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Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America
Jonathan Kozol's The Shame of the Nation exposes the ways in which the school desegregation achieved by the civil rights movement has been dismantled since the late 1980's. Exploring Brown v. Board of Education and its impact, Kozol also examines the widespread successful efforts to dismantle that case's effects, the crippling results of school segregation and the sometimes harmful attempts to overcome segregation. Kozol also examines some ways in which desegregation can be achieved, chiefly through a civil rights movement that can also use state and federal legislatures and courts. Kozol's book reveals an alarming situation, though some of his conclusions seem extreme.
Chapter 1 - Dishonoring the Dead (pp.13-38)
Chapter 1 discusses the Supreme Court 1954 decision, Brown v. The Board of Education.
Thurgood Marshall, who gave his opinion for that decision, said that separate-but-equal schools…
Kozol, J. (2005). The Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group.
Shame in Context Of Literacy
Reading in a Second Language: Theory and Pedagogical Implications
An overview of proficient reading and its instruction
"Reading is something many of us take for granted" (Grabe, 2009). eing a basic reader, says Dr. Grover Whitehurst, is someone who can read a basic text that is age appropriate. The reader is able to understand the sentences and comprehend the material to a point where they are able to answer basic questions about the material. Furthermore, individuals who are deemed basic readers have enough fluency to get through the material in an allotted amount of time and then answer questions (Whitehurst, 2003). Taking a reader from this basic level and deeming them proficient means that a reader has more skills when it comes to the material and are able to make inferences about the subject matter or characters; essentially, proficient readers can understand the material at…
Armbruster, Bonnie B, Lehr, Fran, & Osborn, Jean. (n.d.). The research building blocks for teaching children to read: put reading first. Retrieved from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/upload/PRFbooklet.pdf
Grabe, William. (2009). Reading in a second language: moving from theory to practice. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Koda, Kieko. (2004). Insights into second language . Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Lyon, Reid G. . (2003, September 11). Instructional confusion. Retrieved from http://www.childrenofthecode.org/library/refs/instructionalconfusion.htm#InstructionalCasualtiesLyon
Shame" is a novel that is bursting with anger. And yet to call it a novel is not quite true; it is a satire in the way that Sterne's "Tristram Shandy" and Gulliver Twist's works were satires and in the way that Candide satirized his own society. ushdie satirizes large swathes of the Muslim world today -- largely the parts in the Middle East -- and his anger burn the pages.
ushdie, victim of a death threat in the past, tries to steer himself clear from future threat by describing his book as an "a sort of modern fairy tale," which nobody need take seriously and which, since it is set in "not quite Pakistan,' (3) need not provoke the authorities to censor it or have it burned. However, the correspondence to contemporary Pakistan, and Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, amongst other places is visible and real.
Omar Khayyam Shakil is…
Rushdie, Salman. Shame. Vintage: London, 1995.
or, some work two jobs just to pay the bills. Furthermore, Newman's demographic and field research demonstrates that America's largest group of impoverished citizens is not the unemployed, but the working poor, who receive little political attention or credit for their struggles.
Both traditional liberals and conservatives will find a great deal to take issue with in Newman's book. Liberals who defend the current welfare system may be angry at Newman's assertion that this overlooked segment of the working poor population unambiguously states that it finds dignity in earning a paycheck rather than a welfare check, and is relieved and that even low-paying jobs give order to desperate lives in desperate circumstances. Conservatives may be angry however, when Newman shows that hard work is not enough to pull one's self up by one's bootstraps and survive. Instead, Newman believes that some government intervention is necessary, such as extending more Earned…
Newman, Katherine. No Shame in My Game. New York: Vintage, 2000.
The birth canal may be seen as a shameful place to come from because it is dirty and bloody. Here is a poem I wrote to relay the impact it left me.
Giving in to such idiocies and prophecies and as if some heresy was committed. Still you and I both know we are of Adam and Eve. Flesh beget flesh through suffering and toil-ing down the river into the gulf of blood and membrane.
You don't know what I've been through said the willowed, bastard child.
The tears encrusted into the visage of man and woman, both entwined and intermingled.
Can't believe my trip was so long, yet cut so short. Hero, hero, don't take that moment and slide past home. Crickets marching forth with their spicket of water, fresh water and rain. March down through the vestiges of bone and blood.
The last quote I just loved…
Emma oodhouse: Jane Austen's sublime mimic and dramatist
In the famous 'Box Hill' scene of Jane Austen's novel Emma, the protagonist Emma oodhouse shames the poor, garrulous spinster Miss Bates with a cruel jest and nearly loses the man she loves (but does not know she loves), Mr. Knightley. Emma was warned against such verbal displays earlier in the novel. "For shame, Emma! Do not mimic her [Miss Bates]. You divert me against my conscience. And, upon my word, I do not think Mr. Knightley would be much disturbed by Miss Bates. Little things do not irritate him," she is reproached by her old governess Mrs. eston (Chapter 26). Over the course of the novel, Emma oodhouse, "handsome, clever, and rich," as she is referred to early on, must be educated to be worthy of her genetic and financial inheritance (Chapter 1). A critical component of her education…
Austen, Jane. Emma. Full e-text available at:
85 an hour? ith gasoline prices hovering around $4.00 a gallon, and rents increasing, along with the rising cost of food in America, it is fair to suggest that more people will be slipping down below the lower middle class into the world of poverty.
It is very easy to see why the minimum wage did not increase for more than ten years; the Republican Party was in control of Congress from 1994 through 2007 (January). Republicans generally support business and not social programs, so it wasn't until the Democrats became the majority in Congress in 2007 that the minimum wage was bumped up. It will rise to $6.55 an hour in July 2008, then to $7.25 an hour in July 2009. But by 2009, what will $7.25 be worth? ith inflation, it might not be worth much more than it is right now, and the working poor will continue…
Armour, Stephanie. "Minimum wage increase kicks in today." USA Today. 24 July 2007.
Retrieved April 14, 2008, at http://www.usatoday.com .
Brentin, Mock. "The Greatest challenges to African-Americans in 2008." Essence 38.8 (2007):
Dreier, Peter. "Poverty in the Suburbs." The Nation. 20 September 2004. Retrieved April 15, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com .
John radshaw: Healing the Shame That inds You
John radshaw's Healing the Shame that inds You is a book that teaches lessons on how to deal with shame as well as the emotional and psychological problems it causes. The book is a discussion of common psychological behaviors of people who encounters events, which cause negative feelings, and soon lead to behavioral deficiencies. The book in its entirety is essentially a guide to eliminate shame.
radshaw covers almost all emotional effects, rooted from shame, of diverse problems. Several of his examples circle around the shame-based problems of family alcoholism, dysfunctional home, child abuse, and drug dependence. In Healing the Shame that inds You, radshaw provides insights of psychological theories that look on the impact of problems to the identity of a victim, most especially on the intrusive consequences of shame-based problems in the behavioral, psychological, and emotional factors of victims.
Bradshaw, J. (1988). Healing the Shame that Binds You.
The fundamental motivation driving Shannon's search for family is the feeling of loneliness and the search for a more complete self. This is the same motivation, of course, which drives the search for love. It is the notion that a woman will be become complete through romantic union with a partner.
Roberts' target audience, which is basically the audience of romance novels in general, demands a heroine that finds love in the way that Shannon does. That is, the heroine cannot be desperately and selfishly seeking love. Such a pursuit would take much of the heroism out of the character, making her more pathetic than admirable. The heroine must be doing something other than looking for a lover. Here, it was a more universal need, the need for family, that guided Shannon to meet the love of her life. It is Robert's skill as a novelist that allows her to…
This represents the first stirrings of change for the meaning of the scarlet letter from adultery to "able"; able to overcome tragedy with one's head held high; just as Hester Prynne had done. As Hester continues to contribute to the community through her seamstress and charity work, she becomes increasingly admired, once again changing the meaning of the scarlet letter. It has now surpassed mere ability to encompass admiration for a woman who was actually a victim of Puritanical small mindedness rather than a sinner worthy of a public haranguing. If anyone was truly sinful here, it was her husband oger Chillingsworth, who chose to spend his life hell bent on revenge rather than forgiveness.
The Historical Critical Perspective
The Scarlet Letter is set in Boston in the 17th century during the Puritan era. According to Portersfield (2001) "people argued over the strong American tendency to define religion in…
Elbert, M.M. (2003) "A" as Hester's Autonomy in Nathaniel Hawthorne's the Scarlet Letter. In J. Fisher and E.S. Silber Women in Literature: Reading through the Lens of Gender, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp. 256-258
Hawthorne, N. (1850/1991). The Scarlet Letter. Boston: Bedford Books.
MacLean, H.N. (1955, March) Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter: The dark problem of this life. American Literature; 27, 12-24
Stubbs, J.C. (1979) the pursuit of form: A study of Hawthorne and the romance, University of Illinois Press.
Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlett Letter explores the method of public shaming as a form of legitimate legal sentencing. In the novel, Hester Prynne has an affair with Reverend Dimmesdale. Even though her husband has practically abandoned her and lives in another country, she is punished for what was in Puritan America considered a crime. The punishment reflects Puritanical values related to female sexuality, and reveals ways a patriarchal society controls women's choices by monitoring and controlling their private lives. Given private and domestic spheres were the only realms women had any degree of power, the control over women's sexuality in The Scarlett Letter shows how patriarchy becomes entrenched and immutable. Moreover, the use of public shaming to sentence Prynne serves an overarching function of social control. Religion, a core theme in The Scarlett Letter, is the vehicle of that social control and the law is also used to enforce and…
.....female agency in Wang Anyi's "Granny" and Eileen Chang's "Shame Amah"
The objective of this study is to compare and contrast the work of Eileen Chang's with reference to her theme "Shame Amah" and the work of Wang Anyi focusing on her theme "Granny". The study uses their works of the two writers to analyze their differences and similarities in the writing styles focusing on the themes Shame of Amah and Granny. Remarkably, Zhang was in her early twenties when she had been identified as a discriminating and precious writer. She benefited from both classical Western and Chinese literature making her being one of the most renown Chinese writers in the literary world.
Similarly, Eileen Chang is one of the most talented Chinese writers born in 1921 and has published several collections of English stories as well publishing two English novels. Eileen Chang was born in Shanghai and attended the…
People are aware of the impact that major stressful events can have on a person's life. In general, society is solicitous of people undergoing major stressors like major illness, divorce, or a death in the family. However, it is interesting to note that, for the individual, small stressors can actually be more significant than major stressors. For example, a friend of mine was fired from her job the day before 9-11. The day of 9-11, when everyone else was so stressed out about the idea of a terrorist attack, she was far more worried about the source of her next paycheck. While she realized, intellectually, that the national impact of 9-11 was certainly greater than the national impact of her being fired, in her life she experienced the loss of her job as a more stressful event. In fact, the most stressful part of 9-11 was that, with its resultant…
Brown TED Talk
Brene Brown's Ted Talk on listening to shame provided some important anecdotes for many of the willing listeners who understood what she was talking about. The purpose of this essay is to incorporate the lessons presented in that talk and infuse that information on how it can benefit me in my internship. This essay will first describe the talk before relating those ideas to my internship in The Second Step Organization which attempts to foster the safety of domestic violence survivors.
Browns' TED talk contained some useful information to help people better understand their emotions. Brown's focused on the more negative aspects of emotion when she discussed the ideas of shame and guilt. In here talk shame is a useful emotion that can guide and lead and individual to a more healthy path, where guilt is presented as a demeaning and lessening emotion that is dangerous if…
shame in teenage sextual relations," Nina Funnell outlines a conceptual criticism of the approach taken by the Commonwealth on matters relating to the laws governing various sex crimes. According to Funnel (2011), there are fundamental problems with the enforcement of certain sex crime laws against minors because they were obviously drafted and enacted mainly to protect minors and not to punish their sexual behaviour. In that regard, Funnell (2011) focuses especially on the issue of the prosecution of teenagers who transmit sexualised photographs of themselves to others as violators of child pornography laws even though those crimes are, essentially, victimless crimes. The author points out that in addition to the nonsensical application of those laws to the class of persons they were originally intended to protect rather than punish, the Commonwealth has exhibited a simultaneous lackadaisical approach to prosecuting sex crimes involving bona fide victims and adult perpetrators, such as…
Funnel, N. (2011) There's No Shame in Teenage Sextual Relations, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 September.
Gerrig, R. And P. Zimbardo. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Hinds, L. And K. Daly (2001) The War on Sex Offenders: Community Notification in Perspective, ANZ Journal of Criminology, 34(3), 256-276. DOI: 10.1177/000486580103400304
McLoughlin, C. And J. Burgess (2010) Texting, Sexting and Social Networking Among Australian Youth and the Need for Cyber Safety Education, paper available through Australian Catholic University at http://www.aare.edu.au
Shame in My Game: The Economic Sociology of Poverty
Poverty in America is such a politicized topic that it can be difficult for even the most neutral people to discuss. Part of the reason that poverty is so political is that most Americans have a romanticized notion of the free-market system and believe that the American dream is easily achieved if one applies sufficient hard work. However, the reality is that while America may be a free-market economy, it is also an economy where the wealthy have much greater access to politicians than the average individual, and where much of the socio-economic political structure has been developed to preserve wealth for the upper-class. Another reason that poverty is such a political issue is because poverty is so linked to race in America. Many people reject the notion that the fact that so many minorities are trapped in lives of poverty…
Newman, Katherine. No Shame in My Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City. New York:
Knopf and Russell Sage Foundation, 1999. Ebrary. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
The Guilt and Shame In Heroes
Sometimes, there is a misconception that heroes do not feel shame and guilt. For instance, in a movie, when heroes eliminate their adversaries, the viewers are happy because they just think of the good result that such action can bring to everyone. The viewers do not care of how the hero may have felt about his action of getting rid of the enemies and the viewers may think that the hero will feel happy and proud for what he did. However, in the Iliad of Homer, it is apparent that even heroes do feel shame and guilt. The best example of which are revealed in the characters of Achilles and Hector.
Achilles was a great Greek fighter. His passion was to fight and become well-known for his fighting skills. He was known to be the greatest fighter in Greece, thus despite Menelaus and Achilles…
Homer, The Iliad. http://www.bopsecrets.org/rexroth/cr/1.htm#Homer,%20The%20Iliad
Homer and the Oral Tradition. http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/ckostopo/GreeceY&T/Homer.rtf
Olesker, Katie. The Conflicting Views of Helen. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/classes/KOp.html
Shay, Jonathan. Review of Achilles in Vietnam.
Kafka's Joseph K. goes through a confusing and bizarre experience over the course of the novel, learning more and more about the legal bureaucracy surrounding him without ever actually learning anything about it. In a sense, Joseph K.'s experience mirrors the human experience in any society, because it demonstrates how the justification for legal and political authority is ultimately an illusion; there is no inherent justification for human political power, but rather it depends either on the consent of the governed or coercive force, and both of these actually serve to isolate the individual (Panichas 86).
In the case of the former, consent of the governed, the individual is isolated due to the fact that he or she must give up some agency and power to the state, and thus lose some small bit of individuality. The individual essentially becomes a constituent element of the state, and thus, like the…
Chekhov, Anton. "The Lady with the Lapdog." An Anthology of Russian Literature From
Earliest Writings to Modern Fiction. Ed. Nicholas Rzhevsky. M.E. Sharpe Inc.: New
Chekhov, Anton. "The Man in a Case." Trans. Rosamund Bartlett About Love and Other Stories.
Ken Kesey's novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest offers an ironic portrayal of mental health and mental illness. The story of Randle McMurphy, told through the eyes and ears of Chief Bromden, shows how restrictive social norms and behavioral constraints are what cause mental illness. Mental illness and deviance are socially constructed. The men in the institution have been labeled as deviants, many of them as criminals too. Yet Kesey shows how the institution is the real problem, not mental illness. Nurse Ratched symbolizes oppression and social control, with Randle McMurphy as her foil. McMurphy is no angel, but he helps the institutional inmates to gain a broader understanding of both their own psyche and of the ways society has essentially made them insane. Furthermore, Kesey shows that of the main ways society and its institutions enforce social conformity is through the process of shaming. Shaming is a method…
"Anything goes" is an interesting way to describe the current state of the nation's approach to punishment. Do you feel it is accurate? If yes, why? If not, why not? What other aspects of our nation's current approach to sanctions -- besides those listed and discussed by Blomberg and Lucken -- do you feel bolsters your position?
I do not feel that the "Anything goes" penal strategy is accurate for the nation's approach punishment. It is not a perfect way of ensuring that there is justification especially after punishment. The main aim of punishment in the society is to promote justification, which will then lead to harmony within the people. However, the "anything goes" penal strategy involves the prisoners undergoing any type of punishment as regarded by the states (Blomberg & Lucken, 2010). The option of the punishment does not always involve the input of the citizens and other…
Blomberg, T.G., & Lucken, K. (2010). American penology: A history of control. New Brunswick [N.J.: AldineTransaction.
Female Agency in Short Stories
There are numerous points of similarity between Eileen Chang's "Shame, Amah!" and Wang Anyi's "Granny". Both stories depict the lives of Chinese domestic workers. Moreover, each tale is set during the same time period -- the years surrounding the Second World War. Furthermore, both of the authors are Chinese and display a marked affinity for the intimate details surrounding Chinese culture, which factors prominently in each respective tale. Still, there is a distinct point of differentiation in these works when it comes to the notion of female agency, and how it is displayed in each piece. It is significant that female agency factors into each of these tales. However, "Granny" is largely a story about a somewhat unconventional matriarch who is able to become the provider for a host of people. The concept of female agency in Chang's piece is centered around conventional notions of…
The textbook definition of virginity presumes a guy is no longer a virgin once he has inserted his penis into a woman\'s vagina and ejaculates or a woman is no longer a virgin once they have taken a man\'s penis inside their vagina, which results in the breaking of the hymen (Bearman & Brückner, 2015). This definition is flawed in that it presumes that we live in a perfect society where sex only takes place between men and women. However, we have lesbians and gays and the also have sex, which means that they would be virgins even if they have enjoyed sex with each other. Lesbians would not allow a guy to penetrate their vagina, but they would enjoy sex with another woman and this would mean they would no longer be virgins. The same applies to men who have sexual relations with other men, they are no longer…
military place Zhou dynasty China? What social impact ? eference Book: A History World Societies,
Essentially, Alexander the Great incurred the displeasure of his Macedon army during the battle of Gaugamela. This battle took place in the part of Iraq that is today known as Irbil. The reason that Alexander's soldiers were displeased with their leader is because after traversing through various parts of Asia and conquering it, Alexander's contingent eventually came upon Darius' forces in the midst of the night. Alexander's army was able to tell that it was the army of the mighty Persian king, whom Alexander had a profound respect for, due to the campfires that they were able to see faintly glowing in the distance within the darkness.
A minor dispute arose between Alexander and his troops because the former were inclined to attack the Persian king in the depths of the night, hoping that…
No author. (2012). The Zhou Dynasty. Thinkquest. Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/zhou.html
Mckay, J.P.,Hill, B.D., Buckler, J., Ebrey, P.B., Beck, R.B., Crowston, C.H., Wiesner-Hanks, M.E. (2008). A History of World Societies, Volume 1 To 1715 Eighth Edition. New York: Bedford/St. Martin.
The poem by Emily Dickenson, titled It feels a Shame to be Alive, it is talking about the opposition that many people had directed at the government and the Civil War itself. This is because a large number of women in society were considered to be second class citizens and did not have a voice in these matters. Dickson is challenging these views by showing her opposition to the war and the carnage it caused. What drew us to the post is that these ideas were questioned, as they believed that there are greater sacrifices from war. Moreover, many of the ideas that are presented are illustrating the way Dickinson is questioning the status quo through using it is a form of civil disobedience. This is highlighting how she wanted to voice her concerns about current events and challenge the views of traditional society. The questions being asked were…
Dickenson, E. (1865). It Feels a Shame to be Alive. American Poems. Retrieved from: http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/emilydickinson/10396
Kuipers, K. (2004). My First Lover Returns from Iraq. Swarthmore.edu. Retrieved from: http://media.swarthmore.edu/bulletin/?p=462
In Poland, a ritual exists by which a znajomy becomes a kolega: When the two parties-- regardless of gender -- give mutual permission to allow each other to drop the "Mr." And "Miss" and call each other by their first names. A celebration involving drinking frequently follows, frequently with the two drinking shots of alcohol with arms linked. The English terms closest to kolega are "buddy," "pal," and "companion."
The authors (McAndrew & ybak, 2006) hypothocized that since the Poles had more formalized and precise friendship words, they would differentiate more readily and consistently between different types of friends than Americans. They also looked at sex differences in judgments made about friendship, expecting that women in both America and Poland would probably make more discriminating judgments about relationships than would men.
Participants were either college students from the U.S. Or Poland. There were 56 Polish and 57 American participants. All…
Bell, S., & Coleman, S. (Eds.). (1999). The anthropology of friendship. Oxford: Berg.
Bond, M.H. (1988). Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multicultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese value surveys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 1009-1015.
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.
Greenberger, E., & Chen, C. (1996). Perceived family relationships and depressed mood in early and late adolescence:a comparison of European and Asian-Americans. Developmental Psychology, 32, 707-716.
Only Sixteen" benefits society by communicating valuable lessons not only to young teenagers, but to their parents as well. The narrator in this song is a teenager himself, though, as he points out (no doubt a little tongue-in-cheek), he is a much wiser 17 now. This line can be taken at face value, or perceived as slightly satirical depending on the audience.
If the listener is a teenager, then the message seems to be that even if a love goes sour, there are lessons to be learned from mistakes you make in life. Not only this, but it encourages them to continue on trying for love even if you are disappointed the first time as long as the lessons learned are heeded in the future. The lesson of this love is not that the girl in question was too young by being only sixteen -- how could she be when…
Scarface is the nickname which was given to one of the most famous and infamous members of organized crime. Scholars and crime-buffs throughout the United States know all about Alphonse "Scarface" Capone and how he grew to head the mafia in Chicago, Illinois in the 1920s. Capone was able to achieve his success in the underworld by being smarter and perhaps luckier than his enemies. He was a strategist, as focused on the destruction of his opposition as any general of any army. Although his actions were nefarious and his endeavors only intended to his financial betterment, it cannot be denied that the likes of Capone served an important role in the formation of American history. The original film Scarface is based on the life of Al Capone, gangster films being very popular in the 1930s and early 1940s while the 1980s remake of Scarface tells a similarly themed story…
"Al Capone." 2012. Biography.com 11 Feb 2012,
"Organized Crime." United States History.
Raab, Selwyn. Five Families. New York, NY. Thomas Dunne. 2005. Print.
change' these non-acknowledgements of the disease?
hange will not come overnight given that the non-acknowledgement of the disease has roots in Japan's culture that are very deep -- roots that reach back before the beginning of AIDS in regards to Japan's sense of exceptionalism and sense of remove from what are seen as Western problems. However, given the fact that Japan desires to be part of the international community and economy, it cannot afford to ignore pressure from international AIDS organizations. Organizations which bring together activists from many nations and international health organizations like WHO (the World Health Organization) can work in conjunction to create an international climate in which an insufficiently aggressive AIDS policy is viewed as a profound negative for a nation in PR terms. Activists within Japan can also put pressure on the government, create privately-funded public awareness campaigns, and help to raise the public profile of…
Change will not come overnight given that the non-acknowledgement of the disease has roots in Japan's culture that are very deep -- roots that reach back before the beginning of AIDS in regards to Japan's sense of exceptionalism and sense of remove from what are seen as Western problems. However, given the fact that Japan desires to be part of the international community and economy, it cannot afford to ignore pressure from international AIDS organizations. Organizations which bring together activists from many nations and international health organizations like WHO (the World Health Organization) can work in conjunction to create an international climate in which an insufficiently aggressive AIDS policy is viewed as a profound negative for a nation in PR terms. Activists within Japan can also put pressure on the government, create privately-funded public awareness campaigns, and help to raise the public profile of the disease with education. The fact that Japan is not a sexually conservative society will hopefully facilitate franker talk about the illness.
Q2. Based on the influence of the individualistic society Americans live in, their view is based on the individual and their needs in comparison to the Eastern cultures whom are influenced by the collectivistic society they live in and the impact of social and interdependent relationships that focus on the group do you think this plays a role in Japan not wanting to embark upon an initiative? "Living in a society where neighbors and friends know most of what happens amplifies the shame felt by families and individuals affected by HIV" (Li et al., 2007). Would this also play a role for Japan?
Japan's collectivism undeniably plays a role in its attitude towards AIDS. In a collectivist society, the actions of the individual are not simply viewed as harmful or helpful for that individual's future. Rather, they are viewed in terms of how the individual's actions relate to his or her family and community. When someone reveals he or she has AIDS in Japan, this is seen as reflecting badly upon his or her family. People are more likely to remain quiet about suffering from the disorder because of the shame they worry it will bring upon their family. They may be afraid of being ostracized from their community. Community plays a profound role in establishing an individual's identity in collectivist societies like Japan. In an individualistic culture, someone might think, 'I can join another community if my current one rejects me, I am still myself,' but in a collectivist culture identity is inextricably bound up with one's family and current social sphere, and a person may not feel he or she has a 'self' outside of this collective firmament.
Kiswana is proud of being black and pillories her mother as "a white man's nigger who's ashamed of being black" (ibid., p. 85). Kiswana therefore helps Cora Lee to heal from her "shadow men" who have made a mother without caring about their offspring (ibid., 113).
Lorraine and Theresa are a lesbian couple which challenges the women's notions of love and friendship. Their relationship is truly complex and outside of the comprehension of men. Baker observes that the women move to Brewster place to be themselves and that they do not fully accomplish this and are not successful even there (illiams). It is the opinion of this author that without this love for each other, they would not have survived.
The implications of this books and others like it by Naylor have been very profound in the study of black feminism. Nnaemeka makes the argument that, "The texts discuss women's…
Khaleghi, M. "Female Leadership in Gloria Naylor's Novels: Bloodmothers,
Othermothers, and Community Othermothers." Journal of Social Science. 26.2 (2011): 131-138. Print.
Naylor, Gloria. The Women of Brewster Place. New York, NY: Turtleback Books, 1982. Print.
Nnaemeka O. 1997. "Introduction: Imag (in)ing Knowledge, Power, and Subversion in the Margins." in: Obioma Nnaemeka (Ed.): The Politics of (M)othering:
Already educated, she had the resources to -- and indeed did find - employment opportunities. Sociologically, she belonged in the lower middle classes. Both individuals had intelligence, courage and grits. But both also possessed existent privileges with which they could pull themselves up. Critics of the work-it-hard perspective omit these facts. Perhaps they do so because focusing on the ordeals of the working class would suck us in a web of responsibility.
The unfortunate fact is that individuals belonging to the working class castigate themselves unfairly for conditions that are beyond their control.
An example in Newman's book is illustrated by 'Jarvis' who, despite his experience, unable to find a job in a restaurant is still seeking employment. Yet 'Jarvis' still holds himself accountable for his lack of success "Some people are willing to try hard and therefore they can make it, regardless if the deck is stacked against them…
Newman, K.S. No Shame in my Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City. NY: Vintage, 2000
This dance was very powerful as it did scare the European people. They did not fully understand the reason behind the dance and the religion, but they were very clear as to what the apocalypse was and they wondered if the Indians were somehow summoning the end of the world. Not soon after this Ghost dance caused such a commotion, an Indian by the name of Handsome Lake who was a leader for the Seneca tribe brought a new message to the Iroquois people. His message was to end the drinking. The Iroquois people had began to drink a lot of alcohol that was often offered to them from the European people during the fur trade. Handsome Lake believed that many of the problems that the Iroquois people faced was related to the alcohol. Many of the Indian people were drunk when they were trying to handle problems of poverty…
Kehoe, Alice Beck. North American Indian Tribes, Chapter 5. 1992 Prentice Hall.
Biolsi, Thomas and Zimmerman, Larry. Indians and Anthropologists, Chapter 9. 1997 Prentice Hall.
Iroquois Website. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from http://www.iroquois.net/.
The elephant's death is also a symbol for the slow death of Burma. Before the arrival of the empire, Burma was free but now it struggles for its last dying breaths under British rule. The meaning of this is clear because the narrator doesn't even try to hide his feelings about the monarchy at all. The British crown is abusing and killing everyone it oppresses and it wounds their officers by making them take part in activities that make all of them go totally against their inner will.
The elephant is the most powerful symbol of all and he finally dies but with alot of agony nor is it guilty of anything but being what it is. Those under British rule are also behaving like they really are and being what they were born to be but the power of the empire is forcing them to bend and behave in…
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
Freed's exploration of the theme of dysfunction is often compared to that of Shepard. However, the main distinction is that of tone: while Shepard's play is dark and somber, Freed's text is a dark, ironical comedy which ironically sketches the tensioned relationships between the members of a reunited family and their inability to communicate. The relationship between Noah and Seth is especially strained, as Seth seems to force himself into a manly attitude precisely in the attempt to face his father and maybe even compete with him. As the only male child in the family, Seth's relationship with his father is obviously strained. Instead of incest, the cause of dysfunction here seems to be abandonment. The children are left with their father when the mother abandons the family, thus creating even more tension between Seth and his father as the only two males in the family. Moreover, the other children…
Freed, Amy. Freedomland. New York: Dramatist's Service Plays, 1999.
Shepard, Sam. Buried Child, New York: Dramatist's Play Service, 1997.
That is, international financial organizations, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and which controlled by core states, decide that, in order to grant financial aid to undeveloped countries, these states should comply with some rules that are, in the end, in the detriment of their own economy. For example, Africa pays more to the IMF and World Bank, than it collects in credit from them, and this leads to low living standards, poor education and health systems and undeveloped infrastructure.
Besides financial institutions, transnational corporations have a saying in the economic development of a country. Although one might be tempted to say that a corporation, by creating a branch in an undeveloped country gives that economy a boom, it is actually all about personal gain.
Working in a corporation might be considered the best thing that could happen to a person, on a professional scale. You…
Chomsky, Noam. "DRCNet Interview: Noam Chomsky." Drug War Chronicle Aug.2002. Drug Reform Coordination Network. Washington DC. 2.08.2002. http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle-old/223/noamchomsky.shtml .
Korten, David C. "When Corporations Rule the World." USA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers; 2 edition, 2001
Kozol, Jonathan. "The Shame of the Nation. The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America." New York: Crown Publishers, 2005
Wallerstein, Immanuel. "The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century." New York: Academic Press, 1976
Speech: Museum's Bid For Bodies
Good evening ladies -- and yes, good evening gentleman as well.
Well, where should we begin? Ahhhh yes -- Are any of you aware of what a cadaver parade is? Have any of you ever actually heard of a cadaver parade?
Let me read to you a recent headline that I discovered: "Anatomy of competition: 2 museums bid for bodies -- what is a bid -- it is an offer or a proposal of a price."
What do you think about that? (Pause) My initial thoughts after reading those words were: "This is unbelievable, no, it is downright shocking, shameful, and certainly very offensive.
When was the last time a price was hung on us human beings? You probably already know, that's right -- During the days of Slavery. (Pause) Am I right?
I believe that the practice attaching a price to the human body…
I need you to organize this speech - grammar and sentence structure my speech is about provocative questions - please correct the question (grammar)but don't omit them and make some order, that it flows the topic is about body world (and exhibition of cadavers in California-- the web site is www.bodyworlds.com) it's gruesome -- the article is from plain dealer-- the headline is anatomy of competition 2 museums bid for bodies and if you can elaborate little be more by asking questions about the morals of the people who are behind this morbid business, you don't have to add a lot just elaborate on what I have written and organize it more -- note: I need this essay by 3pm today 12/14/04 I want you to use words like
Old Western Frontier -- the Pervasiveness of the Western Frontier Hero in the American Imagination
The heroic American national character and the search for an ungoverned American frontier are fused in the America national imagination. America envisions itself as a wide-open place, rather than a contained place of tradition like Europe. America is seen in the natural cultural mythos as an area of limitless expansion. Thus, there are little consequences for the environment because of capitalism and industrialism, because national resources are never-ending. Resettlement of natives and immigrants is of little consequence, because there is so much land. And all restrictive laws regarding the use and abuse of land, people, and morality are seen impingements and infringements upon the ability of masculine commerce and the American spirit to realize their fullest potentials.
The frontier is also a place for and of men, where women are encroachers, never at home. The…
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.
Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…
Sources of information . nd. http://www.fao.org/docrep/W3241E/w3241e03.htm#the%problems%20of%20secondary%20sources
The intersections between gender, sexuality, identity, and lifestyle converged at an expected moment. I was as prepared as anyone else. Andrew is my brother, and I know him well. It was his friend Darren's 21st birthday. Darren is adorable: he's six feet tall, with plump lips naturally blushed the color of Fuji apples. His skin is milky white, and his eyes are shimmering sateen blue. I haven't got a crush on Darren; I would, but Darren is gay. He's been out of the closet since he was fifteen years old. My brother has known Darren since the two played together in our little apartment complex playground. Almost two decades later, the two friends are doing shots together in a gay nightclub. My brother is straight. Really, he is. But on Darren's birthday, something happened to place my brother Andrew temporarily in an interstitial realm. My brother, not being the…
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
oman Hollering Creek
The real-life oman Hollering Creek is a small waterway located in Central Texas. It is supposed that the name is a loose translation of the Spanish La Llorana or "weeping woman." This is a folktale of the area wherein a woman drowns her children in order to be with the man that she loves and yet he rejects her. Distraught over all she has lost, the woman (most ofthen called Maria) kills herself. At the gates, the woman is not allowed to go through them because she is without her children. Unable to enter Heaven, the weeping woman is forced to haunt the living world, searching everywhere for her children, for she will not be allowed access to Heaven until she locates them. Sandra Cisneros short story "oman Hollering Creek" is based upon this ancient legend. The story is about a young woman named Cle-filas. She is…
Cisneros, Sandra (1991), Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories, New York: Random House
Auto Biography and Timeline
My family is of Irish descent. My great grandfather initially came to the United States during the potato famine that devastated so many Irish people during the middle of the 19th century. He was fortunate to escape in time before he was financially ruined, and was able to meet my great grandmother in New York where he attained a position in the financial industry. My family has largely remained in the U.S. ever since then.
As the oldest child in my family, I have been saddled with responsibility ever since I can remember. My parents had my sister a mere three years after they had me, and my little brother was born approximately two years later. My childhood was eventful to say the least. I have fond memories of playing with my siblings. However, whenever we got into mischief (which was inevitable for three children, especially…
In the past, any form of criminal activity was associated with low self-esteem that is why criminal activity was minimal. Paying for crime in the past involved ruthless means, including tying a criminal on a stone and throwing them into the river. Comparing the past with the modern world, a great contrast occurs. Criminal offenders in the modern world appear to be of very high self-esteem. The self-esteem arises from prior criminal activities, personal traits and participation in prison. It is so unfortunate because criminals do not fear the law, security officials and subsequently no regard for positive punishment.
Criminologists and psychologists have a task of establishing whether crime is in either way related to the human mind, behavior and psychology. Criminal activity is increasing by day, and the securities do not know what to attribute for especially, when correctional facilities are full of criminals. It is likely…
Broidy, L.M., (2001). A test of general strain theory. A Journal of Criminology, 39, 9-36.
Cesar, J.R., Nicole, L.P., Alex, R.P., & Stephen, G.T., (2010). Anticipated shaming and criminal offending. Journal of Criminal justice, 38, 988-997.
Inga, D.S., Alfgeir, L.K., & Robert, A. (2012). A comparative analysis of general strain theory.
Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 117-127.
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
(d) etribution serves towards a constructive purpose of -- as Braithwhite calls it -- 'restorative shame' rather than 'stigmatizing shame'
In 1988, John Braithwaite published "Crime, shame, and eintegration" where he introduced his idea of restorative shaming (Braithwaite, 1997). The conventional criminal justice stigmatizes the individual in that it not only makes him a pariah of society thereby making it harder to reform himself, but also crushes his esteem, causing others to deride and shun him, accordingly often making him react in a reinforcing manner. Seeing himself as 'offender' and finding it extremely difficult to readjust and gain acceptance in society, the offender may be compelled to return to crime as way of livelihood to support himself and as a way of gaining the prestige and status that he m ay need and that he may, otherwise, not gain.
estorative justice, on the other hand, helps offender atone for his…
Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press
Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame, and Reintegration New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Christie, N. (1977), Conflicts as Property, British Journal of Criminology, 17: 1-15.
Correctional Service of Canada. [Online] Retrieved from:
Faced with a social system that has no place for him, Tom does not rebel or repress himself, but merely creates a place for himself by dissolving into the background, becoming part of the hidden (and criminal) world that is a de facto product of any inequitable social system.
As mentioned above, Highsmith wrote for a number of comic books in the 1940s, and almost all of them were concerned with white male superheroes who had been given extraordinary powers or technology. There is a subtle joke about this fact early on, when Tom notes that his most recent victim "was a comic-book artist. He probably didn't know whether he was coming or going" (Highsmith 14). Thus, almost from the beginning Highsmith has made a connection between Tom and the world of comic books, a connection that helps explain Tom's eventual narrative journey.
hen looking at Tom's story in broad…
Haggerty, George. Queer Gothic. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2006. Print.
Highsmith, Patricia. The Talented Mr. Ripley. New York: Vintage Books, 1992. Print.
Tuss, Alex. "Masculine Identity and Success: A Critical Analysis of Patricia Highsmith's the Talented Mr. Ripley and Chuck Palahniuk's Fight Club." Journal of Men's Studies 12.2
Women's Objectification in Society
Women's Objectification in Society
It is crucial to notice the language we use when we talk about bodies. We speak as if there was one collective perfect body, a singular entity that we're all after. The trouble is, I think we are after that one body. We grew up with the impression that underneath all this normal flesh, buried deep in the excessive recesses of our healthy bodies, there was a perfect body just waiting to break out. (Hornbacher, 1999, p. 47)
In recent years, much attention from both the public media and professional research community has focused on the growing problem regarding the objectification and sexualisation of women. The American Psychological Association's (2007) publication outlining the problem has given the public a greater awareness and understanding of the dynamics between our culture's tendency to objectify women's bodies and the consequences of this for…
Bartky, S.L. (1990). Femininity and domination: Studies in the phenomenology of oppression. New York: Routledge.
Calogero, R.M. (2004). A test of objectification theory: The effect of the male gaze on appearance concerns in college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 16-21.
Cusumano, D.L., & Thompson, J.K. (1997). Body image and body shape ideals in magazines: Exposure, awareness, and internalization. Sex Roles, 37, 701-721
Fredrickson, B.L., & Roberts, T. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women's lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206.
" (p. 420).
A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students:
both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family environment variables including conflict and control, adult attachment variables, attributional style and control-related cognitive variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection. As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students.
This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children. This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…
Chorpita, B.F., & Barlow, DH (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 3-21. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3
Coplan, R.J., Arbeau, K.A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9183-7
Giotakos, O. (2002). Parenting received in childhood and early separation anxiety in male conscripts with adjustment disorder Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/217062069?accountid=27965
Hortrum, P., (1994). The age of anxiety (1994). Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214441790?accountid=27965
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
Despite these differences, there are also many similarities between the two. The plot similarities are obvious, including the fact that both have affairs beginning and continuing in similar circumstances. Both have husbands that they do not wish to leave, partly out of habit and partly out of pity. They compartmentalize their lives and are able to think of themselves as somehow different people when with their husbands and with their lovers. In this, as in their inability to choose a partner, to overcome their fear and guilt and shame, or to find something in their lives that makes them truly happy, both of these Annas are very ineffectual and weak. In both cases there is a sense of guilt and shame associated with the affair, even though in the Russian Anna's case this sense of shame is far greater than in the modern Anna's. She obsesses constantly on her shame…
The lack of rights within marriage that makes women basically "property" to the man is obviously central to this story, as indicated by the way in which Maria is imprisoned. There are a variety of ways in which this most disturbing of issues is addressed in the book. Women who are married loose control over their own bodies, and are required to submit to caresses to which their soul does not consent. One woman in the madhouse is, in fact, there specifically because she could not tolerate her husband's caresses. "she had been married, against her inclination, to a rich old man,... In consequence of his treatment... she had... lost her senses." (1.39) Not only is a woman prone to institutionalized rape, but she also has no right to require the man to remain as he was before they wed. Maria declaims bitterly of how her husband deteriorates into a…
According to guissinguer (2003) anorectics, "...react to loss of body weight by displaying adaptive responses that originally evolved to facilitate leaving food depleted areas." Discuss.
Anorexia is a disorder attributed to attempts to attain a fashionable shape, but numerous studies suggest that it is possible for psychological and societal factors to contribute in the development of this disorder. According to Kaye et al. (1998), anorexia is a disorder characterized by unusual feeding habits, weight control, perceptions of weight and shape, and the view of body shape. In this context, the people involved diet because they fear gaining weight. Nevertheless, the etiology of anorexia is complex, but numerous studies suggest that social, biological, and developmental process influence its growth.
Interestingly, the manner in which these processes interact to enhance its growth remains a mystery. Apparently, views towards the levels of attractiveness in a given society may influence the psychopathology of…
Appetite. (2006). Monographic: Evolutionary perspectives on overeating and overweight. Appetite, 47 (1), pp. 1-35.
Eisler, I. (2005). The empirical and theoretical base of family therapy and multiple family day therapy for adolescent anoxeria nervosa. Journal of Family Therapy, 27, pp. 104-131.
Fredrickson, B.L., Roberts, T.A., Noll, S.M., Quinn, D.M., & Twenge, J.M. (1989). That swimsuit becomes you: Sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75, pp. 269-284.
Guisinguer, S. (2003). Adapted to Flee Famine: Adding an Evolutionary Perspective on Anorexia Nervosa. Psychological Review, 110, pp. 745-761.
estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…
Bergseth, K. J., & Bouffard, J. A. (2007). The long-term impact of restorative justice programming for juvenile offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(4), 433-451.
Davis, K. L. (2010, January 1). Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders:
School, Community, and Home. ProQuest LLC,
Sentencing in the US versus in Germany and the Netherlands
There is one major difference between the sentencing and corrections policies of the US and the sentencing and corrections policies of Germany and the Netherlands. The former bases its policy on the ideas of retribution and incapacitation, whereas the latter base their policies on the ideas of rehabilitation and socialization (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). This basic philosophical orientation towards the corrections is what distinguishes the two policies. The US views corrections as a punitive measure while Germany and the Netherlands view corrections in a positive light -- a measure that is designed to return the inmate to society. Indeed, recidivism rate in the US is 40% -- meaning that 4 out of every 10 inmates released will return to prison within the first three years (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). In Germany and the Netherlands, such a rate is…
Part Two Question
It is possible that the debate about the justifications for punishment has been seriously confused about the tacit assumption that the justifications for punishment that makes sense in small-scale family environments also make sense in the larger-scale of the impersonal criminal justice system. In the family-setting, a vast majority of the power of punishment comes from the fact that the person being punished feels that they have disappointed people that they love. In fact, children frequently apologize to their parents for wrongdoing, even if the behavior being punished was something that did not directly harm their parents; for example, the hitting of a peer. Furthermore, when children hide their wrongdoing, they oftentimes do so to avoid parental disappointment, rather than to avoid a specific punishment. How many people, as adults, remember specific non-abusive punishments? On the other hand, how many adults recall specific moments when their parents…
Feinberg, Joel. The Expressive Function of Punishment.
Martinson, Robert. The Paradox of Prison Reform.
She did not have the benefit of a bedroom door for the last two years of high school.
Without the bedroom door, the client changed her clothes in the bathroom and was often unable to sleep at night because of her father's snoring. The first time her mother confronted her for being wide awake (and reading) in her room in the middle of the night, the client admitted that her father's snoring kept her awake. A few minutes later, her father entered her room and whipped her with the belt for "being disrespectful."
After discovering that alcohol allowed her to fall asleep and sleep through the night, she began drinking vodka at bedtime, which she chose because it was odorless and easy to hide in alternative containers in her room and among the cleaning supplies in the bathroom cabinet.
The client has always recalled the details of her childhood physical…
Butler, K. (1997). The Anatomy of Resilience; the Family Therapy Networker, 21(2):22-31
DeJong, P., Miller, S. (1995). How to Interview for Clients Strengths;
Social Work, 40(6).
Goldstein, E. (1995). Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice. (2nd
During this stage the child learns to feel either confident or inferior based on external and internal cues of success and/or failure with completing these tasks. (Marlowe & Canestri 112-114) This stage lasts between the ages of 6 years and 12 years of age and is dominated by school. ("Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" (http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/ERIK/sum.HTML)
5. Identity vs. role confusion, is the stage that corresponds to the ability of an individual to resolve social and personal conflicts with identity, and especially that revolved around sexual identity. This stage dominates the adolescent years as individuals begin to have adult like relationships and conform or reject social roles assigned their gender. As this is the stage at which most children leave the education system it is the last stage discussed in Marlowe and Canestri reading of Erikson. (Marlowe & Canestri 114-116) This role last roughly corresponds with the ages between…
Marlowe, Bruce a. Canestri, Alan S. Educational Psychology in Context. New York: Sage Publications, 2006.
Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" Retrieved September 20, 2007 at http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/ERIK/sum.HTML
Restorative Justice in Education." In other words, how effective does the use of critical theory prove to be when applied to restorative justice in education? Author Dorothy Vaandering uses a logic and flow-driven narrative, which is informative and leaves a distinct impression that she has provided a worthwhile study for examination.
hat is restorative justice? Vaandering explains that restorative justice (RJ) is a process that eschews "punitive, managerial structures" in education -- that is, the "old school" system of hard core discipline that promises punishment if instructions are not followed -- and replaces those strategies with policies that "emphasize the building and repairing of relationships" (Vaandering, 2010, p. 145). Basically, RJ is a policy that allows the perpetrator of a wrongdoing to meet and interact with (and apologize to) the person harmed by those actions; and in the case of educational environments, the rather than just punish and isolate the…
Logic and Flow (2011). Bloom's Taxonomy.
Vaandering, Dorothy. (2010). The Significance of Critical Theory for Restorative Justice in Education. The Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, Vol. 32, 145-176.
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).
One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…
Dahlberg, J. (2008). Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research .
Galician, M. (2004). Sex, Love and Romance in the Media: Analysis and criticism of the unrealistic portrayal of women in mass media. Lawrence Elbaum Associates.
Gammel, I. (1999). Confessional politics: Women's self representations in life writing and popular media. Southern Illinios University Press.
Hall, a.C. (1998). Delights, Desires and Dilemmas: Essays on Women and the Media. Praeger Publications.
And the historic facts of those tribes (the amphictyon, twelve clans that rotate the functions of the priest so that each clan has those duties for one month of the year) may have been used by Spenser to build his knight's story around in a sense.
Because meanwhile, the knights in Spenser's tale seem to "...rotate the service of virtue from legend to legend, which the stationless and free-lance Arthur functions once in each of their legends in their stead - like an itinerant Levite" (Nohrnberg, p. 39).
Meanwhile, Arthur is often the right man at the right time: "When the rightful exponent of any virtue in its normal functioning is helpless or elsewhere, it is the moment for Arthur, the helper from heaven" (Parker, 1960). When the Salvage Man has gone past the limits he can deal with, along comes Arthur along that forest path, to help.
Nohrnberg, James. The Analogy of the Faerie Queene. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.
Parker, Pauline M. The Allegory of the Faerie Queene. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960.
Spenser, Edmund. Faerie Queene, Book I. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896.