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United States, the Sioux Indians 1850, industrial a nature society ( assimilated) relationship environment. Include elements making contrast. 1.The environmental values societies.
Sioux vs. Industrialism
The issue of industrial societies contrasting indigenous communities when concerning the position that each of the two had in regard to the environment is particularly controversial in the context of the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century. Although Sioux Indians adapted to change at the time, they still had trouble employing behavior similar to the one put across by the American government. Native Americans in general were especially concerned about the environment, as they believed that they were connected to it through their ancestors and through their culture as a whole. hereas the 1850 American government was focused on exploiting resources with no regard to the environmental damage that it left behind, the Sioux Indians were virtually standing powerless and watching…
Cunningham, William P. & Cunningham, Mary Ann, "Principles of environmental science: inquiry & applications," (McGraw-Hill, 2007).
Fleck, Richard F., "Black Elk Speaks: a Native American View of Nineteenth-century American History," Journal of American Culture 17.1 (1994).
LaDuke, Winona, All Our Relations: Native Struggles for Land and Life (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1999).
Indian Education/Boarding Schools
Indian boarding schools were designed to assimilate Native American children into the greater American (white) culture. Students at the schools suffered from poor diet, illness and harsh discipline. As a result of these deficiencies, and the high cost of running the boarding schools, they began to disappear from the American landscape in the 1930s.
Indian education from the 1880s to the 1920s was designed to assimilate the American Indian population into the greater American society. This was accomplished by placing Native American Indian children into institutions where the traditional ways of Indian society were replaced by government-sanctioned behaviors and beliefs. Native American children were removed from their families, and enrolled in government-run boarding schools.
Boarding schools first became vogue prior to the American Civil ar. During this time, idealistic reformers put forth the idea that Indians could become "civilized" with the proper education and treatment. Prior to…
Marr, Carolyn J. Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Libraries. Digital Collections. 19 October 2002. http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr/biblio.html
Kelley, Matt. The Associated Press. American Indian boarding schools: 'That hurt never goes away'. Wednesday, April 28, 1999. 19 October 2002. http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSFeatures9904/28_indians.html
ceremonies of the Hopi tribe of the American Southwest, and the Assiniboine of the Northern Plains. The Assiniboine engage in the Sun Dance as one of their major ceremonies, while the Hopi engage in the Snake Dance as one of theirs. These dance ceremonies share many commonalities, but they contain major differences, as well. The Hopi were largely agricultural, living on mesas devoid of much moisture, while the Assiniboine were hunters, subsisting off the buffalo of the plains. These differences make up the disparity in their ceremonies, and they are important clues to their identity and way of life.
The Hopi Nation is one of the oldest Native American tribes in North America. They can trace their history in Northern Arizona, where their reservation is located, back to the 12th century, but they believe their history goes back much further than that. They are believed to have migrated to the…
Dances with Wolves is a movie that clearly shows the moral and political dilemmas that existed in those times and it also represents that fairly savage policy that the United States had against Indians and those that sided with the same. It also proved that skin color alone is not enough to keep people separated, as proven by Costner's character and the white woman he eventually took as his wife. However, it also became clear to Costner's character that he was in a no-win situation and that he could not stay with the Sioux even though he wanted to and the Sioux felt the same way. While a lot has changed since the days of the Civil War, some things remain stubbornly the same.
Since the settlers from other countries including Britain, France and Spain came to the shores of what is now the United States starting in the late…
Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux, is an account of the U.S. conflict with the Sioux, which gives a unique insight into the Sioux's version of events.
Main Idea: American authors/historians have only given U.S., side of events.
American historians give one side of history, incomplete picture.
Indians presented as violent primitive barbarians.
Anderson finally gives accurate account.
Main Idea: The Native Americans were treated very badly by U.S.
White settlers had no respect for natives or their customs.
Indian emoval Act 1830: forces all natives to move west of the Mississippi.
Native Americans cannot win.
Anderson's book gives accurate account.
Little Crow used as example, gives Sioux point-of-view.
Little Crow, and the Sioux, are a real people with a real culture and real feelings.
C. Anderson presents the Sioux side by delving into the Sioux's history and culture.
D. This is how to present an accurate portrait of events.
Anderson, G.C. Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux, St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Press. 1986. Print.
"Bingham Hall: Dakota Conflict 1862 New Ulm Minnesota" Bingham Hall: New Ulm Bed and Breakfast Lodging. Web Apr. 1, 2011. www.bingham- hall.com/DakotaConflict1862NewUlmMinnesota.html.
Hoover, Herbert T. "Review of Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux" Digital Commons. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1988. Web.
Cheyenne Indians and the Ghost Dance
The Cheyenne people are Native Americans of the Algonquian language family. They are of the Great Plains culture area. The name Cheyenne means 'people of an alien speech,' and was given to them by the Sioux.
The Cheyenne call themselves Tsetschestahase or Tsistsistas, which means 'beautiful people' or 'our people.'
Originally farmers, hunters, and gatherers in the land that is now central Minnesota, however, during the late 17th century, the Cheyenne were driven out of the area by the Sioux and Ojibwa tribes.
Gradually they migrated westward and settled in the area that is now North Dakota, but were forced to move south when the Ojibwa destroyed their settlement in 1770.
When the Cheyenne reached the lack Hills of South Dakota, they changed from farming and hunting and living in permanent villages to a nomadic life following the uffalo herds.
When the horse was…
The Cheyenne Indians
Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children
11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance
12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation
13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone
14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations
15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations
16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British…
"Red Cloud." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm
Saunders, R. (2007). "Chief Pontiac's War -- 1763." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/chief_pontiacs_war_1763
Empire of the Summer Moon -- Non-Fiction American History Book
hat The Book Is About
In the various books about Native Americans published over the years and the myriad history classes students have taken, a great deal of information about Native Americans and their activities has been presented. Much has been written and chronicled about the Sioux and Apache tribes, but how many students who took high school history classes can name the Comanche Tribe as the most powerful Indian tribe in American history? And how many alert readers of the history of the American est can recall that the last and greatest chief of the Comanches was the mixed blood son of Caucasian pioneer woman Cynthia Ann Parker? These facts are all contained in the wonderfully written book by S.C. Gwynne, Empire of the Summer Moon.
The Comanche tribe -- according to the best accounts available to the author…
Gwynne, S.C. Empire of the Summer Moon. New York: Scribner. 2010.
Black Elk, or Hehaka Sapa, was a medicine man of the Oglala Sioux tribe. He lived during the final conflict with the native peoples, from 1863 to 1950 and was able to merge the gap between American Indian spirituality and many modern scholars of myth, including Joseph Campbell. Some European authors praised him as being one of the greatest spiritual thinkers of the Native North Americans, particularly because he created an authentic Lakota Christianity by finding commonality with the Lakota spiritual teachings. Black Elk, in fact, believed that the Sioux could continue to celebrate their own cultural identity while embracing the essence of Christianity. To Black Elk, and to many scholars of mythology and religion, the essence of most of the Amerindian traditions -- celebration of the earth, respect for each other and nature, a code of conduct from which to live, and a striving for peace and…
Brown, J. The Sacred Pipe: Black Elk's Account of the Seven Rites of the Oglala Sioux. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012.
Cambpell, J., et al. The Hero's Journey. New York: New World Library, 2003.
Stampoulos, L. The Redemption of Black Elk: An Ancient Path to Inner Strength. British Columbia, Canada: CBC Publications, 2010, retrieved from googlebooks.com
The precariousness of their relationship with the Dakota was evidenced in 1843, when "the Omaha and the Ponca were considering a union, 'to live together as one people' [….] no doubt as a defensive strategy against the Dakota" (Wishart 1994, 85). However, this ultimately never came about, "and the Ponca again joined the Dakota to raid the Omaha," because "in the chaotic years of the 1840s when starvation confronted all the Indians, warfare became the primary means of the spreading the subsistence base," and allying with the Dakota, who were one of the most powerful tribes in the region, made the most sense (Wishart 1994, 85).
Despite the Ponca's alliances with the Dakota, the latter group became increasingly hostile, resulting in the Ponca gradually returning to their ancestral base near the mouth of the Niobara river, "likely [because] the Dakota had cut them off from the bison range and forced…
Wishart, David. An Unspeakable Sadness: The Dispossession of the Nebraska Indians. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
Treaty with the Ponca 1825. Accessed November 23, 2011.
Finally it also represented an important means of conducting the foreign policy from the point-of-view of the French occupation. In this sense, "the North America fur trade of the 17th and 18th centuries had usually been viewed, until recently, as merely another commercial enterprise governed by the premise "buy cheap, sell dear" in order to rip the maximum of profit. Of late the Canadian end of the trade has come to be regarded as having been more a means to a noncommercial end than a pursuit conducted solely for economic gain. As European penetration and dominance of the continent progressed, the trade, which had begun as an adjunct of the Atlantic shore fishery, became a commercial pursuit in its own right. After 1600 (...) it became a means to finance and further the tragic drive to convert the Indian nations to Christianity."
Aside from the Algonquin tribes, the Huron tribes…
Eccles, W.J. "The fur trade and eighteenth- century imperialism." William and Mary Quarterly.
3rd Ser., Vol. 40, No. 3. pp. 341-362.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections vol. XXXIV.
hat was the role of the women?
The role of women was to establish a home life dress the meat that was killed for food and care for the children (Snow Owl 2004).
hat type of spiritual awareness did the Sioux observe?
The Sioux were very spiritual and had many ceremonies that included dances or singing to communicate with the spirit world.
These ceremonies determined major events in the lives of the Sioux such as when they should move and where. The ceremonies also were used to herald life events such as adulthood, marriage, birth, death, and where the tribe would move to at the change of seasons (Snow Owl 2004).
hat type of roles represent manhood for American males?
For typical American males they are expected to finish high school and college.
hat type of roles represented manhood for Sioux males?
The young men were expected to participate in…
Zitkala-Sa. American Indian Stories Gertrude Simmons Bonnin (1876-1938). Washington: Hayworth Publishing House, 1921. Retrieved From < http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/zitkala-sa/stories/stories.html#soft
Reddish, Laura, and Lewis, Orrin. Native Languages of the Americas. Retrieved October 1, 2011 from < http://www.bigorrin.org/sioux_kids.htm > 2011.
Snow Owl. The Great Sioux Nation. Retrieved October 1, 2011 from < http://www.snowwowl.com/peoplesioux.html > 2004.
lack Elk Speaks: being the life story of a holy man of the Oglala Sioux
This book is about the life and development of an Indian medicine man, lack Elk. From a historical perspective the life of lack Elk is significant as he was present at the famous he attle of the Little ig Horn and he survived the Wounded Knee Massacre1890. lack Elk is also an important figure as he represents the Sioux people as a holy man or medicine man. The cultural as well as the spiritual aspects of the story of lack Elk also provides the modern reader with insight into the culture of the American Indian.
This book also has a message for the modern person living in a world such as ours, where war, poverty and other problems such as climate change have caused humanity to look at other cultures and views of life for…
Black Elk Speaks: being the life story of a holy man of the Oglala Sioux. Web. 7 Nov.
2011. ( http://www.humanresonance.org/black_elk.pdf).
Dull Knifes of Pine Ridge
he Historical Events
In 1877, Custer's defeat had heated up military determination to put an end to what was vaguely known as "the Indian problem." Military reinforcements poured into the Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming territories, with the singular objective of corralling all the remaining Sioux and Cheyenne into the newly established reservation system. It didn't matter if the tribes in question had participated in the Little Big Horn or not. he reservation system was a "one size fits all" solution to the settlement of the land by the whites.
As a result, in the spring of 1877, a band of approximately 900 Cheyenne, came to Ft. Robinson, Nebraska intent upon surrender.
History reports three reasons contributed to their decision to surrender: 1) they lived by the hunt, and the buffalo were all but gone, 2) plains Indians knew they could not survive the white man's…
The families of the chiefs and tribes of the Sioux were exposed to torture, starvation, imprisonment, hardships and loss in fighting for the very freedoms that Americans should be able to expect, simply by way of being Americans.
The changes, loss, heroism, and renewal of the support systems for these heroic battle chiefs is as much a part of the story of The Dull Knifes of Pine Ridge as the battles waged themselves.
Sarita, J. Dull Knifes of Pine Ridge: A Lakota Odyssey. Berkley Pub Group; Reprint edition (March 1996).
American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase
American territorial expansion was the top priority of ashington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil ar years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.
The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country…
1803, and the United States. "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans: N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
Jefferson, Thomas. "Treaty with France (Louisiana Purchase). 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics." Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase - The Louisiana Purchase (American Memory from the Library of Congress)." American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"The Louisiana Purchase -- Thomas Jefferson's Monticello." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
Terror of Hospital Bills
The Element of Fear in James right's "In Terror of Hospital Bills"
In his poem, "In Terror of Hospital Bills," James right paints a bleak picture of a life in which neither the present nor the future hold much in the way of hope. Instead, the poem's speaker contemplates his dwindling resources while imagining what his life will entail when he is homeless, destitute, and living in fear of the eventuality that he will grow sick. Isolated from his heritage, family, and the people from whom he will soon have to beg, the speaker still relishes being alive, and yet is virtually crippled by fear that his prospects will only worsen.
Fear permeates right's poem in every detail and nuance from the opening lines in which the speaker states that he still has "some money" (right 1), the implication being that soon he will not have…
Wright, James. "In Terror of Hospital Bills." Collected Poems. Middleton, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2007.
Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (2002), lack Elk (1863-1950) was a Native American religious leader of the Oglala Lakota band of the Sioux tribe. lack Elk, who at the age of 17 had a vision of the Lakota people rising up and freeing their lands from the white settlers, tried to find ways of reconciling his people's traditions with Christianity and the encroaching reality of white dominance. This vision was a famous one among the Sioux in which the Powers of the World told lack Elk of a "fearful road, a road of troubles and of war. On this road you shall walk, and from it you shall have the power to destroy a people's foes" (Neihardt, p. 29). Reality, unfortunately, would prove to be quite different. The whites were eventually successful in obliterating the Native Americans' way of life and subjugating the peoples.
This reality, however, was not easily accepted by…
Black Elk. Retrieved from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, December 10, 2002. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=762504935
Neihardt, John G. (Flaming Rainbow). Black Elk Speaks: Being the Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1972.
Ballantine, Betty and Ian Ballantine. Eds. The Native Americans: An Illustrated History. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing, 1993.
Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. 500 Nations: An Illustrated History of North American Indians. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.
ace and Community
The community in which I have lived for the past several years of my life is Sioux Falls, South Dakota, a relatively agricultural community that combines some major metropolitan features with a distinctive suburban flair. Traditionally, this community has not been noted for its racial diversity, as the vast majority of its residents are Caucasian. According to the United States Census Bureau's information as of 2009, 87.9% of all Sioux Falls residents were Caucasian, while the next highest population group, the population of American Indian and Alaskan Native persons, merely constitutes 8.5% of the city's residents (State and County, 2009). The percentages of populations are comparatively non-existent following the aforementioned group, as 2.9% of the city's inhabitants are Hispanic or Latino in origin, 1.2% of people reported their ethnicity as being Black, .9% of residents are Asian and .1% of the city's inhabitants are native…
State and County Quick Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2011) from U.S. Census Bureau website, http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/46/4659020.html.
Diversity Data.org. (2010). Retrieved May 15, 2011 from Harvard, School of Public Health website, diversitydata.sph.harvard.edu/Data/Profiles/Show.aspx?loc=1296
Lift SD Families and Children Out of Poverty. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.sdvoicesforchildren.org/images/pdf/NewsletterFall09.pdf
Leonardson, G.R. & Loudenburg, R. (2005, June 24). Assessment of Disproportionate Minority Contact in South Dakota. Retrieved from http://doc.sd.gov/about/grants/documents/FullDMCReportFinal.pdf
The struggle continued until 1980. The historian continues, "In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the ruling in United States v. Sioux Nation. The Sioux were therefore owed $17.5 million for the land value at the time of the taking, plus interest at 5% a year."
However, the Natives turned down the money because they would give up their claim to the land if it was paid out, and demanded return of the land, instead. They still have not regained control of the land. Initially, the Treaty of Fort Laramie seemed like a blessing for the Native Americans, and it gave them trust in the government. However, the U.S. repeatedly ignored the treaty, and the Natives began to learn not to trust the government or its intentions.
The Struggle for the Black Hills has not ended for the Natives, and it has been a long and difficult struggle, unlike the…
Giago, Tim. 2002. DLN Issues: The Black Hills. Dakota-Lakota-Nakota Human Rights Advocacy Coalition. http://www.dlncoalition.org/dln_issues/black_hills_articles.htm (accessed12 March 2009).
Johansen, Bruce Elliott, ed. The Encyclopedia of Native American Legal Tradition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Johnson, Andrew. "Wounded Knee, 1890: Historical Evidence on Trial in the Classroom." Teaching History: A Journal of Methods 28, no. 2 (2003): 59+.
Bruce Elliott Johansen, ed., the Encyclopedia of Native American Legal Tradition (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998), 31.
Then they began dancing, wheeling from one quadrant of the sacred circle to the next, drawing everyone into the circle until all were within the center (ink 2000). A stick was planted in the earth that would flower as a sign of life and hope for the Sioux tribe (ink 2000).
Black Elk never doubted that his vision depicted the harmony and life that the Great Spirit wanted for all human beings on earth, yet due to the suffering the Sioux endured by the United States policies, he felt that the vision had failed, and even blamed himself (ink 2000). Toward the end of his life, Black Elk once said,
And now when I look about me upon my people in despair, feel like crying, and I wish and wish that my vision could have been given to a man more worthy. I wonder why it came to me, a…
Black Elk. Retrieved November 27, 2006 at http://home.pacbell.net/wgraetz/wgraetz/black.html
Downey, Anne M. (1994, September 22). A broken and bloody hoop: the intertextuality of 'Black Elk Speaks' and Alice Walker's 'Meridian.' MELUS. Retrieved November 27, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hoxie, Frederick E. (1996). Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Houghton Mifflin
Company. 1996. Pp. 73,74.
Crazy Horse and the Western Hero
Crazy Horse, believed born sometime in 1838, was a respected member of the Oglala Sioux Native American tribe and is noted for his courage in battle. He was recognized among his own people as a visionary leader committed to preserving the traditions and values of the Lakota way of life and leading his people into a war against the take-over of their lands by the White Man. The location of Crazy Horses birth is not conclusively known. Some sources report his birthplace as the South Cheyenne River. Other sources point to either Rapid Creek, near present day Rapid City, South Dakota, or near ear utte outside Sturgis, South Dakota.
Crazy Horse earned his reputation among the Lakota not only by his skill and daring in battle, but also by his fierce determination to preserve his people's traditional way of life. Celebrated for his ferocity…
Marshall, Joseph M. "Crazy Horse (Tasunke Witko) 1840-77."
Pautler, N.P. "We all play the hand we're dealt, honored historian says." University Week. June 22, 1995, p. 3.
Robert Warshow. The Immediate Experience: Movies, Comics, Theatre and Other Aspects of Popular Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
White, Richard. It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
Edward Curtis/illiam Henry Jackson
Edward Sheriff Curtis was an American photographer who lived from 1868 to 1952. He was born near hitewater, isconsin to a minister father who was also a Civil ar veteran. hen Curtis was six-years-old the family moved to Minnesota where he soon constructed his own camera with the help of ilson's Photographics, a popular manual of the time (Flury & Co., Ltd.). By the age of 17, Curtis was an apprentice photographer in St. Paul, Minnesota. Two years later, the family moved once again, but this time to the Pacific Northwest. In the 1890s, Curtis started to take pictures of local Native Americans. Curtis was an avid nature lover and spent most of his time outdoors taking pictures. He was especially fond of the slopes of Mount Ranier (Flury & Co., Ltd.).
illiam Henry Jackson is one of the most famous 19th century landscape photographers of…
BYU. William Henry Jackson Collection. "About the Collection." Accessed on 8 December
Flury & Company, Ltd. "Edward S. Curtis Biography." Accessed on 8 December 2011:
The stage was set for violent onflit (Inident at Oglala).
The Amerian Indian Movement
The Amerian Indian Movement (AIM) emerged in the 1960s during the ivil rights era. It started in urban areas to protest oppression of the Indian people and to support their traditional way of life. They desribed themselves as "an indigenous, land-based spiritual movement, a all to Indian people to return to their sared traditions and, at the same time, to stand firm against the tide of...European influene and dominane" (ited in Sanhez, Stukey, and Morris, 1999).
The AIM tried to attrat attention to Indian problems by demonstrating and protesting the government's refusal to honor its treaty agreements with the Indians. The government pereived the AIM ativism as subversive, militant, and dangerous. A onfidential FBI report written in 1974 titled, "The Amerian Indian Movement: A Reord of Violene," began: "Sine 1971, the Amerian Indian Movement (AIM) has…
cited in Sanchez, Stuckey & Morris, 1999, p. 38). The government was sympathetic to the Wilson regime and unwilling to protect members of the AIM.
On the day of the incident, two FBI agents, Coler and Williams, drove onto the Reservation, looking for an Indian named Jimmy Eagle who was wanted for stealing a pair of cowboy boots. The agents were in separate cars. They had learned that Jimmy Eagle was seen driving a red pick-up truck the night before and radioed that they were following a vehicle that matched the description. They came fast into a camping area where families were staying in teepees. Witnesses who were in their tents said they heard shots. Because of all the violence they had been experiencing, the men immediately got weapons and went to see what was happening. They saw the agents exchanging fire with people
Turtle shell rattles have been used for countless centuries. Such rattles have been recovered from ancient sites in the southwest and in the Mississippian civilizations.
The turtle rattle was also a musical instrument in ceremonial use. One of its most important functions was its significance in the False Face ceremonies. One of the most distinguishing features of the Iroquois belief system is the reliance on the mask for religious and ritual purposes. These masks are often designated as False Faces. This term refers to the first False Face and the mythical origins of protective and healing spirits. They are used in introductory and agricultural rituals. The turtle rattles play a significant part in these important rituals.
In the various curing and healing rituals, the wearer of the False Face will juggle hot coals and use ash and is apparently immune to cold (see below), and he bears a turtle-shell rattle…
American Indian Education. http://www.osseo.k12.mn.us/special/stusupport/stuserv/AmInd/LilBuffalo/catalog.htm (Accessed April 30, 2005)
THE IROUK CHARACTER. http://www.icculus.org/~msphil/mythus/campaigns/aerth/irouk / (Accessed May 1, 2005) www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21005756
Frank G. Speck, and Alexander General, Midwinter Rites of the Cayuga Long House (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995), 70.
Shaping of the Colonies in 1763
There have been few eras in human history possessed with more of the expectant optimism, and the grim pragmatism, than the century following first contact with the new world of North America. With an expansive landmass, the size of which more than doubled that known to citizens of any European country at the time, brimming with natural resources and lying open for exploration and settlement, many thinkers of the age shared Benjamin Franklin's fateful estimation, made in his tract America as a Land of Opportunity, which claimed "so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully." Penned and published in 1751, Franklin's treatise on the seemingly infinite riches to be reaped by the American colonies failed to fully anticipate man's overwhelming compulsion to compete for the control of land. While America's preeminent philosopher was prescient in…
And farther west on the Great Plains were the Teton Sioux, among them the Oglalas, whose chief was Red Cloud, and among the Hunkpapas, was Sitting ull, who together with Crazy Horse of the Oglalas, would make history in 1876 at Little ig Horn (rown 10).
After years of broken promises, conflicts and massacres, came the Treaty of Fort Laramie, said to be the most important document in the history of Indian-white relations on the Great Plains (Marrin 94). The treaty basically set aside a Great Sioux Reservation on all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River up to and including the lack Hills, and barred all whites except government officials from the reservation and from a vast "unceded" territory lying between the lack Hills and ighorn Mountains (Marrin 94). Under the treaty, these lands belonged to the Lakota "forever" unless three-quarters of the tribes' men agreed to…
American History since 1865: Wounded Knee
1988. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Amerman, Stephen Kent.
2003. Let's get in and fight!" American Indian political activism in an urban public school system, 1973. The American Indian Quarterly. June 22. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web sit.
Lance and the Shield
Most Americans have some vague idea of who Sitting Bull was - some image that can be dredged up out of memory of a solemn man, sitting very upright, with all the cares of a people written across his face.
But most of us do not have any comprehensive sense of what his contributions were to his own people or to the American nation as a whole. Robert Utley helps fill in the gaps in our collective memory with The Lance and the Shield: The Life and Times of Sitting Bull. The book is an example of what is often called "new history" in that the style is quite literary. Utley has also written, at least to some extent, from the perspective of the Lakota Sioux: This is not an entirely objective portrait of Sitting Bull. However, this should not be interpreted to be a criticism…
Louvigny returned to Quebec and was considered by Canadians to have ended the first Fox War. He returned to the area in 1717 to continue the policing of the Meskwaki forces, yet made little progress in making contact or forcing the provisions of the previous treaty. In later communication with the government, Meskwaki chiefs expressed their own desire for peace. During the period between 1714 and 1727, the French were able to reopen waterways and move freely throughout the areas previously hindered by the danger of Indian encounters. However, other communications between the French and the American Indians were failing. Among these, the greatest failure was the inability of the French to include the Indian groups in the agricultural settlements they had attempted, including the one at Detroit.
Though the city groups of Indians and white men did not last, the area remained secure enough for the French and Americans…
Edmunds, R. David, and Joseph L. Peyser. The Fox Wars: The Mesquakie Challenge to New France. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.
Hagen, William Thomas. The Sac and Fox Indians. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.
Jones, George O, and Norman S. McVean. History of Wood County, Wisconsin. Publication details unknown, 1923, accessed 22 October 2006; available at http://www.scls.lib.wi.us/mcm/wood_county/ .
Kay, Jeanne. "The Fur Trade and Native American Population Growth." Ethnohistory 31, no. 4 (1984): 265-287.
" In other words, there will be land and between "firmament" there will be water. Continents and oceans were created this way. It is interesting to note that the Christian God spoke but the Sioux Creating Power sang. The Native Peoples had creative ideas.
Sioux Creation Story / Christian Creation Story: At first, the animals and people drowned in the Sioux story. Then the Creating Power pulled four animals from his pipe bag: a loon, an otter, a beaver and turtle. Soon there also came "the shapes of men and women." In the Christian story, God created heaven and then He also created: grass, fruit trees, seasons, stars, "great whales" and "every living creature" that moves, including birds. On the sixth day "God created man in his own image…male and female created he them." Then He "breathed" the breath of life into the man and humanity was born.
BibleGateway.com. (2010). Genesis 1-3 (King James Version). Retrieved Feb. 1, 2011, from http://www.biblegateway.com .
Native American Creation Stories. (1720's). Origins of Ottawa Society. Retrieved Feb. 2, 2011,
from http://chnm.gmu.edu .
Native American Creation Stories. (1650's) Sioux Creation Story. Retrieved Feb. 2,
The misappropriation of Native American imagery, iconography, cultural ideology, and fashion is nothing new. After all, a slew of professional sports teams continue to run with Indian names and logos in spite of the controversy in doing so. A few sports teams, like the Atlanta Braves Major League Baseball franchise, boast insidious "tomahawk" chants during their games.
The latest trend in Native misappropriation is not much more tasteful than a Cleveland Indians jersey in the fashion world. Several manifestations of the disturbing trend have emerged in consumer culture. One is that commercial manufacturers Forever 21 and Urban Outfitters have been selling lines of clothing and jewelry that is culturally insensitive as well as illegal. A second trend, exposed by bloggers around the Internet, is the lewd use of Native-style feathered headdresses. These recent trends are highly disturbing in that consumers by now ought to know better. Especially hipsters, a…
"Chief Pendant Necklace. WTForever21. Blog. Retrieved: http://wtforever21.com/2011/08/chief-pendant-necklace/
Kane, Rachel. "Forever 21 Sells Faux Native American Items in Their Columbus Day Sale." Huffington Post. October 10, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rachel-kane/forever-21-columbus-day_b_1000788.html#undefined
"Native American culture shouldn't be appropriated for fashion." Turn the Page. Oct 29, 2011. Retrieved online: http://taholtorf.wordpress.com/2011/10/29/native-american-culture-shouldnt-be-appropriated-for-fashion/
Native Threads. Website: http://www.nativethreads.com/
Throughout her life, Little Chief watches over her, protects her, and stands up for her. He is a good brother, and he also shows her what to look for in a good man, just as her stepfather does. They act as role models so she knows what to look for in a husband.
Another very important relationship in the book is her relationship with ainbow, her stepfather. He honors her often and never treats her like a stepchild. He is always kind to her, and because of his honor and his own respect in the community, she becomes a leading and respected member of the tribe. Other men might not have treated her as well or honored her so highly, so this is an extremely significant relationship for her throughout her life.
Waterlily is honored with a "hunka" ceremony, honoring her as a beloved child of ainbow. Since Waterlily is…
Deloria, Ella Cara. Waterlily. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988.
Black Elk utilizes his visions to create understanding of nearly all things he is later exposed to. The discussion in closing will further illuminate his utilization of vision, to ask for help for his people in a time of crisis.
To discuss the vertical model of artistic communication it is difficult to narrow the filed to just one example, as Native American literature, and to a lesser degree film have become somewhat prolific as genres. Two authors who build upon this tradition are Scott Momaday and Alexie Sherman as they are significant and prolific writers of Indian tradition. Each has written and published several works, including a variety of genres, that all attempt to translate the oral traditions of their nations into a written form that contains the expression of the oral tradition.
In Alexie Sherman's collection of short stories, the Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven he offers…
Allison, Sherry R., and Christine Begay Vining. "Native American Culture and Language." Bilingual Review (1999): 193.
Bluestein, Gene. Poplore: Folk and Pop in American Culture. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994.
Churchill, Ward. Acts of Rebellion: The Ward Churchill Reader. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Overwhelmingly, those programs are explicitly designed to be culturally responsive, but, again, not just to tribal groups. One program, for example, is likely to have tribal students, Hispanic students, and other immigrant groups. A massive data-collection effort is underway to measure successful programmatic elements and determine which efforts have produced the most dramatic results.
One of the principles guiding the current push in California to provide more and better after-school programs is as follows: "Programs should foster a positive sense of identity, build upon the cultures of the families, and offer a curriculum that values and responds to the strengths, challenges, and needs of all of the different kinds of youth in their communities," (Olsen, 2000). hile this goal doesn't specifically identify Native American tribal needs, it does hit upon the most important element of culturally responsive programming. For many Native families, placing their children in an after-school program through…
Birmingham, Jennifer, et.al. 2005. Shared Features of High-Performing After-School
Programs: A Follow UP to the TASC Evaluation. Policy Studies Associates: Washington, D.C.
California After School Network: A Road Map to the California After School Landscape.
2010. Available at: www.afterschoolnetwork.org
Education of Little Tree" directed by Richard Friedenberg and "Thunderheart" directed by Michael Apted. Specifically it will compare and contrast the main characters search for their native roots in the two films. Each of these films shows Native Americans struggling to understand their roots and their heritage. They learn in different ways, but they both come to an understanding of who they are and what their heritage means to them.
Both Little Tree and Ray Levoi are part white and part Native American. Levoi is a Sioux and Little Tree is a Cherokee. Little Tree does not know he has a Native American background, while Levoi has tried to bury his in his subconscious. Their quests for their roots are similar because they learn from the elders of their tribes (Little Tree learns from his grandparents, too), and they learn about the history and culture of their people. They also…
Nowhere on earth is a thirteen-pound, six-foot long unit of 'scandal' or 'integrity' to be found, for example. Nor apparently can someone find a benchmark unit of 'race'.
The second thread runs through the slides 1887, 1934 and 1997. Jim Crow led to better homes for whites than Blacks even after they fought WWII side by side. What this demonstrates is one clear way we very literally live within the tangible outcome of discrimination today, and the Web site goes on to expand on this in "Where Race Lives" and "To See or Not To See" very convincingly. What interests me here is specifically the assertion that "Jim Crow unites poor and wealthy whites, while denying African-Americans equality." I do not contest that the U.S. legal, i.e. white, institution actively and deliberately removed non-whites' means to confront and dismantle discrimination at law. Nor do I contest that the intent of…
Curious young astronomers who ask, "what are stars made of?" And "Why do astronauts float in space?" will find answers here. A brief survey of the universe in a question and answers format.
Reading level: Ages 4-8
Paperback: 28 pages
Tayleur, K. Excuses! Survive and Succeed by David Montimore Baxter. (Mankato, MN) Stone Arch Books: 2007
Young David Mortimore Baxter, who knows how to stay out of trouble, shares excuses for avoiding chores, bullies, homework, and vegetarian dinners. David experiences his fifteen minutes of fame and the impacts it has on his friends and family.
Reading level: 9-12
Paperback: 80 pages
Williams, M. The Velveteen Rabbit. Square Fish: 2008.
By the time the velveteen rabbit is dirty, worn out, and about to be burned, he has almost given up hope of ever finding the magic of love. The original "Toy Story."
Reading level: Ages…
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…
An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.
This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.
Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.
Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.
gaining an understanding of Mary Crow Dog, what did you find most interesting about this chapter? Be sure to explain why you found it most interesting.
This chapter provides a lot of insight into gender roles and norms in the society, beyond learning about how these norms impacted Mary Crow Dog on a personal level. The phenomenon of child marriage, and of the lack of power women had over their own destinies, is evidence from the very first sentence of Chapter 12 "Sioux and Elephants Never Forget." The first sentence is tellingly written in the passive voice, when Mary Crow Dog writes about her marriage to Crow Dog. She writes, "I became Crow Dog's wife," not "I married Crow Dog," which would be the active voice phrasing. Mary Crow Dog purposely uses the passive voice because she was not even eighteen years old when she married. And more than that,…
Crow Dog, M. (1990). Lakota Woman. New York: Harper.
Mankiller, W. (1993). Mankiller: A Chief and Her People. New York: St. Martin's.
Paintbrush & Peacepipe: The Story of George Catlin, and George Catlin and the Old Frontier
Two books, Paintbrush & Peacepipe: The Story of George Catlin, by Anne Rockwell and George Catlin and the Old Frontier, by Harold McCracken, cover almost exactly the same subject matter and differ most significantly in tone and style according to the vastly different audiences to which each is directed.
The first book, Paintbrush and Peacepipe, 86 small pages in length, with 8 brief chapters and 15 illustrations, is written for children. By comparison, the second book, George Catlin and the Old Frontier, with its 209 oversized pages might seem a vastly superior presentation of George Catlin's biography. The artbook format of McCracken's work, with its 36 color and 118 black and white illustrations, is far more authoritative and detailed in its representation of the scope of Catlin's art. Yet, Paintbrush & Peacepipe, in it's minimalist…
McCracken, Harold. George Catlin and the Old Frontier. New York: Bonanza Books, 1959.
Rockwell, Anne. Paintbrush & Peacepipe: The Story of George Catlin. New York: Atheneum, 1971.
. . The most sustained on record" whilst the American Indian: The First Victim (1972) maintained that American civilization had originated in "theft and murder" and "efforts toward . . . genocide."
In the Conquest of Paradise (1990), Sale condemned the British and American people for pursuing a genocidal program for more than four centuries (Lewy, 2004).
It was not only masssacre; epidemics were introduced by the White people too, one of which was smallpox that destroyed entire tribes at one go. Measles, influenza, syphilis, bubomic plague, typhus, and cholera were only a few of the other plagues that the "visitors" bequeathed to the inhabitants already living on this soil. Approximately 75 to 890% of the deaths of American Indians resulted from these pathogens.
There was forced relocation of Indian tribes. The removal of the Cherokee from their homeland in 1838 -- an experience that was later called the Trail…
Lewy, G. Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? History News Network, 2004. Web. http://www.hnn.us/articles/7302.html
Stannard, D. American Holocaust USA: Oxford University Press, 1993
Playwright Israel Zangwill
Is United States of America in the second decade of 21st century a melting pot -- the kind of melting pot that was envisaged by Israel Zangwill close to 104 years ago? The answer is an overwhelming no. Today more than ever there is no one idea of Americanness or American culture that is acceptable across the board. Most of this is attributable to the differences in the immigration patterns as they existed in 1908 and today. In 1908 most of the immigrants were of European background with a European heritage. Over a generation or two, these immigrants groups assimilated and integrated fully into American society as Americans. One notable exception was of course the African-American experience.
Latter half of the 20th century however saw migration from areas that were as diverse as China, Vietnam, the Indian subcontinent and the Arab world. These migrants have brought their…
( Achterberg 21) The man then proceeds to chop up the rest of his shaman's body, which he then boils in a pot for three years. After three years the body is reassembled by the spirits and covered with flesh. This means that in effect the ordinary man is now, through the process of initiation and dismemberment, resurrected as a shaman who has the capability to communicate with the spiritual world and who can acquire the knowledge to help and heal numerous illnesses. As the research by Achterberg notes, he now has the ability to, "…read inside his head…" (Achterberg 22) In other words, he now has the ability to see in a mystical sense without the use of his ordinary vision. (Achterberg 22) The initiation process also refers to the view that the shaman acts and perceives in a way that is different to ordinary human beings.
Achterberg J. Imagery in Healing: Shamanism and Modern Medicine. London:
Shambala Press. 1985.
Berlo J. And Phillips R. Native North American Art. New York: Oxfors University
Roles, Duties, and Influence of uffalo Soldiers in the United States
Despite the fact that uffalo Soldiers and their accomplishments may not be known by many, they played an integral role in the construction and expansion of the United States as it is known today. While the uffalo Soldiers as a cavalry only lasted from 1866 to 1944, their influence has had a lasting impact. Furthermore, they helped to pave the way for future African-American leaders and deserve to not only be recognized for their valuable services, but also need to be remembered as role models.
On July 28, 1866, the United States Congress passed legislation to establish two segregated cavalry units, the 9th and 10th regiments, and four segregated infantry regiments, the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st, which were to be made up of black, enlisted men.[footnoteRef:1] These six different units were later consolidated into four black regiments in…
Buffalo Soldiers Research Museum. "Who Were the Buffalo Soldiers?" Accessed June 11, 2013. http://www.buffalosoldiersresearchmuseum.org/who.htm
Davis, Stanford L. "Buffalo Soldiers & Indian Wars." Accessed June 11, 2013.
Glasrud, Bruce A. "Buffalo Soldiers." Oklahoma Historical Society. Accessed June 11, 2013. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/b/bu005.html.
Professional Communication: Cultural Sensitivity Among Native Americans
In nursing school, we are normally taught that we should respect the dignity and rights of all clients. As the "world becomes reduced" and societies and individuals become more mobile, we are progressively able to network with people that are from other cultures. Cultural respect and competence for others becomes particularly significant for us as nurses and patient supporters. Applying the principles and theories of communication is important for sufficient patient care. A lot of various communication methods are executed and have diverse focuses. Small groups use mechanisms such as objectives, standards, cohesiveness, behaviors, and therapeutic issues. Duty, process and midrange groups are separate categories. Orientation, tension, cohesion, working and dissolution are stages groups go through. Successful personal and professional communication profits the patients and other health professionals; however, the lack of applicable communication can lead to poor patient results and a hostile…
Barker, A.M. (2009). Advanced practice nursing -- Essential knowledge for the profession. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Doane, G. (2004). Exploring the heart of nursing Ethical Pratices. Nursing Ethics, 11(3), 241-251.
Makaroff, K.S. (210). Do We speak of Ethics. Nursing Ethics and, 17(5), 566-576.
Ryan, M. (2000). Learning to Care for Clients In Their World not Mine. Journal of Nursing Education, 3(9), 25-79.
This instructor has learned to proactively educate his Navajo students about the need to reveal certain information they normally keep among themselves, such as burial grounds, because federal law now protects them from violation -- but only if their location is known. What this suggests to me is that I may simply have to accept that some cultural distinctions may be important to my Native American students and that it may not be part of their culture to explain it to me. If an issue is important then it may be up to me to explain why something is important in the school's culture so the child can be more successful, but without suggesting that the school culture is better or superior.
Finally, I think it will be important to incorporate literature from the cultures of minority students, recognizing that it isn't enough that the story be "Hispanic." A story…
Allison, Sherry R., and Vining, Christine Begay. 1999. "Native American Culture and Language." Bilingual Review, p. 193.
Amselle, Jorge. 1997. "Adios, Bilingual Ed." Policy Review Vol. 86, pp. 52+.
Araoe, Lisa, and Nelson, J. Ron. 2000. "A Comparative Analysis of Teachers', Caucasian Parents' and Hispanic Parents' Views of Problematic School Survival Behaviors." Education & Treatment of Children 23:3.
Bardwell, Tracey; McMahon, Rebecca, and Saunders, DeLaura. 1996. "Increasing Young Children's Cultural Awareness with American Indian Literature." Childhood Education 73:2, pp. 105+.
Black Elk's Journal
The offering of the pipe
Black Elk believes himself as a symbol of his tribal values. According to him, he embodies the spiritual forces which have been bestowed upon him by the superiors of his tribe. In the first chapter, he has mentioned how the sacred pipe came to his tribe and the values borne by it.
"Behold!! She said. "ith this you shall multiple and be a good nation. Nothing but good shall come from it. Only the hands of the good shall take care of it and the bad shall not even see it." Then, she sang and went out of the tepee; and as the people watched here going. (Niehardt 3)"
In most of the religions of the world, there is always a character who is message bearer. It is amazing to see this similarity in the tribal history of Black Elk as well.…
Niehardt, John, G. Black Elk Speaks, The Life History of the Holy Man of Ogalala Sioux. 1932. Print.
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…
Boyd, J.P. (2000). Indian Wars. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.
Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women
However, despite the personal successes, he felt personally responsible for the loss and would use the events from ull Run to questions his effectiveness as a military officer.
Next, Sherman would serve under Robert Anderson. Where, he would eventually succeed him and take command of all Union forces in Kentucky. This was important, because Kentucky was considered to be a neutral state in the war, where the Union army was based and there were pockets of Confederate units as well. This would create an atmosphere, where Sherman would be unable to conduct a total war, to defeat the various Confederate elements. At which point, he would complain to Washington about the constant shortages that he would face in achieving this objective, with his army lacking the men necessary to fight a successful campaign to low food provisions / ammunition. This would cause Sherman to be relieved of command and placed…
General Sherman's March to the Sea. Son of the South, 2008 Available from Son of the South http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/shermans-march-to-the-sea.htm . Accessed 14 July, 2010.
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Sherman, William . After the War. Son of the South, 2008. Available from Son of the South http://www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/memoirs/general-sherman-after-war.htm Accessed 14, July 2010.
Sherman, William . The Battle of Bull Run to Puducah 1861 -- 1862. Son of the South, 2008. Available from Son of the South http://www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/memoirs/general-sherman-battle-bull-run.htm Accessed 14, July 2010.
Ancient ome openly accepted male-to-female transsexuals, allowing them to assume female identities without negative social repercussions, obviously long before the science existed for them to have gender-reassignment surgery (eitz, 1998). Modern Indian society has Hijiras, transsexuals that, while not always treated with respect, are accorded their own gender identity and not relegated to male or female (eitz, 1998). The Dine/Navajos recognized three sexes: male, female, and Nadles. The Nadles could be intersexed people or transsexual people of either gender (eitz, 1998). The Sioux referred to transsexuals as Winkte, and allowed them to completely assume their preferred gender. "Physical females lived as male warriors, and had wives, while physical males lived their lives completely as women. In Sioux society no special magic was associated with this, it was just considered a way of correcting a mistake of nature" (eitz, 1998). What these examples make clear is that, in a different society,…
NNDB. (2010). David Reimer. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from NNDB
Peirce, K. (1999). Boys Don't Cry. Fox Searchlight Films.
Reitz, J.D. (1998). What is transsexuality? Retrieved February 23, 2010 from Transsexuality.org Website: http://www.transsexual.org/What.html
Q1. What is your chosen topic?
I will give a profile of the famous American tourist attraction of Mount Rushmore, which depicts the faces of a number of eminent presidents embedded in its rock.
Q2. What personal angle can you present on this topic?
The question of how we memorialize presidents has been placed under scrutiny. Mt. Rushmore in particular has courted controversy because it was constructed on what was Indian land and specifically to increase tourism by car to South Dakota.
According to The Economist, “A treaty in 1868 made the hills, which contain sites sacred to many Indian tribes, part of the Great Sioux Reservation. Whites simply ignored the treaty and poured in after General George Custer sent reports of the presence of gold by the panful in 1874” (“Two Sides to Every Story”). The existence of the monument to white presidents-- George Washington, Thomas Jefferson,…
Red Power Movement
How and why did the Red Power movement frame its demands in terms of international relations rather than in terms of civil rights?
The Red Power movement was one of the many civil rights movements that sprung out of the collective movements that originated in the United States throughout the 1950s through the 1970s. The American Indian Movement (AIM), also coined as the "Red Power" movement by author Vine Deloria Jr., was a movement that has several distinctions that can be made in regard to other movements of the time. One of the factors that separated this group from other groups that were demanding civil rights is that they were indignant to the land. Therefore, there claim to rights took more of an universal or comprehensive perspective since they shared similar experiences with indignant peoples from all over the world. This analysis will provide a brief overview…
The provincial capital of Enga is Wabag. The two other main centers of population are Wapenamanda and Laiagam. Porgera, at the western edge of the province, is home to a gold mine operated by Barrick Gold.
Enga is unique among the provinces in Papua New Guinea in that it has only one major linguistic and ethnic group: Enga speakers. Although dialects of the Enga language vary greatly from Laiagam in the west to Wapenamanda in the east,
Engans' shared ethnic identity overshadows the existence of other ethnic groups in the province, such as Ipili speakers
(around Porgera) and Nete speakers.
Porgera, the giant gold and copper mine in the far west, has brought about rapid change for some, but most people still grow cash crops -- coffee, pyrethrum and cool-weather
European vegetables -- in their steep mountain gardens.
Porgera is all but spent, but other nearby mineral finds mean that…
Feil, D.K. (1978, May). Women and men in the Enga te. American Ethnologist, 5: 2: 263-279.
Meggitt, M.J. (1974). "Pigs are our hearts!" The te exchange cycle among the Mae Enga of New Guinea. Oceania, 44.3.
Waddell, Eric. (1975). How the Enga cope with frost: Responses to climatic perturbations in the central highlands of New Guinea. Human Ecology. 3.4:249-273
Baki, Gari. Speech by Mr. Gari Baki, OBE, O.St.J, DPS, Commisioner of Police. First Constable Martha Taian. PNG National Woman's Day. Hideaway Hotel, National Capital District. 23 March 2007.