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The Skeleton in Armor
The poem The Skeleton in Armor by Henry Wordsworth is a master piece of its own kind and quite characteristic of Wordsworth's poems. It is a philosophical statement or tale that tries to retain the history of the Americas. This runs from the exploration trips that brought forth the fruits of discovery of America (as insinuated in "Newfoundland" line and Norway) to the stay in the America. There is also a portrayal of the conquest and dominance of the land through marriage and building statues that symbolize the victory and conquest by the warrior.
The poem is purely based in factual events as noted above, the rule of the ancient "Viking" and the struggle for freedom from this Viking, to the journey of the hero with the aim of finding a land that is free from the oppression of the Viking or the then…
Poetry Foundation, (2011). The Skeleton in Armor By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
Retrieved March 23, 2012 from http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/173914
Cetacean Skeletons at Local Museums
Right Whale Skeleton Exhibit, Great Mammal Room, Harvard Museum of Natural History
After visiting the Harvard Museum of Natural History in Cambridge, I was left in awe by the amazing displays featuring fully intact whale skeletons. Entering the museum's newly renovated Great Mammal Hall, I was immediately struck by the sheer size of the three whale skeletons hanging from the ceiling. The three species of whale found here include the Sperm whale, the Fin whale, and the Right whale; and each skeletal display offered a unique glimpse into the biological construction of nature's largest mammalian creatures. Personally, I found myself becoming increasingly fascinated with the amazing Right whale skeleton, because this was my first up-close encounter with this animal's distinctive baleen filter-feeding system. Baleen whales are one of two suborders of the Cetacean order (which consists of whales, dolphins and porpoises), with the other suborder…
Dancing Skeletons - Life and Death in West Africa
This paper reviews the book Dancing Skeletons - Life and Death in West Africa by Katherine A Dettwyler. It charts events in the book and aspects of the work of this physical anthropologist in the field of child nutrition in Mali during 1989 as an assistant professor of nutritional anthropology.
Discussion questions on Dancing Skeletons - Life and Death in West Africa
What were the author's research questions?
During 1989, the author wanted to follow up on children from her research in 1981-1983 to compare their growth and nutritional status between studies. Her questions included: Did malnourished children catch up in growth and did this happen in middle or late childhood?; Were severely malnourished children permanently affected?; Had any children from the first study died?; Did the best nourished children in her first study continue to be taller and heavier and…
Dettwyler, Katherine A. Dancing Skeletons - Life and Death in West Africa. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland, 1994.
Dead Skeleton (Calavera) Art
Anthropology is the study of objects in terms of their positioning and existence. It is an ethnographic approach for tracing things or people. Through the concept of 'follow the thing', it is possible to study varying aspects of an art object through different contexts. This helps in the finding out of initial perceptions about an object through ethnographic study. It also helps in the study of world systems through the originality and chain of a commodity. Through the commodity chain, there comes specific ethnographic sensibility for multi-sited research. The concept of follow the thing technique is used within the framework of political economy in the colonialism and capitalism contexts (Brandes 85).
The study of things can also take social contextual where tracing of the object follows its circulation (Brandes 85). In the efforts to follow the thing, ethnographic study can also take multi-faceted research methods, which…
Brandes, Stanley. Skulls to the Living, Bread to the Dead: The Day of the Dead in Mexico and Beyond. Maden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. (2007): 85.
Brandes, Stanley. "Iconography in Mexico's Day of the Dead: Origins and Meaning." Ethnohistory 45.2 (Spring 1998): 181 -- 218.
Carpenter, Gay, and Douglas E. Blandy. Arts and Cultural Programming: A Leisure Perspective. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. (2008): 80-229. Print.
Carmichael, E., and C. Sayer. The Skeleton at the Feast: The Day of the Dead in Mexico. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press (1991): 55.
frog is one of the best example of how its skeleton and muscles have adapted to provide the best response to the natures challenges. Indeed, we will notice in the paragraphs below that each muscle and each bone has a well-determined function in providing for an excellent jumper and swimmer. In general, the skeleton is correlated with the moving function. ecause of the frog's specific environment and the aquatic component it is dealing with, the skeleton of a frog refers to both swimming and leaping as kinetic modalities. The sekeleton is, as such, adapted to perform these tasks.
First of all, the tibia and fibula have joined to form the tibiofibula and it has specialized in providing an excellent leaping and jumping basis. Man has two lower leg bones, but it seems natural that for the frog, these two have joined together in order to provide for the best solution…
1. Mallett, Eric S, Yamaguchi, Gary T, Birch, James M, Nishikawa, Kiisa C; Feeding motor patterns in anurans: Insights from biomechanical modeling. American Zoologist, Dec 2001. On the Internet at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3746/is_200112/ai_n9010302
2. Kargo, W. Nelson, F. Rome, L. Jumping in frogs: assessing the design of the skeletal system by anatomically realistic modeling and forward dynamic simulation. The Journal of Experimental Biology 205, 1683-1702 (2002)
© 2002 The Company of Biologists Limited. On the Internet at http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/205/12/1683
3. Bullfrog Skeleton Reconstruction. On the Internet at http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/bullfrog_skeletal_reconstruction.htm
Additional skeletal clues referring to development are that female skeletons tend to mature faster than males, with a hardening of the cartilage occurring at a younger age, by age 18 for females and age 21 for males. This may be due to the reproductive advantage conferred on the species if a female body is strong enough to support a child in utero at an earlier age (Liu, Sartor and Nader).
The age of the skeleton also provides clues relating to development. While younger children and infants may be hard to tell apart in gender, the elderly skeleton may be show osteoporosis in the female skeleton as compared to age-matched males, as the lack of estrogen contributes to decreasing bone density with age. The male skeleton, due to the presence of testosterone, may simply not degenerate as fast in terms of osteoporosis as a female's would (Kim, Sung and Song).
Baum, NH and CA. Crespi. "Testosterone replacement in elderly men." Geriatrics 62.9 (2007): 15-18.
Kim, T, et al. "Sex Difference between Body Composition and Weight-Bearing Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adult Twins: Healthy Twin Study." Calcified Tissue International 88.6 (2011): 495-502.
Liu, D, et al. "Skeletal muscle gene expression in response to resistance exercise: sex specific regulation." BMC Genomics (2011): PMCID: PMC3091777 .
Silva, RF, et al. "Human identification based on cranial computed tomography scan: a case report." Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology (2011): 257-261.
On average, male skeletons are larger than female skeletons, but just as some women are larger than some males, this distinction does not hold firm in all instances. Female pelvic regions tend to be wider than male pelvic regions, an evolutionary feature that has made childbirth easier. Female bones tend to be thinner and less dense than male bones, and thus the female skeleton tends to be lighter than male skeletons.
The skull is one of the most notable sites of difference between male and female skeletons. The teeth of males tend to be larger, and above their eye sockets men tend to have a more visible brow ridge while women often have none. The male skull tends to have a squarer (as opposed to a pointed) chin and is more angular in its demarcations than the female skull. Women's nose openings are more apt to be pointed, rather than…
The cell cycle & mitosis tutorial. (1997). The Biology Project. University of Arizona. Updated 2004. Retrieved February 10, 2010 at http://www.biology.arizona.edu/Cell_bio/tutorials/cell_cycle/cells3.html
Cell division via mitosis. (2010). Ivy Rose UK. Retrieved February 10, 2010 at http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/HumanBody/Cells/Cell-Division_Mitosis.php
Richards, a. (2002). Male and female skeletons. Retrieved February 10, 2010 at http://transwoman.tripod.com/skeleton.htm
Certainly it is important to honor the cultural heritage of the past; however there is a limit to the amount of restitution that needs to be repaid to cultures. In the article "Antiquities, the orld is your Homeland," author Edward Rothstein (2008) explains that throughout the world countries are demanding a return of their ancient artifacts to the homeland, the land of their origin. The problem with this is that many of the ancient cultures do not exist anymore. For example, Greece has demanded a return of anything Greek which has left the country, but modern Greece is as far removed from Ancient Greece as Great Britain is removed from the time of the Norman Conquest. It is a wholly new civilization with little resemblance to the ancient state. Yet, the country demands that since it has the same name and occupies some of the same land, they…
Rothstein, E. (2008, May 27). Antiquities, the world is your homeland. The New York Times.
Trefil, J. & Hazen, R.M. (2011). The Sciences: an Integrated Approach. John Wiley & Sons:
Night the Crystals Broke
Write where you got inspiration from?
The inspiration from this poem comes from my grandmother and her family, who lived through the pogroms and just before the Nazis took over Hungary. The title refers to the Kristallnacht, the event in which the Nazis burned synagogues and their religious items, and broke the windows. They also broke the windows of the local businesses. This poem also refers to the journey that was scary and arduous, over the Atlantic in the ship to Ellis Island. The statue at the end of the poem is the Statue of Liberty, which welcomed the "poor" and "hungry" masses, like my grandmother's people.
(2) Which author and poem did you refer to when writing this poem?
There is no one author or poem I referred to here. This is a completely original work. However, it is written in the form of a…
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 "bans discrimination, including sex-based discrimination, by trade unions, schools, or employers that are involved in interstate commerce or that do business with the federal government" the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in a broad array of private conduct including public accommodations, governmental services and education. One section of the Act, referred to as Title VII, prohibits employment discrimination based on race, sex, color, religion and national origin. The Act prohibits discrimination against the aforementioned protected classes in the areas of recruitment, hiring, wages, assignment, promotions, benefits, discipline, discharge, layoffs and almost every aspect of employment (Loevy 1997).
However, Title VII provides than an employer must reasonably accommodate an employee's religious beliefs and practices unless doing so would cause undue hardship on the business. As an employee were are obligated to try to resolve any conflict if possible. We would…
Religious Accommodation in the Workplace. (2012). Anti-Defamation League -- Religious Freedom Resources. Retrieved from: http://www.adl.org/religious_freedom / resource_kit/religion_workplace.asp
Loevy, R., et.al. eds., (1997). The Civil Rights Act of 1964: The Passage of the Law That
Ended Racial Segregation. State University Press of New York.
The giant skeleton flew over my head, and I was convinced it was going eat me. I cowered behind my mother's leg as walked into the room. "What's that?" my mother teased. "The giant pterodactyl is coming to get you!" I giggled, recognizing the tone of voice as her playful one. Emerging from the safe cocoon of my mother's leg, I beheld above me the most magnificent site I had seen. Its bony wings soared, its legs dangled, and it beckoned my mind to go with it on a journey to the past. I envisioned the giant flying creature searching for prey in the desolate landscape of the Triassic. All that book reading in school paid off; this was the real deal! From that moment forward, I never complained when my parents said we were going to a museum. Museums were playgrounds for me, opening my world into a…
econstruction of full ach can be challenging for clinical procedures. As increasing number of patients live longer, retaining their teeth become challenging. Typically, clinicians will be called upon to deliver dental. Success esthetic and functional dentistry depend on technician, and clinicians understanding of tooth morphology. This study discusses the proper bite registration for fixed and removable prosthesis. The study discusses important point in ensuring that an accurate fabrication of relationships is obtained to deliver the best results. Fixed prosthodontics is a specialized branch dentistry designed to replace missing teeth using cast prosthesis to replace lost teeth. On the other hand, removable prosthodontics involves replacing missing teeth using a removable prosthesis. The paper identifies different materials necessary for both fixed and removable prosthesis. The modeling wax and amite are part of materials used bite registration to achieve accurate results.
Bite registration is the strategy of capturing accurate lower…
Elsevier Science (2003). Chapter 50, Fixed prosthodontics, USA Elsevier Science.
Goldstein, R.E. (2008). A Precise Bite Registration Technique, AEGIS Communications.
Joshi, N.1., Shetty S.N., Prasad, K.D. (2013). Comparative study to evaluate the accuracy of polyether occlusal bite registration material and occlusal registration wax as a guide for occlusal reduction during tooth preparation. Indian J. Dent Res.24(6):730-5.
Tousignant, G. (2010). Bite Registration -Not as simple as you think. Oral Health Group.
Part 2: Answer the following questions as they relate to the nine phyla in the assignment table. (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, and Chordata.)
1. Which phyla lack organs? What type of symmetry do they have?
Porifera and Cnidaria lack organs. Porifera lack any symmetry hence these are asymmetrical while Cnidaria have radial Symmetry.
2. List all of the phyla that show cephalization.
The phyla that show cephalization are Mollusca, Annelida, Chordata, Platyhelminthes and nematoda.
3. Do all organisms on the table have 3 germ layers (endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm)? If not, which phyla have fewer than three germ layers?
No, not all these organisms have 3 germ layers. Porifera has no germ layer and Cnidaria has two of them.
4. One phylum on the table has more species than all the others. State the name of this phylum, and provide several different…
Jeanson, N.T., (2010), "New Frontiers in Animal Classification," Retrieved from:
Zhang, (2011). "Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness." Zootaxa, 3148: 7 -- 12.
© 20010-2011 Career Education Corporation University Group
I do not even know where most of my ancestors are buried. I do not even know where most of them lived, or what land they considered to be at the heart of their lives. I do not know how most of them conceived of the soul or of what happened when they buried their dead. And yet I would be troubled by knowing that researchers could dig up their bones. I would not necessarily forbid it (if I had the power), but I would be troubled. And I think that I would be close to infuriated if researchers claimed that they were pursuing such disinterring for my benefit. So must many native peoples feel.
How Does One Define Affiliation?
Key to the legal strength of NAGPA as well as the broader implications that is has for the practice of the different sub-disciplines of anthropology, including archaeology, is the concept…
American Association of Physical Anthropologists. (2000). Statement by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists on the Secretary of the Interior's Letter of 21 September 2000 Regarding Cultural Affiliation of Kennewick Man. http://www.physanth.org .
Ousley, S., Billeck, W. & Hollinger, R. (2005). Federal Repatriation Legislation and the Role of Physical Anthropology in Repatriation. Yearbook of physical anthropology 48: 2-32.
Ubelaker, D. & Grant, L. (1989). Human Skeletal Remains: Preservation or Reburial? Yearbook of physical anthropology 32: 249-287.
Weaver, J. (2002, Fall). Review essay. Project Muse.
Rose for Emily
In William Faulkner's short story "A Rose for Emily," the noted author doesn't give very strong evidence that Emily Grierson actually killed Homer Barron, and worse yet, that she slept with his corpse for years. Faulkner teases the reader into believing that Emily did indeed commit these horrific acts. In the process of teasing the reader, Faulkner succeeds in producing what amounts to a satire of sensationalized, hackneyed reporting, Thesis: Despite Faulkner's attention to detail in portraying Emily as possibly the murderer, a sharp attorney could counter the circumstantial evidence in a court of law and Emily would be exonerated.
Why does Emily probably kill Homer?
One of the strengths of this story is how brilliantly Faulkner drops hints -- without having to provide any proof -- that Emily either was likely or not likely the perpetrator of this heinous crime. For example a hint that she…
And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. He was the Messiah. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, just as the divine prophets had spoken of these and countless other wondrous things about him. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not died out (18.63-64)
This paragraph has also been very controversial, because many believe it would not be likely that Josephus would have written that Jesus "appeared to them on the third day, living again." Some scholars say that Josephus had given up all his Jewish leanings by this time, but others say that this was not the true…
Albright, William and C.S. Mann. The Anchor Bible. Matthew. New York: Doubleday, 1971
Benjamin, Jules R. A Student's Guide to History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 2004
Broshi, Magen. The Credibility of Josephus. Journal of Jewish Studies: Essays in Honor of Yigael Yadin 1982 from Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. http://www.centuryone.com/josephus.html Accessed 10 April, 2010
Carr, Edward Hallett. What Is History? Random House. New York. 1961.
Bone is very fragile and rock slides, cave-ins etc. could cause damage to the bones after the demise of the skeleton's owner. Trinkaus maintains that among the examples of supposed violence, only a few exceptional cases stand up to scrutiny. This would include the Shanidar 3 Iraq rib bone that undoubtedly betrays injury from a thrown spear. Trnkaus further maintains that this is the only absolutely conclusive evidence found of a violent encounter between modern man and his Neanderthal cousins (ibid. 143).
Although less definitive, Shanidar 1 shows injuries that might have been due to a violent encounter, although and accident can not be ruled out, although it is not clear whether the atrophied right arm was amputated or was due to a blow to the left side of the skull that caused paralysis to that right arm. Other Shanidar cave skeletons had only minor injuries, none of which proves…
Trinkaus, Erik. "Hard Times Among the Neanderthals." Ghosttn.com. 15 Apr 2010.
Spanish holiday Dia de los Muertos. Specifically it will discuss countries that celebrate the holiday, how it is celebrated, traditions, and any other pertinent information. Dia de los Muertos, or Day of the Dead, is an ancient Aztec traditional celebration that has taken place for thousands of years. They were already celebrating the holiday when the Spanish Conquistadors conquered the country. The Spanish did not approve of the holiday and tried to stop it, but it continues even today throughout Mexico, some other areas in Central America, and much of the United States. The Spanish did end up moving the holiday. Initially, Mexicans celebrated it in August, and it lasted an entire month. The Spanish moved it to October 31 to coincide with Catholic holidays on November 1 and 2. It is a holiday to celebrate those friends and family who have passed away, a kind of celebration of the…
Editors. Los Dias de los Muertos. Holidays.net. 2009. 29 Sept. 2009.
Hernandez, Aracely. Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead). Northern Illinois University. 2002. 29 Sept. 2009.
Often, bones have different shapes and/or sizes depending on whether they belonged to a male or female individual, and age also plays an important factor in the way bones look (Maples, 142). hereas doctors usually specialize in a certain branch of medicine, as in pediatrics or gerontology, forensic anthropologists must retain a broad range of knowledge because they might be called in to identify bones or other remains from any individual of any age or pathology. If they only knew a small portion of the type of details that could aid them in such identification, that particular forensic anthropologist's usefulness would be severely limited. Throughout his book, Dr. Maples demonstrates quite clearly how vital it is that observation, research, and learning continue throughout one's career as a forensic anthropologist, especially in the area of biology. As medical and biological knowledge grows, the forensic anthropologist must stay up-to-date or run the…
Maples, William R. Dead Men Do Tell Tales. New York: Random House: 1994.
Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).
Gauguin settled for a while in ouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.
Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.
Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)
In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…
Bailey, Martin. (2008). Dating the raindrops: Martin Bailey reviews the final volumes in the catalogues of the two most important collections of Van Gogh's drawings. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Martin. (2005) "Van Gogh the fakes debate. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-127058183.html . Bell, Judith. (1998). Vincent treasure trove; the van Gogh Museum's van Goghs. Vincent van Gogh's works from the original collection of his brother Theo. World and I. News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Any brain injury is serious and Julie should not have continued the climb. Seeking immediate medical attention as soon as the injury occurred may have saved Julie's life. The severe headache and ringing in her ears is another sign that the bump on the head was not so light, but still consistent with a Grade 1 concussion. Although Julie did not lose consciousness, she still had the key signs of a concussion.
The treatment of a concussion includes rest and inactivity. Aspirin should be avoided, as it may contribute to continued internal bleeding. Continuing the hike may have caused Julie's blood pressure to remain high, contributing to the inability of her body to form clots at the injury points. The onset of severe headache was a sign that things had become critical. Julie's life may have been saved had the severity of the injury been recognized from the beginning and…
The theme of the Day of the Dead is impassioned living. The Day of the Dead is a time during which life is celebrated. Ceremonies know no boundaries between rich and poor; in fact, the Day of the Dead creates a flat social structure in the community if just for the two days. Persons in power such as the mayor of the town march alongside farmers. People and families who are not otherwise friends embrace and laugh together.
The role of the Day of the Dead in a modern expatriate community in California is complex. First, the ceremony is a palpable bond between the immigrant community and the country of origin. The annual celebration is one of the most meaningful ways this group of Mexican immigrants remains connected to its geographic and cultural ancestry. Second, the ceremony bonds together what might otherwise be a disparate group of immigrants. Many of…
Dia de los Muertos." AZCentral. Retrieved Nov 30, 2008 at http://www.azcentral.com/ent/dead/
Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead)." Northern Notes. Retrieved Nov 30, 2008 at http://www3.niu.edu/newsplace/nndia.html
Herz, May. Day of theDead. Inside Mexico. Retrieved Nov 30, 2008 at http://www.inside-mexico.com/featuredead.htm
Father Figures Arabian Asian Literature
Father Figures: Arabic / Asian Literature
Father figures all across the world embody a phenomenon which encompasses all attributes of a role model. They are meant to stand for discipline, caution, protection, guidance, and of course, love. The perfect amalgamation of all these can be found in the patriarch of any household, or any culture, for that matter. As such, the perfect patriarchal example is nothing short of a literary archetype. From Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" to Puzo's "The Godfather" we can find numerous examples of father figures establishing the age-old belief in fatherly conduct.
It is true, that the general conception of father figures is more or less the same in all areas of literature. However, one must pay heed to the fact that just like miscellaneous traditions; the perception towards father figures varies from culture to culture. Needless to say, the significance of…
Kanafani, Ghassan. "A Hand in the Grave." Roberta Rubenstein, Charles R. Larson. A World of Fiction. 2002. 427.
Mukherjee, Bharati. "A Father." Robert Rubenstein, Charles R. Larson. A World of Fiction. 2002. 660.
Ramanujan, A.K. "Self-Portrait."
film Lone Star discussing various aspects of the movie.
Lone Star" is John Sayles' best movie yet, a richly textured, multi-racial, multi-generational examination of a Texas town. The writer/director Sayles brilliantly combines drama, romance, mystery, and social observation into a one third love story with a twisted one-third-murder mystery. Exploring the lives of half a dozen people in a Texas border town (i.e. border) Sayles ties them all together in his script with discovery of a skeleton in the desert that brings the skeleton out if every closet in the sleepy little berg. Two off-duty sergeants from an Army post near the town of Frontera find skeleton remains and a rusty Sheriff's badge. The current sheriff of Frontera Sam Deeds, son of late legendary lawman uddy Deeds, begins an investigation. Sam quickly learns that the remains are those of the corrupt sheriff Charley Wade, his father reputed to have run…
Lone Star" Director: John Sayles, Producer: R. Paul Miller, Maggie Renzi, Screenwriter: John Sayles, Year of Release: 1996
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…
Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.
Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.
Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .
Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
" (Sukumaran, 2004) Mutation is what results in the difference and may be utilized as a measure of the time that has elapsed since separation of the species from the common ancestor during evolution. This is a method of "inferring the divergence of time of clades from a common ancestor by means of gene/protein sequencing" and has been termed 'molecular dating'. The process is one in which there is a calibration of time in comparison to the Phanerozoic era fossil data and then expoliation is conducted for providing the estimation time for divergence of phyla. (Sukumaran, 2004; paraphrased) Indeed, if life did evolve as posited in the work of Charles Darwin then "the abrupt appearance of diversified life at the beginning of the Cambrian period was not explainable." (Sukumaran, 2004) However, Sukumaran explains that gradualism is not a central tenet to the idea that there has been an evolution of…
Fenchel, Tom (2002) the Origin and Early Evolution of Life. Oxford University Press 2002.
Wray et al., Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergence among metazoan phyla, Science, Vol. 274, pp. 568-573, 1996
Gon, S.M. III (2005) Trilobites of Chengjiang, China. 27 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.trilobites.info/Chengjiang.htm
Gon, S.M. III (2007) Trilobites of the Emu Bay Shale, Australia 7 July 2007. Online available at http://www.trilobites.info/Emu.htm .
According to Montgomery (2003), "Higher floors of buildings tended to rent at a substantial discount, due to the need to climb several flights of stairs to reach one's workplace or residence. Otis's invention of the safety elevator at mid-century heralded the end of this constraint on vertical real estate development" (495). Likewise, Masden notes that the increasingly confident use of the relatively new ' elevators' also fueled demand for more steel frame structures; such new steel-framed buildings were known during this early period as "elevator buildings" instead of skyscrapers, a term that was first coined in 1883 (Marsden 78).
The underlying theory behind steel frame construction during its early use, though, fueled some well-intentioned but misguided efforts that adversely influenced future applications, selection of building materials, site selection and other salient factors involved in construction. In this regard, Mumford (1959) reports that, "Unfortunately, the skyscraper was an almost automatic response…
Code of Standard Practice. 2006. American Iron and Steel Institute: Committee on Framing Standards. Steel Framing Alliance Practice Guide CF06-1.
Fanjoy, Rob. 2006. "As an alternative to lumber, cold-formed steel framing has advantages and disadvantages. Here's what you need to know." Steel Framing Solutions. 18 Nov. 2006 http://forpros.lowes.com/articles.cfm?aid=103.
Marsden, Donald. 2005, January 1. "How Chicago Got All High and Mighty." The Daily Mail 78.
Montgomery, M.R. 2003. "Keeping the Tenants Down: Height Restrictions and Manhattan's Tenement House System, 1885-1930." The Cato Journal 22(3):495.
Since there are so many diverse insects and spiders on the planet, and scientist know they have not all been discovered, many people believe there are thousands that are not yet classified, and the entire class holds many millions of animals. Estimates place arthropods at about 80% of all known animals on Earth (Tatner). Within these four classes, the animals are broken down even further into numerous sub-classes.
Probably the most interesting thing about arthropoda is how diverse they are. They can live on land, underneath the ocean, and it the hottest deserts, and some even survive in the subzero temperatures of Antarctica. Some live in trees, some live on the ground, and some live underground. Their hard outer shell helps them survive, but so do their sensory organs, like their eyes and sense of smell. Some of them, like bees and flies, do not seem to be the same…
Author not Available. "Phylum Arthropoda." Sidwell Friends School. 2000. 15 Oct. 2004. http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Animalia/Arthropoda/
Myers, Phil. "Arthropoda." Animal Diversity Web. 2004. 15 Oct. 2004. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Arthropoda.html
Ramel, G. "The Phylum Arthropoda." Earthlife.net. 10 Oct. 2004. 15 Oct. 2004. http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/arthropoda.html
Tatner, Dr. Paul. "Arthropoda Introduction." 2004. 15 Oct. 2004. http://www-biol.paisley.ac.uk/courses/Tatner/biomedia/units/arth1.htm
The second structural element used by Gaudi as a source of inspiration was the skeleton, the structure on which the entire construction relied. It is a fact that Gaudi studied both shells and animals' skeletons before proceeding to build his own structure for the construction. The Casa Milla, for example, shows previous studies of shells and a significant resemblance with them.
Perhaps one of the best examples of how Gaudi used biological elements around him as sources of inspiration comes from one his own stories, the way he created the donkey, from the "Flight into Egypt" ensemble, "carved in stone at the entrance of the big portal." Everything, including Joseph and Mary, had been inspired from people that Gaudi had met in the streets of arcelona. The donkey itself was a problem, so that the architect made an announcement seeking a donkey from which a plaster cast could be made…
1. Ragon, Michel. Histoire de l'architecture et de l'urbanisme modernes. Volume I - Ideologies et pionniers 1800-1910. Casterman. 1986
2. Bonells, Jordi. Catalogne. Barcelone. Points Planete Seuil. 1992
3. Halker Maria Anna and Fischer Thomas. Spagna. Gremese Editore. 1994
4. Permanyer, Luis. Gaudi of Barcelona. Rizzoli International Publications Inc. 1996
Homo Erectus: ho was the earliest modern ancestor of today's homo sapiens?
Homo Erectus was a species of mammal that was, in form and function, a modern foreshadower of today's human being. Homo Erectus lived from about 1,900,000 years to about 400,000 years ago. "The Latin word Homo means human being. The term erectus means upright and refers to the creature's upright posture. Homo erectus differed from modern human beings in having a large, projecting face; a low, sloping forehead; and a large brow ridge, a raised strip of bone across the lower forehead. Homo erectus also possessed a large jaw that lacked a chin." (Mann, 2005) The brain of Homo erectus was smaller than the brain of modern human beings, even though this species was able to manipulate simple tools, contain fire, walk in migrating tribes over long distances, and engage in other, modern humanlike behaviors.
Homo erectus is…
"Homo Erectus." (2005) Geocites Palaeoanthropology web site. Herectus. Retrieved 16 Mary 2005 at http://www.geocities.com/palaeoanthropology/Herectus.html
'Long Foreground: Species Timeline." Retrieved 16 Mary 2005 at http://www.wsu.edu : 8001/vwsu/gened/learn-modules/top_longfor/timeline/h-sapiens/h-sapiens-a.html
Mann, Alan E. (2005) "Homo erectus." World Book Online Reference Center. 2005. World Book, Inc. Herectus. Retrieved 16 Mary 2005 at .
Dahmer Forensic Analysis
Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer
Crime Scene and Discovery
Never before has egregious police incompetence hindered the apprehension of a serial killer as in the case of Jeffrey Dahmer. When police were called to investigate an alleged domestic disturbance between Konerak Sinthasomophone and Jeffrey Dahmer on May 27, 1991. Although two women came to the aide of Sinthasomophone and urged police to look further into the alleged dispute, the police ignored their pleas and Dahmer was able to convince them that Sinthasomophone was his 19-year-old lover; if police had bothered to check Sinthasomophone's identification they would have seen that he was in fact only 14 years old (ardsley, n.d.). Having convinced the police that Sinthasomophone and he were in the midst of a lovers' quarrel, Sinthasomophone was released into Dahmer's custody and by the end of the night, Sinthasomophone would become Dahmer's 13th victim (ardsley, n.d.). Dahmer would proceed…
Bardsley, M. (n.d.). Jeffrey Dahmer. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from TruTV: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/dahmer/index.html
Benedict, J. (2004). No Bone Unturned: Inside the World of a Top Forensic Scientist and His Work on America's Most Notorious Crimes and Disasters. New York: Harper Collins .
Copeland, L. (2002, May 31). Skeleton Keys: Smithsonian Anthropologists Unlock Secrets in Bones of Ancestors and Crime Victims. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from Washington Post: http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/planes/evidence/washingtonpost_skeletonkeys.html
Crime and Investigation Network. (n.d.). Jeffrey Dahmer. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/jeffrey-dahmer/crime.html
Grave Goods of the Avars in Medieval Carpathian asin
The objective of this study is to examine the burial styles and grave goods of the Avars. This includes such as buried livestock and artifacts. As well the variability in the relationship between different several sites from this similar time period, and some specific burial sites of interest will be examined as well as the various traditions relating to positioning of bodies and preparation of the dead along with any possible meanings. Examined as well will be construction of the tombs and any other grave goods of interest. From this data this study will attempt to determine the traditions, individual wealth and the position of that culture and to determine what the traditions were of this culture as well as how they developed and changed over time. The difference in tribes or clans and other influences from that time period will…
Avar Rule Before 630 (nd) Retrieved from: http://mek.oszk.hu/03400/03407/html/44.html
Avars (2014) Migration Period between Odra and Vistula. National Science Center. Retrieved from: http://www.mpov.uw.edu.pl/en/thesaurus/tribes-and-peoples/avars -
Balint, C. (nd) Avar Goldsmiths' Work from the Perspective of Cultural History. British Museum. Retrieved from: http://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/13%20Balint%20p%20rev-opt-sec.pdf
Bordas, E. (nd) The Largest Cemetery from the Avar Period in the Carpathian Basin. Retrieved from: http://www.sulinet.hu/oroksegtar/data/telepulesek_ertekei/Zamardi/pages/avarkori_temeto_angol.htm
Dead (Dia de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday that is also celebrated around the world in other countries where Hispanics are located, such as North America, Brazil, Spain, etc. Its roots are located both in the oman Catholic observance of All Saints and All Souls Days in November and in the pagan customs of the Aztecs who celebrated worship of the Mictecacihuatl, the Queen of the Underworld. In recent times the Day of the Dead has taken on a more nationalistic meaning than the traditional associations of spirituality (Masses and prayers offered for the dead) of oman Catholicism. In fact, Day of the Dead celebrations were unheard of in Mexico before the 1900s. Prior to the evolution of the early 20th century, much of Mexico celebrated only the Catholic All Saints and All Souls Days and resisted any celebration by nationalistic or pagan sects of the Day of the Dead,…
Day, F.S. (2003). Latina and Latino Voices in Literature: Lives and Works. Westport,
Kanellos, N. (1994). Handbook of Hispanic Culture in the United States: Anthropology.
Houston, TX: Arte Publico Press.
From the onset, it would be prudent to point out that Asians, as Croucher, Nguyen, and Rahmani point out, happen to be America’s fastest growing population. However, the said population also happens to be one of the populations most susceptible to discrimination. This is a fact that has clearly revealed itself during the COVID-19 pandemic where there have been reports of increased discrimination against Asian Americans. This text will largely concern itself with anti-Asian American sentiment during the present pandemic. In so doing, it will not only track the nature of the said discrimination, but also chart its consequences. It will also highlight some of the solutions that have been suggested in an attempt to reign in the said discrimination. The present discussion also demonstrates that the pandemic appears to be just but an excuse to continue a well-established trend of discrimination against Asian Americans.
As Strochlic points out, from…
Balvaneda, Bryan, Lizabeth Roemer, Sarah Hayes-Skeleton, Amelia Yang, and Anna Ying. “Responding to Anti-Asian Racism During the COVID-19 Outbreak.” ADAA, https://adaa.org/learn-from-us/from-the-experts/blog-posts/consumer/responding-anti-asian-racism-during-covid-19 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Croucher, Stephen M., Thao Nguyen, and Diyako Rahmani. “Prejudice Toward Asian Americans in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Effects of Social Media Use in the United States.” Frontiers in Communication, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcomm.2020.00039/full . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Ho, Jennifer. “Anti-Asian racism and COVID-19.” University of Colorado, https://www.colorado.edu/asmagazine/2020/04/08/anti-asian-racism-and-covid-19 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Kandil, Caitlin and Yam Kimmy. “Asian Americans face dual challenges: Surging unemployment and racism.” NBC, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/asian-americans-face-dual-challenges-surging-unemployment-racism-n1235356 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Strochlic, Nina. “America’s long history of scapegoating its Asian citizens.” National Geographic, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/2020/09/asian-american-racism-covid/ . Accessed 1 December 2020.
In other words, at every seven courses of stone, a layer of reed matting was laid and weep-holes and drainage shafts were placed, thus preserving the ziggurat from water damage.
Eventually the building fell into disrepair. Later, King Nabonidus restored the Ur ziggurat, along with other temples. Stiebing believes this was because he revered his mother's gods (285). Nabonidus claims in the clay cuneiform tablets found in the tower to have rebuilt it on the same foundations and using the same mortar and bricks. Ultimately it must have deteriorated after the Persian defeat by Cyrus in 539 BC.
Construction of Tower of Babylon (ca 600 BC)
While the biblical account of this great structure in Genesis 11 is perhaps legendary, scholars have come to view the "Tower of Babel" mentioned in the text as the ziggurat of the temple of Marduk in Babylon (known as Etemenanki). Expressing the scholarly consensus,…
Though only one percent of the body's calcium exists outside of these structures, this one percent performs a variety of functions that keep the human body running smoothly. Many of the other vital functions that calcium performs are the result of its highly ionic nature (it has two fewer electrons than protons, resulting in Ca++ ions); this electric imbalance means it is very useful in moving certain nutrients through cell membranes through a variety of complex mechanisms (EVG 2010). This same ionic feature makes calcium important in nerve function as well, as it is through a movement of calcium in and out of nerve cells (along with the movement of other ionic elements, notably sodium and potassium) that an electric charge is created and sent from the brain to various parts of the body or vice versa (EVG 2010; Medline Plus 2010). Without calcium, then, the various parts of the…
Essential Vitamin Guide. (2010). "Calcium and the human body." Accessed 8 November 2010. http://essentialvitaminsguide.com/41/calcium-and-the-human-body/
Food Mineral. (2010). "Calcium in human body." Accessed 8 November 2010. http://www.foodmineral.com/2008/05/calcium-in-human-body.html
MedlinePlus. (2010). "Calcium in the diet." Accessed 8 November 2010. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002412.htm
The moment when the line first cut into his hands in similar to the one when Christ's hands were nailed to the cross. Most readers are likely to make a connection between the two images at this point as the stigmata is an element which is present in both Santiago and in Christ.
Hemingway himself wants readers to be certain that the injured hand is an essential factor working as support to the comparison made between Christ and Santiago. The "Ay" exclamation also reinforces this belief. "There is no translation for this word and perhaps it is just a noise such a man might make, involuntarily, feeling the nail go through his hands and into the wood" (Hemingway, 1984, p. 82). Both the sufferings experienced by Christ and by Santiago have been made so that life will go on in peace.
Santiago stands as a living martyr (if such a…
1. Clark Pratt, John "My Pilgrimage: Fishing for Religion with Hemingway," The Hemingway Review 21.1 (2001).
2. Hemingway, Ernest. (1984). The old man and the sea. Barron's Educational Series.
3. Dunlavy Valenti, Patricia ed., Understanding the Old Man and the Sea: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002).
John Clark Pratt, "My Pilgrimage: Fishing for Religion with Hemingway," The Hemingway Review 21.1 (2001).
Reading The Sound and the Fury can be frustrating for the reader, particularly the reader who is used to the linear march of time and the orderly unfolding of the events. Classic chronology provides a sense of order and a sense of time for the reader. They can easily relate to their own experience and concept of the passage of time. Faulkner steps into an uncomfortable area for many readers, making his work difficult to follow in terms of linearity. It appears as if he is randomly leaping off in different directions with no sense of purpose or direction at time. However, if we look at the way in which time acts as a character one can glean a different perspective of time and gain a glimpse into the eternal nature of time. Jean-Paul Sartre explains that, "A fictional technique always relates back to the novelist's metaphysics" (Sartre). Such is…
Baldwin, M. Faulkner's Cartographic Method: Producing the Land through Cognitive
Mapping. Faulkner Journal. Vol. 7, No. 1 & 2. Fall 1991 / Spring 1992
Cape, J. And Smith, H. The Sound and the Fury: Commentary. October 7, 1929. William
Faulkner On the Web.
Therefore, it would tend to hold more credibility. Social theories based on bone breakage were based on theory alone. hen one considers the merits of these two conflicting theories, one has to examine the behaviors and condition of modern animals, especially when making such general statements.
If one considers what happens to modern animals when they are hurt, the non-social theory would have more support. Dehydration would be the most critical factor in death after an injury. However, one flaw in this theory is that they gave no comparison of evidence to support their supposition that the animals could live on their body mass while healing. There is simply not enough known about the metabolism of the smilodon to make such as suggestion. Overall, the theories of McCall, Naples, and Martin hold more credibility than the social theories, save for the one exception.
Genetics and DNA
Several researchers were able…
Anyonge, W. Microwear on Canines and Killing Behavior in Large Carnivores: Saber
Function in Smilodon fatalis. Journal of Mammalogy, (Nov., 1996), Vol. 77, No. 4 pp. 1059-1067.
Basel, K. On the Ecological Connection Between Sabre-tooths and Hominids:Faunal
Dispersal Events in the Lower Pleistocene and a Review of the Evidence for the First Human Arrival in Europe.2006.
The advantages in efficiency were evident, as are the ways of apprenticing younger members slowly into the family trade.
The more probable model is that the skilled labour was taken from the guilds, whose power was on the rise throughout Europe after AD 1100. Artistic and trade guilds selected their members. Such pooled labour provided training, experience, a career trajectory, and security for the craftsman, who could eventually work through the stage of journeyman to master craftsman. This system allowed for the concentration of skilled labour and guaranteed quality controls. Non-members were excluded from building projects. It was an early form of labour union. At times these guilds had a monopoly on trade labour. Out of some system like this it is likely that the labour came to work on buildings like Pisa Cathedral. The master builders themselves would have been influenced by knowledge generated in the intellectual revival at…
Paget's Disease Of Bone
James Paget, 1877
Paget's disease of bone
general information about disease
Effects of disease
Diagnosis of Disease
Treatment and Prognosis for patient
disease can be treated but not cured.
Paget's Disease of Bone
In 1877, Sir James Paget first described a disease that he had identified in a small number of patients who had been described as "having overly large heads and enlarged or deformed extremities with a higher likelihood of fracture." (Chaffins) hile Paget believed that this disease was a relatively new one, archaeological studies have since found evidence of it in skeletons from the first century A.D., as well as from the Medieval period. "Paget's disease of bone (PDB), also called osteitis deformans, "is a nonmalignant disease of bone that causes accelerated and abnormal bone remodeling." (Chaffins) In other words,…
Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+.
Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.
Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb.
This story told by the sarcophagus is an important one because of the way it provides us with insights into Maya religion and history. However, it is also important because it has become one of the artifacts that 20th-century writers have used to spin fantastic stories about how the earth has been visited by extraterrestrial creatures, whose images appear on the sarcophagus lid of Pacal, in addition to other places.
As Feder (2010) writes (he is only one of many critics who take up this subjects), there is absolutely no truth to claims that the images on this sarcophagus lid that represent anything but the religion of classical Maya civilization. So why should people think that there are? This question is related to a timely one, which is why many people (many of whom should certainly know better) believe that the Maya calendar says that the end of the…
Feder, K. (2010). Encyclopedia of Dubious Archaeology: From Atlantis to the Walam Olum. Wesport CT: Greenword.
Ferguson, W. & Adams, R. (2001). Mesoamerica's Ancient Cities. Santa Fe: University of New Mexico Press.
Kubler, G. (1984). The Art and Architecture of Ancient America: The Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Laughton, T. (2011). Exploring the Life, Myth, and Art of the Maya. New York: Rosen Publishing.
Hamlet seems particularly interested with this idea of holding a mirror to the reality of situations to betray their alliances with death. He uses the same metaphor when speaking to the players: "the purpose of playing, whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature; to show Virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and body of the time his form and pressure."
The play which Prince Hamlet stages is vitally important not only in that it is a mirror and reflection of sorts, but also because it is in itself art. A great deal of fuss is made in the text about the proper form of the art of playing, as if to highlight that it's artistic merit were important to the story. This may be because putting the death of the…
Bottum, J. "All That Lives Must Die."
First Things 63 (May 1996): 28-32. www.leaderu.com/ftissues/ft9605/articles/bottum.html
Ewbank, Inga-Stina. "Hamlet and the Powerful Words in Aspects of Hamlet." Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Laurie Langer Harris. Vol 1. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1984: 270-275.
Jacobs, Henry E. "Shakespeare, Revenge Tragedy, and the Ideology of the Memento Mori." Shakespeare Studies. Vol 21. (1993): 96-108.
It is common knowledge that the human body consists of about 65% water. People cannot live any longer than five days without H20. Individuals of all ages love to sail the oceans, swim in the sea and soar under or speed across the waves. It comes as no surprise, then, that some part of the human psyche remembers millions and millions of years ago before animals came on shore. What is still questionable is how or why these animals made the move from water to land. The journal articles discussed below give some of the latest findings on this topic.
Early in the Devonian Era, close to 400 million years ago, all the continents were grouped closely together and surrounded by the seas. The climate ranged from dry weather to torrential rains as some tropical areas do today. Even flowers had not yet evolved on land, let alone vertebrates.…
Clack, J.A. "An Early Tetrapod from Romer's Gap." Nature (2002) 418: 72-76. [electronic version]
Clack, J.A. "From Fins to Fingers." Science 304.5667 (2004): 57-59. [electronic version]
Coates, M.I, and J.A. Clack. "Polydactyly in the Earliest Known Tetrapod Limbs"
Nature. (1990) 347: 66-69. [electronic version]
The new division of these apartments that was thought to be a main feature of modern housing was not a solution to the problem of privacy. Most of the families only got a small bedroom with a small living space. Males and females often had to share the same rooms and in fact there was no room for children and guests (Bounrdieu, 1960).
This definitely shows the need for negotiating for modern space and daily life within el-Masaakin.in an analysis by an anthropologists he came to the conclusion that modern housing would not be sufficient for the production of modern articles and dispositions. However there are objective conditions which structure individual's appropriation of modern apartments. He maintained a clear distinction between the less and more privileged sections of the working class. Adopting modern housing is bound by cultural transformation where the segments of those who earn low incomes can not…
Brades, S. (1997).Society for comparative studies in society and history. Sugar, colonialism and death: on the origins of the Mexico's Day of the dead.vol.39.pp270-299
Bounrdieu, P.(1960).Relocation and Daily use of Modern space.
Framing is a fundamental of construction. Therefore, it can be helpful to understand the history of framing and how it has evolved in terms of materials, uses, and techniques. The frame can be considered the skeleton of a building. Its "rough carpentry" concept is "the basic building skill of new construction and almost every remodeling addition project," ("Framing"). The history of framing in construction does not extend far into the ancient world, and most framing techniques are relatively modern. Ancient methods of construction often included bricks, stones, and concrete assembled in a frame-free manner. Framing from the perspective of construction almost always refers to the use of timber.
Although not used in most monumental architecture, framing in timber was not uncommon in oman and Greek building. eserved mainly for roof elements, timber framing came to relatively common use in beam and post roofing somewhere between 500 BCE and 100 BCE…
Blue Ridge Timberwrights. A history of timber framing. Retrieved online: http://brtw.com/historyoftimberframing.php
Chapter 3: Framing and Closing In. Retrieved online: http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/dmerrick/164/framing/ah73chapter3.pdf
"Framing." Hometime. Retrieved online: http://www.hometime.com/Howto/projects/framing/frame_1.htm
Original Barn Company. "History of Timber Frame and Oak Construction." Retrieved online: http://www.originalbarnco.co.uk/history.php
Godzilla (1954) was the original science fiction class that inspired a large number of sequels over the next twenty years, and as usual with this genre reflected contemporary Cold War fears and anxieties about nuclear weapons. In this case, hydrogen bomb tests is the Pacific created a radioactive dinosaur that made its way bad to Japan and destroyed okyo. Japan's cities had been firebombed into destruction during World War II, and it was the only country in history to ever experience a nuclear attack -- just nine years before this film was made -- so the idea that some prehistoric monster might devastate the country had a special relevance there. In the 1950s, of course, there were many science fiction films about radioactive monsters, such as the giant ants in hem or the dinosaur that attacked London in Behemoth, so the symbolism of these mutations destroying the world was commonplace.…
This is what happens in the climax of Godzilla, when a reluctant scientist, Professor Serizawa, uses a new super weapon that destroys all the oxygen in water and kills Godzilla in Tokyo Bay. Serizawa is a wounded veteran of the Second World War, missing one eye, and does not want the world to possess another terrible weapon like this. He decides to destroy all the records of his research and then dies in Tokyo Bay with Godzilla after placing his oxygen destroyer near the monster. By the standards of 1954, the special effects in the film were quite advanced, and the actor wearing the Godzilla costume had the best role, although the monster looked quite impressive when it breathed out radioactive fire all over the models of Tokyo. A young Aaron Burr also had an early role in this film as an American reporter covering the Godzilla story as the creature goes on a rampage.
At the beginning of the film, a ship is destroyed in a mysterious explosion and a salvage team is sent to investigate, but their ship is also blown up. On Odo Island, three survivors from these ships report that a giant monster was responsible, while fishermen report that they are unable to catch anything. This is when an old man first mentions the name of Godzilla, an ancient Japanese legend about a dinosaur that lives in the ocean. That same night, during a typhoon, Godzilla actually comes ashore and destroys some houses, and a scientific team is sent from Tokyo to investigate. They discover that Godzilla is a radioactive monster that has been disturbed by the recent hydrogen bomb tests in the Pacific, and has already destroyed a number of ships in retaliation. Although the Japanese navy drops depth charges on the monster, conventional weapons do not seem to have much effect, which is when the scientists turn to Professor Serizawa.
At first the scientist denies that he has created a new weapon, but the truth is that he does not want the world to know about it since it could cause the extinction of all life on earth. He shows his fiance Emiko what it can do, by testing a small sample in a fish tank and turning every living thing into a skeleton. Emiko is horrified and agrees to say nothing about the weapon, although shortly afterward Godzilla comes ashore twice and destroys Tokyo. With the city in ruins and Godzilla still sitting at the bottom of Tokyo Bay, Serizawa agrees that the weapon must be used, but he makes sure that he will die with it. He goes to the bottom of Tokyo Bay in a diving suit and places the device near Godzilla, but then cuts his own air hose and remains in place when it detonates. Godzilla is reduced to a skeleton and sinks to the bottom of the bay, although he returned many times in the sequels.
1931, the Empire State Building was the highest building in the world. It was surpassed in its impressiveness only by the first orld Trade Center in the 1970s. The man who played a significant role in the development of the ESB was Al Smith, an ambitious man and a reformer. From the 1920s on, New York was continually reinventing itself. Families of immigrants had already become an important part of the city's life. Led by their hopes to fulfill the American dream, many of the immigrants dealt nevertheless with the social conditions of the time. Smith, who became governor of the United States in 1918, was himself a man who could identify with them, having grown up on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. As a child, he witnessed the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, a project that represented one of the foolproof elements that New York was developing into…
Lemire, Elise, and Flowers, Benjamin. Skyscraper: The Politics and Power of Building New York City in the Twentieth Century. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009. Print.
United States. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Empire State Building. OMB No. 1024-0018. Web. 30 Sep 2013
he debate on Neanderthal man's place in human evolution has continued unabated since the discovery of the first Neanderthal fossil in 1856. One camp believes Neanderthal man is a human ancestor and should be classified as a subspecies of modern man -- homo sapien neandertalis. he opposing view argues that Neanderthal man is a distinct species - homo neandertalis - a species entirely separate from modern humans. his paper argues that Neanderthal man is indeed related to modern humans by looking at key elements of the Neanderthal physiology, behavior and cultural life.
Recent findings on the mitochondrial DNA taken from the right humerus of a Neanderthal skeleton failed to show significant similarities with the mitochondrial DNA of modern humans. According to the study, one sequence of Neanderthal DNA shows significant variances from the same sequence in moderns. From this, researchers concluded that Neanderthals diverged about 600,000…
Trinkaus and Shipman, p 356.
Trinkaus and Shipman, p 255
Kate Wong, "Paleolithic Pit Stop," Scientific American, < Scientific American http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?colID=1&articleID=000F0825-AC71-1C72-9EB7809EC588F2D7,13 November 2002.
SYMBOLIC THEMES OF MYSTERY AND THE SUPERNATURAL IN SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDE'S
RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER
In Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," considered by many scholars as the quintessential masterpiece of English Romantic poetry, the symbolic themes of mystery and the supernatural play a very crucial role in the poem's overall effect which John Hill Spencer sees as Coleridge's "attempt to understand the mystery surrounding the human soul in a universe moved by forces and powers... immanent and transcendent" (157). Yet the Mariner himself appears to be trapped in this supernatural world as a result of ghostly manifestations which emanate from the realms of the unknown.
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" was first published in Lyrical Ballads in 1798, a collection of poetry written and published jointly by Coleridge and his good friend William Wordsworth. Yet the text of the poem generally in use today appeared…
Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, 1927.
Nooden, Lars. Animal Symbolism in Celtic Mythology. Internet. November 22, 1992. Accessed February 27, 2003. www-personal.umich.edu.
Spencer, John Hill. A Coleridge Companion. London: Macmillan, 1983
Evolution of the Feather and the Origin of irds
THE EVOLUTION OF THE FEATHER AND THE ORIGIN OF THE IRD
This is a paper that explains about the origin of birds and the actual evolution of the feathers. The paper details about the way the feathers had first evolved and the way these birds had their origin. The common belief that the dinosaurs are the ancestors of these birds has been analyzed and the paper also deals with as to how the feathers of these birds would have developed.
The origin of feathers is unknown. Scientists have researched on this topic but none of the theories have even come close to being proved. In the past five years there have been efforts to answer as to the real evolution of these feathers. The mystery of the evolution of feathers is closely linked with the origin of birds themselves. The origin…
Martin, Larry D. And Czerkas, Stephan A. (September 2000) "The Fossil Record of Feather Evolution in the Mesozoic" American Zoologist, volume 40, issue 4,-page 687
Prum, Richard O. (January 23, 2003) "Paleontology: Dinosaurs take to the air" Nature, volume 421, pp.323-324
Sues, Hans-Dieter. (April 26, 2001) "Paleontology: Ruffling Feathers" Nature, volume 410, pp. 1036-1037
Hou, Lianhai; Martin, Larry D; Zhou, Zhonghe and Feduccia, Alan. (November 15, 1996) "Early Adaptive Radiation of Birds: Evidence from Fossils from Northeastern China" Science, volume 274
June Morning (1945)
Thomas Hart Benton's June Morning imbues the reader with emotion from first glance to closer inspection. At first, the painting feels a bit dark as a summer storm is rolling out of this rural setting. The sky to the right is still filled with dappled gray clouds that arc in bands to the left. The left sky glows lightly golden behind the arms of clouds stretched across it, giving stark contrast to the their dark forms.
The pastel sun illuminates the balance of the left side of the painting. In the background it lights a sliver of ocean, made of shades of sky blue, and is just barely visible to the viewer. A gentle highlight indicates the swell of the ocean as it comes in to break somewhere on an unseen shore.
This same sunlight dully lights the roof of an old farmhouse with a…
Alfred Hitchcok's Psycho was released in 1960, and encapsulates the social, psychological, and political tensions of the Cold ar era. As Raubicheck and Serebnick point out, Psycho could have been a bridge to the 1960s but the film is "less linked to and reflective of the so-called radical sixties than they are of the more controlled fifties and possess more cultural texture of this earlier era," (17). The issues related to gender, sexuality, and sexual repression in the film are likewise reflective of the interest in Freudian psychoanalysis that prevailed during the 1950s. Rebello points out that the popularity of Freudian psychology and theories like the Oedipus complex are played out on the screen in Psycho. Anthony Perkins's character Norman Bates is "connected with a much larger discussion, in the early Cold ar, of political and sexual deviance," (Genter 134). In Psycho, Bates becomes the archetype of the psychopath,…
Genter, Robert. "We All Go a Little Mad Sometimes': Alfred Hitchcock, American Psychoanalysis, and the Construction of the Cold War Psychopath." Canadian Review of American Studies. Vol 40, No. 2, 2010.
Hitchcock, Alfred. Psycho. Feature Film.1960.
Raubicheck, Walter and Srebnick, Walter. Scripting Hitchcock. University of Illinois Press.
Rebello, Stephen. Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho. Open Road Media.
Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian Extra Credit Scavenger Hunt
The 2009 comedy film "Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian" is set in the famed Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., but in reality many of the scenes were shot inside New York City's American Museum of Natural History (AMNA), where the main character Larry Daley (played by Ben Stiller) actually worked in the first film. This means that much of the artwork and architecture seen on display throughout the film can actually be observed at either the Smithsonian or the AMNA. The following list highlights several of the most interesting examples of artwork, animal skeletons, cultural artifacts and other displays shown in the film that actually exist in either of these two incredible museums.
These are paintings and sculptures that I noticed on display in the background, or in the case…
Understanding the structure and function of DNA has allowed scientists to uncover truths about the origin of human life on planet earth. In "Ancient ussian's DNA Sheds Light on Neanderthal Interbreeding," Dunham (2014) discusses one of the recent discoveries in human genetic history. A DNA sample was extracted from the tibia of a Homo sapiens called "Kostenki man" because of the village in which the skeleton was found. Because so much is now known about DNA, it is possible to take samples from 37,000-year-old skeletons. The article also shows that DNA remains intact in the bones of living creatures thousands of years after they die. Moreover, the article is about the fact that the DNA samples from Kostenki man show that some 50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had interbred with Neanderthals, who had "colonized the region thousands of years earlier," (Dunham, 2014). As a result of these findings, researchers…
Alberts B, Johnson A., Lewis J, et al. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science.
Dunham, W. (2014). Ancient Russian's DNA sheds light on Neanderthal interbreeding. Reuters. Nov 6, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/06/us-science-genome-idUSKBN0IQ2QK20141106
" This allows the palm of the hand to go either up or down when in motion. The radius and the ulna connect with the bones which that are attached to the wrist and hand.
The thumbs of the human hand make it possible for the hand to lift and carry objects. The movement of the human hand is due to evolutionary development of bipedalism. The human hand consists of twenty seven bones. The wrist has cube shaped bones placed in rows of two or four each. The palm of the hand consists of bones called the carpals. hen lifting a glass of water the striated muscle pulls the radius and ulna allowing the arm to reach for the glass. The flexor muscles in the hand and fingers are used to flex the fingers around the glass making it possible to grip. The flexors which are located near the elbow…
"sliding filament theory." A Dictionary of Biology. 2004. Feb 13, 2010.
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…
This short picture book is about the lives of 20 species of animals that have gone extinct over the last three centuries. This book can be used with students up to age eight to help teach them the importance of valuing what they have. A teacher can draw a connection between extinct animals in this book with any animal that is currently endangered. Students can draw pictures of their favorite animals to help them understand the importance of animals in the world.
Nelson, Marilyn. A Wreath for Emmett Till.
The deeply historical aspect of this memorial to a teen who was lynched in 1955 makes this book only appropriate for students aged 14 through 18 years. The "wreath" is a cycle of 15 sonnets in a highly formalized style that makes readers reflect on the events while also calling attention to the events. This book would be useful in an…
It didn't matter that I'd not know the Thai language. I no longer wanted to speak to anyone. I never had.
Three days later, the motor conked out. No gas. We floated south in the current, or so we thought. All the mountains and land had vanished. Thanh said he had made a mistake and didn't know where we were now. Once in a while we would see a ship, but we could never row to it. We didn't think we should. That was the same day our fresh water ran out. The smell of salt was unbearable afterwards. All of us knew that we should have been on the Thai island by now. We rowed desperately, but this made us thirsty. One of the women passed out from dehydration. Then another. And another. It was probably two days, I couldn't tell, when I saw the grim image. A black…
S. transportation infrastructure is a bad idea. But in contrast to these doom and gloom pessimists, a restructuring and revitalization of U.S. transportation infrastructure is not only an excellent idea, but is very necessary if the U.S. economy is going to survive and continue to be a major global economic superpower (Lindsey, 2007).
Without the highway infrastructure, the U.S. would have been unable to grow as it did in the 1950's and 1960's. The same idea is true for future growth. Since the 1960's there has been little development of the current system and many of the U.S.'s bridges and highways are falling into disrepair as other priorities, like the War in Iraq, have taken priority. But the transportation infrastructure, the skeleton and circulatory system of the U.S. economic body, is vastly important for both economic and political stability and security.
US power plants and the internet infrastructure are grossly…
IMPA. (2010). IMPA Homepage. Accessed via web on August 19, 2010 at .