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This is often associated with an infection by Parvovirus B-19. The bone marrow's replacement of the cells is disrupted. This usually manifests with a rapid drop in hemoglobin levels. Luckily, this condition is usually self limited, and the treatment is mostly supportive. ecovery is usually heralded by an increase in the reticulocyte count.
In children and in adolescents, sickle cell disease causes growth retardation, a delay in the manifestation of secondary sexual characteristics and sexual maturation, and usually results in the child being significantly underweight. It often happens in childhood that the spleen enlarges, especially in the first year of life, resulting from the sequestration of a large number of sickled cells within the spleen. This is a painful process. The spleen will then have repeated infarcts, and splenic function is impaired during the enlargement. Eventually, the repeated episodes of infarct leave the spleen fibrotic and it shrinks in size,…
Bailey, K; Morris, JS; Thomas, P; Serjeant, GR. 1992. Fetal hemoglobin and early manifestations of homozygous sickle cell disease. Arch. Dis. Child. 67:517-20.
Charache, et. al. 1995. Effect of hydroxyurea on the frequency of painful crises in sickle cell anemia. Investigators of the Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Anemia. N Engl J. Med 332:1317-22.
Platt, OS; Brambilla, DJ; Rosse, WF; Milner, PF; Castro, O; Steinberg, MH; Klug, PP. 1994. Mortality in sickle cell disease. Life expectancy and risk factors for early death. N. Engl. J. Med 330: 1639-44.
Powars, D, et al. 1993. Sickle cell anemia. Beta's gene cluster haplotypes as genetic markers for severe disease expression. Am. J. Dis. Child. 147:1197-1202.
[Harvard University] it is observed that younger patients are much better than adults in post transplantation recovery and Current statistics project a more successful picture with a reduced mortality rate for bone marrow transplantation at 5%. Also, this is a relatively new procedure with a total of only 200 people with the sickle cell disease having undergone it. [Debby Golonka]
With the advancements in genetic science the search for a cure to sickle cell disease by way of gene therapy is ongoing. It has been many years since researchers cloned the beta globin gene and current research is focused on the locus control region and the use of adeno-associated viruses as vectors. Research is also focused on inserting the AAV into pluripotent stem cells so as to trigger the synthesis of healthy beta-globin naturally. However, there are still a lot of biomolecular mechanisms involved that need to be…
CDC, 'Sickle Cell Disease', retrieved on Feb 10th 2008, at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell/hcp_data.htm
Allan Platt, 'Emergency Management of Sickle cell Disease', Retrieved on Feb 10th 2008, from, http://www.emorypa.org/LAPAsicklehandout.doc
Nemours Foundation, "Sickle Cell Disease', Retrieved on Feb 10th 2008, at http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/medical/heart/sickle_cell_anemia.html
Doris L. Wethers, M.D, (2000), 'Sickle Cell Disease in childhood', Published by American Family Physician, Retrieved on Feb 10th 2008, from, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000901/1013.html
The use of hydroxyurea and postoperative heparin prophylaxes were also included in the recorded observations made by the researchers. Standard statistical techniques including regression analysis were used to determine the levels of correlation that existed between transfusion therapy, pharmaceutical use, and complications.
As this was a retrospective study that did not involve any direct experimentation or even direct observation, the materials used were rather minimal compared to many other clinical surveys. Patient records formed the entirety of the research materials used; these were accessed in accordance with privacy laws and ethical standards for the use of private medical information, with the records rendered anonymous prior to primary research being conducted and with full hospital permission. ecords were accessed primarily electronically, though hard copies of the seventy-five case histories actually used as subjects in the study were also obtained after having been sanitized of identifying information.
Materials used in analysis…
Al-Smak, Z.; Al-Falaki, M. & Pasha, A. (2008). "Assessment of perioperative transfusion therapy and complication in sickle cell disease patients undergoing surgery." Middle east journal of anesthesiology 19(5), pp. 983-96.
Ataga, K. & Key, N. (2007). "Hypercoagulability in Sickle Cell Disease: New Approaches to an Old Problem." Hematology.
Buck, J.: Casbard, A.; Llewelyn, C.; Johnson, T.; Davies, S. & Williamson, L. (2005). "Preoperative transfusion in sickle cell disease: a survey of practice in England." European journal of haematology 75, pp. 14 -- 21.
Haberkern, C.; Neumayr, L.; Orringer, E.; Earles, A.; Robertson, S.; Black, D.;…Vichinsky, E. (1997). "Cholecystectomy in Sickle Cell Anemia Patients: Perioperative Outcome of 364 Cases From the National Preoperative Transfusion Study." Blood 89(5), pp. 1533-42.
Variations of this technique include scatter photocoagulation and feeder vessel photocoagulation. Scatter photocoagulation is efficacious in the treatment for sea fan lesions. The desired outcome of this therapy is extraretinal fibroneovascular tissue regression. Localized scatter photocoagulation treats early proliferative changes. Once neovascularization invades the vitreous, localized scatter photocoagulation is generally less effective. If this technique does not result in regression of proliferative changes, feeder vessel photocoagulation may be used as an adjunct to induce infarction to the remaining sea fans.
Feeder vessel photocoagulation
Obliterating feeder vessels by retinal photocoagulation causes infarction of peripheral neovascular beds. This technique manages proliferative sickle retinopathy effectively, especially in cases where neovascularization persists after extensive scatter photocoagulation treatment 6. Feeder vessel photocoagulation is often complicated by vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachments, choroidal ischemia, choroidal neovascularization, subretinal hemorrhage and/or fibrosis, or macular pucker and hole formation.
etinal cryotherapy is useful in treating peripheral retinal ischemia…
1. Penman AD, Serjeant GR. Recent advances in the treatment of proliferative sickle cell retinopathy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1992;3:379-88.
2. Aiello LP. Clinical implications of vascular growth factors in proliferative retinopathies. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1997;8:19-31.
3. Goldberg MF. Classification and pathogenesis of proliferative sickle retinopathy. Am J. Ophthalmol 1971;71:649-65.
4. Charache S. Eye disease in sickling disorders. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1996;10:1357-62.
What detracted or hindered participants from successfully completing the activity?
When viewing many of the team building, universal collaboration significantly hindered team performance. When performed alone, many participants performed particularly well. For example, in activity 4, participants that ran through the jump rope alone, did so with little trouble. However, when required to move in unison as a team, each member had to account for the others strengths and deficiencies. When looking at the video, some teams seemed disoriented when participating as they did not collaborate with one another. As the teams became larger throughout the activity, the complications regarding collaboration were exacerbated to the point that some teams failed the activity. During the jump rope activity, coordination and communication are important. These concepts hindered participants from successful completion of the task. Likewise, in activity 1, lack of communication hindered the participants. When drawing the home, each member…
Sickle Cell Anemia: Ethical Considerations
The only known cure for sickle cell disease is hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Survival rates after HSCT are high, almost 100%, with cure rates of more than 90% (Nickel, Hendrickson & Haight, 2014; Nickel & Kamani, 2017). To receive HSCT most successfully, the donor is ideally a HLA-identical sibling. This raises several ethical concerns. The most pressing of all ethical concerns related to HSCT is whether the procedure should be offered to children with “less severe” cases of sickle cell disease (Nickel, Hendrickson & Haight, 2014; Nickel & Kamani, 2017). Less severe cases have been defined as those that do not have overt complications. However, Nickel, Hendrickson & Haight, (2014) point out that many “less severe” cases may become more severe over time, compelling healthcare workers to offer HSCT to all children with sickle cell disease. The same issue of access to HSCT is…
Hoban, M.D., Cost, G. J., Mendel, M, C., et al (2015). Correction of the sickle cell disease mutation in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Blood 2015(125): 2597-2604.
Holmes, M.C., Reik, A., Rebar, E.J., et al (2017). A potential therapy for beta-thalassemia (ST-400) and sickle cell disease. Blood 2017(130): 2066.
Lavery, S.A., Islam, R., Hunt, J., et al (2016). The medical and ethical challenges of fertility preservation in teenage girls. Human Reproduction 31(7): 1501-1507.
Nickel, R.S., Hendrickson, J.E. & Haight, A.E. (2014). The ethics of a proposed study of hematopoietic stem cell transplant for children with “less severe” sickle cell disease. Blood 2014(124): 861-866.
Nickel, R.S. & Kamani, N. (2017). The ethics of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for sickle cell disease. In Meier E., Abraham A., Fasano R. (eds) Sickle Cell Disease and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Springer, pp. 199-219.
Sickle Cell Disease
Recent years have seen a number of different investigations of the issues involved in the transition of care -- from pediatric-oriented to adult-oriented services -- for those who suffer from sickle cell disease. Although different researchers have taken a number of different approaches to the question, which I hope to survey in order to provide some report on the current state of opinion regarding transition of care, all are agreed that the current flurry of investigative interest stems ultimately from a piece of very good news: the vertiginous decline in mortality rates for children suffering from sickle cell disease. The historic response to a diagnosis of pediatric sickle cell disease was to minimize patient and parental expectations for prognosis, for the prospect of reaching adulthood would be slight indeed. Telfair Loosier (2004) note that survival rates for pediatric sickle cell disease have improved so vastly that the…
Barakat, L.P., Lutz, M., Smith-Whitley, K., and Ohene-Frempong, K. (2005). "Is treatment adherence associated with better quality of life in children with sickle cell disease?" Quality of Life Research 14(2), 407-14.
Davies, S.C. And Oni, L. "Management of patients with sickle cell disease." (1997). British Medical Journal 315(7109), 656-60.
Doulton, D.M. (2010.) "From Cradle to Commencement: Transitioning Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease Patients to Adult Providers." Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing November 2009
Jenerette, C.M. And Brewer, C. (2010). "Health-related stigma in young adults with sickle cell disease." Journal of the National Medical Association 102.11 (2010): 1050-5.
III. Considering Current Challenges
As noted during the introductory chapter of this proposal, children routinely note how their parents cope with pain; their particular pain coping styles. During the implementation of this proposed study, this researcher expects to create a questionnaire... exploring the way parents of adolescents afflicted with SCD personally handled their pain. Both parents and adolescents will be solicited to contribute to the following components will the condensed/adapted to utilize in creating questions for parents of the adolescents with SCD, as well as, for interviewing and/or surveying adolescents with the disease.
Areas adolescents with SCD most need help
Obtaining accurate information about SCD
Considerations for coping with everyday challenges
Sharing strength; stories; suggestions with others
Supporting, as well as accepting support
How to best deal with family conflicts
How to cope when one feels he/she cannot
Learning to live, while living and learning
Simple strategies to…
Bailey, E.J. (2000). Medical Anthropology and African-American Health. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. Retrieved September 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27269543
Burlew, PhD, Kathleen, Telfair, DrPh, MSW, Joseph, Colangelo, MA, Linda, Wright, Ph., Elizabeth C.. "Factors That Influence Adolescent Adaptation to Sickle-cell Disease." Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Vol. 25, No. 5, 2000, PP. 287-299.
Gil, Karen M., Williams, David a., Thompson, Jr., Robert J., and. Kinney Thomas R. "Sickle Cell Disease in Children and Adolescents: The Relation of Child and Parent Pain Coping Strategies to Adjustment." Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Vol. 16. No. 5, 1991, pp. 643-663.
Implications for ongoing research into genetic therapies and side effects/later developments are discussed at length.
Yannaki, E. & Stamatoyannopoulos, G. (2010). Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization strategies for gene therapy of beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1202: 59-63.
Though the clinical trial these two researchers are involved in does not yet have results that are ready for publication, the review of the risks they provide regarding the use of stem cell mobilization with G-CSF in patients with sickle cell is highly useful information. So, too, is the practice of pre-treating patients with hydroxyurea before administering the stem cell treatment, which the authors describe in detail and which forms the basis of the related clinical trial. Potential reduction of risks appears to be quite promising, though final results from the clinical trial and other supporting evidence will of course be required.
ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?
Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…
Hall, MiMi and Kiely, Kathy. "Proponents of Stem-Cell Research Put on Pressure." USA Today. Online. July 2001. 10 April 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.
The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…
Segal, J.B., et al., (2008), Hydroxyurea for the Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease,
Baltimore, MD: AHRQ
To determine efficacy, effectiveness, harms, and barriers of the use of hydroxyurea treatment of sickle cell disease for determining solutions and further research need.
Research studies based on variables.
Conducted by experts in sickle cell disease management, clinical trial methodology, systematic review, epidemiological studies, and ethics and adherence research.
Instruments were quality assessment, data extraction, and evidence grading. Literature inclusion tailored toward research questions. Studies on children and adults evaluated separately. Included randomized trials, non-randomized trials, cohort studies with control groups, and pre/post studies. Evaluations of data was based on variable-based research questions.
Hydroxyurea lowered the rate of hospitizations among children with sickle cell disease and raised HbF cell percentages.
Limited evidence for toxicity, barriers, and guide dosing. Insufficient evidence for efficacy and safety.
Alterations of Hematology and Cardiovascular Systems
Sickle Cell Anemia
Ms. A is suffering from Sickle cell anemia. In this disease, the red blood cells appear in the shape of sickles or letter C. The normal red blood cells are disk-shaped. The disk-shape allows them to move smoothly in the blood vessels. Normal red blood cells have hemoglobin. The hemoglobin is responsible the red color. It helps in the transportation of oxygen. Sickle cells, on the other hand, have abnormally low hemoglobin, which results in the C-shape. This form is sticky and stiff and so cannot move easily through the blood vessels. Ms. A's condition was a case of Menorrhagia as well as dysmenorrhea. The sickle cells lump together and block the flow of blood through the blood vessels leading to the organs and the limbs. Such blocked blood vessels may lead to pain, infections and even organ damage (Health 24,…
Health24. (2014, APRIL 30). The seven types of anaemia. Retrieved from Health24.com: http://www.health24.com/Lifestyle/Your-Blood/Anaemia-20130216-2
UoM. (n.d.). Sickle cell disease. Retrieved from University of maryland: https://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/sickle-cell-disease
What's Gone Wrong?
CVI is generally an indication of blood stasis or venous reflux, most commonly valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system. The inability of blood to return to the heart from the legs causes it to pool and clot. CVI generally occurs within the deep veins (Deep Vein Thrombosis), may also be related to varicose twisting, valve malformations or pelvic tumors.
Obesity, inactivity, pregnancy, smoking and extended periods of standing or sitting tend to be the activity factors of most importance. Women often present varicose veins; men DVT but this may be associated with delayed reporting. Type II Diabetes may also suggest different gender propensities. People over 50 predominately display indicators.
CVI results from damage caused to the veins, though clotting itself can precipitate vascular dilation. Varicose veins are often hereditary as may be valve defections which can result in venous reflux. Other…
Collins, L.M. (2012). Taking blood pressure in both arms may find silent heart disease. Viewable: http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700220373/Taking-blood-pressue-in-both-arms-may-find-silent-heart-disease.html
Weiss, R. (2012). Venus Insufficiency. Medscape Reference. Viewable at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1085412-overview .
student, degree Health Adminstration. I worked a health care staffing supervisor 10 years. personal experience incorporated paper fact husband sickle cell anemia I cared 20 years.
I have always been drawn to helping people, both in my life and in my career pursuits. In planning the next phase of my life, I wanted to follow a path which would allow me to better the lives of others while also learning new things every day. I have come to realize that nursing is the profession that suits me best because of my interests, my experience, and my goals.
A degree in nursing would be the second degree that I have pursued. My first degree was in Health Administration. I chose to study that field because I knew that I wanted to work in a health care setting, where my actions would be at least indirectly responsible for aiding in the well-being…
I am writing this appeal with the main purpose of explaining the circumstances that influenced my academic performance. At the outset, please consider the trying conditions under which I completed the academic work, rather than as an excuse for the dismal grades.
I had a very challenging time in the preceding semester, and as a result, my grades suffered. My mother, a sickle cell patient became very ill in the middle of the first semester, which sadly led to her demise. Whilst my mother was ill, I found it very difficult to find ample time to work. I was forced to take breaks and head home during the weekend, and during school days to make certain that my siblings were taken care of in terms of meals and clean clothing. I had to attend home routines and domestic tasks. These forced undertakings left me with little time for studying and…
History of Pediatric Hemolytic Monitoring
Retrospect to the career of physician, Dr. James A. olff I and his early progress in treatment of Rh hemolytic disease as described in Pochedly (1984), looks at the development of interest in hematology in European field hospitals during orld ar II. After the war period, the transformation of olff's research in this area was advanced by research conducted during a pediatric residency at the Boston Children's Hospital, between 1945 and 1947. During his tenure at Children's he was engaged with Dr. Louis Diamond in his seminal investigation on treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion.
Collaborative efforts with Drs. Diamond and Farber focused on preliminary clinical trials of aminopterin for the treatment of acute leukemia, of which olff was in observation. Instrumental to the development of the concept of treating erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion; collaborative in the area of pathophysiology of disease where…
Al-Eisa, A. And Al-Hajeri, M. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in Kuwaiti Arab children. Pediatric Nephrology 16.12 (2001): 1093-1098.
Blouin, P. et al. Syndrome d'Evans: etude retrospective de la societe d'hematologie et d'immunologie pediatrique (36 cas). Archives De Pediatrie: Organe Officiel De La Societe Francaise De Pediatrie 12.11 (2005): 1600-1607.
Feldman, S.D. And Tauber, A.I. Sickle Cell Anemia: Reexamining the First "Molecular Disease." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71.4 (1997) 623-650
Friedmann, A.M. et al. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a child due to warm-reactive immunoglobulin M. antibody. Journal Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: Official Journal Of The American Society Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 20.5 (1998): 502-505.
Human Genome Project
Launched in 1990 as a collaborative initiative between the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Human Genome Project completed its goal ahead of time despite the enormous challenges that were involved (Greene, 2006). The goals of the Human Genome Project included developing comprehensive genetic and physical maps of the human genome in order to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the three billion base pairs that make up the human DNA and to identify the estimated 100,000 genes that are contained within the human genome (Greene, 2006). To determine the importance and implications of the HGP, this paper reviews the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and salient findings concerning this initiative in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
How will research in the Human Genome Project further medical research? What disorders are most likely to benefit from the…
Burnes, D.P. & Antle, B.J. (2008, August). Mothers raising children with sickle cell disease at the intersection of race, gender, and illness stigma. Health and Social Work, 33(3), 211-
Greene, L.A. (2006, January). Human Genome Project information. Environmental Health
Perspectives, 109(1), 19.
Human Genome Project. (2015). National Portfolio Online Reporting Tools. Retrieved from http://report.nih.gov/NIHfactsheets/ViewFactSheet.aspx?csid=45&key=H#H .
The Human Genome Experiment and Its Implications for Health Care
History of Medical Technology: Implications of Changes in the Theory and Practice of Medical Care
Innovations in medical devices and health care technologies have generated new questions concerning the precise role that race, gender and other human differences had on the theory and practice of medical care in the 20th century and what the implications of these important trends will be going forward. To determine these implications with more precision, the purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature concerning research and development of the modern understanding of sickle cell disease, the Civil Rights Act (and subsequent desegregation) in addition to Medicare and Medicaid, and the Human Genome Project and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Following this review and analysis, a summary of the research and key findings concerning the foregoing issues are presented in the paper’s…
“About the Human Genome Project.” (.n.d.). Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [online] available: https://web.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/index.shtml
George, Stephanie and Mitchell, Elizabeth. “Sickle Cell Disease: Relating Community Health and Heredity.” Science Scope (2014, December), vol. 38, no. 4, p. 33.
Greydanus, Donald E. and Leonov, Andrey. “The Legacy of Smallpox and Polio Vaccines: A Pandora Box or Gordian Knot in the 21st Century?” International Journal of Child Health and Human Development (2017, January 1), vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 3-6.
Lecellier, Charles-Henri and Wasserman, Wyeth W. “Human Enhancers Harboring Specific Sequence Composition, Activity, and Genome Organization Are Linked to the Immune Response.” Genetics (2015, August), vol. 209. no. 4, pp. 1055-1061.
Reverby, Susan M. “Cultural Memory and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study Is Surrounded by Illuminating Misconceptions-Myths That Cannot Be Blithely Dismissed Because They Actually Provide Some Insight into the Significance of the Study.” The Hastings Center Report (2001, October), vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 22-25.
Smolin, David M. “Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, Social Change, and the Future of Bioethics.” Faulkner Law Review (2012, Spring), vol. 3,no. 2, pp. 229-234.
Thomas, Karen K. Deluxe Jim Crow: Civil Rights and American Health Policy, 1935-1954. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2011.
Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn
Labor and Delivery Terms
Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2010). Childbirth. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/bps/search?query=childbirth .
Heller, Michelle E., and Veach, Lynette M. (2008). Clinical Medical Assisting: A Professional,
Field Smart Approach to the Workplace. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Jailkhani, R., Patil, VS., Laxman, HB, Shivashankara, AR, Kulkarni, SP, and Ravindra, MS.
Strokes and African-Americans
African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the issue of African-Americans and stroke. The significance of this study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing base of knowledge in this area of study. The methodology employed in this study is of a qualitative and interpretive nature and has been conducted through a review of literature in this area of study.
Strokes and African-Americans
African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment.
Purpose of the Study
National Stroke Association (2010) What is Stroke? Retrieved from: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=STROKE
The Office of Minority Health (2010) U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from: http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/content.aspx?ID=3022
National Stroke Association (2010) African-Americans and Stroke. Retrieved from: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=AAMER
Neipris, Louis (1998) African-Americans and Stroke Risk. My Optum Health. Retrieved from: http://www.wtvm.com/global/story.asp?s=12834243
These, then, eventually die leaving the transfer of oxygen in your blood being absolutely limited and far below the point at which the flow of oxygen needs to be in a human body. The flow of blood and transfer of oxygen eventually slows down tremendously and can cause terrible pain as well as make the immune system to be vulnerable to a variety of different diseases. There are many medical procedures that can allow the individual to find a relief (Lozoff et al., 2003).
In our case study, we will mainly highlight how the mother's approach was tentative and skeptical and how the four points that have been mentioned initially (communication, social organization, spatial dynamics and locus of control) are impacted through her approach. The first important thing to note about the attitude of the mother is that she does seem very forthcoming to find out as much as she…
Black R. (2003) Micronutrient deficiency -- an underlying cause of morbidity and mortality. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 81:79.
Dr Izumi, S., (2008) Japanese Patients' Descriptions of 'The Good Nurse', accessed on February 28, 2009.
Kino*****a, J., & Palevsky, N. (1992) Gateway to Japan (Rev. ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha International.
Lozoff B, De Andraca I, Castillo M, Smith JB, Walter T, Pino P. (2003) Behavioral and developmental effects of preventing iron-deficiency anemia in healthy full-term infants. Pediatrics.112:846-854.
Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.
Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…
Alberts, Bruce. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell, 4th ed. New York: Garland Science.
Genetic Science Learning Center. 2004. Genetic Disorder Corner. University of Utah. 07 May 2004. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/
McCarrick, Pat Milmoe. 1993.Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening. Scope Note 22. National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Georgetown University, 1993. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (KIEJ), Reprinted September 1993, 17 p. (Last updated February 2002). 07 May 2004. http://www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/scopenotes/sn22.html
Miller, Kelly. 1999. Genetic Screening. Phil McClean, Professor, Ph.D. Colorado State University, PLSC 431/631 - Intermediate Genetics. 07 May 2004. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/mcclean/plsc431/students99/miller.htm. The mundane by excellent cinematography and an effective cast.
ace and Genetics
On the surface, race seems like a legitimate way of categorizing human beings. Physical characteristics are passed down from parent to child, thereby recreating racial markers. However, the concept of race is generally rooted in ignorance. ace is an ephemeral construction, and genetic science is proving this to be so. If race were real, then there would be ways of tracing different races back to a few ancestors: such as an ancestral Polynesian, ancestral African, and ancestral Jew. As it stands, though, all human beings trace ancestry to the same basic gene pool from humanoid ancestors in Africa. This one fact alone is sufficient to debunk the concept that race "exists," or is a form of biological determinism. There are other reasons to believe that race is not as real as was once thought. ace is not real, and the reasons are rooted in genetic science, anthropology,…
Adelman, L. (2003). Race and gene studies: what differences make a difference? Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-01-02.htm
Entine, J. (2012). Jews Are a 'Race,' Genes Reveal. The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved online: http://forward.com/articles/155742/jews-are-a-race-genes-reveal/?p=all
Edit Research Premarital Screening
Evaluating Premarital Screening Knowledge in Saudi Students
The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of premarital screening (PMS) in Saudi Arabia. The use of PMS as a means to identify and approach both and infectious and hereditary disease was investigated in order to determine the impact of this practical approach.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jazan University from January to June 2014 to perform this research. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 Jazan University Students, both males and females. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts. The first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.
The vast majority of the participants (922; 94%) believed that a PMS program was a preventive measure. More than two thirds of…
Biliary colic and cholecystitis are in the spectrum of gallbladder disease, ranging from asymptomatic gallstones to biliary colic, cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, and cholangitis (Santen pp). hen gallstones temporarily obstruct the cystic duct or pass through into the common bile duct, gallstones become symptomatic and biliary colic develops, however, if the cystic duct or common bile duct becomes obstructed for hours or gallstones irritate the gallbladder, then cholecystitis develops, and when the stones become lodged in the common bile duct, choledocholithiasis occurs, resulting in possible cholangitis and ascending infections (Santen pp).
Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder caused by obstruction, usually a gallstone, of the cystic duct, and the inflammation may be sterile or bacterial and the obstruction may be acalculous or caused by sludge (Santen pp). Bacterial infection is believed to be a consequence, not a cause, of cholecystitis, approximately 75% of bile cultures are positive, with the most…
Kato, Norman S. (2004, July 14). Acute cholecystitis. Retrieved July 03, 2005 from National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000264.htm
Cholecystitis. (1996). The Mosby Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 03, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Keeffe, Emmet B. 2000, March 15. Management of Gallstones and Their Complications.
American Family Physician. Retrieved July 03, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
A company cannot refuse to hire someone with sickle cell anemia (a disease that primarily affects persons of African ancestry), because the person might require costly health insurance, for so long as the person was strong enough to perform the job, discrimination would not be acceptable as it would affect persons disproportionately of one racial category.
Explain trade secret and how it could be protected legally and in day-to-day operations. Provide an example.
According to Nolo.com, an online legal dictionary, a trade secret is:
in] most states, a formula, pattern, physical device, idea, process, compilation of information or other information that 1) provides a business with a competitive advantage, and 2) is treated in a way that can reasonably be expected to prevent the public or competitors from learning about it, absent improper acquisition or theft" ("trade secret, 2007, Nolo.com). Perhaps the most famous trade secret in business is…
Elias, Stephen. (1998)."Trade Secret Law: Overview." Nolo Press. Retrieved 8 Apr 2007 at: http://www.marketingtoday.com/legal/tradesec.htm#1
Estoppel." (2007). Nolo.com. Retrieved 8 Apr 2007 at http://www.nolo.com/definition.cfm/term/7F1E56D5-7EC1-4CEB-86B3943F6990FF77
Messiha, Dominic J. & Hillary R. Ross. (May 2006). "EEOC Revises Compliance
Manual to Target More 'Contemporary' Forms of Discrimination." ASAP: Littler Mendelson Time Sensitive Newsletter. Retrieved 8 Apr 2007 at http://www.littler.com/collateral/print/61A7D18C32514B88187D50664174D11F.html
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…
Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy
Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia
Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Marketing Case Study
Explain what you think would be an appropriate promotions strategy for both of them. In doing so compare and contrast the two promotions strategies explaining why you think they would be similar or different.
NINE POSSIBLE PODUCT -- MAKET COMBINATIONS
POSSIBLE TAGET MAKETS
GAY MEN O WOMEN
BLACK WOMEN AGED 18-30
NON-LETHAL PESONAL SECUITY PODUCTS
FITNESS / EXECISE PODUCTS
More than one billion adults worldwide are overweight. In the United States alone obesity is responsible for an estimated 300,000 deaths annually. What's interesting is that nearly all of these deaths are preventable through proper exercise and nutrition. As such, fitness is a very contentious issue plaguing many of the developed nations worldwide. Statistics indicate that nearly 33% of all Americas are obese. This bodes very well in regards to marketing as 1 in 3 Americans could use the fitness and exercise related…
1. Swarming the shelves: How shops can exploit people's herd mentality to increase sales." The Economist. 2006-11-11. p. 79-90.
2. Kotler, Armstrong, Philip, Gary. Principles of Marketing. (2011)Pearson education.
3. Joshi, Rakesh, (2005) International Marketing, Oxford University Press, New Delhi and New York ISBN 0-19-567123-6
Prejudice and ethical/leadership issues with healthcare are nothing new but the fight to keep those standards and ethics on an even keel and prevent racism, bigotry and predudice of any sort including based on class, money, political ideology, nationalism, and so forth should be stomped out and eviscerated whenever it can be. People are people and should treated with dignity and respect regardless of their race, gender, beliefs and so forth. Even convicted murderers and rapists should not be treated disdain due to their actions because doing otherwise lowers the ethics and standards of the healthcare community that can and should still apply at all times.
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., ay, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences…
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., Ray, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences on ability to afford prescription medications.
Charles, K., Coustasse, A., & Willis, K. (2014). Does CPOE Increase Patient Safety by Reducing Medical Errors? Global Education Journal, 2014(1), 1-14.
The purpose of the research project was to determine if adoption of a CPOE system would be an effective elucidation to the problem of medical errors as well as determine what caused the medical errors.
The results pointed to reduction in adverse drug events and medical errors significantly using CPOE and demonstrate through review that CPOE provides a higher accuracy through ease of electronic use of data.
Evidence: By using information taken from previous research articles and studies, the authors determined CPOE can minimize medical errors and can be beneficial especially due to the financial incentives brought on by the HITECH Act of 2009.
Relation: This source supports other sources and evidence because it shows how beneficial CPOE is to patient care through reduction of medical errors.
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…
Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
(American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
IV. Side Effects of Sildenafil
Side effects of taking Sildenafil include those as follows:
headache heartburn diarrhea flushing (feeling of warmth)
nosebleeds difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs muscle aches changes in color vision (seeing a blue tinge on objects or having difficulty telling the difference between blue and green)
sensitivity to light (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
Serious side effects are the following and occurrence of this requires immediate notification of the physician:
sudden severe loss of vision (see below for more information)
blurred vision sudden decrease or loss of hearing ringing in ears
erection that is painful or lasts longer than 4 hours dizziness or lightheadedness fainting chest pain worsening shortness of breath itching or burning during urination rash (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009…
Sildenafil (2009) AHFS Consumer Medication Information. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Online available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=meds&log$=drug_bottom_one&part=a699015
Swearingen, S. And Klausner, J. (2009) Sildenafil Use, Sexual Risk Behavior, and Risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV infection. The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 118, Issue 6. Online available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002934305000860
Rosenfeld, Dana and Faircloth, Christopher a. (2006) Medicalized Masculinities. Temple University Press 2006. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=8rXT7-EL0jcC&dq=SEXUAL+ENHANCEMENT:+viagra,+levitra+and+cialis&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Loe, Meika (2004) the Rise of Viagra: How the Little Blue Pill Changed Sex in America. NYR Press 2004. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=h25piGXAHukC&dq=SEXUAL+ENHANCEMENT:+viagra,+levitra+and+cialis&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…
Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1
Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.
Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO
Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.
Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.
Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).
Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:
Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.
The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).
This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…
Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)
Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html
Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York
Soares, C. Why Human Clones Won't Work Yet. Discover (Jan/02)
How variations arise within a phenotype?
Phenotype is the specific characteristics that are displayed by the organism. Phenotypic variation is a prerequisite for evolution due to natural selection, thus without the former, there is no latter. Qualitative traits are traits that show a difference between phenotypes like skin color, sex, and eye color. However, such descriptions are controlled by a small number of genes so environmental influence on these traits is low since it involves the genetics of individuals. Quantitative traits are traits that exhibit a continuous range from one phenotype to another. Therefore, there is no difference between phenotypes and are usually influenced by several gene pairs while the environment has a significant influence on the trait. This type of trait involves the genetics of populations. It is a combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce phenotypes that blend into each other. Phenotypic variance or VP is…
Bellevue College Science Division (2011) Mutation and Genetic Diseases, [online] Available at: http://scidiv.bellevuecollege.edu/rkr/Biology211/lectures/pdfs/GeneticDisease211.pdf [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Biology 346-Evolution (2011) Chapter 13-Evolution of Phenotypic Traits, [online] Available at: www.cbu.edu/~esalgado/BIOL346/ch13.doc [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Chicago Center for Jewish Genetic Disorders (2008) Intro to Genetics, [online] Available at: http://www.jewishgenetics.org/?q=content/intro-genetics [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Grimmel College (2011) Lab 2 -- Sources of Phenotypic Variation, [online] Available at: http://web.grinnell.edu/individuals/brownj/edu/136_lab2.html [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Africans had poor health care in the 1950s
There is much that still remains swept under the proverbial carpet about America's treatment to its African immigrants. One of the chapters, little known and often left untold has only recently started to emerge and concerns American health care system and its using Blacks as guinea pigs.
Attorney and author Vernellia . Tandall tells the story in her book 'Dying While Black' showing how America's health care system was built on the bodies of African-American individuals from the 19th century continuing to present days. Some f the information is unbelievable at best shocking at worst such as her allegations that AIDS was created by a government-sanctioned health care for the purposes of medical advancement.
Countless stories from Black residents of both North and South tell about how they were unwillingly and unknowingly abducted and exploited for medical experiments. There were the 'night…
Brooking Institute (2008) "Meeting the Dilemma of Health Care Access" (PDF). Opportunity 08: A Project of the Brookings Institution. Retrieved on 2/19/2011
Orlando Sentinel. (Dec., 04. 1993). Clinic On Wheels To Take Health Care To Elderly Poor . retreived 11/7/2011 from http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1993-12-04/news/9312040190_1_clinic-project-care-seniors
Skloot, H. (2010) The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks NY. Random House.
During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]
4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]
5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus…
Cherie Dimaline, "Inheriting Sickness When Finding Your Roots is a Matter of Life or Death" Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.metisnation.org/metisVOYAGEUR/MVcurrent/disease.html
Dr. Joseph F. Smith, "Genetic Counseling," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.chclibrary.org/micromed/00049280.html
IBAC, "The Basics of Life," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.ibac.org.nz/booklet/basics.html
CMGS, "Disturbance of Gene Frequencies in a Population," Accessed on 15th December 2004 http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/cmgs/genefreq.htm
Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).
Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…
Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num
This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient
Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3
1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
Perception of Pain
Uses of Pain in nursing
Definitions of Pain from Dictionaries
Uses of Pain in psychology
Antecedents and Consequences
CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PECEPTION OF PAIN
The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the perception of pain. The researcher purpose to clarify describe the characteristics of pain and recognize antecedents that effect the idea of pain and the likely outcomes of pain by utilizing Avant's and Walker (2005) theory of study. Also, a model case shows how pain is connected to these serious characteristics contrary case and a borderline case are shown to distinguish the perception of pain from other notions. Empirical referents show the current point-of-view of the perception of pain. (Akyol & Salmond, 2009)
Concept Analysis of Characteristics of Pain
The goal of this paper is to expand the understanding of the concept of…
Akyol, O., Karayurt, O., & Salmond, S. (2009). Experiences of pain and satisfaction with pain management in patients undergoing total knee replacement. Orthopedic Nursing, 28(2), 79-85.
Chan, S., Hadjistavropoulos, T., Carleton, R.N., & Hadjistavropoulos, H. (2012). Predicting adjustment to chronic pain in older adults. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 44(3), 192-199.
Eggermont, L.H.P., Bean, J.F., Guralnik, J.M., & Leveille, S.G. (2009). Comparing pain severity vs. pain location in the MOBILIZE Boston study: Chronic pain and lower extremity function*. The Journals of Gerontology, 64A (7), 763-70.
Gelinas, C., Fortier, M., Viens, C., Fillion, L., & Puntillo, K. (2004). PAIN ASSESSMENT AND Management IN CRITICALLY ILL INTUBATED PATIENTS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY. American Journal of Critical Care, 13(2), 126-35.
Genetic counseling involves the sharing vital information and knowledge by experienced and well trained experts in the field of genetics for individuals with high risks of suffering some genetic disorders or transferring it to their children. It is the responsibility of a genetic counselor to provide relevant information concerning the hereditary nature of certain diseases and their risks of reoccurrence; addresses the concerns of patients, their health care providers and their families; and lends assistance to both the patients suffering these hereditary ailments and their families.
The first genetic counseling center was the Hereditary Clinic established at the University of Michigan in the United States in 1940. Since then, several such centers have been established in different parts of the world.
Through genetic counseling, information is made available to give the needed support to people who are dealing with any genetic disorder or at risk of developing one. When dealing…
Brickell, K., Steinbart, E., Rumbaugh, M., Payami, H., Schellenberg, G., Deerlin, V. V.,... Bird, T. (2006). Early-onset Alzheimer disease in families with late-onset Alzheimer disease: a potential important subtype of familial Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol, 63(9), 1307-11.
Campion, D., Dumanchin, C., Hannequin, D., Dubois, B., Belliard, S., Puel, M.,... Frebourg, T. (1999). Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. Am J. Hum Genet, 65(3), 664-70.
CDC. (2015, March 3). Genetic Counselling. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/genetics/genetic_counseling.html
Goldman, J. S., MS, M., Hahn, S. E., Catania, J. W., Larusse-Eckert, S., Butson, M. B.,... Bird, T. (2011). Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: Joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. Genet Med, 13(6), 597 -- 605.
Huntington's disease (HD) was the first autonomic dominant disorder for which genetic prediction became possible" (Harper, et al., 2000, Journal of Medical Genetics, p. 567). HD is a disease that occurs due to an inherited disorder leading to the death of brain cells. A diagnosis of HD is accomplished through genetic testing which can be implemented at any age regardless of whether the symptoms manifest or not. Although, the specific symptoms vary between people, nevertheless, symptoms can start with people between 35 and 45 years of age and can also start in some individuals at even anearlier age. The disease may affect successive generations if health interventions are not implemented (Mandel, 2016).
Additionally, "the cause of HD is due to a dominant mutation of autosomal form of the gene called Huntington. This shows that a child born by an affected person has a 50% chance of developing or inheriting the…
Causes and risk factors. (2016). Health Communities. Retrieved from http://www. healthcommunities.com/huntingtons-disease/cause.shtml.
Denbo, S. M. (2013, January 1). Balancing the rights of children, parents and the state: The legal, ethical and psychological implications of genetic testing in children. Southern Journal of Business and Ethics, 5, 188-190.
Domaradzki, J. (2015, January 1). Lay constructions of genetic risk. A case-study of the Polish Society of Huntington's Disease. Polish Sociological Review, 189, 107-111.
Draper, B. (2004). Dealing with dementia: A Guide to Alzheimer's Disease and other dementias. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
I chose this topic because the H1N1 virus and the swine flu have taken over the news. The Ohio Department of Health is heavily committed in getting the word out. "During the week of October 18-24, 2009, influenza activity continued to increase in the United States as reported in FluView. Flu activity is now widespread in 48 states. Nationally, visits to doctors for influenza-like-illness continue to increase steeply and are now higher than what is seen at the peak of many regular flu seasons. In addition, flu-related hospitalizations and deaths continue to go up nation-wide and are above what is expected for this time of year." (ODH).
The story is both a local and national headline. The television news report '60 Minutes' lead off this week's show with a serious discussion about all aspects of the new viral spread of the H1N1 virus and issues regarding the production process…
American Society for Microbiology and (Corporate Author) Patrick R. Murray. (2003). Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Manual of Clinical Microbiology). 8th ed. American Society Microbiology.
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .
Flu.Gov. (2009). Vaccination. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Department of Health web site at http://www.flu.gov/individualfamily/vaccination/index.html .
ODH. (2009). Ohio.Gov. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Department of Health web site at http://www.odh.ohio.gov/landing/phs_emergency/swineflu.aspx .
They cannot ignore the socioeconomic issues of adversity so often present and, where necessary, need to act as advocates, mediators and social brokers (Compton, Galaway, & Curnoyer, 2005).
The concern is that the issue of healthcare for culturally diverse individuals is so complex, there are no exact rights and wrongs. For example, in Fadiman's book, no person(s) can be said to be ultimately correct or incorrect in his/her behavior or actions; everyone did what he/she thought was right. In order to help others who have different cultural backgrounds and experiences, as the Hmong, it is essential to be 1) proactive. That is, to forecast the transforming demographics in the U.S. over the coming decades and put plans into place that will best serve these individuals and 2) collaborative. The best results occur when professionals from different backgrounds and expertise share best practices and learn from each other. What could have…
Compton, B., Galaway, B., & Curnoyer, B.R. (1994). Social work processes (7th ed.).
Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Fadiman, Anne (1997) the Spirit Catches You, and You Fall Down. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Gladwell, M. (2002). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Boston: Little Brown
However, this form of racism rejects racial rights and instead calls for active racial competition among races towards achieving mastery and territorial dominance. This is a form of racial survival for the fittest in which there is no belief of the existence of racial rights (McCulloch 2010, p. 1).
Despite the negative connotation of racism, there is a need to have some form of racism, but in a positive manner. Arguably some form of racism is necessary. For example, there is a need to socially map and define the racial landscape and this cannot be done without the use of some form of racism. This has indeed been a historically compelled action because throughout history, racial lines have naturally existed between men and thus could not be ignored (Pataki & Levine 2004, p. 87-90). Therefore, it can be conclusively stated that the society cannot cast a blind eye to racism;…
In conclusion, the question as to whether all races should be considered equally goes back to considerations of ethical stands on whether there is actually a just preservation of individual rights, life and liberty. Racism is a naturally occurring phenomenon that has been widely understood to be a negative aspect in the society largely due to the manner in which it has been expressed through the Darwinian approach of competition among races; with each race seeking to dominate the other. In the end, this has led to social and economic inequalities as well as injustices throughout time thus giving the strong negative connotation of racism which is hence identified with suppression and denial of basic rights to some races. However, alongside this form of racism, there has always existed a form of racism that has been moral and considerate to the enhancement of justice and equality based on all races.
The Relevance of Ethics in Contexts of Military Conflicts
In basic terms, ethics comprise of all those standards by which an individual or group of individuals is expected to abide based on values. Hence ethical values basically take into consideration what is considered right or wrong and in that regard, such values prevail over values considered unethical when it comes to the ethical decision making process. As Annen and Royl (2010, p. 82) note, the relevance of familiarizing soldiers with the standards of moral behavior at the
Nowhere on earth is a thirteen-pound, six-foot long unit of 'scandal' or 'integrity' to be found, for example. Nor apparently can someone find a benchmark unit of 'race'.
The second thread runs through the slides 1887, 1934 and 1997. Jim Crow led to better homes for whites than Blacks even after they fought WWII side by side. What this demonstrates is one clear way we very literally live within the tangible outcome of discrimination today, and the Web site goes on to expand on this in "Where Race Lives" and "To See or Not To See" very convincingly. What interests me here is specifically the assertion that "Jim Crow unites poor and wealthy whites, while denying African-Americans equality." I do not contest that the U.S. legal, i.e. white, institution actively and deliberately removed non-whites' means to confront and dismantle discrimination at law. Nor do I contest that the intent of…
Born to Die
hy did the native populations, such as the Incas and the Aztecs, appear to be, not equals to be met with military and diplomatic force, but as victims born to die in the eyes of the invading European powers? hy were they not feared, despite the extensive technological capacities of their civilizations, and the detailed political and religious theology these civilizations created? Simply put, the invading Europeans came to regard them as sick and ailing bodies of a sick and ailing body politic, born to die because of their lack of immunity to European diseases, even more than European firearms.
The book Born to Die thus presents the provoking thesis that disease was the major cause of the European power's seemingly never-ending successes of colonial successes and conquests in Latin America, rather than these nation's prowess in military conquest. In some cases, the nations had already been…
Cook, David Noble. Born to Die. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
"Kurds." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001 -- 04. www.bartleby.com/65/. 8 November 2003.
Lim, Louisa. "Analysis: Disease as a Weapon." BBC News. 2003.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2634753.stm . 8 November 2004.
Till the period up to 11,000 BC every individuals remained Stone Age hunters/gatherers. Nearly that time, the roads of growth of human societies on various continents started to move away in a large scale. (Guns, Germs, and Steel- the Fates of Human Societies: (www.2think.org) During that period, when Stone Age hunter-gatherers comprised the total human population, a big segregation happened in the proportion that the human societies progressed. In Eurasia, several regions of Americas, and Africa, agriculture started to be the existing pattern of livelihood when domestication of aboriginal wild plants and animals were done by the prehistoric planters and herders. Diamond fairly examines the human history on each continent starting from the Ice Age at a proportion that stresses just the widest traversals of people and concepts. However, his assessment is symmetrical: one eye has rather long-term view of the evolutionary biologist, whereas the other eye and his spirit…
Bradford, DeLong, J. Review of Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel. November 1999. Retrieved at http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/Econ_Articles/Reviews/diamond_guns.html. Accessed on 1 February, 2005
Editorial Reviews: Amazon.com. Retrieved at http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/product-description/0393317552/ref=dp_proddesc_0/104-9?%5Fencoding=UTF8&n=283155Accessed on 1 February, 2005
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Retrieved at http://www.actionismyreward.com/item-0393317552.shtml . Accessed on 2 February, 2005
Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Retrieved at http://search.barnesandnoble.com/booksearch/isbnInquiry.asp?isbn=0393317552&itm=1Accessed on 2 February, 2005
The Etiology, Incidence and Treatment of heumatic Fever Today
Like many diseases such as smallpox and polio, Zamula (1987) reports that until fairly recently, rheumatic fever was described by most public health officials as being a vanishing disease. "After World War II," Patlak (1991) reports, "the number of cases of rheumatic fever dramatically declined until, during the 20 years between 1965 and 1985 alone, the yearly number of cases of rheumatic fever among school-age children dropped by more than 90%" (p. 24). At the time, clinicians assumed that less crowded living conditions and the use of antibiotics were controlling the disease and some physicians called rheumatic fever a "vanishing disease in suburbia" (Patlak, p. 24). As a result, the children's hospitals that were previously dedicated to the care of rheumatic fever sufferers closed because of a lack of patients and disease registries that had been rigorously maintained by…
Arocha, J.F., & Patel, V.L. (1995). Novice diagnostic reasoning in medicine: Accounting for evidence. Journal of the Learning Sciences 4(4), 375.
Patlak, M. (1991, October). 'Strep' demands immediate care. FDA Consumer, 25(8), 24.
Zamula, E. (1987, July-August). Rheumatic fever: Down but not out. FDA Consumer, 21, 26.
One cannot think of Jazz without thinking of Miles Davis. Davis is widely regarded as one of the foremost jazz trumpeters. However, it would be a mistake to believe that Davis' influence on the world of jazz was limited to his abilities as a trumpeter. Davis was recognized as a composer, a bandleader, and a keyboard player. In addition, Davis helped develop improvisational playing techniques, which incorporated modes. Finally, "Davis had an uncanny ability of always selecting great sidemen for his recording sessions. These recordings are full of original and creative sensitivity and are outstanding examples of jazz recordings made at that time." (The Official Miles Davis Website, 2001).
If Davis' mother had her way, jazz music today would be dramatically different. Davis was born to Miles Henry Davis, a dentist, and Cleota Davis. Cleota Davis was a blues pianist, but she kept that fact hidden from her…
Frankling, K. (1986). Miles Davis: life size. Retrieved November 9, 2005 from Jazzhouse.org
Web site: http://www.jazzhouse.org/library/library2.php3?read=franckling1
The Official Miles Davis Website. (2001). Biography. Retrieved November 9, 2005 from MilesDavis.com
Web site: http://www.milesdavis.com/bio.htm
It would be easy to assume, then, that biologists are making a mistake by rejecting the race concept because that rejection would force them to also ignore such biological variation. However, this assumption would be false. Most intelligent anthropologists are not rejecting the idea of biological variation or a geographical/genetic component to that variation. On the contrary, they reject the idea of "race" specifically because it is not flexible enough to accurately model the full range of biological variation and therefore lumps all geographic/genetic variable populations together based on a small subset of their traits.
The race concept would lump together, for example, both the small and slightly darker Mediterranean body build with the robust, blond Nordic body build as both "White" while assuming that all the wide variety of genetic, facial, and morphological differences in Africa rendered a single "Black" race. The critical anthropologists would have to reject such…
Geneticists have been trying to unearth so-called founder mutations: one original genetic mutation that subsequently caused generations of people to carry and/or suffer from a serious illness like sickle cell anemia. Unlike many other mutations, founder mutations can be traced to one original ancestor. The discovery and study of founder mutations allows anthropologists to research the general patterns of human migration, providing a more complete understanding of history. Religion views genetic mutations in a different light. Many fundamentalist Christians, for example, might propose that disease is God-given. Yet if Mary Schweizer, an Evangelical Christian scientist, can unite religion with science then anyone can. Her devotion to fundamental Christian thought is not at odds with her scientific endeavors, according to Yeoman. In fact, Schweizer views science as a spiritual endeavor, as a means to discover the meaning of life, death, and seeming anomalies. Religion and science share common goals and objectives…
Atwood, Roger. "The Story of the Iraq Museum."
Davies, Paul. "That Mysterious Flow."
Drayna, Dennis. "Founder Mutations."
Stone, Richard. "Mystery Man of Stonehenge."
OBRA Health Insurance
How OBRA Works
Davis was terminated from his employment because of long absence from work and not because he voluntarily resigned or any gross negligence on his part. Therefore, he and his family are eligible for health insurance coverage under the onsolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) provided his company maintains its group health plan and still has 20 or more employees for which they currently have 100. If his former employer were to have fewer than 20 employees, then he might still be eligible for what is called mini-OBRA. The OBRA Act was put into law in 1986 in order to provide continuation of group health coverage for workers who have lost their jobs. The Act allows for the unemployed individual to avoid any gaps in coverage that would prevent them from having pre-existing conditions excluded once they were able to obtain group health…
Challenges Facing the State or Local Government
It has been estimated that 46 million Americans were uninsured in during 2006-2007 (Gulley, 2011 p. 368). Chronically ill adults often require expensive health care services, which put a drain on available resources available to provide health care to uninsured, low-income individuals. When these adults forego the care they need, they become sicker and will then require increased health services, which will incur additional expense. These expenses need to be covered somehow and under the law; hospitals cannot refuse to provide treatment to individuals who are in need of emergent care to save the life of or to stabilize a critically ill patient. State governments are required to fund programs such as Medicaid, which provides coverage for low-income persons who cannot afford to pay for health care. Individuals with chronic health issues that require extensive medical care cause a drain on that system. Studies have also shown that patients on Medicaid often are underinsured and receive a poorer quality of care, which has raised mortality rates among those individuals (McWilliams, p. 479).
A solution to providing better coverage to chronically ill patients would be to reform health care through the Affordable Care Act at the state level by opening up the availability of state-sponsored health insurance programs such as Medicaid. The state's have the option of receiving extra funding from the federal government, however some have chosen not to receive it. (Jacobi, 2011, p.69). In the case
eligion has the ability to give people hope especially the hopeless. Despite the harsh situations and challenges that people face, religion plays a fundamental role of giving them hope and optimism from which they draw strength. eligion is also an agent for socialization. It is no doubt meeting with other believers for religious events is more than just practicing faith (eeve 2006).
People use the opportunity to meet old friends and make new ones, sing together and above all socialize. Interactions can be a powerful source of happiness to individuals. eligion provides more than just individual hedonism to guide behavior. In essence, religion provides guidelines for faithful to follow and in the end live an orderly and moral life (Furness & Gilligan 2010). Even though people appear to be happier within the spheres of religion, many researchers show that people in relatively nonreligious nation are the happiest lot. Scandinavian societies…
Eid, Michael, & Larsen, Randy J. (2008). The Science of Subjective Well-being. Guilford Pubn.
Fitzgerald, J.T., Obbink, D., & Holland, G.S. (2003). Philodemus and the New Testament world. Leiden: Brill.
Furness, S., & Gilligan, P. (2010). Religion, belief and social work: Making a difference. Bristol:
Fiction of ace
ace: The cultural power of the fiction of race
A recent PBS documentary was titled ace: The power of an illusion. This underlines what constitutes race -- race is a fiction, created by the faulty observational perceptions of human beings, and the history of human culture. ace is not a scientific reality. Because we can see color (and hair texture, facial shapes, and other characteristics) we perceive something we call race. But our scientific knowledge tells us that race does not exist. This is not to deny that race is a very powerful fiction that has influenced human history. The idea of racial categories proved to be deadly and destructive to the lives and the cultures of indigenous peoples. It was used to validate slavery, genocide, colonialism, and exploitation. But race is not 'real,' any more than the idea of 'carrying the white man's burden' was…
Duster, Troy. (2005). Race and reification in science. Science, 307 (5712). 1050-1051.
Garcia, Richard. (2003). The misuse of race in medical diagnosis. The Chronicle of Higher
Parents not with great joy as their children meet important developmental milestones. oth first steps and first words are celebrated and described in detail to friends and family. ut sometimes as a child gets older, changes occur. Inexplicably, sometimes children who have talked for several years suddenly stop talking. Typically the child becomes selectively silent, talking animatedly with family and known friends but becoming mute at school or with strangers. When the problem is severe and exists over a period of time, the child may be diagnosed with selective mutism.
In one example, a child who was almost five years old started preschool, and after two weeks, refused to speak either to the teacher or his classmates. He also cried at arrival and would ask his parents to take him home. At home he spoke, but only to his mother, but clearly and in complete sentences. He communicated only…
Fairbanks, Janet A. 1997. Systematic assessment of 50 children with selective mutism." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, May.
McCracken, James T. 2002. "Prevalence and description of selective mutism in a school-based sample." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aug.
Rapin, Isabelle. 2001. "Selective mutism." Pediatrics, April.
Roberts, Susan Jo. 2002. "Identifying mutism's etiology in a child." The Nurse Practitioner 27:10, Oct.
History Of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care
Eugenics is the belief and practice that involves the improvement of genetic quality of the human population.it is a science that deals with influences that are able to bring an improvement in inborn qualities of race also with those that develop them to their utmost advantage. There is a considerable difference between goodness in various qualities and in the entire character as a whole. The character largely depends on the proportion that exists between these quantities whose balance can be greatly influenced by education. This is a social philosophy that advocates for the improvement of the human genetic traits by promoting higher reproduction of people that posses' desired traits also termed as positive eugenics and reducing the reproduction of people that posse's undesired ort less desired traits which is negative eugenics. Therefore Eugenics is a social movement that is…