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Make answer question completely. Your answers cohesive essays. 1. Discuss explain types social norms. What role dominant culture play establishing norms? 2. What role time place defining crime? How social norms related understanding crime? Give a crime U.S. today time considered a crime? What social contributed changing definition ? 3.
Discuss and explain the various types of social norms. What role does the dominant culture play in establishing norms?
A social norm in the first place refers to something that has been accepted by the society as part of their day-to-day thing/activity. It may be a belief, behavior, action or value that is appreciated by the people/community. A social norm usually varies between different age groups and social class (income bracket) within the society. There are four types of social norms. They include the folkway, custom, and fashion, more, law. All these norms have some element of evaluation…… [Read More]
Social Norm Experiment: Scenario 6 -- Facing the rong ay in an Elevator
Solomon Asch's Conformity Experiments during the 1950s demonstrated how much individual opinion and even perception of reality can be influenced by others (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2009, 577-579). In the original series of experiments, Asch tested subjects by presenting with a perceptual question that should have been very easy to identify the correct answer but within a group situation in which multiple confederates expressed confidence about the wrong answer. That experiment can be duplicated in many different settings and scenarios.
The reason I selected this particular scenario is that it involves one of the more subtle types of norm violations, as opposed to others that would seem to guarantee a reaction. To my mind, Asch's principle is best demonstrated by an experimental design that excludes other provocations for a response, such as invading someone else's space (e.g. standing…… [Read More]
Social Norm Violations
he Norm Violated: he norm was supposed to be about singing in appropriate places. I choose to sing on a public bus at about the time people were returning home (away from downtown) after work. I thought this might give me a different audience than at other times of the day. It seems reasonable that there is an expectation of the bus being an extension of privacy for some people as they go home, and thus they might not like being bothered as they travel. But as I did my project, I found that the norm wasn't that easy to isolate. here was just as likely an issue about singing badly and singing with and without the help of music technology that made the violation less clear. Was I being "punished" for singing or for singing badly even when I had a player that should have made…… [Read More]
Dining alone is unusual at a higher-end restaurant. Immediately, my jeans, sneakers and faded t-shirt drew whispered comment and stares from some diners. I was afraid I would not be admitted, but I had gone on a night when there were few diners, so I suppose the front-of-house staff though that a filled table was better than an empty table.
Again, I ordered a burger, fries, and shake. When the bread basket was placed in front of me while I waited for my order to come, I ate the bread like I do at home, spreading it with butter and making a sandwich of it, rather than breaking it in half. When my shake came, I slurped the straw, just like I do at home. People nearby did give me 'a look,' I noted, I think of disapproval or surprise. Most of the restaurant was populated by older couples, all…… [Read More]
Violating Social Norm
People like to keep to themselves whenever they can, especially when they are in a situation where they have the option of being to themselves, by themselves. This implicit social norm applies when one goes onto an empty bus. If there are other seats available, one goes to the empty seat; one does not go and sit next to someone who is already there sitting down. It is just an unspoken implicit norm that one knows, and one knows this affects people by their reaction when one breaks this social norm and does the unthinkable: sit next to someone on the bus when every other seat around them is empty. This is exactly what I did as a way to violate this norm. For an entire day, on different bus lines, at various times of the day, and to an array of individuals, I sat next to…… [Read More]
social norms that individuals need to follow or are expected to follow at a dining table -- be it at home or in a public setting. These table etiquettes are both formal and non-formal in nature. The setting of dining often determines the etiquettes that are desired from individuals. For example, is one is dining at home, one is expected to follow lesser of the formal norms and etiquettes that are expected from the same individual while dining in public or during business meetings.
The reactions that are expected from others would include a set of norms and etiquettes that start with the proper use of cutlery like the proper use of forks, knives and spoons, use of proper eating etiquettes while having food like not making funny noises while eating and waiting till all are ready to start with lunch or dinner. For example, it is expected that an…… [Read More]
Conflict of social norms and its effect on school environment
Social norms can be defined as the rules that determine what should be done or avoided by people in their social settings and circumstances. Norms make sure that people keep promises, ranging from the lane to drive on, to sticking by the golden rule. These are tools for explaining phenomena. They are used to analyze the state of the world even as great as international diplomacy or as subtle and ordinary as traffic rules. However, the body of knowledge regarding norms is spread across disciplines and traditions of research with unclear guidelines or consensus on the way the term should be put to use. Existing research on the subject has largely majored on the effects of the norms and the content of the same. By description, social norms cut across such disciplines as sociology, game theory, economics, and legal studies…… [Read More]
Social Psychological Experiment: Violating Social Norms
Most Americans place a high priority on their personal space as evidenced by how far people stand apart from each other in virtually any public setting. Indeed, most Americans will unconsciously gauge just how much space is available for their personal space -- even on crowded elevators -- and when this personal space is violated, many people will experience discomfort and even alarm. While the reactions may differ, it is reasonable to posit that most Americans will react to violations of their personal space in some fashion. To gain some additional insights into this phenomenon, this paper describes a social psychological experiment in which the researcher intentionally violated a common social norm by sitting next to other people in an uncrowded movie theater where other seating was readily available in order to gauge their reactions. A more complete description of the experiment is followed…… [Read More]
Additionally, Sociocultural theory assumes that individuals develop self-concepts through interaction with others, and we are influenced by culture and social processes, such as social norms. Social norms dictate that girls are more sensitive and boys are less emotional, thus further explaining the gender differences in the above case study.
The two predictions of how these interactions affect a child's development are: 1) if the child is treated with more love, intimacy, and talked to about feelings, the child will grow up being more sensitive to others and more open to discuss their feelings with others. If the child is taught not to respond to their feelings, or let their emotions guide them, the child will grow up to be less sensitive, more aggressive and less likely to discuss their feelings. Depending on treatment, a child may grow up to have negative qualities, such as violence or repressed anger.
These interactions…… [Read More]
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…… [Read More]
There is a good case to be made for focusing on externalities and seeking to manage all of them in a social responsible manner, especially as the world becomes globalized and the key success drivers become relationships and information.
Mintzberg, H. (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://online.worcester.edu/external/evescio/Principles%20of%20Management/strategicplan.pdf
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
De Toni, a. & Tonchia, S. (2003). Strategic planning and firms' competencies: Traditional approaches and new perspectives. International Journal of Operations and Production Management. Vol. 23 (9) 947-976.
ettstein, F. (2010). For better or for worse: Corporate responsibility beyond "do no harm." Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 20 (2) 275-283.
Peng, M., ang, D. & Yi, J. (2009). An institution-based view of international business strategy: A focus on…… [Read More]
Psychological studies have confirmed 'altruistic behavior' can be elicited in people. 'Peer Pressure' could also be utilized as an effective psychological tool in reducing resource consumption and in promoting other healthy environmental practices. [Center for Naturalism] A case in point is the Chinese governments 'Grain to Green' Program that offered cash incentives to farmers to convert marginal farmlands to forests. As Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF) says, "Much of the marginal cropland in rural communities has been converted from agriculture to forests through the Grain-to-Green Program, one of the largest 'payment for ecosystem services' programs in the world," "Results of this study show that a community's social norms have substantial impacts on the sustainability of these conservation investments." [ScienceDaily] uilding this collective self-control at the community, national and international level holds the key to the success of an environmentally sustainable future. Motivated and environmentally conscious…… [Read More]
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…… [Read More]
It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend…… [Read More]
I wanted to talk to my grandmother about this, moving away from our own family context. She believed strongly that the family is the central unit of social control, with the parents as strong disciplinarians who teach their children social norms and enforce those norms. I made the point that while many people believe this view is true, there are a lot of examples of people who grow up in non-traditional households that turn out not to be delinquents. I turned out fine, and many of my friends who grew up in non-traditional families were able to find their social norms from other sources. I think the family does play an important role, but it is not necessary to have a traditional family in order to instill values. My grandmother respectfully disagreed.
e talked a little bit about how family contributes to one's success as an adult. e both agreed…… [Read More]
The effects of information technology on the society
The social capital framework
In this paper, we evaluate the validity of the statement that IT is radically changing the social world. We perform a critical analysis of the concept of social world and social capital and how it is influenced by information technology. This is carried against the backdrop of the concept of information technology as the conceptual framework. The paper concludes that indeed the statement that IT is radically changing the social world is true.
The contemporary society has witnessed a series of transformations which can directly be attributed to the concept of technological dynamism. Technological dynamism is a concept which was defined by Albu (2009) as the rate of exchange in the level of predictability of new technologies. The technological advancements that we witness today are largely as a result of the lack of knowledge that exists…… [Read More]
Social Institutional Forces: The social, cultural, political, and intellectual forces that influence present educational policy in K-16 programs. What do you believe to be the goals of American public education? What should the role of public education be? List the advantages your upbringing offered to you; think of themselves as part of a dominant group, a nuclear family, a middle- or upper-middle-class community, a member of a church or other religious group, etc.
Despite the lofty proclamations made by George W. Bush and members of his administration during the legislative effort to pass the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the optimistic reforms envisioned by conservative lawmakers more than a decade ago have failed to come to fruition. However, the educational system in place throughout America's small towns and major cities has been broken for quite some time, with the world's foremost superpower lagging far behind smaller and less…… [Read More]
A number of excuses are given over the course of the film. The brother and sister of one of the perpetrators said they initially assumed the killer was drunk and disoriented. Later, they say that they didn't want to be involved in something 'negative.' The girlfriend of one of the killers also said he initially sounded drunk and confused. When she discovered the body of the victim, she called 911, but refused to give much information. The mother of one of the killer's friends says she was initially told the victim was fine, and then assumed he had been taken to an area hospital after the body was discovered. When 911 was called -- twice -- the vague attitude of both of the callers caused emergency personnel to treat the call as a non-emergency.
Source: Prevos, Peter. (2006, January 3). Explanation models for the bystander effect…… [Read More]
He seems to suggest that treating strangers like extended members of the same social group, which, in a modern society they are, will help erase the feeling of cultural disconnect that many people in modern society experience.
Perhaps Forni's most important sociological contribution comes in his chapter about asserting oneself. The competitive nature of modern society has created a scenario in which people feel as if asserting oneself and being polite are an either/or proposition, and that one cannot assert oneself without being rude. Forni disagrees with this proposition. Instead, he believes that "assertiveness ought to be a natural consequence of [one] being reasonably sensitive to [one's] own needs" (Forni, p. 111). Moreover, he believes that a study in civility will help people learn how to simultaneously be assertive and show respect for the needs of others. "e can choose to pay no because we are entitled to exercise control…… [Read More]
Under the NHE approach, families are analyzed as households that "consume," and these 'consumables' can be both tangible (basic commodities such as food, clothing, shelter) and intangible (such as health and relaxation, among others).
All these socio-economic variables impact the family, according to the UN study (Zeitlin et. al., 1995). Examples of these impacts include the following findings: (1) "loosening social controls" -- legal controls or social norms that must be followed by members of the society -- lead men to "discontinue their support to wives and children," (2) "economic profitability" (i.e., more financial resources) for female head of the family allows other female members of the family to be economically profitable as well, and (3) increased employment opportunities for women in the family improves child welfare in general (related to finding #2). These findings demonstrate that power and conflict in the family is determined by the social forces and…… [Read More]
social networking has in the last couple of years stirred a lot of debate among politician and scholars alike. The level of risks and benefits associated with social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace especially to children and teenagers has elicited a mixed reaction among the debating parties. In this paper we present a systematic analysis of the implications of social networking sites for both children and teenagers with a sharp focus on Facebook. We also focus on the benefits as well as the issue surrounding the use of social networking sites by use of relevant illustrations. Overall, we evaluate how the use of computer technology has impacted the society in general and education in particular.
Definition of Social Networking
Several scholars have attempted to define the concept of social networking and its components. Boyd & Ellison (2007) define social networking sites as special web-based services that are…… [Read More]
Rosewood is a film particularly suitable and interesting for the application of social psychology. It concerns the story of a black community in early 20th-century Florida. The community was rather a-typical of the time, since black people were wealthy landowners. The neighboring company town of Sumner on the other hand, was occupied by poor white people, who were jealous of the wealth they observed in Rosewood. This setting provides a backdrop for social psychological analysis concerning ingroups and outgroups, and how racism leads to escalating tension.
Prejudice and Racism
Prejudice, according to rehm, Kassin & Fein (147), can be unintentional. It also means the stereotyping of a certain group of people on the irrational grounds of a perceived threat, exacerbated by the fact that little personal information is available about the target of prejudice. In the film, prejudice against black people is a paradigm of the historical time. The likelihood…… [Read More]
Social Norms and Personal Space
hen people think of communication, they usually think in terms of spoken conversations and words. However, a significant amount of communication occurs on a non-verbal level. The tones and inflections of speech, a person's body language and the proximity between two conversing people are all rife with meaning and messages.
Because of these meanings, non-verbal communication is also governed by unspoken social norms. This paper examines the norms of proximity during interpersonal communication and the effects of breaking these norms.
Norms of proximity
In his seminal work The Silent Language, anthropologist Edward T. Hall (1959) explored how body language and other forms of non-verbal behavior regulate much of interpersonal communication. Among the norms he studied were proxemics, the typical distances people maintained during face-to-face interactions.
Though the concept of proxemics varied across and within various cultures, Hall found four general distance categories people used during…… [Read More]
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…… [Read More]
Applied social psychology refers to the application of social psychological theories and research to practice. Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations. The field draws as much from sociology as psychology, to describe issues like gender, race, and power but from a more individualistic perspective. Whereas sociology is interested more in the macro processes shaping society and its institutions, social psychology is concerned with the role the individual plays and how social factors shape personal identity and behavior. The application of social psychology could be in a range of professional fields including private counseling, school counseling, or social work. Some of the most important applications of social psychology are in the realm of public policy analysis and development, or in administration. Issues such as attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms are probed in the research, as are problems related to criminality and aggression.
I will…… [Read More]
Social Networking: Theories
Theories: Social Networking
Goffman argue that individuals' performances are a representation of self. Individuals will often use their performances to create specific impressions in the minds of their audience. Online platforms make it possible for individuals to adorn different masks in different situations. This should, however, be done within the confines of rules and conventions that govern the environment. This text assesses how Goffman's argument affects organizations, and how it influences collaboration in teams.
Goffman explains that individuals' performances are a presentation of self (Bullingham & Vasconscelos, 2013). Individuals will, therefore, often use their performance to create specific impressions in the minds of others. When in front stage, an individual is conscious about being observed by an audience; as such, they will try to perform in line with the social norms and expectations of their audience (Bullingham & Vasconscelos, 2013). The same is not the…… [Read More]
Situation: My male roommate was late to work and in a hurry. When he went to start his car he realized the battery was dead. He said, "I knew this would happen! Why do the car gods always do this to me? I'm supposed to know about these car things, all the other guys do!"
This situation clearly illustrates three principles of social psychology: hindsight bias, external locus of control, and social comparison. If I knew the reasons why my roommate was running late, there would be even more principles of social psychology to discuss. As it was, my roommate claimed to "know" that his car would not start. He assumed that he knew such a thing would happen. If he had really known it would happen, however, he might not have left on his lights or done whatever he could to prevent the battery from dying. This…… [Read More]
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…… [Read More]
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…… [Read More]
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
Chapter…… [Read More]
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…… [Read More]
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…… [Read More]
The reason for this is that the phenomenon generally occurs within groups. Individuals who function in a group often do so differently than when left upon their own. To conduct the study, one individual and one group of people should be observed in two separate rooms.
The individual will be able to observe the group by means of a one-way window. The group will be unaware of the individual. All the group members except one were told to clap their hands in unison when a piece of rhythmic music begins to play. The individual in the adjacent room will observe this behavior as well as be able to hear the music.
As soon as the music begins to play, it is hypothesized that the person without prior coaching will be initially surprised. The other group members will overtly or covertly stare at the person or encourage him or her to…… [Read More]
Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_
Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).
Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…… [Read More]
nd are trying to make their own hallmark in the life of today. mericans are quiet eager to leave up their children as soon as they grow up and therefore they inculcate a sense of insecurity and loneliness in their children from the onset when they are too young and are still looking for someone to nurture them.
Friendships and close relationships suffer when increased amount of time is spent at work. Increased working hours translate into time away from friends and loved ones and this leads to social isolation, which is having a huge negative impact on mental and physical health of people in the U.S. ccording to a recent study, it was reported that 50% more than the figure that was attained in 1985 complained of having no one they could turn to when personal problems arise. Most people said that their spouses were the only persons they…… [Read More]
Social Order in Public Spaces
Every society has certain rules and regulations that help people live together harmoniously. Some of these rules are explicit and are openly known. Other rules are implicit and therefore subtle. Both implicit and explicit rules and regulations govern a society. However, when a person moves away from one particular society to another, he or she has difficulty in adjusting to the norms of that new society.
Social order is considered to be the method of explaining such rules and regulations so that we live in a society along with its members. Social order is very essential for organizing everyday social life.
When a particular group of people engage in a social activity, their social behavior may seem to threaten others. For example, when a group of people shout and scream in a street, the onlookers might find that their life, their neighborhood and society in…… [Read More]
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…… [Read More]
While he supported me in my endeavors, he raised many questions, >Why do you want to enter social work? How do you think you are going to provide for your family and the lifestyle you are accustomed to?" Deferring to socialization pressures that still impel them to fulfill the "breadwinner" role and avoid feminine characteristics, they may segregate themselves from women in the profession, selecting specialties or positions that society deems as more appropriate for men (Williams, 1995). They too may emphasize the masculine aspects of their jobs to "reduce the dissonance between their professional and gender identities" and to justify their career choices (Christie, 1998, p. 506). Thereby, male social workers adhere more closely to the social definition of masculinity" (ritton, J. & Stoller M., 1998).
The young people who are trying to enter into a social work profession "hope to advance research and social work services for men…… [Read More]
57). This makes the idea that the minority communities that are using the community as a "springboard" for assimilation because there are less of the domestic non-Hispanic whites in the areas in which immigrants would typically assimilate.
There has even been the development of what is referred to as planned communities. Irvine California serves as a good example of such a development. Irvine was developed from ranch lands from a single developer that constructed "urban villages" in Orange County (Maher, 2004, p. 782). The particular site selected for this 1-997 study was in many ways a "typical" Irvine neighborhood. A planned community developed in the mid-1970s, Ridgewood comprised 246 single-family homes on a collection of cul-de-sacs connected by three public through streets: on average, residents were highly educated- 39% had graduate or professional degrees- and most of those who were employed worked in professional, managerial, technical, or sales positions (Maher,…… [Read More]
Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism
The Cold War is often associated with the idea of making great and physical divides between the good and the bad of the world. It was a symbolic representation that extended for about 30 years on the expectation that the greatest powers of the world could, under the right circumstances, impose a sort of benign order on the planet by isolating the evil empires and showcasing how the non-evil ones could administer their own ideas of peace, justice and liberty .
In reality, what was happening was much different. The Cold War was about engagement, not separation (Tirman, 2006). No matter that the Berlin Wall was its most powerful symbols of division, the world as a whole was learning that military might was not all that it was made out to be (U.S. History, n.d.). Together and separately, the biggest countries across the…… [Read More]
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…… [Read More]
Lack of rewards for individuals, unintended rewards for loafing: Having some individuals who are collectively-minded paired with workers with a 'what's in it for me' attitude can result in the more generously spirited workers' good will being relied up, while others take credit.
A five best practices
1. Create a common work culture: Friends are often less likely to 'socially loaf' on work teams (Kunishima & elte 2004).
2. Using dispersed teams with a lack of social facilitation factors can be undercut by increasing levels of difficulty and responsibility "As tasks become more difficult and participants perceive they can make a unique contribution to the task, social loafing decreases" (Kunishima & elte 2004).
3. Task uniqueness -- by ensuring members of the work teams have specifically defined roles, there is less of a chance to feel as if others can pick up the slack (Kunishima & elte 2004).
5. Punishment…… [Read More]
The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be
Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.
In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…… [Read More]
There is also real indication to depict that declining supply and drinking time could assist in solving the binge drinking, as resulted in Finland, Sweden and Norway. (Lords Hansard text, 2005) Moreover, the Interim Analytical eport indicates that increasing amounts of consumption has been coupled with the increase during the last 25 years in accessibility. It continues to visualize that applications for on-licenses of alcohol have enhanced by 145% over the last two decades. The connection between enhanced accessibility and harm is in someway recognized. But despite suggesting for the regulations on this enormous expansion in supply, the 2003 Act makes the alcohol industry depend on a 'voluntary social responsibility scheme'. The Government is profoundly pressurized by the alcohol industry that promotes income as well as jobs. Therefore, any approaches that are not agreeable to or threat the profit of the alcohol industry have been discarded. Those related to the…… [Read More]
Part 5 -- Use of reframing
eframing refers to the manner in which something is said, or the actions one takes in introducing certain elements to clients -- perhaps a new way of looking at an old problem, of themselves, of a clinical issue. In the case of Mrs. O., we would ask that she look to the expansion of her universe through developing language abilities, or helping to find her translation assistance. The reframing stage would also be indicating that her cultural privacy issues about the effects of her medical problems might be contributing to her pain and suffering over them. Instead, reframing the issue would allow us to find a way to solve the problem, while still slowly moving within Mrs. O's comfort zone. eframing, in fact, is applicable when the fixed attitude constitutes a fundamental part of the issue -- in this case, a cultural…… [Read More]
Social Significance of Food in Early Modern Europe (c.1350 -1800)
Today's society is bombarded with mass produced food competitions and cooking shows. Restaurants and food carts pop-up at every corner, and grocery shops are constantly stacked with most everything that one could imagine. Exotic foods are available year-round, and some are even affordable. Food is truly everywhere in this country, and everybody is trying to cook the latest experience. As one of the most basic of human necessities, food has become part of an expanding "material culture" and, in some instances, part of a luxury culture (van der Veen 003, 405).
Yet this basic human necessity, this basic experience, was not always readily available and, hard as it may be to believe, many people still cannot afford to eat well, even in this country. Just as it did in Ancient Rome, different societal status often means better food, even today.…… [Read More]
Tzu argues that strategy is important in that a successful general or leader can and will adapt to changing conditions on the battlefield, and that the art of war is more about adaptability and the risks and opportunities that come with the constant and dynamic nature of warfare than it is about careful planning and preparation. This is not to say that the latter two actions are useless, by Tzu sees more value in flexibility and cunning than he does in immobility and inflexibility.
Both works illustrate how personal and social justice differ from each other. They also point out that personal order is often a concept that lacks true definition, at least as time goes by. A successful person, whether in war or in their family life, learns to adapt to changing situations and scenarios, putting aside social order and justice in favor of a much more relevant, functional…… [Read More]
It is also referred to as luminal stimulus or limen. However the irritability of the population in our case is different, they will react to the slightest provocation of their egos. The isolation formats them to such a sensitive being that they react with very minimum provocation.
Effectiveness of management of excessive stimulus input- the population in study more often will not know the difference between the general pathogenic influences and the and adverse trauma, they may end up treating the two in similar manner since they are not in a position to manage or put under effective control the stimulus they react to nor the stimuli they send out. This is due to isolation which makes then non-interactive for a long time hence cannot use exposure to others to learn the trick.
Generally isolation due to disruption of the cultural system imposed on a population by poverty can…… [Read More]
In this context the argument is made from a moral and religious point-of-view that the unborn child is alive and that abortion is tantamount to murder. As Bohan (1999) states in the House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human ights Issue, "No society that truly believes in human rights can fail to recognize the right to life of the unborn. Human rights are, by definition, rights, which inhere in one simply by virtue of being a human "(Bohan, 1999, p. 64).
From the religious perspective the main argument against abortion revolves around the view of the religious and spiritual value of human life. In Christianity this refers to the Commandant, "Thou shall not Kill." The sanctity of life applies as well to the unborn child and in many religions life begins at the moment of conception. Form this normative perspective the murder of a human being is seen to be…… [Read More]
All the moralities tell them that it is the duty of women, and all the current sentimentalities that it is their nature, to live for others; to make complete abnegation of themselves, and to have no life but in their affections.
This passage reflects McCann's (2004) analysis of the liberty of an individual as elucidated in Mill's discourses. Mill's comparison of voluntary slavery to women subjugation was also utilized in his analysis of human liberty, wherein he asserted that this practice was synonymous with the 'violation of...fundamental tenets of liberty...voluntary, free choice ceases to exist...the individual "abdicates his liberty" (56). What McCann's analysis revealed was that women subjugation had become deeply integrated in 19th century society, thereby creating the social order wherein submission to male domination and power became voluntary and was tolerated. In the process of voluntarily submitting to patriarchy and male domination, women, in turn, lose their right…… [Read More]
Ethic Identity: Social Justice Affirmation Difference Social Transformation Critical eview Essay approximately
Follow the Leader: Liberalism and Individuality
One of the central tenets to be found in Kwame Anthony Appiah's non-fictional manuscript entitled The Ethics Of Identity is a preoccupation with individuality, as it relates to the forming of one's identity. This concern for individualism is one of the primary themes of liberalism, which was initially championed by John Stuart Mill and may be evidenced by the author's work entitled On Liberty. Subsequently, Appiah's aforementioned book deals with several questions regarding individuality -- such as how this concept fits into the overall scheme of multiculturalism, as well as how it relates to the idea of being inherently Western. However, it would greatly appear that these questions regarding the importance of individualism are relatively small in comparison to the larger issue at hand which liberalism deals with -- which is an…… [Read More]
After three women were incarcerated for witchcraft, the perceived effects of their spells continued, as more and more people began to disengage from social norms. Similar events took place in other communities and by incarcerating suspects the community returned to normality. Yet, the Salem Village witchcraft did not stop and took a more dramatic turn. As the number of cases of "infected people" continued to rise, more and more women and even men, began to be arrested, trialed and executed. One of the factors that the authors discovered to be substantial in assessing the socio-economic causes of the trials lies in the geographic and social pattern of the accused. Most of the individuals accused and executed not only were not unknown to the accusers, but lived at opposite sides of the Village, and beyond. What the authors have gathered extensive records of the events that prove that accusations were not…… [Read More]
Business ethics is a division of ethics that pertains to the interaction of business and ethics and applies ethical analysis to the business area. It is both expressive and normal. The five activities within business ethics can be delineated as follows:
1. Using general ethical principles to specific practices in business.
2. The analysis of whether moral terms related to individuals' actions may be applied to combined entities such as firms.
3. Analysis of presumptions of business.
4. Analysis of other related areas of information as guided by embedded problems in business.
5. Describing morally commendable and exemplary actions of firms (Barrett, 2009).
Corporate social responsibility (CS) entails any activity that encourages the interests of any stakeholder of a business corporation. Occasionally CS refers to philanthropic programs that target communities or employees. In other instances it refers to obligations to promote the welfare of suppliers. It also refers to an…… [Read More]
Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues. Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. etrieved November 21, 2004
Egger, Steven A., et al. 1990.Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York:
Praeger Publishers, 1990.
Lintelman, D. Gun Control. etrieved November 21, 2009…… [Read More]
Although economic, political, and social structures had been changing for at least a century prior, the Industrial Revolution did have a tremendous and far-reaching impact on reconfiguring socioeconomic classes. Industrial capitalism shifted the centers of economic power to the private sector, and economic systems became far more decentralized than ever before due to the emergence of market capitalism. The new economic regime necessitated new political institutions, which in turn transformed social structures. Nineteenth century social formations included a leisure class known as the bourgeoisie and the working class, known as the proletariat, while the new political ideologies that supported capitalism included liberalism and socialism.
Prior to the Enlightenment, European social, economic and political institutions were dependent on Church authority (Burke, n.d.). The French Revolution was a harbinger of the new social and political institutions like liberalism and socialism. Monarchic rule was a thing of the past; once the seeds of…… [Read More]
Business on Social Standards
It is often said that air, water, food, clothing, and shelter are the basic needs for human survival. However, while this statement may be fundamentally true, the fact is that the structure of modern day economies has resulted in expanding basic human needs to include a whole host of products and services. Indeed, this is evident in the manner in which the average consumer sees yesterday's luxuries as today's essential comforts or even necessities of life. Further, since modern economies depend on continuously increasing the demand for products and services, it can be well argued that business has become the main driving force behind the evolution of not just economic standards but social ones as well.
Trade and commerce have always been central to the functioning and progress of human society down the ages. This fact is apparent in virtually all chronicles of human history, which…… [Read More]
Cognitive bias and Social Desirability Bias in esearch Study
Exercise 1: Impact of cognitive biases on the research process.
Cognitive bias is an individual's tendency to base an opinion or decision on inconsistent perception or knowledge of research data. Cognitive bias may cause either a success or failure of a project. The nature of decisions by the researcher may contribute to the success or failure of the research project. A direct effect or impact is that, cognitive bias can cause significant negative impacts on the perception of projects risks. Cognitive bias has direct impacts on the research process, and it is easy to identify the impacts of cognitive bias based on the previous or past information applied in carrying out research. According to Haselton, Nettle and Andrews (2005:724-746), cognitive bias is an error in judgment caused by memory, societal ascription, and arithmetical errors. These errors are common to…… [Read More]
Ethical Communication and Social Media: Discussion and Implications
“Almost a quarter of the world’s population is now on Facebook. In the USA nearly 80% of all internet users are on this platform. Because social networks feed off interactions among people, they become more powerful as they grow” (Gaitho, 2018). Social media has created a manifestation of a branch of society that human civilization has never had to deal with before. Due to the fact that society is experiencing and using social media as people attempt to scrutinize its impacts, it can be harder to pinpoint all the numerous ways that social media affects the individual and the collective. One phenomenon that has grown out of social media is that people don’t only share information about themselves and their own personal lives, they also share information, articles, and images about various aspects of the shared world. This can be problematic as many people…… [Read More]
Collective Behavior: Comparisons
Theories of Collective Behavior: Emergent-Norm Theory vs. Value-Added Perspective
Collective behavior, in basic terms, could be defined as a voluntary activity in which individuals engage. The behavior in this case is largely non-institutionalized. There are various theories that have been used over time to explain collective behavior. These include the emergent-norm theory, value-added perspective, and assembling perspective. In this text, I concern myself with two of these, i.e. The emergent-norm theory and the value-added perspective.
The emergent-norm theory according to Stolley (2005, p. 186) posits that "new norms develop (emerge) as events happen." The value added perspective, on the other hand, suggests that "people are likely to engage in social movements and other forms of collective behavior when society has certain characteristics" (Crawford and Novak, 2013, p. 455).
It should also be noted that while the emergent-norm theory largely focuses on the relevance of social norms in…… [Read More]
Social Identities in a Society
The concept of social identity encompasses psychological, emotional, and evaluative aspects engulfed in a person's physical attributes. The fundamental significance of social identities spreads to how individuals think about others and personal well-being. The psychological foundation of social identity and the role of social categorization in human action and perception occur as building blocks in the definition of this concept. Social identities influence individual responses to others. Further, shaping identity processes improves personal and intergroup relations. For a long time, a personal identity that operates within psychology occurs as a critical aspect of individual functioning, actual accomplishment, and feelings of well-being. The significance of social behavior spreads to significant reference groups like racial group membership and intergroup relations.
Privileges Resulting from Individual Social Identities
Self-exploration occurs as a primary factor in the growth of individuals; the relationships fostered with others, and the ability to promote…… [Read More]