sexual assault is…
Bidrose, S., & Goodman, G.S. (2000). Testimony and evidence: a scientific case study of memory for child sexual abuse. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 197-213. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(200005/06)14:33.0.CO;2-6
Lindholm, T., & Christianson, S. (1998). Gender effects in eyewitness accounts of a violent crime. Psychology Crime & Law, 4(4), 323-339. doi:10.1080/10683169808401763
2). At all times, the medical examiner needs to respect the victim, and taken into account victim rights by appointing a victim advocate when necessary. The forensic medical examiners could be providing the prosecution with key evidence, a fact that should be communicated to the victim to alleviate distress (IACP, 2004). A victim advocate will also notify the victim of his or her rights in the case, advising the victim as to how to use legal counsel. The medical examination will often include drug testing, because the perpetrator might have illegally administered a drug to the victim and because alcohol or drugs might have been involved to facilitate the assault.
Law enforcement remains in continual contact with the victim during these early stages of the investigation, because it is up to the victim to determine whether or not to press charges (IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center, 2005). Because many…
Government of New South Wales: Justice and Attorney General (2012). The investigation. Victims Services. Retrieved online: http://www.sexualassault.nsw.gov.au/VOSA/sexual_assault_investigation.html
IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center (2005). Investigating sexual assaults. Concepts and Issues Paper. Retrieved online: http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/investigatingsexualassaults/investigatingsexualassaultspdf.pdf
International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP 2004). Training Key 572. Retrieved online: http://www.theiacp.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=JK0TYfpVhkI%3D&tabid=87
State of California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (1999). Guidelines for sexual assault investigation. Retrieved online: http://lib.post.ca.gov/Publications/42653792.pdf
Sexual Assault on Universities and College Campuses
Introduction to Sexual Assault
Sexual assault refers to an involuntary sexual act where an individual is forced to engage in against his or her will (Hoffman, 1998). As the world evolves and becomes more politically correct and more culturally sensitive, certain injustices that might have been swept under the rug in the past are now no longer tolerated, but brought to the light of day for judgment and justice. Today, more stories of sexual assault are playing out at colleges and universities across the country forcing scores of students from different universities to go public by filing formal federal complaints (Schwartz, 1997). Sexual assault continues to be a thing which occurs repeatedly on college campuses, phenomena which violate the very objective of these institutions for higher learning. In order to better prevent sexual assault within the university setting, the world has quickly learned…
Boggler, E. (2014). Frustrated by Columbia's inaction, student reports sexual assault to police. Retrieved from columbiaspectator.com: http://www.columbiaspectator.com/news/2014/05/16/frustrated-columbias-inaction-student-reports-sexual-assault-police
Bohmer, C. (2003). Sexual Assault on Campus: The Problem and the Solution. Lexington: Lexington Books.
Cooper-White, M. (2013). 11 Signs You May Be Dating A Sociopath. Retrieved from huffingtonpost.com: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/23/11-signs-dating-a-sociopath_n_3780417.html
Dockterman, E. (2014, April). Students File Title IX Sexual Assault . Retrieved from time.com: http://time.com/76762/students-file-title-ix-sexual-assault-complaint-against-columbia-university/
In most cases thus the violated woman soldier prefers to suffer silently and try to get over it as one of those things that happen in life. There is also the issue of military culture that demands that soldiers suffer in silence and never let their pain and suffering become an object of public pity that prevents from female soldiers from coming out of their closets and reporting the abuses and violations they have been subjected to.
This perhaps is the reason why Pentagon also admitted that almost eighty percent of sexual abuse and rape cases never get reported. (Parker, 2007)
Kaye Whitley, director of the Pentagon's Sexual Assault Prevention and esponse Office, said her office had received 2,923 reports of sexual assault across the military in the twelve months ending Sept. 30, 2008. This increase also included a rise in reports of cases from the battlefields of Iraq and…
Benedict, Helen (2008). "Why Soldiers Rape." In These Times. Volume: 32. Issue: 9. 28-32.
Burke, Carol (2004). Camp All American, Hanoi Jane and the High And Tight: Gender, Folklore and Changing Military Culture. Los Angeles: Beacon Press.
Fitzgerald, Mary (2006). "U.S. Army: Mission Critical Gays." New Statesman. Volume: 135. Issue: 4807. 16.
gay-news.com. (2007) Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Complicates Military Gay Rape Case. http://www.gay-news.com/article04.php?sid=1823 (accessed August 5, 2010).
The self-defense classes should also contain advice on preventative measures, such as taking the campus bus whenever possible, rather than traveling alone by foot in high-risk areas at high-risk times like after dark. Finally, these classes can also include sensitivity training exercises to create a sense of mutual responsibility for the safety of all students. The classes can enable the students to have a forum for discussion about sexual harassment issues, and about behaviors that may make them more vulnerable to attacks, such as drinking too much, which may let down the student's guard while they are walking home. Although it should be stressed that no one deserves to be assaulted, given that such crimes are a fact of life, students should feel empowered, by taking responsibility into their own hands to exercise preventative and proactive strategies to mitigate the likelihood that they may be the subjects of such an…
Sexual Assault on College Campuses
Erdely's article explores the phenomena of campus rape through the case study of a young woman by the name of Jackie, who was allegedly gang raped in 2012. Although the focus of the article is definitely onJackie and her own particular situation -- its ramifications and effects on her own personal life -- this tale is viewed within the wider context of a disturbing pattern of assault, violence, and sexual misconduct conducted against women at the University of Virginia. This particular educational institution is under federal investigation for the violation of women's rights related to numerous allegations of rape, sexual misconduct and violence. Erdely's article explores multiple allegations, as well as the overarching culture surrounding this university and this insidious pattern.
One of the more revealing facets about the article is the implication that the University system -- and perhaps even that of the surrounding…
Erdely, S.B. (2014). A rape on campus: a brutal assault and struggle for justice at UVA. www.rollingstone.com Retrieved from http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/features/a-rape-on-campus-20141119
Sexual Assault in the Military
Sexual assault against women in the U.S. military is a problem that continues to be brought to the forefront. This is because there is a culture which encourages and allows it to occur. The result is that women are traumatized by these events and some will look for other opportunities elsewhere. This hurts the combat readiness of all units. To address these issues, a zero tolerance policy needs to be implemented. This will change attitudes and it will lead to an increase in actions that are supporting the most core values. Over the course of time, this will improve professionalism and flexibility. On the modern day battlefield, these attributes are necessary for prevailing against an adversary who is using changing tactics and weapons. This is when the U.S. military can continue to maintain its dominance and serve a positive force for change.
Doubts of Military's Sexual Assault Stats. (2014). Washington Times. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/apr/6/doubts-on-militarys-sex-assault-stats-as-numbers-f/?page=all
Women, Trauma and PTSD. (2014). VA. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD - overview/women/women-trauma-and-ptsd.asp
Monahan, E. (2011). A Few Good Women. New York, NY: Springer.
Patten, E. (2011). Women in the U.S. Military. Pew Research. Retrieved from: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2011/12/women-in-the-military.pdf
In fact, 12,500 rape kits, which are to be tested, remain frozen with the Los Angeles county police department. The report also cited similar negligence across the nation with the Detroit police and the Houston police department storage facilities having a backlog of 10,000 and 4000 untested 'rape kits' respectively. [Sarah Tofte, 2009]
A separate research by CS found that Louisiana is really worse off. The report showed that Louisiana has untested rape kits from 2001. As Sarah Tofte, the human rights watch research director says, " It's absolutely astounding. What's the point of sending a rape kit to a crime lab for testing if you can't get to it for say, eight years?" [Armen Keteyian, Nov 2009] The problem with such a negligent attitude is that it actually encourages the criminal to commit more such offenses. Sen. Patrick Leahy, who co sponsored the federal legislation that allocated more than…
1) RAINN, 'How often does sexual assault occur', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://www.rainn.org/get-information/statistics/frequency-of-sexual-assault
2) OVW, 'April is Sexual Assault Awareness Month', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://www.ovw.usdoj.gov/
3) Dean G. Kilpatrick PhD & Kenneth J. Ruggeiro PhD, (2003), 'Rape in Louisiana: A Report to the State One in eight', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://academicdepartments.musc.edu/ncvc/grants/50_states_reports/louisiana.pdf
4) CQ Press, 'Most Dangerous States: Crime Ranking for 2010', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://www.walletpop.com/blog/2010/04/05/most-dangerous-states-crime-rankings-for-2010/
Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
The American population is largely plagued by sexual assault and domestic violence, as women are certain victims of such heinous acts in comparison to men. Macy (2009) indicates that data shows that nearly thirty percent of the women, once in their life will experience domestic violence while twenty percent of American women will end up facing sexual assault. Partner violence for that matter consists of sexual and physical assault arising from different relationships such as:
Boyfriend / girlfriend
Sexual violence consists of attempting to have sexual intercourse or forceful sexual intercourse. However, in most cases, the victims of sexual assault / violence have close relationships with the wrongdoer. In other cases, sexual violence can be committed by unknown perpetrators too. There are negative consequences of such an ordeal which are well documented, altering the victim's lives. The negative side effects of…
Davidson, M.M. And Bowen, N. (2011). Academia Meets Community Agency: How to Foster Positive Collaboration in Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Work. Journal of Family Violence. 26:309 -- 318.
Gervais, S.J., DiLillo, D., McChargue, D. (2014). Understanding the link between men's alcohol use and sexual violence perpetration: The mediating role of sexual objectification. Psychology of Violence, 4(2).
Hamby, S. (2014). Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Research: Scientific Progress, Scientific Challenges, and Gender. Trauma Violence Abuse, 15(3) 149.
Macy, R.J. (2009). Domestic violence and sexual assault services: Inside the black box. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 14(5), 359 -- 373.
Sexual assault is real, the current unfolds have put this to the bare. I have also been simply amazed by the high profile sexual assault cases, and how such cases have been handled mainly, to favor the perpetrators while at the same time objectifying the victim. I also agree that it is time to address this and my concern is on sexual assault of females in colleges and other institutions of higher education. Sexual assault in colleges is a common well-known secret. However, I think that it is still hard for college females to come out because they don’t know how to deal with the attention they attract for the rest of their life. As a result, it is common that a female sexually assaulted in college might choose to live silently with the wrong perpetrated against them. This line of thought is anchored on the thinking that, it is…
National Sexual Violence Resource Center, “Statistics about sexual violence.” (n.d), 1318-1334. Web.
Sinozich, Sofi, and Lynn Langton. Rape and sexual assault victimization among college-age females, 1995-2013. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2014. Web.
Stoner, Julie E., and Robert J. Cramer. "Sexual Violence Victimization Among College Females: A Systematic Review of Rates, Barriers, and Facilitators of Health Service Utilization on Campus." Trauma, Violence, & Abuse (2017): 1524838017721245. Web.
Wallace, Kelly. "23% of Women Report Sexual Assault in College, Study Finds. CNN, September 24." (2015). Web.
Sexual Assault Forensic Examinations
Forensic Examinations of Sexual Assaults
Forensics is often associated with murder, but it can play a crucial role in solving sexual assault cases as well. Forensic evidence is often left in sexual assault cases, making it easily traceable and recordable in order to pursue a case in court against a perpetrator. Sexual Assault cases need special attention and care because of the extreme intimate nature of the crime and the need to provide justice for the victim. There are specific criteria for the protocol of examining and investigating a sexual assault that must be followed in order to ensure the preservation of any potential evidence. The following report discusses this protocol from a medical and investigative perspective.
There are very specific national and state guidelines for the investigative purposes revolving cases of sexual assault. Forensic specialists and medical examiners must adhere to these strict guidelines…
DNA Initiative. (2013). A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations. U.S. Department of Justice: Office on Violence Against Women. Web. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ovw/241903.pdf
Florida Department of Law Enforcement. (2013). Detailed instruction list for forensic exam kit. Content. Web. http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/
RAINN. (2013). Preserving and collecting forensic evidence. Aftermath of Sexual Assault. Web. http://www.rainn.org/get-information/aftermath-of-sexual-assault/preserving-and-collecting-forensic-evidence
The Associated Press. (2014). Program that trains nurses to conduct forensic sexual assault exams to expand Iberia Parish. Daily Journal. Web. http://www.dailyjournal.net/view/story/b8a3f7b2e8814ff1b7915267c951ec29/LA -- Nursing-Program/#.UuuCzvtXZ_I
Sexual Assault and Bullying: The Struggles for Power ithin Them
Sexual assault and bullying are social ills that have taken place for quite some time, regardless of society and culture. hen one considers these phenomena, there are actually quite a few similarities between them. In both instances, there are victims and those who are aggressors. There are also disturbing patterns of both of these behaviors, which can become chronic -- both for the victims and the perpetrators of these acts. hen one gets to the root causes of these activities, oftentimes they are about power and the wanton exercise of power over those with less power. This similarity is the most eminent between them, and is the key to both identifying and even preventing such behavior.
The prevalence of sexual assault on college campus, and its many manifestations, reinforces the viewpoint that power is the crux of such behavior. The…
Billboard. Mystikal Accussed of Aggravated Rape, Extortion. www.billboard.com 2002. Web. http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/75046/mystikal-accused-of-aggravated-rape-extortion
Muscatine, Alison. Tyson Found Guilty of Rape, Two Other Charges. http://tech.mit.edu / 1992. Web.
The only medical issues documented in this report are acute findings that potentially relate to the assault or preexisting medical factors that could influence interpretation of findings. Separate medical documentation by examiners and other involved clinicians follows a standard approach -- address acute complaints, gather pertinent historical data, describe findings, and document treatment and follow-up care; and (2) Ensuring the accuracy and objectivity of medical forensic reports by seeking education on proper report writing. (the U.S. Department of Justice, 2004) Photographic evidence of the injuries sustained by the patient may be used to supplement the medical forensic history and to document findings of a physical nature. The U.S. Department of Justice states that following recommendations in the area of photographic documentation: (1) Come to a consensus about the extent of forensic photography necessary. Some jurisdictions routinely take photographs of both detected injuries on patients and normal (apparently uninjured) anatomy, while…
National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adult and adolescents September 2004. U.S. Department of Justice Office on Violence Against Women. Online available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ovw/206554.pdf
Registered Nurse Scope of Practice as a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (nd) Oregon State Board of Nursing Policy Statement. Online available at http://www.oregon.gov/OSBN/pdfs/policies/Sane.pdf
Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs: Improving the Community Response to Sexual Assault Victims. April 2001. U.S. Department of justice Office for Victims of Crime. Online available at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/bulletins/sane_4_2001/186366.pdf
U.S. Department of Justice Office on Violence Against Women (2006) NCJ June 2006. online available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ovw/213827.pdf
Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Norristown, PA 19403: Announcement of a Focus Group Study to e Held Addressing the Issue
According to statistical reports on crimes in Norristown, PA and specifically in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, there have been 35 offenses against family and children for 2012 YTD. In 2011, there were 52 offenses against family and children total. According to one source, Norristown, PA "consistently evidences the highest rates of domestic violence, substance abuse, child abuse, school dropouts, unemployment, inadequate housing, and violent crime in Montgomery County. (Norristown CTC Risk and Resource Assessment, 2005) Norristown Area School District has one of the highest incidences of truancy in the state of Pennsylvania with 56,322 instances of truancy in 2005/2006 for a student population of 6,846 students. Truant youth are often the perpetrators and victims of crime in Norristown." (Pennsylvania Truancy Toolkit, nd)
Focus Group Study Participants
All practitioners who deal directly with…
Annual Domestic Violence Awareness Ceremony Honors Local Law Enforcement (2011) PRLOG. 27 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.prlog.org/11675987-annual-domestic-violence-awareness-ceremony-honors-local-law-enforcement.html
Pennsylvania Truancy Toolkit (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.patruancytoolkit.info/index.cfm?pageid=2597
Segall, Brad (2012) Advocates Alarmed By Increase In Local Domestic Abuse Incidents. Philly News 9 Feb 2012. Retrieved from: http://philadelphia.cbslocal.com/2012/02/09/advocates-alarmed-by-increase-in-local-domestic-abuse-incidents/
The Laurel House -- A Domestic Abuse Shelter in Norristown, Pennsylvania. Retrieved from: http://www.philly2philly.com/the_laurel_house_a_domestic_abuse_shelter_norristown_pennsylvania
The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), among the seven divisions forming part of the U.S. Justice Department's Office of Justice Programs, sees to the administration of Crime Victims Fund set up in 1984 under the Victims of Crime Act for financially assisting victims, as well as providers of victim services with program funds, as per the annual Program Plan of OVC (Office of Victims of Crime, n.d).
The successful grant selected is Legal Advocacy for Victims of Sexual Assault; it offers legal advocacy, helping sexual assault victims to take part in criminal justice, which facilitates the improvement of public safety. If victims fail to raise their voice against the crime done with them then no case will be filed, and offenders will be free to roam society. The proposed initiative's goal is sustaining and strengthening Legal Advocacy for sexual assault victims. Eight full-time posts will be preserved,…
Applegate M. (n.d.) Grant Writer Interview Questions. Retrieved 21 August 2015 from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/grant-writer-interview-questions-2649.html
Legal advocacy for victims of sexual assault. (n.d).Retrieved 21 August 2015 http://ojp.gov/ovc/grants/pdftxt/legal_advocacy_sample.pdf
Office of Victims of Crime. (n.d) Grants and Funding. Retrieved. Retrieved 21 August 2015 from http://ojp.gov/ovc/grants/
The patient “Suzy” in this case study is a sexual assault victim, aged 28, married and female. She has 5 years of military service. Because of her military service, she was trained and disciplined in a culture renowned for praising strength and abhorring weakness. In the military, the code also centers on unity and spirit of mission. Soldiers who “betray” their fellow soldiers are seen as untrustworthy and can be ostracized and marginalized. Because Suzy was sexually assaulted while serving in the military, she did not report the assault, fearing that it would lead to her being labeled a bad soldier by the others. Instead, she attempted to cope with the assault and the trauma it caused her. In attempting to cope on her own, however, Suzy encountered depression, a loss of self-esteem and self-confidence; she developed a problem with substance abuse as well as with anxiety. She has stated…
Frohmann,( 1991) discusses case screening as being the gateway to the criminal court system. She conducted research on how prosecutors account for their decision to reject sexual assault cases for prosecution, with a focus on discrediting victims' rape allegation in the prosecutor's justification. One of the first things discussed in the article covers the credibility of the victim and the role that this plays not only in whether or not the police department will investigate and/or make an arrest; it also influences the prosecutors' and the manner in which they handle a sexual assault case. Some of the research utilized in the article explains that the credibility of a victim is completely separate and exists independently from the interpretation of the prosecution and their assessment of the victims' credibility. On the other hand, there is research that supports the premise that credibility of the victim is constructed on the…
Blumberg, A.S. (1967, June). The Practice of Law as Confidence Game: Organizational Cooptation of a profession. Law & Society Review, 1.
Frohmann, L. (1991, May). Discrediting Victims' Allegations of Sexual Assault: Prosecutorial Accounts of Case Rejections. Social Problems, 38, 213-226.
Spohn, C., Beichner, D., & Davis-Frenzel, E. (2001). Prosecutorial Justifications for Sexual Assault Case Rejection: Guarding the "Gateway to Justice." Social Problems, 48, 206-235.
Countries Laws Legislation Governing Sex Offenders
There was a very restricted definition of sexual damages caused, till the year 1960. Only complete rape and anal sex were considered offensive. This limitation in definition was the only reason that a lot of sufferers were not allowed to register the crime committed and convict the guilty. After 1960 and till present, a lot of changes have been done in the law. At present, sexual misconduct signifies a broader concept and has a wider definition. Furthermore, it essentially means attempt and complete rape and any kind of blameworthy sexual conduct. Moreover, sex offense includes any kind of sexual misconduct committed against a child and an indecent sexual behavior towards a single person, in front of a public (Mackey & Levan, 2013). Any person who is involved in any such crime mentioned above is considered as sex offender. There is an increase…
Corabian, G., & Hogan, N. (2012). Collateral effects of the media on sex offender reintegration: Perceptions of sex offenders, professionals, and the lay public. Sexual Offender Treatment, 7(2), 10.
Global Overview of Sex Offender Registration and Notification Systems. (2014). Retrieved from: www.smart.gov/pdfs/GlobalOverview.pdf
Griffin, L., & Blacker, K. (2010). Megan's Law and Sarah's Law: A Comparative Study of Sex Offender Community Notification Schemes in the United States and the United Kingdom. Criminal Law Bulletin, 46, 987.
James Vess, et. al. (2011). A Comparative Analysis of Australian Sex Offender Legislation for Sex Offender Registries, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 44:404.
Sexual assault can traumatize the victim and lead to major life issues, such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The victim may develop deeply disturbing mental issues that lead the victim to become a sexual abuser later on in life, which has been found to be the case especially for victims abused in childhood (Groth & Burgess, 1979). Trauma affects every individual differently. Some are aware of the issue and seek help. Others attempt to self-medicate by turning to drugs or alcohol or risky sexual behavior, which further leads to destructive behavior. Others are unaware that they have been traumatized and struggle to understand or deal with their emotions. This paper will discuss treatment available for victims of sexual assault, ways to prevent it, and how prevention is being implemented.
One of the most common forms of treatment for sexual assault trauma is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT…
ABCT. (2019). Sexual assault. Retrieved from http://www.abct.org/Information/?m=mInformation&fa=fs_SEXUAL_ASSAULT
Bennett, J. (2018). Combating Sexual Assault With the Military Ethic: Exploring Culture, Military Institutions, and Norms-Based Preventive Policy. Armed Forces & Society, 44(4), 707-730.
Groth, A. N., & Burgess, A. W. (1979). Sexual trauma in the life histories of rapists and child molesters. Victimology, 4(1), 10-16.
Psychology Today. (2018). PET. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapy-types/prolonged-exposure-therapy
Stimson, C. (2013). Sexual Assault in the Military: Understanding the Problem and How to Fix It. Retrieved from https://www.heritage.org/defense/report/sexual-assault-the-military-understanding-the-problem-and-how-fix-it
Central Park Five
The Central Park jogger case, often referred to as the Central Park Five for the five men who were wrongly convicted of the assault, is a brutal assault that occurred in Central Park in 1989. The victim was severely assaulted, which resulted in her losing her memory surrounding the attack. The police identified at least 14 suspects, and a number of them were convicted of the assault, despite a lack of substantial evidence linking them to the crime. Five of the men, the Central Park Five, were exonerated when evidence revealed that they were actually innocent, but this did not occur until the men had spent years in jail. This essay investigates the Central Park Five, covering information about the victim, about the trial against the defendants, about their lawsuit for their wrongful incarcerations, recent developments in their case, and the role that President Trump has…
Conlon, Edward. “The Myth of the Central Park Five.” Daily Beast. 10 October 2014. https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-myth-of-the-central-park-five. Accessed 20 August 2019.
Coulter, Ann. “What the Media Won’t Tell You About the Central Park Five.” Frontpage Magazine. 23 April 2014. https://www.frontpagemag.com/fpm/224068/what-media-wont-tell-you-about-central-park-five-ann-coulter. Accessed 20 August 2019.
Holmes, Stephen. “Reality Check: Donald Trump and the Central Park 5.” CNN. 7 October 2016. https://www.cnn.com/2016/10/06/politics/reality-check-donald-trump-central-park-5/. Accessed 20 August 2019.
Trump, Donald. “Bring Back the Death Penalty. Bring Back Our Police.” New York Daily News. 1 May 1989. http://assets.nydailynews.com/polopoly_fs/1.1838466.1403324800!/img/httpImage/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/article_970/trump21n-1-web.jpg?enlarged. Accessed 20 August 2019.
Trump, Donald. “Donald Trump: Central Park Five Settlement is a Disgrace. New York Daily News. 21 June 2014. https://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/nyc-crime/donald-trump-central-park-settlement-disgrace-article-1.1838467. Accessed 20 August 2019.
Welsh, Susan, Keren Schiffman, and Enjoli Francis. “I So Wish the Case Hadn’t Been Settled: 1989 Central Park Jogger Believes More Than 1 Person Attacked Her.” ABC News. 23 May 2019. https://abcnews.go.com/US/case-settled-1989-central-park-jogger-believes-person/story?id=63077131. Accessed 20 August 2019.
Commonwealth v. Berkowitz (1992)
Q1. Explain how the court came to the conclusion that the Pennsylvania rape statute required extrinsic force.
According to Pennsylvania law, rape may occur either by “forcible compulsion” or the threat of forcible compulsion which “would prevent resistance by a person of reasonable resolution” (“Commonwealth v. Berkowitz”). The Pennsylvania court interpreted this wording as meaning that direct, extrinsic force or the threat of such force was required for an act to constitute sexual assault.
Q2. LIST all the facts relevant to deciding whether Roberts Berkowitz’s actions satisfy the extrinsic force requirement.
Berkowitz pushed the victim down on his bed, straddled her, and ignored her statement that she wanted to meet her boyfriend and leave his room. When he lifted up her shirt and bra, the victim clearly said, “No.” Berkowitz then unzipped his pants and attempted to put his penis in the victim’s mouth. She verbally…
Campus Policy on Sexual Assault
Currently, sexual assault victims have to continue studying in the same environment as the person accused of assaulting them, and this causes a strain on their activities. In the Johnson case, she had to stop visiting the gym and running in order to avoid bumping in on Eric. This affected her normal routine and resulted in her anxiety increasing. Studying and participating in the same activities as your accuser will have a negative effect on the victim because they feel ashamed and they are blaming themselves for the sexual assault. Classes have to progress as normal, and victims of sexual assault find it hard to cope with the assault and their normal classes. Research has shown that a majority of sexual assault victims will drop their grades and most of them do not recover (The American Association of University Professors, 2012). There are many reasons…
Sexual Predators Prosecution
TOO HARSH AND DISADVANTAGEOUS
Sexual Predators' Prosecution
Sexual predators are persons who sexually victimize other persons (ILGA, 2009). They may be rapists, molesters, peeping toms or sexual deviants. A sexual deviant is convicted for rape, attempted rape, child molestation or abuse, incest, sodomy or indecent sexual assault or exposure. A judge may, however, convict a sexual predator for a crime unrelated to the sexual act. If the offender takes a child from home without parental consent, he may be convicted for kidnapping. As of 2009, 17 States have laws that penalize sexual predators, specifically a sub-class of sexually violent predators or SVP. Of these 17, Illinois adopted and enforces the broadest definition of SVP as sex offenders who victimize persons below 18 years old, regardless of past convictions. The other 16 define SVPs as those who victimize others below 12 years old and who have prior sex…
CBT can be effectively used in a variety of stressful or tense situations. Depending on the nature of the issue, focusing on changing behaviors often aids the individual in reducing an addiction, changing their approach to a situation, or focusing on interaction and dialog issues. CBT may be used, for example, with:
Severe anxiety from a recent sexual assault -- CBT may be used to unearth the issues surround the assault and resulting anxiety by helping the client focus on adaptation. The therapist should help the client understand that they were a victim, did not choose the issue, and the fault of the issue is with the perpetrator. Anxious feelings are a rational response to trauma, but by practicing assertion training, the client can take charge of their own emotions and begin to heal (SOUCE, p. 23).
A Gay/Bisexual person struggling to come out to friends and family --…
Follette, V. And J. Ruzek, eds. (2007). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma, 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press.
Fong, T. (2006). Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors. Psychiatry. 3 (11): 51-58. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945841/
Wright, J. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. In J. Wright (Ed.), Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 23). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
For instance, according to Begley, "Men who were promiscuous back then were more evolutionarily fit since men who spread their seed widely left more descendants. By similar logic, evolutionary psychologists argued, women who were monogamous were fitter; by being choosy about their mates and picking only those with good genes, they could have healthier children" (2009, p. 52). Although modern men and women may not look like Cro-Magnums, they all want to act like them deep down inside because of these primordial drives. In sum, Begley concludes that, "We all carry genes that led to reproductive success in the Stone Age, and that as a result men are genetically driven to be promiscuous and women to be coy, that men have a biological disposition to rape and to kill mates who cheat on them, and that every human behavior is 'adaptive' -- that is, helpful to reproduction" (emphasis added) (p.…
Begley, S. (2009, June 29). Why do we rape, kill and sleep around? Newsweek, 153(26), 52.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Druzin, B.H. & Li, J.C. (2011, Spring). The criminalization of lying: Under what circumstances, if any, should lies be made criminal? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 101(2), 529-540.
Duke, S. (2009, April 27). Kinsey: Deviancy is the new normal. The New American, 25(9), 33-35.
Sexual harassment is one of the most common forms of gender-based discrimination that has spread in the recent past despite its impact on victims with regards to depriving them equality and dignity. Generally, sexual harassment involves sexual discrimination that infringes civil rights through unwanted sexual advances, verbal or physical sexual conduct, and requests for sexual favors in a manner that affects a person's work performance or social relations. The victims of this form of gender-discrimination and crime usually feel powerless and have low self-esteem because its most common injuries are emotional. The prevalence of this crime is evident in its current spread in the education environment as well as other workplaces.
Actions Constituting Sexual Harassment in the Education Environment
Given its current spread, sexual harassment has become common in the modern education environment. Similar to other workplaces, sexual harassment in the education environment occurs between teachers and their employers. However,…
"Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education." (1999). Wrightslaw. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.wrightslaw.com/law/caselaw/case_Davis_Monroe_SupCt_990524.html
Education Dept. Inspector General Off. Investigation Office. (1997). Sexual Harassment: It's Not Academic. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://corporate.findlaw.com/law-library/sexual-harassment-it-s-not-academic.html
Stier, W.F. (2005, March/April). An Overview of Sexual Harassment. Strategies, 18(4), 13-15. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08924562.2005.10591145#.U-0pcKOwU08
Table of Contents
III. Related Topics
VI. Essay Hook
VII. Thesis Statement
B. Harvey Weinstein
C. Other Accusations
X. Works Cited
In this essay about Sexual Misconduct and the Fall of Hollywood, we examine how the allegations of sexual impropriety by some of Hollywood’s power players has led to a major shake-up in the entertainment industry. This essay will contain a list of some of the Hollywood players accused of sexual harassment or sexual assault, the allegations against them, and at least partial lists of their known accusers. The essay will also delve into an examination of the casting couch phenomenon. Although these sexual misconduct allegations may have come as a surprise to much of middle America, there is substantial evidence that many of Hollywood’s rich and powerful were well aware of the sexual…
GE commits itself to active achievement of diversity for enhancing the firm's performance through recognition and utilization of the diverse talents and skills of its directors, managers, and staff members. Diversity encompasses recognizing and appreciating the unique inputs of different members of an organization, owing to their different backgrounds, skill sets, viewpoints, and experiences, including individuals with concomitant domestic responsibilities. GE cherishes the differences among its workforce, as well as their contribution to the organization. GE further commits itself to abolition of discrimination and supporting diversity among its staff members. The company's aim is making its workforce a true representative of every societal group, and making every employee feel valued and capable of contributing their best.
Thus, the goal of this diversity policy is providing fairness and equality to all employees of the company, and not discriminating against anyone on the basis of gender, race, color, religion, marital…
Acas (2006). Tackling discrimination and promoting equality. Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/j/2/B16_1.pdf
Amaguin, R. (n.d.). Implement a Sexual Harassment Policy and Avoid a Harassment Claim EmploymentLawFirms.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015, from http://www.employmentlawfirms.com/resources/employment/workplace-safety-and-health/implement-sexual-harassment-policy.htm
Caltex Diversity Policy (n.d.). Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.caltex.com.au/aboutus/documents/policiesprocesses/caltex%20diversity%20policy.pdf
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). Sexual Harassment. Retrieved from: http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sexual_harassment.cfm
Army Case Study
The health of the unit is of most important. When serving in a military unit, the personal and individual needs must come second in order for the organization to flourish and grown towards its best. The situation describing SPC Andrews and PFC Nolan is a direct threat to the cohesive nature of the platoon and significantly damages the esprit de corps that is necessary to become a combat multiplier on the battlefield
As a leader in this case study it is important to think of the unit first and the individual last. Certain ideas must be considered to understand the entirety of the situation. Such ideas that should be considered include:
What is the unit's current mission ?
What is the impact of the unit ?
How will others within the company feel about the relationship and possible sexual assault ?
What is does UCMJ suggest.
In this particular case study, the client is a 15-year-old minor. She has suffered neglect and abuse and has lived with toxic parents and guardians for a while. As of today, she has had residence in 8 separate communities. Her problems started when she was ten in 2010. At that young age she was sexually abused by somebody who was a friend of her family. The man who abused her is now in jail serving for his crime. When the client was abused at such a young age, she specified that she did not receive any intervention, psychological support or counselling from anyone let alone the Human Services Agency. In 2012, she was arrested and put in detention. Her crime: the murder of an older male schoolmate in her school’s compound. She was detained in the country’s only jail and she specified in her statements that she ended…
Sexual Assault Treatment Center
Describe the social problem for the community
Sexual assault is a criminal sexual act, either physical or otherwise, committed by a perpetrator against a victim (usually a child) using physical, intimidation/force, or emotional manipulation. Sexual assault subjects the victim to the perpetrator's demands through use of coercion, force, manipulation or explicit/implicit threats. Sexual assault is considered criminal because the act is committed against a victim without seeking his or her consent. Sexual assaults are also considered wrong and criminal regardless of the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim or the religion, culture, sex, sexual orientation or age of the victim. In case the victim is a child, sexual assault is termed as sexual abuse. In sexual abuse an adult uses his or her position of power to satisfy their desires. As mentioned earlier, sexual assault can be with or without physical contact and it may…
Alexander, P. (1992). Application of attachment theory to the study of sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(2), 185-95.
Amnesty International. (2005). Amnesty International Report. London: Times.
Appalachian State University. (2016). Sexual Assault Facts. Retrieved Febuary 6, 2016, from Appalachian State University: http://sexualassault.appstate.edu/sexual-assault-rape/sexual-assault-facts
Berliner, L., & Saunders, B. (n.d.). Treating fear and anxiety in sexually abused children. Research grantees report to NCCAN. Seattle, WA: Sexual Assault Center, Harborview Medical Center.
Accordingly, the Garrison Commander would like to honor the SARC and VA of the Fort Belvoir community for their outstanding service and their compassion in helping those who are affected by sexual assault and sexual victimization. heir work is essential for victims and their loved ones to recover from their experiences and overcome them. Please join Commander ____ and the rest of the Fort Belvoir community in acknowledging and thanking our dedicated SARC and VA personnel for their crucial work in this area and for helping victims recover and overcome their experiences as victims of sexual assault, victimization, and violence.
ake Back the Night
Date: April 19
Location: he Woodlawn Village
One of the most important layers of the prevention of sexual assault by strangers is increasing the safety of our community environment. Please join our ake Back the Night event where three guest speakers will address the…
The Sad but Encouraging History of Denim Day
In 1997, a teenage girl was forcibly raped by her driving instructor in Italy; it was her very first driving lesson. The rapist was sentenced to serve a prison sentence but that sentence was later reversed by an appeals court on the basis of the assumption that the girl's jeans were so tight that she would have had to help her rapist remove them, thereby making the interaction consensual rather than forced rape. In protest, female members of the Italian Parliament wore jeans to work and that practice has since spread internationally.
The idea behind "Denim Day" is that rape and sexual assault are never the fault of the victim, regardless of how victims choose to dress. To support and promote that concept, we are asking that all soldiers, civilians, community member, elected officials, businesses proprietors, and students take this opportunity on April 26th to make a social statement with their choice of attire. By wearing denim jeans, you will be participating in a visible protest and fighting against the myths that surround sexual assault and its victims.
In addition to helping address this problem in our community, we believe that your participation at any level can only benefit your business by demonstrating to your partners and customers alike that you are committed to helping this community.
Naturally, we would also welcome your participation in other ways, such as by hosting events or by contributing your input, experiences, and advice as a professional business person as a scheduled guest speaker if you feel that you have a perspective to share on this important topic for our community.
Please contact the Fort Belvoir SHARP Office at ____ to receive additional information or resources, or to discuss any ways that you would like to contribute to this critical community effort. All of our soldiers, civilian employees, and our family members and friends invite you to become part of this annual effort to protect human health and welfare in our community.…
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Just like with other forms of sexual assault, sexual harassment brings a set of impacts and consequences such as having physical effects, emotional effects, job and school related effects and current and future financial penalties. Harassment also has harmful costs on the environment that victims are in and can lead to an aggressive and less productive work and school surroundings. It costs businesses and schools due to the damaged morale, lawsuits and absenteeism that occur because of it. It permits for the degradation of women and men and the continuation of gender inequalities (Anderson, 2006).
The psychological brunt on the victim of sexual harassment can be huge. Understanding the psychological effects of harassment is difficult because very often the victim's reactions are masked or minimized. Sexual harassment has negative impacts on the victim, often reporting that they are distracted during the day and do not perform to their potential. They…
Anderson, Janet. (2006). Sexual Harassment. Retrieved April 27, 2010, from Web site:
Dealing with Sexual Harassment. (2002). Retrieved April 27, 2010, from Web site:
Women in the military reported being sexually harassed at six times the rate of civilian women, and reported being sexually assaulted at more than twice the rate of civilian women. Moreover, women in the military seem even more hesitant than civilian women to report sexual assault or sexual harassment. Civilian women were almost three times as likely to report sexual harassment as women in the military. Moreover, while both civilian women and military women failed to report an alarming percentage of sexual assaults, civilian women were more than three times as likely to report those assaults than military women.
While this survey makes it clear that women in the military are at greater risk of sexual assault and sexual harassment than civilian women, it does not explain why the women are at risk. Future studies should look at the impact of race and socioeconomic status on those issues, because it…
McCall-Hosenfeld, J.S., Liebshutz, J.M., Spiro, a., & Seaver, M.R. (2009). Sexual assault in the military and its impact on sexual satisfaction in women veterans: a proposed model. Journal of Women's Health, 18(6), 901-9.
Street, a.E., Stafford, J., Mahan, C.M., & Hendricks, a. (2008). Sexual harassment and assault experienced by reservists during military service: prevalence and health correlates. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 45(3), 409-19.
Crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States
The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased by 1.1% when it is compared with those reported in 2015. The rates of crimes against people vary across regions. For example, the FBI reports that in 2016, there was a positive change in the rate of 2.0% in murder cases in Northeast region and 1.2% in Midwest (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Therefore, this research paper examines the different types of crimes committed against persons in the US, their characteristics,…
aragher v. City of Boca Raton
Argued March 25, 1998
Decided June 26, 1998
Beth Ann aragher: petitioner; City of Boca Raton:
Beth Ann aragher worked part-time and during summers between 1990 and 1995 as a life-guard for the Parks and Recreation Department of the City of Boca Raton, lorida. Her immediate superiors during this period were Bill Terry, David Silverman and Robert Gordon.
After resigning as a lifeguard, aragher brought an action against Terry, Silverman and the City under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 for nominal damages and other relief, alleging, among other things, that the supervisors had created a "sexually hostile atmosphere" at work by repeatedly subjecting aragher and other female lifeguards to uninvited and offensive touching, by making lewd remarks, and by speaking of women in offensive terms. Asserting that Terry and Silverman were agents of the City, and that…
Faragher v. The City of Boca Raton (1998) is considered to be landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the area of sexual harassment in the workplace. This is mainly because until Faragher, the Appeal Courts in the U.S. had typically considered sexual harassment by employees in the workplace as "frolics or detours from the course of employment" which was "acting beyond the scope of their employment." As such, sexual harassment by employees (including supervisors) was deemed to fall beyond the scope of Restatement 219 (1) and absolved the employer of any vicarious liability.
Faragher constitutes an important departure from such a benign interpretation of sexual harassment by the courts and set more strict standards of judgment in future cases. It also forced the employers and supervisors to view sexual harassment more seriously and to implement policies of prevention in the workplace.
The Case, in fact, reflects the changing social attitudes towards sexual harassment in the American society. There was a time, when crass behavior by male employees in the workplace could go unchallenged or was ignored by women. Following the success of the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s, movements for the rights of other minorities had gained ground. By the 1990s, previous Court rulings in sexual harassment cases had become out of tune with the changed social standards. Faragher defined the parameters of sexual harassment more clearly and also broadened the scope of vicarious liability in general.
Ethical Issues in Counselor Education and Supervision During Documentation
One of the current issues in counselor education and supervision relates to the rising cases of sexual assault on college and campuses. This issue has attracted the 'Take Back the Night' events, and the 'No means No' educative campaigns. Today, many students fall victim of college sexual assault. Sexual violence and aggravate sexual assaults have affected the performance of many innocent students in schools. Cases related to such incidences often go unmentioned because the majority of the victims fear victimization or embarrassment (Finley & Lenz, 2005). This has made the issue appear like a norm or a culture because almost all the colleges and campuses around the globe experience sexual violence and sexual assaults frequently.
Often, at least every person who went to a college or campus will tell a story about sexual assault involving a friend or an acquaintance while…
Aasheim, L. (2012). Practical Clinical Supervision for Counselors: An Experiential Guide. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callanan, P. (2007). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions. Australia: Brooks/Cole/Thomson Learning.
Cottone, R. R., & Tarvydas, V. M. (2003). Ethical and Professional Issues In Counseling. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Finley, J. R., & Lenz, B. S. (2005). The Addiction Counselor's Documentation Sourcebook: The Complete Paperwork Resource for Treating Clients with Addictions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Sexual Harassment Charges
The chair of the kinesiology department at a college or university confronted with a sexual harassment charge from a student concerning the inappropriate touching of a breast by a male instructor during weight training instruction and who now refuses to return to class will need to understand the legal definition of sexual harassment and relevant precedential case laws to provide an appropriate organizational response. To this end, this paper reviews the literature to provide a definition of sexual harassment, when it was implemented into law in the United States, and an analysis of selected sexual harassment cases including their validity. Finally, a recommendation for the college or university, a summary of the research and important findings concerning sexual harassment cases are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
According to the legal definition provided by Black's Law Dictionary, sexual harassment is "a type of employment discrimination [which]…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Equal employment opportunity guidelines on sexual harassment. (1980). 45 Fed. Reg. 25025.
Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District. (1998). Oyez. Available: https://www.oyez. org/cases/1997/96-1866.
Lee, Robert D. and Greenlaw, Paul S. "Employer Liability for Employee Sexual Harassment: A Judicial Policy-Making Study." Public Administration Review (2000, March), vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 123-127.
After being charged with the crime, a slave-owner yet eloquent prominent trial attorney James Jameson was appointed to defend Celia, partially to silence critics on both sides of the issue in Missouri. Jameson defended his client's right to resist her master's advances based upon statues designed only to apply to assaulted white women and another statute that allowed slaves to fight back with deadly force to spare their own lives. The judge objected to this defense and told the jury to ignore this argument, effectively sealing Celia's fate to be executed. Because Celia was regarded as property, her master could dispose of her as he desired, and the only sexual crime that could be committed against the body of a female slave under the law was if another man trespassed upon the slave-owners' property.
The unique tyranny forced upon women as a result of slavery is manifest in Celia's case.…
Mclaurin, Melton. Celia: A slave. New York: Harper Perennial, 1993.
Males of all ages routinely misrepresent their intentions with the specific hope of obtaining sexual consent from prospective female partners: typically, they feign sincerely romantic interest when their interest in the particular woman is strictly physical.
Instead of respecting how important many women consider an emotional connection as a prerequisite for sexuality, men disregard the very social mores they purport to value in their legitimate romantic interests (and for any females in their families) to exploit any conceivable opportunity to obtain sexual consent for their selfish purposes. Perhaps the most offensive element of this social dynamic is, precisely, that the same men prize chastity and even virginity in women as an ideal for their eventual life partners (Verene, p. 301).
What is most unfortunate and ironic about this situation is that to whatever degree moral rules apply to sexual conduct, they are violated much more by the duplicitous conduct typical…
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (2002) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Verene, D.P. (1992) Sexual Love and Western Morality: A Philosophical Anthology. New York: Harper
Individuals who are sexually harassed at work experience stress. It is now more common knowledge that stress manifests itself physically in our bodies. Thus, persons who are sexually harassed may have aches, pains, headaches, muscle tensions, digestive problems, and actually, a very large array of physical symptoms that stem from additional stress experienced at work. The relationships of those who are sexually harassed suffer as well. People who are sexually harassed suffer from diminished self-esteem and perhaps also depression. These people withdraw and avoid social gatherings, withdraw from their friends and families, and participate less in group activities, including work meetings. The lack of physical and social contact can cause further psychological and emotional damage to a person who is already suffering. (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture, Chapter 5)
The organisation where the harassment took place will suffer as well.…
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2010.
European Commission, Directorate General for Employment, Industry Relations, and Social Affairs. Sexual harassment in the workplace in the European Union. Publications of Employment and Social Affairs, The Netherlands, 1998.
Loutfi, Martha Fetherolf Ed. Women, Gender, and Work. International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered. Title I requires employers with 15 or more employees to provide qualified individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to benefit from the full range of employment-related opportunities available to others. For example, it prohibits discrimination in recruitment, hiring, promotions, training, pay, social activities, and other privileges of employment. It restricts questions that can be asked about an applicant's disability before a job offer is made, and it requires that employers make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities, unless it results in undue hardship. Religious entities with 15 or more employees are covered under title I. Title I complaints must be filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) within 180 days of the date of discrimination, or 300 days if the charge is filed with a designated…
Rosman JP, Resnick PJ. Sexual attraction to corpses: a psychiatric review of necrophilia. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1989;17(2):153-63.
It is not legal for me to reprint the article and copy you on it, since you are purchasing this paper (and copyright would be breached because you would, in form, be purchasing the article without reprint permission) -- but the article IS available for free online (your college should provide access to Google SCHOLAR and that gives not only the full article but all the times since its publication in which it has been cited or invoked in another academic or professional publication) of from PubMed. I can, however, legally provide you with the abstract
JAKE and JSTOR, both journals of jointly administered knowledge, offer the article in-full to students through their libraries.
Department of Psychiatry, Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Ohio 44109.
The authors review 122 cases (88 from the…
In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is as follows:
The amount of tissue removed is extensive. The most extreme form involves the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, together with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse, using thorns, poultices or stitching to hold them in place, and the legs are tied together for 2-6 weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin which covers the urethra and part or most of…
From an international perspective, it is difficult to impose human rights on other people who claim cultural tradition as a basis for a ritual, because that opens up claims of racism and cultural insensitivity, which would also violate human rights. One difficulty is that there is no single international standard for human rights.
On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which outlines basic human rights. Since that time, there have been nine total core international human rights treaties, some of them dealing specificially with children and with gender discrimination. At the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations member nations ratified a prohibition against any type of gender-based discrimination. In addition, the Convention on the Rights of the Child discusses a child's right to be raised by her parents in a family environment without undue governmental interference, but also discusses the child's right to be raised by a best interests standard. Clearly, in the case of something like breast ironing, reconciling the two is impossible. In addition, while these declarations of rights are admirable, they are only enforceable on UN member nations, and have only been enforced in the context of state action. Cameroon has criminalized the practice of breast ironing, so it would be difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that state actors are playing a role in perpetuating the process. That is not to say that some have not suggested that other sexual mutilations, most notably female genital mutilation, be treated and prosecuted as torture, but the international community has not responded positively to those calls.
There is also the problem of accountability. Establishing international human rights standards is a lofty ideal, but there has not been a practical means established to deal with offenses. Of course, there are international human rights tribunals established to try government officials for violations of human rights. Research shows that human rights trials do have a positive impact on the citizens of the country in question and can actually have an ancillary positive impact on neighboring countries. In addition, the United States has taken steps to try to enforce international law in a domestic context. 18 U.S.C.S. 2340A (a) provides that: "Whoever outside the United States commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection,
From the perspective of pure plot, David Mamet's 1974 play, Sexual Perversity in Chicago, is not exactly easy to summarize, although this difficulty is formally built in to the play, itself, which quite consciously rejects a standard narrative flow from one event to another for a cut-up collagistic style that rapidly jumps between scenes and events. Indeed, this sort of experimentation is hardly new in creative works, and was, in fact, a mainstay of modernist literature at the early part of the 20th century, but it can indeed still be jarring in the realm of theater, where one often tends to expect an emphasis on plot and narrative vision. Mamet's play, on the other hand, prefers to eschew these things in order to suggest something like the fractured nature of our own existences, and, rather than letting the plot hold the interest of the viewers, he realizes on…
About Last Night." MSN.com. retrieved November 5, 2003 at http://entertainment.
Frey, Hans-Jost. "On Presentation in Benjamin." Walter Benjamin: Theoretical
Questions. David S. Harris, ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1996.
Psychological abuse and psychological neglect: Neglect is the "failure to protect a child from exposure to any kind of danger," according to Sneddon, et al., in Child Abuse Review (2010). Emotional / psychological neglect involves the persistent emotional "ill-treatment or rejection of a child," Sneddon explains. It involves the "…failure to provide for a child's needs" by, for example, being "emotionally unresponsive or passive in the presence of a child" (Sneddon, 41). Psychological / emotional abuse on the other hand is the rejection of a child, or the emotional ill-treatment of a child, carried out in "the sustained repetitive, inappropriate emotional response to the child's experience" (Sneddon, 41). A child that is being psychologically abused is told things like, "you're stupid" and "you're lazy and no good" and "you are ugly"; that same child may also be subjected to a "withdrawal of affection" and experience "humiliation" and "degradation" psychologically (Sneddon,…
Lillywhite, Ralph, and Skidmore, Paula. (2006). Boys Are Not Sexually Exploited? A Challenge
to Practitioners. Child Abuse Review, 15(5), 351-361.
Public Broadcasting Service. (2009). NOW / Fighting Child Prostitution. Retrieved January 21
2012, from http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/422/index.html .
Moreover, if an adolescent who has reached 18 commits sexual offending is considered an adult sex offender, "what does this mean for young adults who engaged in sexually abusive behavior prior to age 18?" (p. 433). ecause of this blurry line, Rich suggests, it is imperative that adolescents of older age must especially be provided with comprehensive treatment programs to prevent them from developing fixed sexualized abusive interests.
ecause of the complicated nature of the problem of juvenile sex offending, Rich offers a holistic treatment for curing juvenile sex offenders. The holistic model, grounded on the principle that the 'whole' of the person needs to be taken into consideration, must look into the nature of the individual "whose emotions, cognitions, behaviors and relationships are driven by multiple factors, many of which are unique to that individual" (p. 444). In other words, the approach should first and foremost focus on learning…
Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2): 222-226.
Rich, P (2009) Understanding the Complexities and Needs of Adolescent Sex Offenders in Beech, a.R., Craig, B.A., & Browne, K.D. (Eds.) Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders. West Sussex, UK: Whiley-Blackwell.
Rightland, S., & Welch, C (2001) Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: A Review of the Professional Literature. A report to the U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Ryan, G., Leversee, T., & Lane, Sandy (2010) Juvenile Sexual Offending: Causes, Consequences, and Correction. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.
Smallbone, S., Marshall, W.L., & Wortley, R. (2008) Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Evidence, Policy and Practice. Portland: Willan Publishing.
Sexual assault is an assault which is of a sexual nature done on another person either of the same of different sex. It also includes any form of sexual act that is committed without the consent of the person. Although in most cases, sexual assault is done by a man on a woman but in some cases, it has been documented to also be done by several men, women or children on men and children also Openshaw et al., 1993()
In the U.S. alone, about 300,000 cases of rape of women are reported every year. Additionally, 3.7 million women are usually subjected to other forms of unwilling sexual activity. There are also another 80,000 children in America who are abused sexually every year. Estimates by help agencies say that about one in every six American women has experienced sexual assault or will experience sexual assault at least…
Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2), 222-226.
Contrary to what is often seen on the nightly news programs, there are still many people in this country and throughout the world who want to live in safe places and who would be interested in making their town better. Often, they do not know what they can do to improve the poorer parts of town, so they simply choose not to live or work there. This only leads to the decay of those areas and the rising crime rate. While unfortunate, it is not entirely unexpected. However, urban revitalization has begun in a lot of cities and towns, both big and small, in recent years. Although the economy has slowed some of that, there are still many areas where it is moving forward. This will, in time, lower the number of sexual assaults and other crimes in those revitalization areas. If more people would help to improve their neighborhoods,…
Chu, James A. (1990). Dissociative symptoms in relation to childhood physical and sexual abuse, Am. J. Psychiatry.
Coons, P.M. (1994). Confirmation of childhood abuse in childhood and adolescent cases of multiple personality disorder and dissociative disorders not otherwise specified. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 461-464.
Finkelhor, D. (1990). Early and long-term effects of child sexual abuse: An update. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 325-330.
Jarvis, T.J., & Copeland, J. (1997). Child sexual abuse as a predictor of psychiatric co-
The rationale for integrating this unit is based on the fact that crimes -- like most of all other social problems -- are easier to prevent than to deal with afterwards. Within this unit, emphasis is placed on watching people and businesses for any indication of criminal behavior, ensuring the safety of children (providing the names of offenders), providing tips for safety and crime prevention and so on (Bloomington MN Government Site).
Aside from the departments to be included, the discussion at this level should also focus on the departments that will not be included in the new effort to fight violent crime. These four departments that will not be included in the task force include the following: training, traffic investigation unit, personnel unit and the records keeping unit. Al these units have some connection with crime fighting, but can collaborate with the task force, without needing to be included…
Crime prevention unit. Creative solutions to deter crime. Bloomington MN Government Site. http://www.ci.bloomington.mn.us/cityhall/dept/police/specops/crime_prevention/crime_prevention.htm accessed on January 24, 2013
LAPD organizational chart. LAPD Online. http://www.lapdonline.org/inside_the_lapd/content_basic_view/1063 accessed on January 24, 2013
Organizational chart. Town of Vestal New York. http://www.vestalny.com/DeptPage.aspx?pID=10 accessed on January 24, 2013
Structure of policing in London. Metropolitan Police. http://www.met.police.uk/about/organisation.htm accessed on January 24, 2013
However, this made Andrei use physical torture as means of controlling her which later lead to him killing her by hitting her head constantly. His aim was not to have a casual sex with the victim but to kill her and satisfy his physical needs, which he discovered during his previous thrilling encounter.
He also showed abnormal behaviors after sexual assault when he chewed and swallowed away one of the victim's nipples. The dead body of Larissa was found the next day with no clue of the murderer. His second victim was a thirteen-year-old girl named Liyuba Biryuk, which was followed on from a bus stop. The killing took place in June 1982 by introducing several stabs to the body including the eyes. The body was found two weeks later with no sign or clue. Two more youths were victimized in July, two in September and one in December (Jenkins,…
Askenasy, Hans. Cannibalism: from sacrifice to survival. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1994.
Fido, Martin and David Southwell. True Crime. London: Carlton, 2010.
Jenkins, Philip. Using Murder. Chicago: Transaction Publishers, 1994.
Philbin, Tom and Michael Philbin. The Killer Book of Serial Killers. Chicago: Sourcebooks, Inc., 2009.
During her reorganization phase, her personality and the emotional support from other social units played a vital role. As a person, she was a survivor. She appeared to posses a character which made her endure the pain yet live through the moment. It was her resilience that made her go to public authorities even after she lost her case the first time. Alice always wanted to be somebody whose presence could be felt. This is the reason why she wanted to be Ethel Merman (2009, p.87). She was an actress and a singer whom according to her mother, had no talent but she managed draw the attention of audience solely on herself. Her personality made an exceptional role in letting her cope up with the trauma and also with getting her culprit punished in the later phase.
Another important factor which played a key role in her retaliation was her…
Boeschen, L.E., Sales, B.D.,&Koss, M.P. (1998). Rape trauma experts in the courtroom. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4, pp. 414-432.
Burgess, a.W. & Holmstrom, L.L. (1974), Rape trauma syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, pp.981-986.
Sebold, a. (2009), Lucky, Pan Macmillion Inc.
Raitt, F.E. & Zeedyk, S.Z. (1997), Rape trauma syndrome: Its corroborative and educational roles. Journal of Law and Society, 24(4), pp.552-568.
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion.
Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…
A third of those who responded said they believed she was to blame if she had been flirtatious. One fourth believed that wearing provocative clothing made women at least partially responsible if she was sexually assaulted. and, one fifth of respondents felt that having numerous sexual partners also led to the woman being partly to blame if she was raped. In all of these survey questions, men were more critical of women's behavior than women, except where alcohol was involved.
A rape case in Illinois demonstrates how so-called victims may not be just that. The girl in question was intoxicated, and the encounter, with multiple young men, was captured on video tape. However, jurors, having reviewed the evidence and watching the tape, said they saw hints that the girl may have been agreeing to sex (Yednak). It demonstrates that although when recovering from a drunken a person may regret their…
Do women sometimes rape men? 2007. Planned Parenthood. December 12, 2007 http://www.teenwire.com/ask/2003/as-20030624p592-rape.php .
Knight, I. "Women who really do ask for it." Sunday Times. 19 Nov 2006: p. 15. ProQuest Newsstand. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 12, 2007 http://proquest.umi.com .
Newsom, M. "The dark side of 'hooking up'." Sun Journal. 8 Apr 2007: p. B8. ProQuest Newstand. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 12, 2007
This element is necessary to determine whether or not the offense can be considered to be aggravated sexual assault.
Explain why locating the point of origin is so important in arson investigation.
Determining the point of origin of a fire is a crucial first step in any investigation. This step is so important because it may illuminate the cause of the fire, and further identify whether the fire was criminal in nature. Fire investigation is difficult, due to the fact that evidence is often destroyed by the blaze. Before the cause of a fire can be determined, the point of origin must be identified. Often the point of origin of a fire is known, but the cause is not, and sometimes the reverse is true.
List and describe the several stages of a burglary investigation.
There are five main activities used by the authorities to respond to burglaries of dwellings…
Archambault, J., Faugno, D.K. (2001). Overcoming a consent defense to sexual assault. The Journal of Emergency Nursing, 27, 204-8.
Coupe, T., Griffiths, M. (1995). Police investigations into residential burglary. The British Criminology Conferences: Selected Proceedings, 1, 18-21.
Jukanin, T.J. (1996). Model guidelines and sex crimes investigation manual for Illinois law enforcement. Illinois Law Enforcement and Training Standards Board. Retrieved 6/11/2007 at http://www.ptb.state.il.us/publications/sexassualt.pdf.